UBC Graduate Research

Journey Through Cascadia Lorimer, Julia 2019-04-25

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Notice for Google Chrome users:
If you are having trouble viewing or searching the PDF with Google Chrome, please download it here instead.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
42591-Lorimer_Julia_LARC_598_Journey_cascadia_2019.pdf [ 26.13MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 42591-1.0378606.json
JSON-LD: 42591-1.0378606-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 42591-1.0378606-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 42591-1.0378606-rdf.json
Turtle: 42591-1.0378606-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 42591-1.0378606-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 42591-1.0378606-source.json
Full Text
42591-1.0378606-fulltext.txt
Citation
42591-1.0378606.ris

Full Text

Release FormLandscape ArchitectureSchool of Architecture and Landscape ArchitectureUniversity of British ColumbiaName: Julia LorimerUBC Student number:Graduate Project Title: Journey Through CascadiaIn presenting this report in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Master of Landscape Architecture, University of British Columbia, I agree that UBC may make this work freely available for reference or study. I give permission for copying the report for educational purposes in accordance with copyright laws._______________________  ________________________           _______________________Name           Signature         DateJourney Through CascadiaiiiiiAbstractOn the West Coast of North America lies the bioregion of Cascadia. Encompassing numerous watersheds, this bioregion is made up of mountains, islands, temperate rainforests, and many more landscapes inherent to its identity. Known for its natural beauty, the region has also been characterized as being environmentally focused with politically left-leaning urban residents. Shared economies, politics, and watersheds have all inspired independence movements for the new nation of Cascadia. This graduate project takes place in a future where Cascadia has seceded from both Canada and the United States and the bioregion’s health is placed at the centre of all decision making. To help connect its three largest cities, the first large infrastructural project in Cascadia is a high speed rail line from Vancouver to Portland. Though inherently tied to the land, rail also has the ability to separate passengers from it while passing by at tremendous speeds. Being that the landscape holds such importance in this new nation, the planning of the new rail line seeks to give passengers every opportunity to experience the landscape as they travel through.Journey Through CascadiaivvList of Figures        vii-ixAcknowledgments       xiIntroduction         1-3Part I, GP11. Shaping the Region        5-13The Influence of RailCascadia High Speed Megaregion  2. Narratives in the Landscape      15-31Layered Narratives Selection of Regional NarrativesLandscape Narrative Precedents3. Rail and the Landscape    33-41Marketing the Rail Experience Perceiving the Landscape in Motion The Dome Car4. Design Drivers         43-47Narratives as CatalystsPlan of Work5. Part II, GP2                               49-71Bibliography     73-75Table of ContentsJourney Through CascadiaviviiFiguresFigure 1.1: 1913 map of rail and transmission lines, sourced from  https://legacy.lib.utexas.edu/maps/mcgraw_electric.html - p.5Figure 1.2: 1892 map of Canadian Pacific Railway lines, sourced from  https://www.canadiangeographic.ca/article/vintage-railway-maps-library-and-archives-canadas-collection - p.5Figure 1.3: Timeline of regional development influenced by rail, drawn by author – p.6-7 Figure 1.4: Borders of Cascadia as defined by its bioregion, image by author – p.9 Figure 1.5: Mega-regions of USA (inclusive of Vancouver and Toronto), Populations, adapted diagram from Martin Prosperity institute, http://martinprosperity.org/content/the-mega-regions-of-north-america/ - p.10 Figure 1.6: Mega-regions of USA (inclusive of Vancouver and Toronto), GDP compared to countries, adapted diagram from Martin Prosperity institute, http://martinprosperity.org/content/the-mega-regions-of-north-america/ - p.10Figures 1.7: Instagram top posts with #Cascadia and #PNW, sourced from https://www.instagram.com - p.15 Figure 2.1: Existing railway in relation to the major cities in the region, image by author - p.16Figure 2.2: photo from train of shoreline on existing rail route, photo by author – p.17 Figure 2.3: photo from train of shoreline on existing rail route, photo sourced from Google Maps - p.17 Figure 2.4: photo from train of shoreline on existing rail route, photo sourced from Google Maps - p.17 Figure 2.5: photo from train of Mud Bay on existing rail route, image by author - p.17 Figure 2.6-2.7: existing rail tracks in Mud Bay, photo from train of Mud Bay on existing rail route - p.17 Figure 2.8-2.10: small towns along the existing rail line, photo sourced from Google Maps - p.18 Figure 2.11: Kayaker on the Salish Sea, photo sourced from https://vimarina.ca/destination/pacific-northwest/ - p.18 Figure 2.12-2.14: Industry along existing rail line, photos by author - p.19 Figure 2.15: Agriculture along existing rail line, photo by author - p.19 Figure 2.16: Reservations in relation to the existing railway, image by author - p.20 Figure 2.17: Native-Land visualization of overlapping Indigenous homelands, sourced from www.native-land.ca - p.20 Figure 2.18: Musqueum Interactive Map, sourced from  https://www.musqueam.bc.ca/our-story/musqueam-territory/place-names-map/ - p.21 Figure 2.19: Aerial view of Vietnam Veterans War Memorial, sourced from  https://www.vanityfair.com/news/politics/2012/04/maya-lin-vietnam-wall-memorial - p.24 Figure 2.20: Lin’s submission, sourced from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:MayaLinsubmission.jpg - p.24 Figure 2.21: Reflective granite face of the memorial, sourced from  https://www.architecturaldigest.com/gallery/maya-lin-book-topologies - p.25 Figure 2.22: Flam railway train, sourced from https://www.norwaynutshell.com/original-norway-in-a-nutshell/ - p.26 Figure 2.23: Flam harbour, sourced from https://www.norwaynutshell.com/original-norway-in-a-nutshell/ - p.26 Figure 2.24: Bergen railway, sourced from https://www.norwaynutshell.com/original-norway-in-a-nutshell/ - p.27 Figure 2.25: View on the tour, sourced from https://www.norwaynutshell.com/original-norway-in-a-nutshell/ - p.27 Figure 2.26: Safari 7 project materials, sourced from https://mtwtf.com/urban-audio-tours - p.28 Journey Through CascadiaviiiFigure 2.27: Zoom-in of Safari 7 section/perspective, sourced from https://mtwtf.com/urban-audio-tours - p.28 Figure 2.28: Safari 7 Project metro card, sourced from https://mtwtf.com/urban-audio-tours - p.29 Figure 2.29: Safari 7 Podcast screenshots, sourced from https://mtwtf.com/urban-audio-tours - p.29 Figure 2.30: Passengers listening to Safari 7 content, sourced from https://mtwtf.com/urban-audio-tours - p.29 Figure 2.31: layout of Safari 7 reading room, sourced from https://mtwtf.com/urban-audio-tours - p.29 Figure 3.1-3.6: Examples of rail posters featuring the onboard experience, the train and the landscape, sourced from Travel by Train and Posters of the Canadian Pacific - P.32 Figure 3.7: Rail poster featuring only the landscape, sourced from Travel by Train - P.32 Figure 3.8: ‘America’s Most Wanted Painting’, sourced from Painting by Numbers: Komar and Melamid’s  scientific guide to art – P.33 Figure 3.9-3.11: Rail posters depicting picturesque style landscapes, sourced from Travel by Train and Posters of the Canadian Pacific - P.33Figure 3.12-3.14: Rail posters influenced by trends in art, sourced from Travel by Train and  Posters of the Canadian Pacific - P.33 Figure 3.15-3.18: CP advertisements promoting their hotel in the Rocky Mountains, sourced from Travel by Train and Posters of the Canadian Pacific - P.34 Figure 3.19: 2018 Via Rail advertisement featuring landscape, sourced from https://www.viarail.ca - P.35 Figure 3.20-3.23: 2018 advertisements featuring landscape, sourced from  https://www.viarail.ca, https://www.amtrak.com, https://www.vacationsbyrail.com/ - P.35 Figure 3.24: Image sequence depicting landscape blurring as speed increases, image by author - p.36 Figure 3.25: Diagram of senses used inside a train versus in the landscape, image by author – p.37 Figure 3.26: Via Rail’s panorama car sourced from https://www.viarail.ca - P.38 Figure 3.27: Artistic rendering of new rail cars ordered by Via Rail, sourced from https://www.viarail.ca - P.39 Figure 3.28: Onboard Via Rail’s Rocky Mountaineer, https://www.viarail.ca - P.39 Figure 3.29: Dome cars from the Rocky Mountaineer, https://www.viarail.ca - P.39 Figure 3.30: View inside an Amtrak dome car, https://www.simplemost.com/amtrak-coast-starlight-train/ - p.39 Figure 4.1: Train window touch screen, image by author - p.42-43Figure 5.1: Cascadia watersheds and megaregion, drawn by author - p.53Figure 5.2: Archival image, logging in BC, sourced from Vancouver Archives, https://searcharchives.vancouver.ca/uploads/r/null/8/2/820936/fa086db0-4c32-4d79-912e-0aa362540fd8-A37696.jpg - p.54Figure 5.3: Archival image, CPR train in New Westminster BC, sourced from Vancouver Archives, https://searcharchives.vancouver.ca/uploads/r/null/7/9/795834/a6dedf95-3dd0-4d55-94cb-c49f3dc64f47-A09127.jpg - p.54Figure 5.4: Archival image, Near Sandon BC, sourced from Wikimedia, https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/71/Payne_Bluff_above_Sandon_on_the_Kaslo_and_Slocan_Railway_%28BC_Archives%29.jpg - p.54Figure 5.5: Archival image, Cresecent Beach Surrey 1960’s, sourced from Surrey Archives, https://2rcjb24cbz0o2q658b64vmrj-wpengine.netdna-ssl.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/15654613_web1_190221-SNW-M-TimeLapseTool-SouthSurrey.jpg - P.55ixFigure 5.6: Archival image, 1957 passengers boarding airplane, sourced from Underwood Archives, https://pixels.com/featured/1-passengers-boarding-airplane-underwood-archives.html - P.55Figure 5.7: Cascadia megaregion, drawn by author - p.56Figure 5.8: Mega-regions of USA (inclusive of Vancouver and Toronto), Populations, adapted diagram from Martin Prosperity institute, http://martinprosperity.org/content/the-mega-regions-of-north-america/ - p.57Figure 5.9: Mega-regions of USA (inclusive of Vancouver and Toronto), GDP compared to countries, adapted diagram from Martin Prosperity institute, http://martinprosperity.org/content/the-mega-regions-of-north-america/ - p.57Figure 5.10: Cascadia watersheds and megaregion, drawn by author - p.58Figure 5.11: 227 watersheds of Cascadia bioregion, drawn by author - p.59Figure 5.12: Cascadian flag, adapted drawing by author - p.60Figure 5.13: Express and local route map, drawn by author - p.61Figure 5.14: Marine habitat on elevated rail columns, drawn by author - p.62Figure 5.15: Sea level rise inundation in the Cascadia megaregion, drawn by author - p.62Figure 5.16: Development zoning, drawn by author - p.63Figure 5.17: Megaregion zoning, drawn by author - p.63Figure 5.18: Oyster Bay site plan, drawn by author - p.64Figure 5.19: Oyster Bay section, drawn by author and Kalli Niedoba- p.64Figure 5.20: Rotated Peace Arch and 49th parallel pier, drawn by Emily Tu - p.65Figure 5.21: Wind turbines, drawn by author - p.65Figure 5.22: Frisbee Golf, drawn by author - p.65Figure 5.23: ‘The Slash’ trail coming in to Oyster Bay, drawn by D’Arcy Hutton - p.65Figure 5.24: Cascadia rail promotional poster for ‘The Slash’, drawn by author - p.66Figure 5.25: Larrabee Park Station site plan, drawn by author - p.67Figure 5.26: Kayak storage at train platform, drawn by author - p.67Figure 5.27: Stacked broken concrete at edge of old road, drawn by author - p.67 Figure 5.28: Bioluminescence at night, drawn by author - p.67Figure 5.29: Cascadia rail promotional poster for the San Juan Islands, drawn by author - p.68Figure 5.30: Rental cabin, images belonging to author - p.68Figure 5.31: Experience onboard the express train, drawn by author - p.69Figure 5.32: The Rove interface onboard the express train, drawn by author - p.69Figure 5.33: Rove Route Map, Camera, Swim-Under Modes, drawn by author - p.70Figure 5.34: Cascadia Rail promotional poster for Rove onboard the express train, drawn by author - p.70Figure 5.35: Rove Explore mode, drawn by author - p.70Figure 5.36: Cascadia Rail Promotional poster, drawn by author - p.71Figure 5.37: Preserved Olympic National Forest site map, adapted by author from Landsat imagery - p.71Journey Through CascadiaxxiI’d like to acknowledge my family, both the Lorimer side and the Teeninga side, who have lifted me up over the last three years.  Your support and love mean so much to me and I am continually grateful for the encouragement you all offered over the course of this degree. Thank you to all my nieces and nephews who brought some much needed perspective reminding me of the world outside of the studio. To my dearest Pieter, my favourite human, this degree is as much yours as it is mine.  AcknowledgmentsJourney Through Cascadiaxii1IntroductionJourney Through Cascadia23GP1 IntroductionOn the West Coast of North America lies the Pacific Northwest, or Cascadia as some like to call it. The region is home to mountains, beaches, islands, temperate rainforests, and many more breathtaking landscapes that are inherent to its identity. Abundant and plentiful, the area has been home to Indigenous people for thousands of years and settlers arrived to colonize the region in the 18th century. Since that time, the Pacific Northwest and its economy grew due in large part to the arrival of the railways, and the plentiful resources that could be harvested from the land. As technology advanced, the railways that helped build the region drew fewer travelers as they no longer provided the freedom of a car or the efficiency of an airplane.In early 2018, a new high-speed rail project was proposed to connect the emerging Cascadia megaregion which spans between the major cities of Vancouver, Seattle, and Portland. These cross border cities have much in common and with a regional population that is forecast to grow, and a cross-border economy that is anticipated to become more interconnected, travel in the region will also increase. High speed rail would give prospective passengers the opportunity to travel efficiently through the Pacific Northwest, with fewer carbon emissions than if they traveled by car or by plane.When tourists and commuters take this train, they will be a captive audience on a linear route and the landscapes that they see are the physical manifestations of the regional narratives that overlap and intertwine. From the train we are able to take in the landscape but are also separated from it. The building of this new route is a chance to think about that collective narrative and how passengers might interact with the landscapes that they are passing through. The story told on this particular journey is the story of Cascadia. Using the landscape as narrative device, what is the story that we might tell?Journey Through Cascadia451. Shaping the RegionThe Influence of RailCascadiaHigh Speed MegaregionJourney Through Cascadia61. “The First Ones,” San Juan Island, National Park Service, last modified July 14, 2015,  https://www.nps.gov/sajh/learn/historyculture/the-first-ones.htm 2. “VIII. Timeline of Pacific Northwest Environmental History,” Center for the Study of the Pacific Northwest,” University of Washington, accessed on December 16, 2018,   http://www.washington.edu/uwired/outreach/cspn/Website/Classroom%20Materials/Curriculum%20Packets/Building%20Nature/VIII.html 3. “British Columbia and Federation,” The Canadian Encyclopedia, accessed December 16, 2018,  https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/british-columbia-and-confederation 4. “Work: Railways,” The Chinese Experience in British Columbia: 1850-1950, University of British Columbia Library, accessed December 16, 2018,  https://www.library.ubc.ca/chineseinbc/railways.html the heart of Vancouver,”5 which at that time, had a population of only 6006. Illustrating just how much influence the railways had in building western cities, the population increased tenfold with the line’s arrival and the CPR went on to build neighbourhoods, hotels, opera houses, and other such establishments on the land it had been given.7 With the arrival of both World Wars, shipbuilding began in earnest on the west coast and Boeing set up its headquarters in Seattle. Ports became more established and were hubs for trade with Asia. Some of the railroad companies capitalized on this too by expanding their business, now having an ocean fleet of freighters and luxury ships as well.As technology advanced, railways start to see a decline in their ridership in the 1950’s with the advent of air travel. Because of this shift, we see many of these once strong businesses merge and focus their efforts on freighting and the industry today is “dominated by seven ‘Class I’ [railroad]”8 companies which own 69% of the track and earn 95% of the revenue generated by all 600 freight rail lines.9 What this means is that the passenger rail companies operated by Via Rail and Amtrak (publicly and quasi-publicly owned) lease out the tracks from these large companies. In the Pacific Northwest The Influence of RailDating back to 8000 years or more, the land that is now called the Pacific Northwest, or Cascadia, has been inhabited by its Indigenous peoples.1 European settlers arrived in the 18th century and the cities and towns that developed grew, profiting mostly from resource extraction in this abundant place. As the gold rush began in the late 1850’s, populations in the region exploded especially in the cities of Portland, Seattle, Tacoma, and in the Colony of British Columbia. Noticing the opportunity that these prosperous port cities offered, railways set their sights on the west.2 The railroads in the region meant a strong economy which explains the inflation of population in Tacoma when the Northern Pacific Railway chose it as its western terminus, and its subsequent population stagnation when the line continued northward to Seattle. In 1871, the colony of British Columbia agreed to join confederation on the condition that a transcontinental railway be built connecting it to eastern Canada.3 With some of the most dangerous mountain passes built with the blood, sweat and tears of underpaid, slave driven Chinese labourers,4 a dark spot in Canadian history, the line was finally completed in 1885. Simultaneously, the Canadian Pacific Railway had negotiated with the provincial government for “6,000 acres of prime land in 7for example, the track that the current Amtrak Cascades trains travel on is owned by Burlington Northern and Sante Fe Railway (BNSF) whose headquarters are in Fort Worth Texas.The economy in the Pacific Northwest still does have its feet in resources like timber but over the last two decades, the region has also seen a rise in tech companies that call it home. This influx has grown the region in new ways and led to it being named an emerging megaregion, the Cascadian Megaregion, by the National Committee for America 2050. Looking ahead at the possibility of a high speed rail line in Cascadia, it’s possible that the tech industry will play a large roll in realizing the project especially since it has already financially contributed to a business case analysis jointly contracted by the local governments.5. “Shaughnessy,” Areas of the City, City of Vancouver, accessed December 16, 2018, https://vancouver.ca/news-calendar/shaughnessy.aspx 6. John Mackie, “The Birth of a City,” Vancouver Sun, April 1, 2011, http://www.vancouversun.com/news/vancouver-125/birth+city/4518187/story.html 7. Mackie, “Birth of a City.” 8. Robert Wright, “The Biggest North American Railroads,” Financial Times, August 22, 2011, https://www.ft.com/content/ba1227d4-ccd8-11e0-88fe-00144feabdc0 9. Paige Stewart, “Rail Freight Shipping: Class I Railroads in America,” ArcBest Blog, August 15, 2018 https://arcb.com/blog/rail-freight-shipping-class-i-railroads-in-americafig. 1.2: 1892 map of Canadian Pacific Railway linesfig. 1.1: 1913 map of rail and transmission linesTimeline of Regional Development Influenced by Rail fig. 1.3: timeline of regional development influenced by rail1930192019001875 18901870 19101880 1885185518th Century8,000 yrs agoPresence of people in the Pacific NorthwestEuropeans arrive1805, Lewis & Clark cross the Rockies extending the US claim on the territory1864, American Congress grants Northern Pacific Railway land in a 40-mile strip at $2,00/acre1867, origins of Vancouver, Gastown, build up around Hasting’s Mill1869, First trans-continental railroad completed in San Francisco1871, Colony of British Columbia agrees to join Confederation on the condition that a railway be built to link it to the rest of Canada1893, Great Northern Railroad reaches Seattle1897, Vancouver displaces Victoria as the provincial capital1900, Weyerhaeuser moves lumbering operations to the Pacific Northwest opening his “Sawdust Empire”1873, Northern Pacific Railway chose Tacoma as western terminus1880, Seattle  & Walla Wall Railroad purchased & renamed Puget Sound Railroad1883, Northern Pacific Railroad reaches Spokane and begins operating in Portland1884, Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) negotiates with government for 6,280 acres in Vancouver1885, Canadian Pacific Railway reaches BC. Seattle, Lake Shore & Eastern Railway founded in Seattle1887, Canadian Pacific Railway extends to Vancouver1889, Washington joins the United States1891, Seattle, Lake Shore and Eastern Railway reach the Canadian border connecting it to the Canadian transcontinental line1909, Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul railroad begins operating1923, Canadian Northern Railway becomes Canadian National Railway1911, Port of Seattle established1915, Canadian Northern Railway arrives in Vancouver1916, Shipyards opened along Puget Sound and Boeing sets up in Seattle 1917, US and Canada enter WWI and Shipbuilding in the region booms1824, Hudson’s Bay establishes Fort Vancouver in Washington1843, starting this year, 53,000 settlers arrived via the Oregon Trail1846, 49th parallel established as boundary between US and British North America1858, Gold rush begins. Colony of British Columbia Established1859, Oregon joins the United StatesSeattlePortlandVancouverTacoma2018201520102005200019901980197019601940 195019300100thousand5003007002006004008001939, Shipbuilding sees a second boom when WWII starts1951, Pacific Coast Railway becomes subsidiary of The Great Northern Railway (now BNSF)1970, Great Northern Railway, the Northern Pacific Railway, the Spokane, Portland and Seattle Railway and the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad merge to form the Burlington Northern Railway2009, Through service from Portland to Vancouver starts on Amtrak eliminating the need to transfer in Seattle2017, Amtrak Cascades train derails on its inaugural run of the Point Defiance Bypass near Dupont, Washington. All service is rerouted to old shore-hugging line until 20192018, High Speed Rail business case analysis funded by Oregon, Washington, and BC governments as well as the tech industry1971, Amtrak established and assumed all passenger rail service from the country’s private rail companies who could no longer financially provide it. Amtrak Cascades begins service from Seattle to Portland1972, Amtrak operates its first international route with service from Seattle to Vancouver1975, World’s first personal computer invented in Seattle1977, Canadian passenger rail company Via Rail is founded1980, Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific Railroad abandons its pacific extension1994 Amazon founded in Seattle1986, Microsoft HQ opens in Redmond near Seattle1996, Burlington Northern Railroad merged with Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway to form the Burlington Northern and Santa Fe Railway (BNSF)1981, Amtrak service to Vancouver discontinued due to lack of interest1995, Amtrak service to Vancouver restartsJourney Through Cascadia101. David McCloskley, “Cascadia: Land of Falling Waters,” Cascadia Institute, Accessed December 11, 2018, http://cascadia-institute.org 2. Peter Berg, “Bioregionalism: An Introduction,” Planet Drum, last modified August 20, 2018, http://www.planetdrum.org/bioregionalism_defined.htm 3. cascadianow, “We’re CascadiaNow! your local independence movement, now turned 501(c)3 non-profit and social movement. We’re here on our unofficial Cascadia Day celebration, so ask us anything,” Reddit comment, May 18, 2017, https://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/comments/6c057a/were_cascadianow_your_local_independence_movement/4. “Cascadia & Bioregionalism.” CascadiaNow!, Accessed December 11, 2018, https://www.cascadianow.org/bioregionalism/ 5. Jake Bullinger, “Could a Cascadian Secession Actually Happen?” Seattle Met, Accessed 11 December, 2018, https://www.seattlemet.com/articles/2017/5/15/could-a-cascadian-secession-actually-be-a-thing 6. cascadianow, “We’re CascadiaNow! your local independence movement, now turned 501(c)3 non-profit and social movement. We’re here on our unofficial Cascadia Day celebration, so ask us anything,” Reddit comment, May 19, 2017, https://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/comments/6c057a/were_cascadianow_your_local_independence_movement/found throughout a continuous geographic terrain and include a particular climate, local aspects of seasons, landforms, watersheds, soils, and native plants and animals. People are also counted as an integral aspect of a place’s life, as can be seen in the ecologically adaptive cultures of early inhabitants, and in the activities of present day reinhabitants who attempt to harmonize in a sustainable way with the place where they live.” 2 With this as the foundation of the largest group promoting Cascadia, CascadiaNow! promotes the concept of bioregionalism, “the idea that culture stems from place, and that watersheds better represent regions than...current political boundaries do.”3 This independence movement turned non-profit has never promoted separation as some more politically focused groups have. Instead, their focus is on growing a positive and inclusive social movement that “seeks to further local autonomy, empower individuals and communities to better represent their own needs, and create sustainable local economies through bioregional planning.”4 Though the push for secession is not as strong these days, the movement did see a resurgence after the 2016 US election that saw Donald Trump elected president.5 Notably, if Cascadia were to defect, the small country would, by some accounts, have a population of about 15 million people with the 18th largest economy in the world.6 CascadiaAt 21 years old traveling through Hungary, I met a fellow traveler in a hostel. As I was nearing the end of my month long trip, I had become accustomed to the standard exchange of questions when meeting someone new and had grown used to hearing, “Vancouver? I hear it’s beautiful there,” when telling others of the place I called home. Upon hearing where I was from, my new acquaintance instead responded with a mysterious “ah, another Cascadian,” before offering that he grew up in Portland, Oregon. Seeing my confusion, the traveler described for me the bioregion and proposed country which encompassed both of our hometowns and the parallel independence movements that had sprung up with it. There are many different websites and groups that propose the formation of the new nation of Cascadia with varying prospective borders but predominantly, the country would include most of BC, Washington and Oregon. At its largest, and incorporating the entire bioregion, the country would span from the southeastern tips of Alaska and the Yukon down to northwestern California, and would include most of Idaho and parts of Montana, Wyoming and Nevada in its eastward stretch. As described by Peter Berg,   “A bioregion is defined in terms of the unique overall pattern of natural characteristics that are found in a specific place. The main features are generally 117. David McCloskley, “Cascadia: Land of Falling Waters,” Cascadia Institute, Accessed December 11, 2018, http://cascadia-institute.org “Every place, as with every person, has its own story to tell...The power, and beauty and tragedy of this place is palpable, its promise still to be fulfilled.  This place is a story unfolding on many levels.” 7fig. 1.4: Borders of Cascadia as defined by its bioregionJourney Through Cascadia12fig. 1.5-1.6: Adapted diagrams from Martin Prosperity Institute(top) Mega-Regions of USA*, Population(bottom) Mega-Regions of USA*, GDP compared to countries*Note that Vancouver, BC is part of Cascadia Mega-Region and Toronto is part of Tor-Buff-Chester Mega-Region13High Speed MegaregionDeemed an emerging megaregion by the National Committee for America 2050, the Cascadian region has aligned economic systems, shared natural resources, and common transportation systems that link it together. Acknowledging this common ground, the annual Cascadia Innovation Corridor Conference was established in 2016 to unite “business, academic, and government leaders from both sides of the border to explore new strategies for the region to come together, maximize [its] shared competitive advantages, and elevate [its] global economic position”¹. As the region grows, the need for better transportation will too. The current ground transportation options within the region take a significant amount of time encouraging both tourists and commuters to consider air travel instead. For many years, a high-speed rail corridor connecting Vancouver to Seattle and Portland was just an idea but in May of 2018 when funding for a business case analysis was announced, the likelihood of the project being realized grew. The support base for the proposed project has also grown as of late with the tech industry sponsoring a portion of the study. While comparative studies have shown that high speed 1. “Cascadia Innovation Corridor Conference - A Cross-Border Conference.” n.d. Accessed July 14, 2018. http://www.cascadiaconference.com/2. Campos, Javier, and Ginés de Rus. 2009. “Some Stylized Facts about High-Speed Rail: A Review of HSR Experiences around the World.” Transport Policy 16 (1): 19–28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tranpol.2009.02.008.3. Jaffe, Eric. n.d. “How Green Is High-Speed Rail?” CityLab. Accessed October 4, 2018. http://www.theatlanticcities.com/commute/2011/11/how-green-high-speed-rail/492/rail produces significantly fewer emissions than the aviation industry², it has been speculated that all the machinery needed to build the new rail lines might completely negate its positive impact.³ Though this may be the case for new routes, the region has the benefit of already having rail alignments for slower moving trains in most of the areas the project has proposed it would connect. By re-purposing some of these alignments for high speed trains, it may still be possible to build the necessary infrastructure for faster trains without having the emissions produced from its building outweigh the benefits of high speed rail.  In the future, if the Cascadia Rail project were built, travelers in the region would have several different transportation options. When deciding between them, efficiency and cost are two primary considerations for commuters and tourists alike, but a distinctive experience is something that can completely sway this decision and could help high speed rail break into this market. High speed train travel is unique in many ways and with experience at the center of the design process, Cascadia Rail has the opportunity to become the front-runner for transportation options in the region. Journey Through Cascadia14152. Narratives in the LandscapeLayered NarrativesSelection of Regional NarrativesLandscape Narrative Precedents1. Maya Lin, “Speech at Juniata College,” in Maya Lin: A Strong Clear Vision, directed by Freida Lee Mock (1995), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FWGXGTK_5k0&t=1790s “We are part of a collective consciousness, connected to one another through time by our works, images, thoughts, and writings. We communicate to future generations what we are, what we have been, hopefully influencing for the better what we will become.”1Journey Through Cascadia16Layered NarrativesIn the preface of their book, Landscape Narratives, Potteiger and Purinton state that “narrative is a very fundamental way [that] people shape and make sense of experience and landscapes. Stories link the sense of time, event, experience, memory and other intangibles to the more tangible aspects of place. Because stories sequence and configure experience of place into meaningful relationships, narrative offers ways of knowing and shaping landscapes not typically acknowledged in conventional documentation, mapping, surveys, or even the formal concerns of design.”1 Narratives can be implicit, as is the case of the natural processes of a landscape, or explicit as exemplified by the use of interpretive signage. Some narratives of a place can be understood by many, while some are subjective to the individual. When searching the hashtags #Cascadia and #PNW (for Pacific Northwest) on Instagram, we are provided a glimpse at some initial narratives to help us with our understanding of place. In reviewing the most popular posts associated with these hashtags over the course of three days (fig.1.7), about 90% of the posts affiliate the 1. Matthew Potteiger and Jamie Purinton, Landscape Narratives: design practices for telling stories (J. Wiley, New York 1998), ix.2. Potteiger and Purinton, ix.3. Potteiger and Purinton, 73.narrative of inspiring scenery with the landscape of the region and about half of these images also feature different types of outdoor recreation. Out of 54 images, 29 feature mountains, emphasizing their deep-rooted connection to this place.While these visuals illustrate two dominant landscape narratives emblematic of the area, Potteiger and Purington point out that a walk in the woods can also conjure “narratives of retreat, discovery, interpretation of natural history...and return,”2 all narratives that might be more specific to the individual. Among the top posts linked to Cascadia or the Pacific Northwest are a few images whose narratives are more obscure. By reinterpreting the idea “that each reader enlivens a text with his or her own experiences and understandings and that the meaning of text is therefore multiple and fluid,”3 we can discern that while there may be dominate landscape narratives legible to the collective, sometimes imbued by the designer, there will always be multiple layers of narratives in the landscape perceptible only to the individual. 17fig. 1.7 Instagram top posts with #Cascadia and #PNWSubjective and Collective Narratives in the Region:Top Instagram Posts for #Cascadia & #PNW#CascadiaNov 17, 2018 Nov 17, 2018Nov 12, 2018 Nov 19, 2018 Nov 12, 2018 Nov 19, 2018#PNWJourney Through Cascadia18PortlandSeattleVancouverfig. 2.1: existing railway in relation to the major cities in the regionSelection of Regional NarrativesAs the distance from Vancouver to Portland is approximately 510 kilometers, there are many different but repeating landscapes viewable from the existing rail route. These scenes, all evoking their own narratives, would likely still be passed on any route that a future high speed rail line might take.  191. “Mud Bay Park,” City of Surrey, accessed December 15, 2018, https://www.surrey.ca/culture-recreation/2023.aspx Shoreline The train tracks run adjacent to the ocean for most of the trip between Vancouver and Seattle. Along the way, passengers can spot wildlife, distant islands and occasionally mountains to the east. This part of the trip is beautiful and by far one of the more memorable portions, but with the impending threat of sea-level rise, many parts of the track would need to be raised or moved all together. The view of the ocean from the train is a perfect representation of the region whose identity, history, and narratives are interwoven with what has been renamed the Salish Sea. WetlandsAs much of the existing track is close to sea-level, a myriad of wetlands appear along the route. Notably, the train travels through the wetlands of Mud Bay in Surrey, BC for approximately 4.5 kilometers. Located in Boundary Bay, one of Canada’s most valued avian habitats, Mud Bay park is frequented by various types of wildlife. On the park’s website, they note that “at high tide, seals and loons can be seen in the waves” and that at low tide, the table is set for a shorebird’s favourite feast when mudflats and eelgrass meadows are exposed to the air.”1fig. 2.2-2.4: (top) photo from train of shoreline on existing rail route, (bottom left) existing rail tracks in Shoreline, WA, (bottom right) existing rail tracks in Lynnwood, WAfig. 2.5-2.7: (top) photo from train of Mud Bay on existing rail route, (bottom left) existing rail tracks in Mud Bay, (bottom right) existing rail tracks Mud BayJourney Through Cascadia20TownsBetween the larger cities of Vancouver, Seattle and Portland are many small towns that pass in the blink of an eye. At times the train travels beside or across a main street and passengers are granted the swiftest glance of a place, making it difficult to ascertain any real sort of identity or character. From the little that can be seen though, imaginings of a small town with a slower paced lifestyle can be conjured as the train rushes past some of the waving locals.Tourism and Recreation With its striking natural beauty, the Pacific Northwest is a hotbed for tourism and outdoor recreation. Some of the most popular outdoor activities include skiing, hiking, surfing and kayaking. It is not uncommon to see kayakers out for a paddle while the train runs along the shoreline. fig. 2.8-2.10: small towns along the existing rail linefig. 2.11: Kayaker on the Salish Sea21fig. 2.12-2.14: industry along the existing rail lineIndustry The Pacific Northwest was built on the backs of its resources and the export of timber and minerals via rail and ocean freighter are still a large part of its economy. Proximity to the Pacific Ocean and sheltered deep sea harbours make the region’s ports and shipyards primary hubs for incoming barges from Asia. Through their train windows, passengers can see some of these ports and shipyards as well as many timber mills, concrete plants, and a now defunct petroleum products facility.Agriculture  According to the American Farmland Trust, “the Pacific Northwest region is one of the most ecologically rich farming areas in the United States”2 and the same can be said for lands north of the border. For large portions of the train trip, travelers pass through large agricultural fields where crops like hay, corn, berries and onions are grown. fig. 2.15: agriculture along existing rail line2. “Pacific Northwest,” American Farmland Trust, accessed December 15, 2018, https://www.farmland.org/our-work/where-we-work/pacific-northwest Journey Through Cascadia22Indigenous Land While in the US, the train passes near many different reservations in both Washington and Oregon. In these States and others in the US, treaties were signed and specific parcels of land were designated as on and off reserve land belonging to different Indigenous groups. In BC, a unique situation to Canada exists wherein very few treaties were signed with the original inhabitants of the land and thus cities have been built on the unceded homelands of many different Indigenous groups. For example, Vancouver was built on the homelands of the Musqueum, Squamish and Tsleil-Waututh First Nations. The homelands of many of these groups extend down into the US past the arbitrary border agreed upon during the process of colonization, and include many different islands and the waterways that make up the Salish Sea.fig. 2.16-2.17: (left) Reservations in relation to the railway, (right) Native-Land visualization of overlapping Indigenous homelands23In an effort to retain and disseminate their history, the Musqueum First Nation set out to develop an interactive map “to improve documentation of [their] Oral History collection, develop a children’s place names book, and utilize archival materials to...highlight hən̓q̓əmin̓əm̓ place names throughout [their] Traditional Territory.”3 The map displays the vastness of the lands that the Musqueum people would travel seasonally, many pronunciations of words in the hən̓q̓əmin̓əm̓ language, as well as various stories associated with different landscapes, passed down through generations.As the Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest have been here for an estimated 8,000 years before colonization, their narratives are rich and countless. While I am a settler on this land and their history is not mine to tell, I feel it important to acknowledge their existence and that their narratives are inherently tied to this landscape.fig. 2.18: Musqueum Interactive Map3. “Place Names Map,” Our Story, Musqueum, accessed December 15, 2018, https://www.musqueam.bc.ca/our-story/musqueam-territory/place-names-map/NotesNotesJourney Through Cascadia24Landscape Narrative Precedents“I imagined taking a knife and cutting into the earth, opening it up, an initial violence and pain that in time would heal.”1Vietnam Veterans War Memorial, Maya Lin Norway in a Nutshell Tour“This legendary tour takes you through Norway’s most breathtaking UNESCO-protected fjord and mountain scenery...”21. Christopher Klein, “The Remarkable Story of Maya Lin’s Vietnam Veterans Memorial,” Biography, last modified November 10, 2015, https://www.biography.com/news/maya-lin-vietnam-veterans-memorial2. “Norway in a Nutshell,” Fjord Tours, accessed December 13, 2018, https://www.norwaynutshell.com/original-norway-in-a-nutshell/25Safari 7, SCAPE“Safari 7 imagines trains as urban classrooms, and provides maps and podcasts for travelers to engage the immediate environment of their city.”33. Kate Orff, Toward an Urban Ecology (New York: The Monacelli Press, 2016), 151. Journey Through Cascadia26Vietnam Veterans War Memorial, Maya Lin1. Daniel Abramson, “Maya Lin and the 1960s: Monuments, Time Lines, and Minimalism.” Critical Inquiry 22, no. 4 (1996): 681-682 2. Matthew Potteiger and Jamie Purinton, Landscape Narratives: design practices for telling stories (J. Wiley, New York 1998), 124 3. Nicholas J. Capasso, “The National Vietnam Veterans Memorial In Context: Commemorative Public Art in America, 1960-1997” (PhD diss., Rutgers University, 1998), 179 4. Capasso, “The National,” 170 At 21 years old, undergraduate student Maya Lin won a public competition with her design for the Vietnam Veterans War Memorial in Washington, DC. As described by Daniel Abramson, the memorial is “an identical pair of black granite walls descending into the grassy earth in the northwest part of the Mall and meeting at an angle so as to point equally to the nearby Lincoln Memorial and Washington Monument.  Entirely covering the walls’ surface is a complete listing of the war’s 58,156 American dead, arranged chronologically beginning and ending with the dates 1959 and 1975 at the memorial’s vertex.”1 With the dates of the first and last to be killed in the war meeting in the middle, visitors “metaphorically [descend] back and forth [in] time”2 and are presented with “a narrative rather than a list, which acknowledges individuals as well as collective loss over time.”3 Stretching through the landscape, with walls rising approximately 10 feet, the sheer number of names fig. 2.19: Aerial view of Vietnam Veterans War Memorial fig. 2.20: Lin’s submission275. Christopher Klein, “The Remarkable Story of Maya Lin’s Vietnam Veterans Memorial,” Biography, last modified November 10, 2015, https://www.biography.com/news/maya-lin-vietnam-veterans-memorial 6. Capasso, “The National,” 189 is overwhelming. Each name has carefully been etched onto highly polished black granite panels and being tactile in nature, are often touched by visitors, incorporating another sense into the experience of commemoration. The tactility of the engravings, the reflectiveness of the material, the path that must be traveled down, below grade, toward the longest lists of names as well as both the beginning and the end of the war; all are subtle elements that produce a participatory ritual that forces visitors to be confronted with death, themselves, and the monumental loss of life. The competition called for all proposals to be apolitical in nature, and being purposefully ambiguous, the memorial has played host to all sorts of interpretations on both the anti and pro war sides. Criticism began soon after it was chosen as the winning design and the memorial was once called “a black gash of shame”4 by Vietnam veteran Tom Carhart. Once built though, the “memorial proved to be a pilgrimage site for those who served in the war and those who had loved ones who fought in Vietnam.”5 Though its obscure nature invited readings of political positioning, it evoked many more narratives of reconciliation, strength, and remembrance and became a point of convergence for a nation in need healing. The depth of the design lay in its understated and ambiguous nature which invited “all visitors to...participate in the construction of its content”6 and meaning. fig. 2.21: Reflective granite face of the memorialJourney Through Cascadia28fig. 2.22: Flam railway trainfig. 2.23: Flam harbour Norway in a Nutshell Tour1. “Norway in a Nutshell,” Fjord Tours, accessed December 12, 2018, https://www.norwaynutshell.com/original-norway-in-a-nutshell/The Norway in a Nutshell tour is described on Fjord Tours’ website as a “legendary tour that takes you through Norway’s most breathtaking UNESCO-protected fjord and mountain scenery, as well as a trip on Europe’s top scenic rail journeys.”1 Curiously, the tour is not a typical one led by a guide, but is instead a coordinated trip on both private and public transportation that Fjord Tours books for visitors. Including legs on bus, boat, and train, tourists can choose to do the trip in a single day or at their own pace, staying in hotels along the way. Known for its awe-inspiring beauty, the now famous route is known as Norway in a Nutshell because it passes through fjords, mountains, and valleys, all landscapes representative of Norway, in a relatively short amount of time.  Featuring train travel for most of the trip, vision of the landscape is certainly the highlighted experience of this journey and other senses would be used very little. If taken in one day, the trip is approximately twelve hours and there is very little time between transfers to explore independently. On this journey, the itinerary is set, the course is fixed, and the established narrative is unveiled through the window. Though still magnificent, this type of tour is an example of how modern travel has separated us from the landscape. Rushing past, we are purely its observer reading what we can of what is in focus. 29fig. 2.24-2.25: (top) Bergen railway, (bottom) view on the tourJourney Through Cascadia30Safari 7, Urban Landscape Lab at Columbia University, SCAPE and MTWTFfig. 2.26-2.27: (top) project materials, (bottom) zoom in of project section/perspective311. Kate Orff, Toward an Urban Ecology (New York: The Monacelli Press, 2016), 151. 2. Orff, 151. 3. Orff, 154. of illustrative sections, maps, [an] interactive ‘Map Table,’ and a collection of books, where visitors [could] learn more about urban nature and transportation infrastructure as means of ecological and community engagement.”5 Safari 7 offers us the insight that collaboration across disciplines is essential and that a project that seeks to engage the public should make every effort to be accessible and relate to that which is familiar.Envisioned by Columbia University’s Urban Landscape Lab and developed by SCAPE and design firm MTWTF, “Safari 7 [was] a self-guided tour of urban wildlife along New York City’s 7 subway line.”1 The project was a series of “podcasts, maps, events and curriculum guides”2 that sought to engage passengers with their city, teaching them “about the complexity, biodiversity, conflicts, and potential of New York’s urban ecosystems.”3 While in transit, passengers could listen to pre-downloaded podcasts and read maps that described the environments they were passing through rendering the experience both individual and collective. The content sought to be approachable and offer a “lighthearted entry into the broader field of urban ecology”4 with topics like the pigeon population, common weeds, and the reefs built out of subway cars around Manhattan island.The project launched in May of 2009 and from October to December of that year, it lived on in the form of a public exhibition at Grand Central Station. Included in the exhibition were “a series fig. 2.31: layout of Safari 7 reading roomfig. 2.28-2.30: (top) project metro card,(middle) podcast screenshots,(bottom) passengers listening to content4. Orff, 156. 5. “Honor Award: Safari 7,” 2010 ASLA Professional Awards, American Society of Landscape Architects, accessed December 16, 2018, https://www.asla.org/2010awards/061.htmlJourney Through Cascadia32333. Rail and the LandscapeMarketing the Rail ExperiencePerceiving the Landscape in MotionThe Dome CarRiding the Dome Car by Gladys WibkingWe rode the dome car and felt like birds in a nest on an apple bough. The car shone with the sunshine of oranges and apricots A friendliness peopled with neighborly presences surrounded us all day. The children busied the narrow aisle with the newest of holidays as fancy became games. On our minds’ elbows we saw the mountain peaks far above us in their white feathery-plumes; far below, the green valleys, rivers with cliff banks flowered with hanging foam.  The trainalways the wind’s racer rushed between air-walls with a light feathery sound, matching his surely-shod feet with the road-bed’s rails.11. Gladys Wibking, (1971, Spring). RIDING THE DOME CAR. Poet Lore, 64. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/docview/1296786146?accountid=14656Journey Through Cascadia34Marketing the Rail ExperienceThrough the years, rail marketing materials have used the same elements to sell tickets. Advertisements have highlighted the train itself, the experience onboard, and most of all, the landscape (fig.3.1-3.6). A comparison of many North American advertisements, most featuring attractive scenery, illustrates just how inseparable the experience of rail travel is from the land. In some cases, advertisements featured only the landscape and omitted the train completely (fig. 3.7).  fig. 3.7: Poster featuring only the landscapefig. 3.1-3.6: Examples of rail posters featuring the onboard experience, the train and the landscape35These picturesque depictions of landscape are reminiscent of the 1994 study featured in Komar and Melamid’s book Painting by Numbers where Americans were asked a series of questions to determine what would make up America’s most wanted painting (fig. 3.8). With the answers of respondents, the painting that was created featured an idealized landscape, similar to those portrayed in rail advertisements. It is no surprise then that the posters created to market the rail experience, before photography became the primary means of fig. 3.12-3.14: Posters influenced by trends in artfig. 3.9-3.11: Picturesque style landscapesfig. 3.8: ‘America’s Most Wanted Painting’depiction, have become so admired that some now frame and hang them as art (3.9-3.11). As trends in the art world changed, so did the style of many illustrators. Though these trends influenced the creation of more colourful, abstract representations of the landscape there were still many who remained in the realm of the picturesque evoking memories of the romanticized notions of rail travel and viewing the landscape (fig. 3.12-3.14).  Journey Through Cascadia36fig. 3.15-3.18: CP advertisements promoting their hotel in the Rocky Mountains37THE GREAT WESTERN WAYPRESTIGE CLASSATHABASCA RIVER, ALBERTACANADA BY RAIL / VIA RAIL CANADAfig. 3.20-3.23: 2018 advertisements featuring landscapefig. 3.19: 2018 advertisement featuring landscapeIn Canada, Canadian Pacific further capitalized on the use of their railway by building large, opulent hotels near most of their stations. Now with more goods to sell, CP’s posters began to feature the landscapes and experiences at these destinations encouraging more tourists to travel there by train. Sited within the magnificent Rocky Mountains, many advertisements were made featuring the landscapes and recreational opportunities in and around their Banff Springs Hotel (fig. 3.15-3.18).Because of landscapes like the Rockies, railway companies were, and are still, able to harness the striking beauty of the landscape as a powerful marketing tool (fig. 3.19-3.23). The experience along Amtrak’s Cascade route from Vancouver through to Portland is made mesmerizing by its proximity to the ocean, its view of the mountains, and the varied narratives that can be deciphered along the way. When planning for a new high speed train, it would be crucial to keep the main character of the trip, the landscape, at the forefront of the story. 2018www.vacationsbyrail.comThe  Trusted Authority on RailUNITED STATESCANADAEUROPEBEYOND “ We’ve done Europe, Asia, even Africa. THIS YEAR, AMERICA.”ACCOMMODATIONSBACK TO THE CANADIAN SECTIONACCOMMODATIONSBACK TO THE OCEAN SECTIONJourney Through Cascadia38Perceiving the Landscape in MotionThere is something undeniably mesmerizing about train travel. The rumbling of the engine, the steady chug of the wheels, the familiar whistle that every child knows and the landscape that slowly rises and falls around us forging infinite new views along our journey. The landscape follows us continuously along our linear path feeding us narratives of the places that we are traveling through. Still, what we see from the train is simply the broad strokes. As Mitchell Schwarzer points out, “from the train, architecture,” and correspondingly, landscape, “is witnessed as a torrent of images from which viewers can often discern only the gist of customary meanings.”1 As modes of transportation have changed over the centuries, so too have our experiences of the landscape. Traveling by foot allows for a 1. Mitchell Schwarzer, Zoomscape: Architecture in Motion and Media (Princeton Architectural Press, New York 2004), 45.2. Schwarzer, 45.human scaled interaction at a recognizable speed that allows all of our senses to advise us. Comparatively, train travel favours vision and occludes or hinders the interaction of our other senses with the landscape. The experience is similar to other forms of travel in many ways, but riding a train is unique as we are close to, and engaged with the landscape while being isolated from it, permitted a specific view, along a predetermined path, out of a specifically sized window. And yet, with all of its prescriptiveness, trains have the ability to “sever distance between places, suturing town and city into a montage of dissimilar images, but also the speed of the train runs our eyes past architecture,” and thus landscape, “in a wholly new way.”2 With speed, distances shrink and this proximity allows us to develop a notion of place at a regional scale as we Increasing Speedfig. 3.24: the landscape blurs as speed increases39unwittingly note both patterns and distinctions in the landscape. Because of its speed, the view from the train window becomes near panoramic, a feature many trains have sought to enhance. Many high speed rail lines are able to cross vast distances quickly both because of their speed and infrequency of stops. To maintain short travel times for commuters, it would be important for the new Cascadia High Speed rail line to have express trains, but there may also be ways to allow these passengers to interact with the landscape while on board. Travelers who are not in a hurry may also benefit from more local stops at different times of the day where they can disembark and explore.fig. 3.25: senses used inside a train versus in the landscapeJourney Through Cascadia40The Dome CarIn a retrospective article titled The Vista Dome at 50, Karl Zimmermann takes a look back at the invention of the dome car created specifically for viewing the landscape. Zimmerman explains that in the 1960’s when the California Zephyr train would wind its way through the Colorado Canyon, the hostess of the train would tell the story of the dome car’s beginnings. In this story, it’s 1944 and Cyrus Osborn, a vice-president of General Motors, “was riding in the cab of a...locomotive through this canyon.”1 She goes on to say that “the majestic scenery inspired him and challenged his inventive nature to provide for passengers the same unobstructed view he enjoyed from the locomotive cab.”2 To the engineer Osborn said “they would pay $500 just to sit in the fireman’s seat from Chicago to the Coast,”3 which is about $7,000 today. Inspired by the incredible view of the landscape, Osborne sketched out some possible designs of what would come to be known as the dome car, and the first one was shown in Chicago in 1945. About the new novelty, the New York Times wrote: “A steel ribbed dome, air conditioned and enclosed in double plate safety glass resistant to the sun’s glare and heat, housed twenty-four deluxe seats, and with its elevation of 2 feet 8 inches above the car roof gave the passengers vision ahead, behind, above and on both sides. It is reached by a carpeted stairway from the car’s main floor.”4 The innovation was very popular and picked up by many railroad companies thereafter with the 1. Karl Zimmermann, “The Vista Dome at 50,” Trains, 10, 1994, 70, http://ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/docview/206624142?accountid=14656. 2. Zimmerman, “Vista Dome” first dome car coming into service in 1947. Since then, design of dome cars has been improved and are still in use on several present day routes. Via Rail, which operates mostly in Canada, has several different types of dome cars in their fleet including panorama cars which are more window than steel (fig.3.26).  The idea for the dome car was sparked by the realization that a wide and unadulterated view of the landscape was a commodity to be sold. From that realization though, their also lay the recognition that this view was a magnificent and compelling force that inspires us to consider the natural world.3. Zimmerman, “Vista Dome” 4. “Glass-Dome Rail Car Shown by Burlington, (1945, Jul 24), New York Times (1923-Current File) http://ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/docview/107304461?accountid=14656PANORAMA CARPANORAMA CAROn board the Panorama car,  you’ll be seated by windows  that extend to ceiling and fill  the space with natural light. BACK TO THE CANADIAN SECTIONfig. 3.26: Via Rail’s panorama car41fig. 3.27-3.30: (top) artistic rendering of new rail cars ordered by Via Rail, (middle left) onboard Via Rail’s Rocky Mountaineer, (right) dome cars from the Rocky Mountaineer, (bottom left) view inside an Amtrak dome carA fleet this luxurious can be hard to wrap your head around. We’ll break it down for you.CUSTOM-BUILT COACHES FOR A CUSTOM-BUILT EXPERIENCE.CUSTOM-DESIGNED SINGLE-LEVEL COACHLength / Width / Height 26 m (85 ft.) / 3 m (10 ft.) / 4.3 m (14 ft.)Seat-side meal serviceGlass-dome windowsCUSTOM-DESIGNED BI-LEVEL COACHLength / Width / Height 26 – 27 m (85 – 89 ft.) / 3 m (10 ft.) / 5.3 m – 5.5 m (17.5 – 18.2 ft.)Exclusive outdoor viewing platformGuest seating above Dining area belowSTEP 1  -  SERVICE LEVEL8 1Journey Through Cascadia42434. Design DriversNarratives as CatalystsPlan of WorkJourney Through Cascadia44BioregionIndigenous CommunitiesIndustryAgricultureCascadiaTownsCitiesPacific Great Blue HeronWith long wings, thin legs, and a short tail, it is the biggest heron species in North America.Narratives as CatalystMoving into GP2, one of the ways I will approach design is by investigating ways that the train trip can be enhanced for those aboard so that they can interact with the landscape from their train windows rather than simply passing it by at great speeds. The general idea is that the windows would be touch screens that allow passengers the opportunity to take a photo of the landscape in order to slow it down, interact with different elements in the scene and learn more. As there are many different collective narratives in the landscape to learn about, passengers would be able to toggle between fig. 4.1: train window touch screen45various narratives that appear on the sidebar to give them more information about what they are seeing.  The different narratives could be created with members of those communities so they can tell their own stories along the trip. As some of the new line will have to be built anew, there would be an opportunity to think about where that new track might go and what new things we might see from it to round out the stories being told along the trip. BioregionIndigenous CommunitiesIndustryAgricultureCascadiaTownsCitiesPacific Great Blue HeronWith long wings, thin legs, and a short tail, it is the biggest heron species in North America.Journey Through Cascadia4647GP1 BookletSiteResearchMethodPrecedentsDesign StrategiesSite AnalysisSchematic DesignDesign DetailsProgress ReviewSubstantial ReviewProductionFinal ReviewGP2 BookletPlan of WorkNov. Dec. Jan. Feb. March AprilJourney Through Cascadia48495. Part II, GP2Journey Through Cascadia NarrativeJourney Through Cascadia5051GP2 NotesAt the end of GP1, I was still very focused on the high-speed rail line and what the experience of the passengers would be while riding the train through Cascadia. Though the train is still a large part of the final project. I became far more interested in the possible country of Cascadia and how this new nation might negotiate the change that a rapid transit line would bring. In my view, the new country would continue with the building of this large infrastructural project because of its ability to help reduce carbon emissions with it as the main form of transportation. As a main pivot point for the rest of the project, the high-speed rail line became the view finder through which I chose to investigate the proposed country of Cascadia. The presentation of my GP2 work, places the audience in a future where Cascadia has seceded from the US and Canada and has been a thriving, self-sustaining nation for forty years.Journey Through Cascadia5253Journey ThroughCascadiaOn the West Coast of North America lies the bioregion of Cascadia. Encompassing 227 watersheds that all flow to the Pacific Ocean, this bioregion is made up of mountains, islands, temperate rainforests, and many more landscapes inherent to its identity.fig. 5.1: Cascadia watersheds and megaregionJourney Through Cascadia54Abundant and plentiful, the area that was once known as the Pacific Northwest was home to Indigenous people for thousands of years, long before settlers arrived to colonize the region in the 18th century. After colonization, the economy grew due in large part to the arrival of the railways and the plentiful resources that could be harvested from the land.fig. 5.2: Archival image, logging in BCfig. 5.3: Archival image, CPR train in New Westminster BC fig. 5.4: Archival image, Near Sandon BC55As technology advanced, the railways that helped build the region drew fewer travelers as they no longer provided the freedom of a car or efficiency of an airplane. This shift in transportation amplified an increase in the region’s carbon emissions and the remaining railroad companies centred themselves around shipping.fig. 5.5: Archival image, Cresecent Beach Surrey 1960’sfig. 5.6: Archival image, 1957 passengers boarding airplaneJourney Through Cascadia56In the early twenty-first century, it was the tech industry in the three largest cities of the Pacific Northwest, Vancouver, Seattle, and Portland, that furthered the region’s economy. Because of their density, population, and joint GDP similar to that of Switzerland’s, the region spanning these three cities was identified as the Cascadia megaregion. These cross border cities had much in common including growing regional populations and interconnected economies, and had been characterized as being environmentally focused with politically left-leaning residents.fig. 5.7: Cascadia megaregion57fig. 5.8-5.9: Adapted diagrams from Martin Prosperity Institute, (top) Mega-Regions of USA*, Population, (bottom) Mega-Regions of USA*, GDP compared to countries*Note that Vancouver, BC is part of Cascadia Mega-Region and Toronto is part of Tor-Buff-Chester Mega-RegionJourney Through Cascadia58At this time, politics, environmentalism, the economy, and other overlapping considerations all inspired independence movements for the new, independent country of Cascadia. With the federal governments of Canada and the United States doing very little to address the worsening effects of climate change and distancing themselves from the weight of their own actions, calls for the secession of the country grew and gained momentum. Meetings and rallies were held to promote the idea that the people of this place could do better for themselves as well as for the land and its natural systems. Varying boundaries were proposed but ultimately, the edges of the new nation were defined by the bioregion itself with the logic that these interconnected watersheds flowing to the Pacific Ocean should define the new country’s borders. The country spanned from what was formerly known as southeastern Alaska and the Yukon down to northwestern California and stretched eastward to the continental divide. fig. 5.10: Cascadia watersheds and megaregion59227 WATERSHEDS FORM THE CASCADIAN BIOREGION1. Peter Berg, “Bioregionalism: An Introduction,” Planet Drum, last modified August 20, 2018, http://www.planetdrum.org/bioregionalism_defined.htmAs described by environmental writer Peter Berg,“A bioregion is defined in terms of the unique overall pattern of natural characteristics that are found in a specific place. The main features are generally found throughout a continuous geographic terrain and include a particular climate, local aspects of seasons, landforms, watersheds, soils, and native plants and animals. People are also counted as an integral aspect of a place’s life, as can be seen in the ecologically adaptive cultures of early inhabitants, and in the activities of present day reinhabitants who attempt to harmonize in a sustainable way with the place where they live.” ¹With this as their foundation, the pro-Cascadians enshrined the concept of bioregionalism as part of their new government. Bioregionalism is defined as, “the idea that culture stems from place, and that watersheds better represent regions than...current political boundaries do.”² Historians have indicated that there was a clear rise in supporters for Cascadian succession around 2018 coinciding with many events including the Trans-Mountain pipeline fight, the latest UN Climate Report, and ever worsening wildfire seasons.fig. 5.11: 227 watersheds of Cascadia bioregion2. cascadianow, “We’re CascadiaNow! your local independence movement, now turned 501(c)3 non-profit and social movement. We’re here on our unofficial Cascadia Day celebration, so ask us anything,” Reddit comment, May 18, 2017, https://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/comments/6c057a/ were_cascadianow_your_local_independence_movement/Journey Through Cascadia60By the year 2064, the country of Cascadia, has been an independent, self-sustaining country for 40 years. The new country was founded upon the idea that the landscape, its functions, and its narratives are integral to the identity, values, and governance of this place. As highlighted in Cascadia’s motto, “with the land as our guide,” the Cascadian people place the bioregion’s health at the core of all decision making. fig. 5.12: Cascadian flag61With the goals of shifting completely to renewable energy, eliminating cars and airplanes, and banning fossil fuels ten years after secession, Cascadia made significant investments in its rail transportation networks soon after independence to give citizens better options for domestic travel. The first of these transportation focused projects was a high speed rail line within the Cascadian megaregion, connecting Vancouver, Seattle, and Portland along the former Amtrak right-of-way. Magnetic levitation, or mag-Lev, was the chosen rail technology as the system was electric and engineers had developed specialized trains capable of hyperloop speeds of 1000 km/h. Because of these technological advancements, both the express and local trains could run concurrently along the same line, but differ in their speeds and frequency of stops.fig. 5.13: Express and local route mapJourney Through Cascadia62Though the new country had cut their carbon emissions significantly, sea-level rise was no longer avoidable and the new rail line had to be elevated in many sections where the ocean had inundated at-grade tracks. Here, the broken concrete from narrowed former roads was stacked at the bottom of the columns to enhance habitat for marine life.fig. 5.15: Sea level rise inundation in the Cascadia megaregionfig. 5.14: Marine habitat on elevated rail columns63Because the new rail line would condense space and time, commute times would be significantly reduced increasing the livability of the region. Because of this, the new line had the potential to spur rampant development. To promote cultural activities that celebrate the lands and waters of Cascadia, landscapes for outdoor recreation have been conserved and critical habitats in the region have been preserved. Areas zoned for new development and densification have been mandated to develop only on already disturbed land. Exclusively building on disturbed land or lands that were already built upon is a core principle of development in Cascadia.fig. 5.16: Development zoning fig. 5.17: Megaregion zoningJourney Through Cascadia64‘Mini-cities’ like the now named Oyster Bay, which grew on the grounds of the former Peace Arch border crossing, for example, follow this tenet. When Cascadia declared independence on May 18th, 2024, the anniversary of the Mount Saint Helens eruption, it was here that many Cascadians gathered to celebrate and welcome each other to their new nation. At this event, in the spirit of cooperation and renewal, a vision for the ‘mini-city’ emerged. With the beginning of local train service to Oyster Bay and the elimination of cars, the plethora of roads and parking lots on the site were no longer needed. Here, co-op housing, collective community spaces, green industrial facilities, and a collaborative commercial district were all built to support the community’s residents. The new buildings in the community have been built closely together to make the most of the previously concreted spaces, but the heights have been restricted to 6 storeys so as not to alienate those living or working higher up from the rest of the community or the land. Though the community is quite walkable, there has been a rise in alternative transportation methods such as bicycles and horses fig. 5.18: Oyster Bay site planfig. 5.19: Oyster Bay section65to easily transport goods and to journey to areas not serviced by the local train. With the rise in popularity of horses especially, some of the older buildings on the site have been converted to stables with an outdoor paddock nearby. Some space previously dedicated to personal gardens and a golf course have been converted into agricultural fields and the food that is cultivated feeds the residents of the community. Similarly, oyster, clam, and kelp beds are now kept in the shallow waters in the ocean and many Cascadians travel here to learn how to harvest and nurture these resources themselves. The remainder of the former golf course has been transformed into a frisbee golf course, the new national sport, which does not require short grasses or irrigation. Here, Oyster Bay residents keep goats who feed on the native grasses that have replaced the golf course green. To sustain the energy demands of the community, a bird friendly wind farm was built close to the ocean to harness the energy of the winds blowing in from the Pacific.fig. 5.20: Rotated Peace Arch and 49th parallel pier fig. 5.21-5.23: (top) wind turbines, (middle) frisbee golf, (bottom) ‘The Slash’ trail coming in to Oyster BayJourney Through Cascadia66Shortly after secession, the 49th parallel border had been reappropriated into a hiking trail that ran all the way from the Pacific to the continental divide. Cut into the vegetation before Cascadian independence, the trail was 10 meters wide, 650 km long, and came to be known as ‘The Slash’. Oyster Bay acts as both a staging ground for those about to embark on this pilgrimage, as well as a restful destination for those completing their journey. Now turned to be open to the 49th parallel, the Peace Arch, marks a significant portion of the trip for those arriving and departing from the site.fig. 5.24: Cascadia rail promotional poster for ‘The Slash’67Along the rail corridor, scenic stops have been added on the local train’s route where the line runs adjacent to national parks, wildlife refuges, and other areas of conservation that allow public access. Though the small train stations at these locations are new, most of the infrastructure that supports visitors is not. At Larrabee Park for example, a small station has been added to give citizens access to the hiking, cycling, camping, fishing, and kayaking facilities that predate Cascadian secession. The park is most popular as a launch site for kayak trips to the San Juan Islands and kayak storage has been added at the station itself, saving visitors from carrying their kayaks uphill to their campsites. Roads in the area were no longer needed for vehicle access and are now most useful for those cycling or horseback riding into the site. Because the road surface was wider than necessary and impeded water infiltration, the edges of the roads have been broken and stacked, like at the base of the rail columns to increase biodiversity. fig. 5.25: Larrabee Park Station site planfig. 5.26-5.28: (left) kayak storage at train platform, (middle) stacked broken concrete at edge of old road, (right) bioluminescence at nightJourney Through Cascadia68Near the shoreline are cabins that were purchased from homeowners by the Cascadian National Park Service. Because the cabins are on conservation land, the ownership and oversight by one owner rather than many meant that the cabins could all be retrofitted to be as sustainable as all new Cascadian buildings and the Park Service now rents out the cabins to visitors. fig. 5.29: Cascadia rail promotional poster for the San Juan Islandsfig. 5.30: Rental cabin69Onboard the ultra-high speed express trains, the rail travel experience is completely unique. Because the train travels at 1000 km/h, windows were eliminated to improve aerodynamics. To replace the traditional train window, Cascadia Rail partnered with local tech companies to develop an interactive window and onboard system that would allow passengers to explore the landscape from the comfort of the train. Developed specifically for the express trains, the ‘Rove’ system provides passengers with views of the preserved landscapes in and around the Cascadian megaregion. With footage collected by drones, the landscapes that were once completely off-limits to people are now ostensibly explorable simply by riding the express train. fig. 5.31: Experience onboard the express trainfig. 5.32: The Rove interface onboard the express trainJourney Through Cascadia70Rove provides passengers the options of a Route Map, a Camera function, a Swim Under view, and an Explore Mode. The Route Map serves to indicated the train’s progress along the route as well as signal the preserved landscapes viewable in the Explore mode. The Camera mode allows passengers to take photos and videos of the landscapes they see to send to themselves and others. The Swim-Under function provides views from below the ocean’s surface. Specifically, the Swim-Under view allows passengers to see the different marine habitats created by the broken concrete stacks at the base of the rail columns. The final option on the ‘Rove’ dock is that of the Explore fig. 5.33: Rove Route Map, Camera, Swim-Under Modesfig. 5.35: Rove Explore modefig. 5.34: Cascadia Rail promotional poster for Rove onboard the express train71Mode. In the Explore mode, passengers are now able to see and contemplate the preserved landscapes of the region and go where previously they were unable. In the Olympic National Forest for instance, off limits to human exploration, intact habitats that have seen very little human influence are now viewable onboard the express train.Journey Through Cascadia prompts the question: What if we imagined a country that put the natural systems of the land and water first. A country that promoted cultural activities tied to the land, improving both the health of the bioregion and the health of its citizens.fig. 5.36: Cascadia Rail Promotional poster fig. 5.37: Preserved Olympic National Forest site mapJourney Through Cascadia7273End MatterBibliographyJourney Through Cascadia74BibliographyAbramson, Daniel. “Maya Lin and the 1960s: Monuments, Time Lines, and Minimalism.” Critical Inquiry 22, no. 4 (1996): 681-682.Berg, Peter. “Bioregionalism: An Introduction.” Planet Drum. Last modified August 20, 2018. http://www.planetdrum.org/bioregionalism_defined.htm.Bullinger, Jake. “Could a Cascadian Secession Actually Happen?” Seattle Met. Accessed December 11, 2018. https://www.seattlemet.com/articles/2017/5/15/could-a-cascadiansecession-actually-be-a-thing.“British Columbia and Federation.” The Canadian Encyclopedia. Accessed on December 16, 2018. https://www. thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/british-columbia-andconfederation.Capasso, Nicholas J. “The National Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Context: Commemorative Public Art in America, 1960-1997.” PhD diss., Rutgers University, 1998. Campos, Javier, and Ginés de Rus. “Some Stylized Facts about High-Speed Rail: A Review of HSR Experiences around the World.” Transport Policy 16, no. 1 (2011): 19–28, doi: 10.1016/j.tranpol.2009.02.008.“Cascadia & Bioregionalism.” CascadiaNow!, Accessed on December 11, 2018. https://www.cascadianow.org/bioregionalism/.“Cascadia Innovation Corridor Conference - A Cross-Border Conference.” Cascadia Conference. Accessed July 14, 2018. http://www.cascadiaconference.com/. cascadianow. “We’re CascadiaNow! your local independence movement, now turned 501(c)3 non-profit and social movement. We’re here on our unofficial Cascadia Day celebration, so ask us anything,” Reddit. Last modified May 18, 2017. https://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/comments/6c057a/were_cascadianow_your_local_independence_movement/.“Glass-Dome Rail Car Shown by Burlington.” New York Times. Last modified July 24, 1945. http://ezproxy.library. ubc.ca/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/docview/107304461?accountid=14656.“Honor Award: Safari 7, 2010 ASLA Professional Awards.” American Society of Landscape Architects. Accessed December 16, 2018.  https://www.asla.org/2010awards/061.html.Jaffe, Eric. “How Green Is High-Speed Rail?” CityLab. Accessed October 4, 2018. http://www.theatlanticcities.com/ commute/2011/11/how-green-high-speed-rail/492/.Klein, Christopher. “The Remarkable Story of Maya Lin’s Vietnam Veterans Memorial.” Biography. Last modified November 10, 2015. https://www.biography.com/news/maya-lin-vietnam-veterans-memorial.Lin, Maya. “Maya Lin: A Strong Clear Vision.” YouTube Video, 1:08:38, 1995, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FWGXGTK_5k0&t=1790s.Mackie, John. “The Birth of a City.” Vancouver Sun. Last modified April 1, 2011. http://www.vancouversun.com/news/vancouver-125/birth+city/4518187/story.html.McCloskley, David. “Cascadia: Land of Falling Waters.” Cascadia Institute. Accessed on December 11, 2018. http://cascadia-institute.org.“Mud Bay Park.” City of Surrey. Accessed December 15, 2018. https://www.surrey.ca/culture-recreation/2023.aspx.75“Norway in a Nutshell.” Fjord Tours. Accessed December 12, 2018. https://www.norwaynutshell.com/original-norway-ina-nutshell/.Orff, Kate. Toward an Urban Ecology. New York: The Monacelli Press, 2016.“Pacific Northwest.” American Farmland Trust. Accessed December 15, 2018. https://www.farmland.org/our-work/where-we-work/pacific-northwest.“Place Names Map.” Our Story. Musqueum. Accessed December 15, 2018. https://www.musqueam.bc.ca/our-story/musqueam-territory/place-names-map/NotesNotes.Potteiger, Matthew, and Jamie Purinton. Landscape Narratives: Design Practices for Telling Stories. New York: J. Wiley, 1998.“San Juan Island - The First Ones.” National Park Service.  July 14, 2015. https://www.nps.gov/sajh/learn/historyculture/the-first-ones.htm.Schwarzer, Mitchell. Zoomscape: Architecture in Motion and Media. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2004.“Shaughnessy.” City of Vancouver. Accessed on December 16, 2018. https://vancouver.ca/news-calendar/shaughnessy.aspx.Stewart, Paige. “Rail Freight Shipping: Class I Railroads in America.” ArcBest Blog. Accessed on August 15, 2018. https://arcb.com/blog/rail-freight-shipping-class-i-railroads-in-america.“VIII. Timeline of Pacific Northwest Environmental History.” University of Washington, Center for the Study of the Pacific Northwest. Accessed on December 16, 2018. http://www.washington.edu/uwired/outreach/cspn/ Website/Classroom%20Materials/Curriculum%20Packets/ Building%20Nature/VIII.html.Wibking, Gladys. “RIDING THE DOME CAR.” Poet Lore 66, no. 1:(1971) 64. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/docview/1296786146?accountid=14656.“Work: Railways.” The Chinese Experience in British Columbia: 1850-1950, University of British Columbia Library. Accessed on December 16, 2018. https://www.library.ubc.ca/chineseinbc/railways.html.Wright, Robert. “The Biggest North American Railroads.” Financial Times. Last modified August 22, 2011. https://www.ft.com/content/ba1227d4-ccd8-11e0-88fe-00144feabdc0.Zimmermann, Karl. “The Vista Dome at 50.” Trains 10, (1994): 70, http://ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/docview/206624142?accountid=14656.

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            data-media="{[{embed.selectedMedia}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.42591.1-0378606/manifest

Comment

Related Items