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Through the Forest : Representing Vancouver's Roots Bull, Olivia 2019-04

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Through the Forest:Representing Vancouver’s Rootsby Olivia BullB.A. McGill University, 2013Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Architecture in The Faculty of Graduate Studies, School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture, Architecture Program.CommitteeThena Tak  (chair)Joseph Watson (internal)Chad Manley  (external)Thena Tak Joseph Watson© 2019 Olivia Bullii iiiabstractVancouver is a city on the brink, a city that needs a new conception of itself in image, and story as much as in building.  The city requires a new representation, one where rich layered spaces deriving from both past and present combine to form alter-narratives of the city. This re-presentation of the city must come through the forest, which continues to inform the city’s image and imagination despite its apparent disappearance. There is no Vancouver with the forest, yet there is also no city without it. The spaces of forest around the globe produce certain recurring archetypes. In this sylvan space imagined longings and myths abound on the one hand, and mingle with spaces of rationalized material extraction, on the other. The forest, then, is integral to architecture both as method of organizing the material world and as narrative device. Our disciplinary origins, in the form of the primitive hut, are depicted as literally and figuratively growing from the forest;1imaginatively (with metaphor), materially (using its wood), energetically (converting wood to heat) and socio-spatially (the communal clearing in the woods, or the hearth). Forest is key to the origins of architecture, i. See the frontispiece from Marc-Antoine Laugier’s Essay on Architecture. through the networked interaction with the others. Narrative becomes layered,  and cyclical, drawings segment  and sprawl. In this thesis, the complexities of our relations with the forest, are both material and methodology. As we churn the compost heap of forest facts and fictions - of the original source material I have used: includingoral mythologies, legends, shipping data, for example, thechapters themselves are muddied. I invite you to makeyour own connections across time and space, story andimage. Becoming lost in the woods can be a productivemetaphor.Ultimately, this thesis is a representational project - it attempts to disrupt the way architectural media often asks us to forget the spaces of its representation. Taking cues from textiles and thus making present the surface, subverting media expectations and occupying multiple viewpoints this thesis weaves together into a glitched, stitched whole the story of Vancouver through the forest . The forest is foundational to city building, but also to story telling and image making. To re-present Vancouver, we will go through the forest. but is especially essential to understanding the origins of this place. While the trees are primarily gone, we simply can’t seem to shake the spatial and symbolic metaphors of the forest in this city. So, this thesis wrangles with our complex and contradic-tory connection with forest through retelling, redrawing  representations in order to arrive rebuild an idea of ourselves in this place. Throughout this research, I was informed by attributes of the forest itself. Firstly,  because our city’s forests are materially gone - we primarily interact with its representations.  So much of our understanding of forest comes from story, and image it requires both narrative and drawing as it is reimag-ined. Thus, this project is a representational one, wherein image, text, and object combine to form alter-narratives of the forest-city.Secondly, forests have their own logic: they are complex, layered, networked and cyclical in nature. Thus, I have woven the narrative thread through various chapters, across time and space each representing a different way of engaging with the forest, each of which brings its own questions, limitations and gifts. By linking, layering, and repeating these segments, deeper meaning can be created iv vcontentsfront matterfield of inquirypart one: researchon visual representationon narrativearchitectural storieson Vancouverthrough the forestproject documentationmodel photographsbooklet photographsscreen photographsproject chapterspart two: proposalend matterabstracttable of contentslist of figuresacknowledgmentshyper-contextwhat is a city?objectivityprojectionhistorymemoryproject setupbibliographythe temporaldigitalismcollageputting it all togetheranimationtoolsoriginsnotationiivviix024121417202225262932333435384686889094vi viiFigure 1   Plan 56 for the West End  — Arthur Erickson. Accessed April 2019.   Figure 2   Scaffold for Temporal Projection — Author’s own. Figure 3  Swimming as a Machine for Transportation and Representation — Angelo Sanhoon Han, Architecture Association Projects Review 2010, 4  Extrastatecraft — Keller Easterling, Extrastatecraft, The Power of Infrastructure Space, (New York: Verso, 2014).Figure 5  Discours sur les passions de l’amour - Psychogeographic Map of Paris — Guy Debord,  1957 MACBA Permanent Collection. Accessed Online. Figure 6  Analagous Map  “La Città Analoga”— Aldo Rossi, Eraldo Consolascio, Bruno Reichlin and Fabio Reinhart , 1976, Accessed Online, 7  Howe and Nelson — Fred Herzog,  1960, Equinox Gallery.Figure 8  Zobeida — Karina Puente Frantzen. Accessed Online April 2019. 9  Immaterial Architecture — Iris Gramegna AA Projects Review, Accessed Online: 10  Taking Measure Across the American Landscape — James Corner, AA Files 27 (Summer 1994), 49. Figure 11 Worthington’s Water Drops — James Worthington, in Objectivity (New York: Zone Books, 2007).Figure 12  The Bellman’s Map — Henry Holiday, in The Hunting of the Snark An Agony in Eight Fits, by Lewis Carroll (Toronto: Tundra Books, 2012).Figure 13  Grasshopper Script — Unknown Author Figure 14  Invention of Art of Drawing — Joseph Benoit Suvee, 1793. Figure 15  Origin of Painting — Karl Friedrich Schinkel, 1830. Figure 16   Illustration from Pozzo’s treatise on perspective — Andrea Pozzo, 1693.Figure 17   L’Art de bâtir chez les Romains — Auguste Choisy, Paris, 1873.Figure 18  Proun 1A — El Lissitsky, 1920.Figure 19  The Manhattan Transcripts — Bernard Tschumi, (1976-81).Figure 20  Projectors I — MILLIONS Architecture, 2012. list of figuresAccessed Online. Jan 2019. 21  Bildbau No. 11  and Steps of Development Bildbau No. 11 — Phillip Schaerer, 2008. Accessed Online, April 2019, 22  David’s Island Strategic Plot Drawing  — Perry Kulper, 1996-7.  on Archinect. Accessed Online April 2019. 23   Émile Théodore, Curator  — Unknown Photographer, c.1918. Palais des Beaux Arts Lille Archives. Accessed Online: 24  Image Building  — Tim McDonaugh, 2017-2018. Instagram image. Figure 25 : Panoramic View of the City of Vancouver — City of Vancouver Archives, 1898. Accessed Online, Figure 26  Abbott and Cordova, 7 August 1971 — Stan Douglas. Accessed Online.  27:   Northwest Coast Indian cape of woven cedar bark, 1909 -Curtis Asahel. University of Washington Library Archives. Accessed Online April 2019.  28:   Georgia Street Vancouver 1886 - City of Vancouver Archives. Accessed Online April 2019.  29 :   Presentation Documentation- author’s photo-graphFigure  30:   Projections onto Screen - Author’s PhotographFigure  31 (p44-45):   Narrative Scroll - Author’s DrawingFigure  32:   Lightness - Author’s CollageFigure  33:   Origins - Still from Author’s animationFigure  34:  Marine travel - Still from Author’s animationFigure  35:   Ebb and Flow - Author’s weavingFigure  36 (p 50-51):   Origin II - Detail of Author’s narrative scrollFigure  37:   Fragmentation - Still from Author’s animationFigure  38:   Gridded Expansion - Author’s collageFigure  39 (p 54-55):   Wooden Grid - Detail of Author’s narrative scrollFigure  40:   Forest Fairy Tale - Author’s collageFigure  41:   Forest Inhabitants - Detail of Author’s narrative scrollFigure  42:   Forest Logging - Detail of author’s narrative scrollFigure  43:   Forest Attraction - author’s collageFigure  44 (p 64-65):   Houses and Tents - Author’s collageFigure  45:   Rising and Falling - Detail of author’s narrative scroll .Figure  46:   Mirage -Author’s collageFigure  47:   Projection Screens - author’s collageFigure  48 (p 72-73):   Reflections - Details of Author’s narrative scrollFigure  49 (p 74-75):   Reflections  / Projections- Details of Author’s narrative scrollFigure  50 :   Island Ships- author’s collageFigure  51 (p 78-79):   Shipping - Details of Author’s narrative scrollFigure  52 (p 80-81):   Networks - Detail of Author’s narrative scrollFigure  53 :   Flooded Forest- author’s collageFigure  54 :   Profile Plinth- author’s photographsFigure  55 :   Forest Stories- author’s photographs of presenta-tion bookletFigure  56 :   Forest Stories II- author’s photographs of presentation bookletFigure  57 :   Though the fabric - author’s closeup photograph of presentation tapestryviii ixI would like to begin by thanking my thesis chair, Thena Tak, for her support and comments throughout this process; I feel lucky to have been able to work under her supervision. To my committee members, Joseph Watson and Chad Manley, I’m thankful to have had your thoughtful and helpful feedback on many different occasions. The three of you helped me to mould this thesis into what it is today. Thank you. I would also like to thank my friends, colleagues and peers that helped to make this thesis possible. In particular, I am deeply indebted to Julie Sikora, Jeremy Schipper, Dylan Maeers, Alena Pavan, Camille Bianchi, Andjela Vasic, Kimberly Chan, Roxy Nazar, Daniel Garrod and Joe Friedrich for their help in bringing the drawings, visualizations and constructions to life. I couldn’t have done it without you all. I am so thankful for your input.To my family and friends who supported my body and mind as I went through this journey I cannot express enough gratitude. And finally, to Dan for believing in me, thank you. acknowledgementspart  1: reseachFigure 1   Plan 56 for the West End  — Arthur Erickson. 100By understanding the deep spatial context—physical or otherwise—of place we are able to jettison the assump-tion of truth, and instead respond to and instrumentalise the indeterminate, the a-functional. Architect Francesca Hughes argues:The context that the architect refers and responds to is always already an artifice. Devised to mediate between the ‘real’ context out there and the desire and constraints (intellectual and/or physical) of the intervention proposed, it is a highly selective set of spatial, temporal, material and (less so, recently) cultural parameters that somehow are meant to stand for place and potential meaning or belonging.1 Parameters that architectural design relates and responds 1 Francesca Hughes, Drawings that Count: The Work of Diploma 15 (London: AA Publications, 2013), 30. to are highly curated variables. Some are highlighted, others obscured, and countless more never considered at all. This is natural of course. We must abstract, condense and prioritise the massive amounts of information available to us in order to be able to act at all. However, allowing a richer context to generate archi-tecture alongside conventional parameters such as technology, program and form, for example, allows an escape from “neonaturalist” or “neopositivist” represen-tations in decried in architecture in general and in the architectural educational system in particular.2 Critics of neopositivism, such as the founders of the Instruments Project, lament the prevalence of evidence based drawings that populate design school pin-up surfaces. Partly because of the juridical model of archi-tectural schools, wherein a design must be rationally defended by its author, the Instruments Project finds that data, (visualized through little understood software created for the use of different disciplines) is too often instrumentalized to argue for the natural inevitability of certain projects, rather than convincing based on historic narrative or emotive contextual qualities.3 Equipmental changes that architectural representation 2.  Zeynib Çelik Alexander, “Neo-Naturalism,” Log 31 (Spring 2014): 23-30.3  John May, “Field Notes from the Instruments Project,” Journal of Architectural Education, 69:1, (2015): 58-61 of inquiryhypercontextFigure  3:   Swimming as a Machine for Transportation and Representation — Angelo Sanhoon Han, 2010.has undergone has “brought about the end of archi-tecture’s own historical sensibility, and its replacement by the perpetual present of real-time data.”4 Through a critical investigation of architectural context through using current tools at our disposal, representation can reengage history and generate radical architectural proposals. The city will be mined for context that exists outside of data—feelings, half-truths and partial artifacts that perpetuate its rigidly changeable identity. Hughes calls this type of deep investigation into context, through representation the “hypercontext” (after Roland Barthes hypertext). A drawn hypercontext is fully aware of the double artifice of its making: both its drawing and its reading (the architecture formed in the viewer’s mind). A hypertext is never whole. It is multiscalar, non-linear, and it houses many other possible (contradictory) places within its generative matrix.5 Collapsing the determinate and the interminate, its (at times conflicting) specificity rejects reductivity and strives to be multiplicitious. 4  John May, “Under Present Conditions our Dullness will Intensify,” Project: A Journal for Architecture, No. 3, (2014), 20. 5  Hughes, Drawings That Count, 33-34.Figure  2:   Scaffold for Temporal Projection  — Redrawing Vancouver. VANCOUVERORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONFUTUREPAST PRESENTMULTIDIMENSIONALTIME2 3what is a city?The generative method of drawing a  hypertext will be applied to the arena of the city. This is not only beneficial, but necessary. Traditionally, the city has been the space used by architects to propose radical new futures. But with the death of the monocultural, bounded and linear city, the singularly envisoned utopia must adapt to reflect the fluid multiplicity of actors, meanings and contexts within contemporary cities. Many thinkers have pointed out the failure of traditional urban models to adequately describe the current complexity of the city.6 While still represented legally, boundaries and delineations have disappeared in the city, replaced with a constantly changing matrix of relations. Critic Steven Marcus refers to the long literary tradition of describing cities, which though increasingly complex, were able to be coher-ently represented. Yet, in more recent fiction he argues that “the city ceases to be readable.”7 If the city is indeed discontinuous and multiple, there must be a new way of representation, or a combinatory logic applied to its representation. Past slips into the present, futures cross the centre for peripheries and all can only be known in incomplete splinters across various media. But, if architecture is going to intervene beyond the mere image, it needs new tools to work more effectively within the immateriality of the networked, active space of the city.8Much like Guy Debord and the artist group The Situationists who reclaimed everday urban space in the 1960s through a detournment—a defamiliarizing of everyday space, routine and bodily occupation—this project focuses on the fragmented quotidian history, memory and narrative that constitutes the city. Partly in response to the rampant expansion of technologies of exchange, communication, production and dissem-ination, which engenders, transnational a-geographic urbanisms, this approach reclaims local identities.The experiences of space cannot be separated from the events that happen in it; space is situated, contingent and differentiated. It is 6  See all of Transurbanism, especially Arjen Mulder, “Transurbanism,” in Transurbanism ed. Arjen Muider (Rotterdam: NAI Publishing, 2002), 9-10. 7  Steven Marcus, “Reading the Illegible: Some Modern Representations of Urban Experience,” Visions of the the Modern City , eds. William Sharpe and Leonard Wallock (Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press), 254. 8  See Keller Easterling Extrastatecraft and Enduring Innocence and Stan Allen, Practice: Architecture Technique and Representation (Abigndon: Routledge, 2009), 59.remade continuously every time it is encountered by different people, every time it is represented through another medium, every time its surround-ings change, every time new affiliations are forged. Thus, as David Harvey has argued, planners and architects have been barking up the wrong tree in believing that new spatial structures alone would yield new patterns of socialization. The struggle for designers and planners, Harvey insists, lies not with spatial form and aesthetic appearances alone (the city as a thing) but with the advancement of more liberating processes and interactions in time (urbanization). 9The space of the city is remade and related through time, we cannot conceive of one without the other.9  James Corner, “The Agency of Mapping: Speculation, Critique and Invention,” in Mappings, Denis Cosgrove, ed (London: Reaktion Books, 1999), 227. Figure 4: Extrastatecraft — Keller Easterling, Extrastatecraft, The Power of Infrastructure Space, (New York: Verso, 2014).Figure 5: Discours sur les passions de l’amour - Psychogeographic Map of Paris — Guy Debord,  1957. 4 5i. historyAn important aspect of the city’s temporal context is its relationship to history. Architecture was once thought to be a guardian of memory, history and knowledge, through a building’s firmitas—its material longeveity. Though, it was superseded by the advent of the printing press and the susequent ubiquity and transferrability of text based information. While never fully regaining the pivotal role of historical vessel, architecture can and still does respond to its past, in part through its representa-tions:An architectural drawing is as much a prospective unfolding of future possibilities as it is a recovery of a particular history to whose intentions it testifies and whose limits it always challenges.10 The above quote by Daniel Libeskind illustrates the importance of history in as a benchmark in represen-tation. The historical narrative of the city can act as a catalyst for change and a scaffold to hang the present. It is, like the contemporary city, multifaceted and non-linear. Libeskind sees architectural representation as a written history, in that it repeats itself:The text of architecture is a tautological it says the same thing at the end as it said at the beginning. By returning to the past, then, we are able to approach the future. As historiography has taught us, there is no one true history; it is contingent on multiple factors and its told and retold in different times, places in different voices with different interpretive lenses. History can be treated, then, with some degree of subjectivity, it can be imbued with imagination and subjective memory to (re)produce, (re)narrate and (re)present the city.10  Daniel Libeskind, Countersign, (New York: Rizzoli, 1992), 15.ii. memory Memory, as much as fact, is a component of memory. Yet, it is a tricky thing. It elludes us whenever  recollec-tion is most desired, and haunts us when least wanted. It is a fuzzy, amorphous, at times ultravivid and clear phenomenon. It can be private, or collectively shared somehow.Mark Twain wrote in his autobiography, “I can remember anything, whether it happened or not,”11 which redefines imagination as memory.Memory can also be physically embodied in architec-ture. French historian of national memory, Pierre Nora, describes spatialized memoryas “natural and artificial, simple and ambiguous, concrete and three senses–material, symbolic, and functional.”12 Full of contradictions, experienced in incomplete pieces, memory, then, shares the attributes of the hypercontext.The difficulty in addressing memory in architecture is also neatly summed up by Nora. The paradox is that by creating a memorial, for example, we reify the outward signs of a memory, and thus offload the work of remem-bering or contemplating from the personal and interior to the collective and external.13 We offload the work of remembering. There is, some have suggested, an inverse proportion between the memorialization of the past and its actual contemplation and study.14 By incorporated memory into an architecture project as a plan for and link to the future, without memorializing or freezing the past, memory can be used to create a plan for the future, rather than continually representing a bygone past.We represent to remember. We tell stories to remember, we draw pictures to remember, we take photos to remember, we collect souvenirs to remember. According to scholar Susan Stewart we do this to record events whose materiality has escaped us, “events that thereby exist only through the invention of narrative.”15 Humans tend to physicalize memory in material, text and image to  help the mind recall the materiality of events which have already happened—this is the narrative drive. 11  Albert Bigelow Paine, Mark Twain, a Biography; the Personal and Literary Life of Samuel Langhorne Clemens (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1935), xxiii. 12  Pierre Nora, “Between Memory and History: Les Lieux De Mémoire,” Representations no. 26 (1989); 18-19.13  Nora, “Between Memory and History,” 19.14  Andreas Huyssen, “The Monument in a Post-modern Age.” in James E. Young, ed., The Art of Memory: Holocaust Memorials in History (Munich: Prestel, 1994), 11.15  Susan Stewart, On Longing (Durham: Duke University Press, 2012), 135.the temporalFigure 6: Analagous Map  “La Città Analoga”— Aldo Rossi, Eraldo Consolascio, Bruno Reichlin and Fabio Reinhart , 1976.6 7iii.  nostalgiaInextrixably linked to memory and narrative, nostalgia invokes a longing for that which is no longer there. Nostalgia is “always ideological: the past it seeks has never existed except as narrative.”16 Narratives about cities function no differently. In the case of Vancouver, Vancouver is seen as disappearing, a lost Vancouver—a Vancouver that may have never been, except as idealized in the mind. The absence that manifests itself in Vancouver has manifold representations. There is a constant yearning for what was before. The ‘virgin’ forest. The resource-rich mill town. The ‘honest’ wood dwellings ‘appropriate’ to the city.17 The view now obscured. The city is built on these nostalgic myths superimposed one over the other, which ironically allows the past to slip away as “one forgets not by cancellation but by superimposition, not by producing absence but by multiplying presences.18 Each nostalgic myth, thus obscures the previous one, as the city rises and falls and the tide ebbs and flows and stories are told and retold.16  Ibid , 23.17  Jeff Wall, “Vancouver Appearing and Not Appearing in Fred Herzog’s Photographs,” AA Files no. 64 (2012): 19.18   Umberto Eco and Marilyn Migiel, “An Ars Oblivionalis? Forget it,” Pmla 103, no. 3 (1988): 260.iv. narrativePerhaps one of the best meta-meditations on narrative structure and the complexity of language, cities and human experience—the light, lyrical prose of Italo Calvino’s Invisible Cities enables the reader to generate rich and varied imaginary urban constructs. Calvino’s short tales function as multiple, reversible, rearrange-able images. His methodology, which embodies a lightness in reaction to the weight of the world, the weight of the real, allows a look at the world from a different angle, with different logic, different methods of knowing and proving —tactics that may not be anchored in empirical truth, but narrative veracity.19 Architectural representation that concerns itself with the utopian, reacting to the weight of the real also performs this existential function. Marks made by Lebbeus Woods, Constant Nieuwenhuys and countless other ‘paper architects’ nimbly leap off the page,  their visionary futures flying in the face of the architectural tropes like heavy, solid stone. Narative is not only an interpretive lens for architec-tural representation, but a fertile ground for contextual understanding of the city. Vancouver is constructed in phsycial material, in the minds of its citizens, in the images that reproduce it and the stories we tell about it.19  Italo Calvino, Six Memos for the Next Millenium (New York: Mariner, 2016), 8, 14.Figure 7: Howe and Nelson — Fred Herzog,  1960, Equinox Gallery.Figure 8: Zobeida (from Invisible Cities) — Karina Puente Frantzen.8 9v. futureLike the speculative narrative in Invisible Cities, architecture can align itself with alternate futures. According to Stan Allen, while hermeneutic practices look to the past, material practices, such as architecture, “analyze the present in order to project transformations into the future.”20 An architectural project is, then, dependent on projec-tion into or speculation about the future.Allen’s conception of architecture as primarily a material practice, however, is limited and limiting. As both a discursive and material practice, the vector of architectural analysis can reach both forward back through the vechicle of represen-tation to achieve an architecture which in the present “is the crumbling of the past into the future.”21 Rather than stultifying progress and relegating architecture to the task of simply recording or repeating stories, architecture should be understood as a means to create a blueprint for the future.22vi. immateriality20  Stan Allen, Practice: Architecture Technique and Representation, xiii.21  Susan Sontag, “A Letter to Borges,” Independent, January 24, 2002,  Sandy Isenstadt, “The Interpretative Imperative: Architecture and the How may a relationship between the written, spoken or imagined past of the city coalesce with its built fabric and representative images, and how might now possibilities emerge? Each potential generator of rich context can be multiplied and juxtaposed. The sites of critical architecture, the drawing, text, and building have multidirectional relationships:Drawing may lead to building. But writing may lead to drawing, building may lead to writing, or drawing may lead to drawing, for example.23At times contradictory, and at others affirming, each site and potential author may inform the other through multiplication and juxtaposition, creating an ambiguous, multilayered proposition. Instead of what we expect of architecture—static, fixed in material  and authoritative, “architecture must be[come] immaterial and porous.”24Perfectibility of Memory,” Harvard Design Magazine 3 (Fall 1997):  Johnathan Hill,  “Drawing forth immaterial architecture,” Arq, Vol 10, No. 1, (2006): 51.24  Ibid, 54.Figure 9: Immaterial Architecture — Iris Gramegna AA Projects Review, 11representation and the realFigure 10: Taking Measure Across the American Landscape — James Corner, AA Files 27 (Summer 1994), 49. 12 13Figure 11: Worthington’s Water Drops — James Worthington, Objectivity (New York: Zone Books, 2007).values have changed and continue to change how  we view the truth.These images represent knowledge about nature, as well as nature itself—indeed...they represent distinct visions of what knowledge is and how it attained...Finally they represent the knower...a certain collective way of knowing. 27 What the authors have discovered here is that scientific and I would argue all representations are marked by the epistemic virtues inherent within them. Each type of ‘objectivity’ they catalogued showed a societal and socio-logical bias as to how knowledge should be displayed, aquired and by whom. Datson and Galison also point to simulation based images as a turning point from “image–as–representation to image–as–process,” enabing the image to be freed from evidence to become tool.28 However, this too, reflected the epistemological virtues of the time. In the second half of the 20th Century, knowledge became seen as a way of 27 Lorraine Daston and Peter Galison, Objectivity, (New York: Zone Books, 2007), 53.28  Daston and Galison, Objectivity, 383.objectivityThis project joins, fuses and otherwise entangles objectivity and subjectivity, reality and representation, because—as we will see, it is futile to extricate these concepts anyway. Modes of representation we think are ‘true’ or ‘objective’ turn out not to be. James Corner, for example, deconstructs mapping’s supposed impartiality: The function of mapping is less to mirror reality than engender the re-shaping of worlds in which people live.25How one “images” the world literally conditions how reality is both conceptualized and shaped....eidetic images, engendering, unfolding, and participating in emergent realities.26Representations literally re-present some sort of inter-nalized reality usually with varying degrees of relation to the ‘objective reality’ we live in. The ways we chose to impart meaning and to represent an idea inevitably leave traces of the author in the representation. We all know this, a story written by a certain writer, bears his or her voice. However, the subjectivity of certain visual means of communication—mapping, as shown above, has been obscured because we assume them to somehow copy reality faithfully. Even in supposedly the ‘hard’ scientific disciplines,  bias creeps into nearly all objective images. In their eponymous chronicle on Objectivity, authors Lorraine Daston and Peter Galison find that embedded 25  James Corner,  “The Agency of Mapping: Speculation, Critique and Invention,”  213.26  James Corner, “Eidetic Operations and New Landscapes,” in Recovering Landscape: Essays in Contemporary Landscape Architecture, James Corner, ed. (New York: Princeton University Press, 1999), 153.intervening, an active understanding of the world. It also has a correlation with design based imagery, as architec-tural representations are often used to simulate a non yet existent reality.  The relationship beween representation and reality is destabilized further in the familiar conceptions of Lewis Carroll’s, ‘Bellman’s Map’, and ‘Mile to the Mile map’ and Jorge Luis Borges’ map that is ‘too exact,’ thus enfolding onto and becoming itself, rendering it useless.  Following Figure 12: The Bellman’s Map — Henry Holiday, in The Hunting of the Snark An Agony in Eight Fits, by Lewis Carroll (Toronto: Tundra Books, 2012).these examples, that highlight the fraught relationship between reality and representation, Jean Baudrillard later claimed that the “territory no longer precedes the map.” This claim highlights the dense imbrication between reality and its representatation.29 The fluidity between these poles will thus be harnessed to create new narra-tives of Vancouver. 29  Jean Baudrillard, Simulations, Paul Foss, Paul Patton and Phillip Beitchman Trans. (Los 14 15toolsAnother aspect of this thesis sets aim at understanding and critically interrogating the tools used to propose architectures. What tools or methods of representaiton are best suited to the stated objectives of the project? What relationships do particular methods have to histor-ical attitudes?As we have seen, the way in which representations are made divulges codes and systems of thought held by the author, or even society at large. This, too, holds true for the tools and technologies that we use to create our drawings. Previously, the pencil, stylus or other method of making marks were inseparable from the architect; the body intrinsic to the act of drawing itself.30  Yes, there were differences in ambience and atmosphere that resulted from the use of charcoal, over ink, say. By and large, however, the tools themselves did not have complex or indecipherable epistemological principals—it was plain to see the specific qualities imparted to the drawing by one tool over the other. Today, however, as John May articulateswe (current generation) have taken virtually no interest in understanding our evidentiary equipment, summoning it instead for use–value alone. Epistemologies and ontologies remain buried deep in the glossaries of our user’s manuals....Somehow, unimaginably, architec-ture and urbanism reamin insulated from the immensely productive pressures of their own technical history.31 The tools architects use have become much more complex, convoluted and, Zeynep Çelik Alexander points out, data driven:An epistemological transformation is taking place in architecture schools across North America: the nature of evidence marshaled in the design studio is quietly changing. Until recently students pinned Angeles: Semiotext(e), 1983), 2.30  Carolina Dayer and Paul Emmons, “Toward Performative Architectural Drawing: Paul Klee’s Enacted Lines,” in Architecture as Performing Art Marcia Feuerstein and Gray Read eds (New York: Routledge, 2016), 45.31  John May, “Under Present Conditions Our Dullness will Intensify,  21. Figure 13: Grasshopper Script — up analyses of historical precedents during reviews to account for their design work. Today the same walls are covered instead with flow diagrams on energy consumption, images of brain scans, maps of transportation networks, or models of thermal distribution. These diagrams and maps visualize in stylized graphic language a different kind of evidence: data in its various guises.32 An architect is just as likely, now, to possess capacity for simulative scientific tools, as they do for orthographic drafting. Zeynep Alexander and others in the Instruments Project remark on not only a passage from experience–based design to data driven images, but also from a representation of “signification” to electrical “signaliza-tion,” where thermal maps or ecological performance models, for example, are unquestioningly taken as natural terrains.33 However, the Instruments Project also recognizes that the previous model of using the representations of the past to determine the future, which is declingin in use may no longer apply today. Images today which, they argue, act in real-time are expected to be tools, to do something. Images/signalizationspresent all possible futures at once (or at least as many as can be counted, computed, and “paramet-ricized”) as a way of managing the present. There can be no “crisis of representation” within the technics of real-time presentation, and we are not so much entering a new evidentiary paradigm as moving beyond any recognizable conception of evidence.34 Yet, the wholesale abandon of history and narrative wholesale may leave us adrift. I tend to agree with their skepticism that these “managerial image-concepts of presentational intervening [could] somehow take the place of countless historical-philosophical images of the future.”35 While greater a instrumentalization and precise control has been gained through our new tools, the resultant visualizations are alienated from our lived experience. Mathematical and scientific modes of under-standing fail to incorporate the language necessary to make sense of our past, present and future.32  Alexander, Zeynep Çelik, “Neo-Nturalism,” 23.33  John May, “Field Notes from the Instruments Project,” Journal of Architectural Education, 69:1, (2015):, 60.34  Ibid, 61.35  Ibid, 61. 16 17Figure 14: Invention of Art of Drawing — Joseph Benoit Suvee, 1793. originsRepresentation is marked by the sign of absence, one recreates something not physcially there. In the classical legend of the origin of drawing, Diboutades, traces the outline of the shadow cast by her departing lover in charcoal. Projection is inherent to the formulation of drawing. Here we have the key ingredients of a body, and its representation mediated through the flatness of projection. This drawing records an existing body, though one that will soon be gone.36 Thus nostalgia and absence permeate the foundational myth of drawing, the representation can accurate to varying degrees but will always be secondary to the preexisting reality. This myth was recapitulated to describe the related, but slightly different conception of architectural drawing, as evidenced by the painting by architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel. Stan Allen surmises that the outdoor setting  of his rendition reveals a key distinction between archi-tectural and other drawing, because without drawing no architecture could exist, hence locale outside any building. Also, as the sun’s rays approximate parallel projection, a more abstract rendition of drawing is formed, as opposed to the interior perspectival quality of the candlelight.Representation is further abstracted in this version of the myth, by the delegation of the act of drawing from Diboutades to a young shepard.37This abstracted means of drawing projective futures implies a sort of movement or translation, “a means to neogotiate the gap between idea and material: a series of techniques through which the architect manages to transform reality by necessarily indirect means.”38 As Le Corbusier wrote architecture is “pure creation of the mind.”39 Matter is abstracted into line. 36  This story is recounted in Stan Allen, Practice: Architecture Technique and Representation, 3.37  Ibid, 4.38  Ibid, 3,39  Le Corbusier, Towards a New Architecture, trans. Frederick Etchells (London: The Architectural Press, 1946 [1927]), p. 11.18 19Figure 15: Origin of Painting — Karl Friedrich Schinkel, 1830. Figure 16 : Illustration from Pozzo’s treatise on perspective — Andrea Pozzo, 1693.20 21projectionProjection is the method in which a three dimensional space is described in two dimensions, involving some form of optic, geometric, measured, or superficial flattening illusion. Projection also encompasses the enigmatic distance between the the reality of the world and is representation. Some theorists, such as Robin Evans have  argued thatrecognition of the drawing’s power as a medium turns out, unexpectedly, to be recognition of the drawing’s distinctness from and unlikness to the thing that is represented.40 The space of the chora in Greek Tragedy, also separates the art (theatre) from the observer (spectator )and is thought to prefigure the distance reqiured for all repre-sentational  projects. This distance allows for metaphor-ical meaning to be created. In architectural representa-tion, distance between the two depicted dimensions and the three referenced dimensions is critical to  allowing an observer to mentally form the represented spacPerspectival projection, as we understand it today, was developed during the Renaissance, and has had a strong and lasting impression. This may very well be the mode of projection most familiar to the layperson. The perspec-tive drawing functions through the convention of the vanishing point(s) where parallel lines converge, repre-senting an infinite space in a finite way. Thus perspective drawings or paintings limit and enclose space—there is an end to the drawing. The vanishing point has an opposite and equally important corollary—the viewpoint, which priviledges an embodied, subjective viewer.41 Some have posited that, perspective, has to do with narrative, or historic time.42 Perspective is often portrayed more as a mode of understanding and repre-senting the past, rather than for the design of new spaces. However, as chronicled in Louise Pelletier, and Alberto Perez-Gomez’s seminal work Architectural Representation 40  Robin Evans , Translations from Drawing to Building and Other Essays (London: Architectural Association Publications, 1997), 154.41  Louise Pelletier and Alberto Perez-Gomez, Architectural Representation and the Perspective Hinge (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1997), 19.42  Stan Allen, Practice: Architecture Technique and Representation, 9.and The Perspective Hinge, the perspectival method of describing space has had many different guises, motives and methods from the dawn of inscription to now. In fact, they point to a continuous history between perspec-tival projection and parallel projection:“The desire to represent volumes orthagonally existed long before the introduction of infinity in perspective. Whether one thinks about Pompeian frescoes, Byzantine mosaics, the Renaissance representation of fortifications and geometric bodies...the mode of representating depth that preserves the parallel quality of lines...must be considered in relation to particular worldviews.43What they refer to as the “perspective hinge,” or the projected link between the common forms of repre-sentation (drawings, prints, models, photographs and computer generated images) and the the world to which they refer is always at work.44 Despite this continuity, however, there are crucial differ-ences between the two primary modes of projection. As discussed, in perspectival images, space converges at the vanishing point, whereas in parallel projection, the vanishing point is located at infinity. As multiple theorists have argued,45 parallel projection in general and axonom-etry in particular thus represents an abstracted, infinite space where multiple views can be present concurrently. Contary to descriptive geometry, which unfolds or projects the views in separate instances, axonometry combines views and obscures the perspective hinge at work. In the 19th Century, early proponents of the axonometric revival considered this unending, reversible spatial field to be so confusing and ambiguous that they recommended shading axonometric drawings in order to clarify the spatial propositions.46 This same ambiguity was later embraced by Russian Constructivist El Lissitsky in the early 20th Century. The reversability of meaning and positioning of his axono-metric constructions enabled new ways to project into the and represent possible futures. The axonometry that he popularized, and later adopted by the De Stijl artists and architects, had lasting effects on the homogeniza-tion and universalization of space as evidenced in much 43  Louise Pelletier and Alberto Perez-Gomez, Architectural Representation and the Perspective Hinge, 248.44  Ibid, 3.45  See Stan Allen, Practice: Architecture Technique and Representation; Yves-Allain Bois, “Metamorphosis of Axonometry,” Daidalos, (September 1981): 41-58; and Massimo Scolari, Oblique Drawing: A History of Anti-Perspective (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2012).46  Yves-Allain Bois, “Metamorphosis of Axonometry,” 18.Modernist architecture. Parallel projection perpetuated the loss of represented context: without a subjective viewpoint, or differentiation of space, particularities of place could be lost. Indeed, these images are not even dependent on the the most basic of natural laws—gravity. Following modernism’s collapse or reformulation as postmodernism, the author’s have posited a potential restoration of representation that priveleges subjective experience. They point to current critical representations that aim to transcend both “perspectival enframing” and “dehumanizing technological values” inherent in measured parallel projections  to make a poetic practice possible in an increasingly adrift contemporary world.47 My project will align with this method of finding a common ground between the strong subjecthood embodied in perspectival projection and the abstract, generativepossibilities of axonometric projection.47  Louise Pelletier and Alberto Perez-Gomez,  Architectural Representation and the Perspective Hinge 85-86.Figure 17 : L’Art de bâtir chez les Romains — Auguste Choisy, 1873.Figure 18 : Proun 1A — El Lissitsky, 1920.22 23notationThe mixed representational metholodogy of this project, will also employ abstraction through notation. Notation in architectural representation is abstraction either spatially— in mathematical terms, which emphasizes geometry and relationship, or temporally—similar to the musical score, or the choreographed dance, which points to time and event as architectural variables.48 The reading of the first occurs in space, perhaps simultaneously, having multiple readings, while examples of the latter unfold or progress according to a directional temporal vector.Perhaps paradoxically, it is not the mimetic, or verisim-ilar representations that best anticipate the experiential in architecture, but highly abstracted diagrams. Notations and diagrams are able to support multiple interpreta-tions, and create new relationships. Operating between form and word, space and language, the diagram is both constitutive and projective; it is performative rather than represen-tational...It’s a tool of the virtual rather than the real and a means of building (in both senses of the term) a virtual architecture, of proposing a world other than that which exists.49However, following the ‘digital turn,’ the diagrammatic architecture of the 90s has been subsumed to some degree by parametric architecture, which is ‘arrived at,’ ‘form found’ in a passive manner analagous to the grammatical syntax of its descriptions.50 48  Stan Allen, Practice: Architecture Technique and Representation, 42.49  Anthony Vidler, “Diagrams of Diagrams: Architectural Abstraction and Modern Representation,” Representations 72 (Fall 2000):6.50  Francesca Hughes,  The Architecture of Error: Matter, Measure and the Misadventure of Precision (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2014), 131.Figure 19 : The Manhattan Transcripts — Bernard Tschumi, (1976-81).24 25digitalismThere is no such thing as a singular ‘digital architecture.’ Digital comprises many different programs and ways of working that ultimately end in a variety of outputs—digital or material. One thing, however, is true of most digital operations; the computer obscures and homog-enizes projective and spatial models at play. One must go beyond the simple interface of the screen in order to discern the ontological frameworks embedded in the softwares and to recover distinction between media. With the advent of the digital, drawing was superceded by digital three dimensional modelling, which engenders  quintessentially different way of designing and repre-senting. Further, a computer generated 3D model is capable of producing infinite representations of itself. As the logical extension of the rules of parallel projection, which removed an embodied viewer and combined multiple representations into one, the digital model collapses projection and exists in infinite space. However, in a digital model “nothing is ever lost,”51 which is attrib-utable to architecture’s ongoing obsession with precision and fear of (material) error.52 Thanks to the relatively recent capabilities the computer has brought to the discipline, architecture is able to be generated with an ever-increasing rapidity, and precision. This redundantly exact and (almost) instantaneous archi-tecture, however, abdicates authorship,53 form is ‘found’ in the technological matrix, with little intervention by the architect. Drawings, in this case, are somewhat of an afterthought,a  moot point; the form is found, modelled on the computer, prior to the creation of the drawing. Another common trope of digital ‘drawings’ (made 51   Stan Allen, Practice: Architecture Technique and Representation, 76.52  Francesca Hughes The Architecture of Error: Matter, Measure and the Misadventure of Precision.53  Ibid, 132-3.Figure 20 : Projectors I — MILLIONS Architecture, 2012.possible through over-precision) is hyperrealism. We’ve all seen examples of the glossy render, which has more in common with legacy of advertising than the history of architectural representation catalogued thus far. Indeed, photo-realistic digitally rendered visualizations are useful tools for selling architecture. Relatively instantaneous digital drawings exhibit a very different sort of temporality than their analogue counter-parts.Paul Virilio distinguishes between metabolic speed—the speed of the living being, reaction time—and technological speed the artificial speed of machines, which contemporary technologies are increasingly blending, effectively making time more uniform.54Producing drawings through mechanized means takes a different length of time, but also a different sort of time. No longer does a drawing record time the time spent on or in it.Digital technologies, then, can occlude their embedded epistemological values, spatio-temporal logics and their authorship. If one can critically engage with digital technologies, however, they can be extremely productive and radical tools for representation. 54  Stan Allen, Practice: Architecture Technique and Representation, 72.26 27collageArchitecture and photography have a long and entangled history together. Both can be considered either a fine art or a utilitarian trade, and photography has been used to document, transform and unsettle architecture since its inception. Both have a long lineage of recording or freezing time—photographs are “clocks for seeing,”55 while buildings attempt to materially withstand the tides of time. Today, however, more than ever, architects explicitly engage in the business of “making images.”56 The techniques of collage and montage, popularized in the 1960s use both surface and image to ceate a sense of space and place through the perceived gaps, either temporally in the case of montage, or visio-spatially in that of collage. Collage has a radical stream in architec-ture. By juxtaposing, or, quite literally at the time cutting and pasting, jarring or out of place imagery, utopian futures could be imagined. Today, however, we are an interesting juncture because of digitalization. Architecture and photography/photo-collage are increasingly detached from their creators and their context.While precision is one of the traits that have allowed this instrumentalization and internaliza-tion of images to accelrate in our current condition, seamlessness is perhaps an even more important driver of this process. Traditional physical collage techniques expose the disparity of the fragments being put together and in doing so call attention to the impossibility and precariousness of the ensemble. Because the union is impossible, 55  Roland Barthes, Camera Lucida (New York: Hill and Wang, 1981), 15. 56  Jesus Vassallo, Seamless: Digital Collage and Dirty Realism in Contemporary Architecture (Zurich: Park Books, 2016), 172..traditional collage becomes a provocation, a disruption of the real. Digital collage on the other hand is seamless, concealing its own traces, and thus merging portions of the real into a plausible alternative. While traditional architectural collages operate in a rhetorical mode, the stealthy manip-ulations involved with digital postprocessing are more ambiguous when it comes to revealing their ultimate intentions.57Akin to other modes of digitalization, the key tactic in digital collage is to operate covertly ‘concealing its own traces.’ Though, I would take Vassallo’s claim—that this “seamless” merging of constructed reality could be plausible—further, these hidden agendas can indeed also propose architectures as effectively as the provocations of traditional collage. 57  Ibid, 175.Figure 21 : Bildbau No. 11  & Development Bildbau No. 11 — Phillip Schaerer, 2008.28 29putting it all togetherQuite literally, this thesis will pull all the strands from the various representational tactics together so that the contextual metaphoric space and time of the city may be represented more dynamically. This may be done in the case of individual drawings, and between the drawings/representations themselves. Perry Kulper, see fig. X, is no stranger to layering and mixing methods of representation and media within a single drawing. His strategic plots, for example, combine movement bewteen notational and figurative marks in a composited hypothetical and specific scenario that traverses over and through time. Following a methodology advocated by long-time head of The Archtitectural Association in London, Alvin Boyarsky, this project seeks to pursue architecture through verbal and visual representation not individually, but in exhibition, in collection.58 The collection demon-strates the aphorism that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. For example,Bruno Latour, speaking of visualization and cognition, used the double entendre of “drawing things together” both to refer to collecting together disparate parts and to drawing new meaning as a method of creating convincing visual proof.New inscriptions and new ways of perceiving them are the result of something deeper...the “things” you gathered and displaced have to be present-able all at once to those you want to convince and who did not go there. In sum, you have to invent objects which have the properties of being mobile but also immutable, readable and combinable with one another.59 It is because all these inscriptions can be superimposed, reshuffled, recombined, and summarized, that totally new phenomena emerge.60 58  Igor Marjanovic, “Drawing Ambience,” in Drawing Ambience: Alvin Boyarsky and the Architectural Association eds. Igor Marjanovic and Jan Howard (St. Louis: Mildred Lane Kemper Art Museum, 2014), 24.59  Bruno Latour, “Visualisation and Cognition: Drawing Things Together,” in  H. Kuklick (editor) Knowledge and Society: Studies in the Sociology of Culture Past and Present (Amsterdam: Elsevier Science & Technology Books, 1979), 7.60  Ibid, 30Figure 23 : Émile Théodore, Curator  — Unknown Photographer, c.1918.30 31Figure 24 : Image Building  — Tim McDonaugh, 2017-2018.Architectural represenation is inherently combinatory, we read between and across different modes of repre-sentation to create a fragmented reality. However, the meta-spatiality of the space of presentation is rarely accounted for. This third-space—where the depicted space(s) of representation mingle with the space of its observation —is capable of generating additional meaning due to the drawing together of objects and representations that are put in dialogue with one another. The collection can be augmented by material ‘artifacts’. In order to speak to nostalgic pasts, we need and desire souvenirs for events whose materiality has escaped us, events which then can only exist through the invention of narrative.61 However, contrary to the conventional contained collection, the assemblage of artifacts will act as an open-ended generator that gestures forward and back, in time and space. The artifacts have the potential benefit of suspending the observer in the contradictory fantasy of unmediated contact with context versus the very pleasure of the artifice of the represented context.The space of an architecture critique or review is usually disregarded. Because architectural representation always gestures to the space within, the unbuilt, it asks us “perversely to pretend it isn’t there, that we are engaging directly with the spaces and structures depicted rather than their likenesses.”62 In so doing, we lose a valuable opportunity to use to the surface, space and materiality of a representation to strengthen an architectural argument. This thesis will instead occupy the surface, subvert media expectations, draw together and project multiple, unfolding viewpoints in the space of the presentation in order to disrupt the smooth transition between the virtual and the real.By productively creating discontinuity between real and represented, past and future a multiplicitity of meanings can be projected onto Vancouver’s constructed self image.61  Susan Stewart, On Longing, 135.62 James A. Craig and Mathew Ozga-Lawn,  “Looking; looking back.” Arq, 19:3, (2015); 211.32 33“Work on a good piece of writing proceeds on three levels: a musical one, where it is composed; an architectural one, where it is constructed; and finally, a textile one, where it is woven.”64The story of architecture, is at its base, the story of stories. Long before the commonplace ownership of written books, architecture was a means to collect and  commu-nicate collective cultural mythologies. Stories written in the buildings and materials architects manipulated. Architecture communicates, manifests and participates in the ritualized telling of tales. Many architects, from Vitruvius to Le Corbusier have used storytelling as a method of concretizing the combined hopes, fears and stories of their respective cultures. When these stories, or built matter begin to accumulate we arrive at the city. The city is built from this accretion of narrative, as much as from the buildings themselves. Our understandings of the forest operates much in the same way. Despite the attempts of Western culture to slough off their nature myths, these stories and sylvan longings have never disappeared.65 Forest is alive in our stories, and, is as important as ever. In order to stay true to the multifaceted dimensionality of both the city and the forest, many stories authored by different voices, in different times, all writing from or about this place, will be incorporated. Rather than telling one dominant story, a multitude of narratives can be brought together. A richer tapestry is woven. 64 Walter Bejamin, One Way Street and Other Writings (London: NLB, 1978), 61. 65  Simon Schama, Landscape and Memory  (New York: Random House, 1995), 15. architectural storieson filmFilm is created in the negative spaces. The viewer mentally and visually stitches together the gaps between frames or stills, and even scenes to create the represented whole. The experience of architecture has much in common with the cinematic; both are media experienced through time. As Giuliana Bruno and others have pointed out, the architectural observer is in many ways the protype to the movie spectactor: “the filmic path is the modern version of an architectural itinerary.”63 Our (projected) movements through space and time echo our strolls between, in and through our architectural environ-ment. A sequence, or series of spaces, events, colours, atmospheres–the city, and the forest, can be retold through a filmic montage. The viewer, much as in the incomplete experience of a city, creating a unified whole between scenes or images. The representation of architectural projects has tended to underpriviledge the temporal aspects of our craft. Adopting an approach of cinematic architecture, though, will favour process, duration and event. In 63 Giuliana Bruno, Atlas of Emotion: Journeys in Art, Architecture and Film (New York: Verso 2002, 56.   Figure 24 : Stills from Diploma 3 Project in Manifesto for Cinematic Architecture  .the eponymous studio taught at the AA, cinematic architecture, not only embraced the expression of the temporal, but was also used as a tool to explore, among other things the cultural memories of sites. Here, they are able to capitilize on the motion of both architectural and cinemetic scenes to the emotion such spaces can contain and emit.  Film, then, can be an effective medium to capture certain qualities of site, space, and time that conventional representation cannot. In representing the city and forest through different periods of time, film or animated drawings are crucial to emphasize temporal aspects of the re-telling. The movement, flow and decay of the forest-city are difficult to convey through static drawings, and must be brought to life through film. 35historyAs a Vancouverite, I find myself increasingly frustrated by the image of this city. Not just the ubiquitous overly picturesque photographs that emphasize views toward ‘nature’ to the detriment of everything else, but also the imagined image of the city—a place that currently can’t seem to see past the city as a playground for capital. This has lead to both the over-romanticization of the past, and a failure to picture an alternate future. The phsyical, textual and visual space of Vancouver has rarely been subject to a radical redrawing. Vancouver’s history is marked by rapid change, fluctua-tions and transience. Vancouver is a coastal city, existing at the confluence of coniferous rainforest, freshwater deltas, coastal mountain ranges and the Pacific Ocean. Much of the land lay below water 10,000 years ago, and today, despite land reclamation and infill,  much slips back out to sea. The tide a daily reminder of passing time and cyclical change. Vancouver is a relatively small city, with just over five hundred thousand inhabitants who now call its 115 square kilometers home. The colonial occupation of this region began a little over one hundred and fifty years ago. Despite the imposition of the city, by the colonial elite, Vancouver has never comprised a homogenous group of inhabitants, views or dreams. Rather, like many cities in North America it was built by a diverse group of immigrants on the existing land of indigenous peoples.  The city was officially incorporated in 1886, on the lands  of local first nations: the Squamish, Tsleil-Waututh, and Musqueam peoples, who have lived here for somewhere between 3000-5000 years. There were many seasonal villages that dotted the coastline from the border with the United States, up Howe Sound and beyond. Following a small gold rush, occupants flooded the townsite in the mid 1800s. As a resource–rich location, the city soon flourished and became an important link in trans-asiatic—european trade. Partly due to its logging on Vancouverindustry, the city boomed rapidly and quickly expanded. Not long after incorporation the extremely tall trees that had covered almost the entirety of Vancouver’s surface had been logged, milled and shipped via sea and rail. However, much remains from the earlier forested days. Stories, images and legends form our understanding today of what this place is. memoryThe speed of erasure and overwriting, continues today, and leaves many people hankering for the conditions they remember, many of which have materially disap-peared. Wood buildings, for example, which originally formed the majority of the city, excepting the small downtown core, were easily burnt down, replaced or torn down to make way for the glass and concrete skyscrapers. For such a small, and relatively new city, the urban landscape has undergone many transformations, leading to many authors and artists struggling to reconcile their site-specific works with an almost unrecognizable Vancouver.66 This uneasiness forms the backbone to many Vancouverite’s relationship to this place. 66 Maia Joseph, “Urban Change and the Literary Imaginary,” PhD Dissertation, UBC, 2011. This rapid cycle of building and destruction has been reflected in the city’s artist imaginary. Authors and artists of Vancouver have grappled with this issue  for the last half century or more. The so-called Vancouver School—a group of photo-conceptual artists that began in the 60s-70s in Vancouver, have, in particular responded to the disappearing face of the city by reconstructing it. Stan Douglas, one of the artists, for instance recreated a gastown riot from the 1970s with a massive set and film techniques. Jeff Wall, another famous Vancouver artist, works in a a similar way,. He reconstructing past events or memories and laboriously reconstructs them and finally photographs the scene. He laments the disappear-ance of the wooden homes, “the objects of our affection” because it means a certain kind of photography, with a certain nostalgic colour cast, is no longer possible.  One thing is sure, Vancouver is fascinated by its recent past, yet often unable to vision a future that follows from it. The fabric of the city is constantly replaced, but the narrative of cyclical loss and destruction may be more continuous than disjointed, after all. Figure 26 : Abbott and Cordova, 7 August 1971 — Stan Douglas.Figure 25(opposite) : Panoramic View of the City of Vancouver — 1898.part  238 39through the forest: the setupVancouver’s forestWhat follows will be a brief history of and orientation toward Vancouver’s forests. This project is not meant to be a complete or coherent historical account of the city’s dealings with the forest, rather a metaphorical mining of forest spaces. So the factual accounting will be kept to a minimum, with enough information given for readers to find their bearings in the woods. Prior to colonization, almost the entirety of Vancouver was forest. Two tree species dominated the landscape–Western Red Cedar and Douglas fir. Though, varieties of Amabilis Fir, Yellow Cedar, Pine, Spruce and many deciduous trees also populated the dense coastal rainforest. Indigenous groups utilized the abundance of the forest, while never needlessly damaging its ecosystems. Many useful materials were gathered from the forest, but none as extensively as Western Red Cedar. All along its growing region, from Oregon up to the North Coast, the Coast Salish and North Coast indigenous peoples used Western Red Cedar for almost everything.67  The house posts, slab walls and roofs of the long houses were made from cedar wood. While, canoes, which were the primary mode of transportation, were made from felled tree trunks. The smaller everyday objects were woven from roots or withes of the cedar. And bark was used in cooking applications as well as for clothing. Cedar was extremely important to the culture and the transmit-ting of culture. It was and still is the bearer of collective stories through masks, orgnaments, carved house posts and objects, as well as communal vessels. Stories told through, in and with the forest and its materials. While the inhabitants used the forest intensely, materials were generally harvested without harming the longevity of the trees and the forest networks. Trees’ bark, roots, withes, and branches were taken in small quantities periodically in a manner which enabled the trees to continue to grow and thrive, in a modified way. While most settler accounts speak of an untouched, pristine, virginal, or primeval68 wilderness these culturally modified trees and landscape attest to a long reciprocal relationship between humans and the forest in the Vancouver area. Cedar was the “tree of life” for the indigenous popula-tions, but colonizers and settlers reaped the most benefits from the douglas fir–the tree that “put Vancouver on the map.”69 Recognizing the economic value of the forest, now seen primarily as timber, swathes of the landscape were logged. Douglas Fir, an extremely straight, hardy and tall species,  was the most profitable tree to loggers and lumber businesses. 67 Hilary Stewart, Cedar: Tree of Life to the Northwest Coast Indians (Vancouver: D&M Publishers, 1984) p. 17 onward.  68 See accounts in Major Mathews, Early Vancouver, (Vancouver; City of Vancouver Archives, 1931-56), accessed online Jon Hernandez, “How the Douglas fir tree put British Columbia on the map,” CBC News, 5 February 2017,  Figure  27:   Northwest Coast Indian cape of woven cedar bark, 1909 -  Curtis Asahel.By the early 1900s, 25 lumber mills operated in Southern British Columbia, (mainly in the lower mainland and on Vancouver Island) leasing 135,063 acres of land. Within decades  almost all of the Vancouver region’s 1500 square miles was logged. Only the concern for fresh drinking water halted the upward march of denuded landscape on the North Shore Mountains. Closer to the city, small stands were left in Stanley Park, UBC and Lynn Valley. Shortly after the city’s incorporation, a great fire ripped through the region in 1886 burning all the wooden dwellings and structures to the ground. Some portions of the city were rebuilt in stone and brick, though the cost effectiveness and overabundant supply of timber meant almost all dwellings were built in wood. For years the city continued to grow, in inverse propor-tions with the forest. The wooden streets, poles, railway tracks and homes spread further and further from the water’s edge into the hinterland. The fringes of forest that did remain in the city have now been characterized as its “evergreen heart.”70 These spaces are a nod to the erased, but not forgotten wooded wilderness. A forest that we must go through in order to understand the meaning of this place.70 “Celebrate Stanley Park,” City of Vancouver Website, accessed April 5 2019, https://Figure  28:   Georgia Street Vancouver 1886 - City of Vancouver Archivesrepresentational strategyAnthropologist Eduardo Kohn states that it is possible and indeed for some people, imperative, to think like a forest.71 In order to do so, we must adopt a multitude of worldviews, rather than our Western human centric model. In order to think like a forest, we must become something else, something in between, a portal, an interval a representation. One that is always morphing and adapting to the complex web of relations embedded in forests. The cyclical, non-linear nature of the forest informed the process of re-presenting the city. Multiple perspectives, modes of drawing, and ways of viewing the world are stitched together to form the spaces of Vancouver’s forest and city.  What follows are short chapters each representing a differnt way we might engage with the forest.  The divisions, however, are somewhat arbitrary, as the ideas contained within flow across time and space. Original source material, in the form of imagery and story, whether fact or fiction, are recombined, redrawn and retold to become a representational portal, bringing the viewer through the forest and recreating Vancouver’s history and future. The presentation featured a nine-panel, hinged wooden frame screen that held the stretched drawings and collages, both of which were printed on semitransparent fabric. Calling upon the textile tradition of taspestry, or the architectural screen, both of which tell stories about place, the presentation of the object was its re-presenta-tion. During the presentation, drawings were animated and projected ontop of the existing screen, further mixing storylines, time codes and spaces. Eduardo Kohn, “Leaving the Forest,” in Intercalations 4: The Word for World is Still Forest (Haus der Kulturen der Welt: Berlin, 2017), 159.40 41Figure  29 :   Presentation Documentation- author’s photograph42 43Figure  30:   Projections onto Screen - Author’s Photograph44 4546 471. forest as transformativeYou know, everything had to begin, and one way was like this: we came one by one into the world through a hollow log.72 Or perhaps the world came to us, around 11 thousand years ago when the last vestiges of the ice sheets receded back to the Mountain peaks leaving swathes of fertile land flowing into river valleys and out to the Salish Sea. The trees of this land were the tallest, straightest and most plentiful in the world. This region supported more biomass than anywhere else on the planet. Think of the weight. Or was it light, like springy moss underfoot?I arrived around 6000 years ago, I go by many names here: Locally called  Xpeyulhp my Latin name is Thuja Plicata. I’m not a true cedar, but rather an arbor-vitae - tree of life. Though, in common usage I’m called western red cedar. Ebb and flow marks time and space where I am. In the language, there is no word for tide, only for water as it is always in flux.  The words “be here” and “be there” also imply “be now” and “be then.” 7372 N. Scott Momaday, The Way to Rainy Mountain (Albuquerque: The University of New Mexico Press, 1969), 3.  73 Wayne Suttles, Coast Salish Essays (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1987).  “A long time ago there was a very generous man who was always giving and helping people. And they say that when he passed away he was transformed into a cedar tree. And because he was so abundantly generous in life, that’s why we get everything from the cedar tree.” 74I am soft, giving, fibrous, malleable. My roots are woven into baskets, the supple withes into lashing, my bark clothes the people. I am sturdy, strong and straight. I house and protect, my mighty trunk becomes weightless in the flowing waters and bears the people to when/where they go. I become the stories and the language through, masks, poles, dance, meals, ceremony, burial boxes and so too bear the people when/where they go.  My body bears the evidence of continued use, strips peeled off my bark, roots dug up, withes harvested, and planks cut. Yet still I stand. The solid and fixed gives way to change, matter is stretched and wood breathes life. The stories of the people are woven into the forest and float on the sea as they live at this earthly seam. Forest harvesters, yet marine travellers. Tens to hundreds of canoes dot the inlet at any time. Or is it log booms that line the harbour? Or ships. Time ebbs and flows cyclically like the water.  And still I float. Rooted to tide. What happens when we allow time and place to slip past one another,  elide, thousands of years, stories and trees?74 Bertha Peters, as reprinted in Cedar: Tree of Life to the Northwest Coast Indians by Hilary Stewart (Vancouver: D&M Publishers Inc, 1984), 27. Figure  32:   Lightness - Author’s Collage48 49Figure  34:   Marine travel - Still from Author’s animationFigure  33:   Origins - Still from Author’s animationFigure  35:   Ebb and Flow - Author’s weaving50 5152 532. forest as fragmentFragmentation. The story goes that the first claim was made with wood. Before the forest of buildings, before it ever was a city, a land commissioner pierced the earth’s surface. The historic plaque to his memory now reads: “here stood Hamilton. In the silent solitude of the primeval forest he drove a wooden stake into the earth and commenced to measure an empty land into the streets of Vancouver.”75The soon to be toppled growing giants, some older than the Magna Carta, were invisible to him. He envisioned vast expanses, unending grids, penned by lines, anchored with wood. Lines that became streets each bearing the names of the trees they replaced. Spruce, Arbutus, Cedar, (now Burrard) Fir and so on. The empty forest no match for his wooden stake and the lines on processed wood pulp, the great grid marches on. What if his ultra-rational act, can be metaphorically reclaimed as a growing thing.?Wooden Stakes arise, multiply, becoming tall and mighty, a wooden forest grows in the place of the trees.75 City of Vancouver Historic Plaques as seen on Illustrated Vancouver, Accessed Apr 10, 2019.  Figure  37:   Still from Fragment Animation - Author’s animated drawing Figure  38:   Gridded Expansion - Author’s collage54 5556 57Figure  40:   Forest Fairy Tale - Author’s collage3. forest as tall tale If the grid is a going on and on, then logging was a going in. As in going deeper into the swampy, dank, plots of trees. In between the grid lines, and timber claims, live different stories.Tall tales indeed. Heroic feats. Sweat. Struggle.Swagger. At first, following existing foot or wildlife trails, near to waterfront villages populated seasonally for thousands of years - the loggers tread tentatively. Then forging new paths by wading into the dense, dark forest with axe and saw and springboard the wooden beasts were brought down by strength and perseverance, pulled by horse, human or oxen down corduroy skid roads and floated and boomed to the waterside mills, which grew overtop of villages, and churned and spat and burned and sawed day and night. The loggers couldn’t see the forest for the trees–the timbers to be conquered. But we know of the many inhabitants and users. Humans, cougars, bears, salmon, fox, wolf, moss, fungus, insects, birds bats and eventually racoons, grey squirrels. In this dense tall tale, the largest tree ever logged happened . According to that veritable source -  the Guinness Book of World Records, though some call it a double hoax. Supposedly, in 1895  a man named George Cary set out into the misty wooded hillside of Lynn Valley and over a number of arduous days felled a report-edly 417’ tall 25’ diameter Douglas Fir - making it the tallest ever recorded.76 Or was it a Cedar? Or was it Julius Fromme logging a smaller but still remarkable Douglas Fir, a year later in Kerrisdale? If a tree is logged, but no one was there to photograph it, does it make a sound? One thing is certain, sitting around the campfire the loggers, will go to great lengths to claim the tallest tale. 76 John Parminter, “Tale of a Tree,” in British Columbia Forest History Newsletter, No. 45, 1996, 2. 58 59Figure  41:   Forest Inhabitants - Detail of Author’s narrative scroll 60 61Figure  42:   Forest Logging - Detail of author’s narrative scroll 62 634. forest attractionUnderstanding, perhaps from the beginning, what they were doing - the city dwellers set aside tracts of land - accidentally at first, then with intention, where second growth forest was permitted to push through the mulch. Generally this happened at the city extremities both laterally at - Stanley Park, and Pacific Spirit Park but also vertically on Little Mountain in Queen Elizabeth Park.  Here, lumber tycoon, Bloedel financed the planting of high value timber species, it is now, its home to some of the tallest trees in the city - another slice of nature.But, Before it was a leisure ground and fragmented forest, Stanley Park held a an evil soul which had been impris-oned in a bare, white stone. Fearing that the evil heart imprisoned there would still work destruction, the creator chose from the nations the kindest, most benevolent people, whose hearts were filled with the love of their fellow-beings, and transformed these merciful souls into the stately group of “Cathedral Trees.” 77 Deep in the heart of the Park, Cathedral Grove, a stand of original old growth douglas fir and cedars, the benev-olent guardians, became the greatest attraction of the newly minted park as the tallest, largest trees within. But alas the irresistible draw of the grove, perhaps even, of the nearby lure, meant that the roots of the giants were trampled by the thousands of visitors, newcomers to this place. And ultimately the damaged trees had to be cut down. The tallest of the saved, condemned. So too the city grew, the promise of green. Drawn by the lureInside each wooden box another story, parcelled with neat and tidy forest parks, and tree lined boulevards. And on and on it went the old timers mourning the world they had grown up in, the only constant thing being the shifting landscape and cyclical tide. The destruction of cathedral grove perhaps foreshad-owing the looped preservation, destruction and nostalgia grafted from forest to wooden city. Is it possible to love something to death?77 Joe Capilano as told to Pauline Johnson in “The Lure in Stanley Park,  Legends of Vancouver, Figure  43:   Forest Attraction - author’s collage64 655. forest of transienceThe wooden houses seem now to vanish, poof in a cloud of smoke. A link with the forest severed and lamented. In their place, Concrete steel and glass proliferate. “Despite the apparent hard edges our city is persistently soft. We see it like a raw encampment at the edge of the rocks, a camp for a navy vying to return to a place that has disappeared. So the camp is a permanent transience, the buildings or shelters like tents—tents of steel, chipboard, stucco, glass, cement, paper, and various claddings—tents rising and falling in the glittering rhythm which is null rhythm, which is the flux of modern careers. At the centre of the tent encampment, the density of the temporary in a tantrum of action.”7878 Lisa Robertson, Occasional Work and Seven Walks from the Office for Soft Architecture (Astoria: Clear Cut Press, 2003), 15. Deflated forests puff the smoky image of a solid city. This seemingly concrete period in history is but another fluid incarnation  .Dwelling is a temporary state, place, time. City hall was a tent. The great houses were seasonal. Loggers lived in camps. The wooden homes recede, dismantling a suburban dream. How can a place based on transience come to maturity? The cyclical regrowth in the forest provides an answer. The city needs to morph, and change and rise and fall and rot and grow. Figure  45:   Rising and Falling -  detail  of author’s narrative scroll 68 696. forest as screenThe forests a distant past, or perhaps future, the city of Vancouver is hollowed out. Some memory lingers however, as the grid grows verti-cally. Green glass towers reach higher and higher - still taller than the tallest trees, stretching, craning for the view to the “supernatural.” - the remaining fringes of sea and forest. As if to say “You guys just wait and see. We’ll stand taller than these mountains.”79The city almost disappears for the reflections, a shimmering generic mirage. Illusory, false, the city is bloated on forest smoke. The forests and oceans bounce back and forth endlessly. Where is solid what is air?  Looking in the mirror, getting ready for its close up. But what emotions to portray?This non-place is proudly touted by the film industry to be able to stand in for anywhere. A city of images, image making, framed views. Without the depth of the forest, it is a city of surfaces. “It was as if they had exchanged sunlight on water, for photographs of sunlight on water.”80Competition for the coveted mountain/forest views is fierce in this town, attainable only by the upper echelon as the peninsula gets overcrowded. What if the story that we told was instead this: that the image came to the city?That buildings which are constantly rising and falling in this timber town, shrouded in scrim are utilized for the film set they truly are. Projections of the erstwhile forest populate the buildings surfaces. The trees mapped onto the screens confront us with their immensity. Meanwhile, the interior spaces, house projections of flickering forest futures. A live stream into the depths of preserved, pristine forests not for human feet, but our hungry eyes. Was it even real? The screen showed smoke, but air outside was fresh. A beetle scurries on wizened bark. Pixels. Data. What is fact and what is feeling?79 Douglas Coupland, Girlfriend in a Coma (Toronto: Harper Perennial, 2009).  80 Malcolm Lowry, October Ferry to Gabriola, (London: Cape, 1971).  70 71Figure  47:   Projection Screens - author’s collageFigure  X (opposite) :   Building Projections - author’s tapestry detail drawing72 7374 7576 777. (de)forested islandIn local legend, colonization of this place was predicted by a great chief before it happened: “He looked across a hundred years, just as he looked across what you call the Inlet, and he saw mighty lodges built close together, hundreds and thousands of them–lodges of stone and wood, and long straight trails to divide them.”Asking to keep his strength living for his his people, so that they may one day recuperate it, the chief ’s courage was embodied in the lost island of the north arm. Heard of by many, seen by none. The teller of the tale, has seen but it’s shadow. 81 Here, the island is a repository for hopes and dreams. We’ll see it again. In another story, told by August Jack Khatsalano, he recalls that “when the inhabitants saw the first ship they think it an island with three dead trees…”82 Not a hope, but a hint of what of is to come .These mobile islands flowed in and out with the tide, taking denuded trees, lumber with them, leaving the landscape bare.81 Joe Capilano, as told to Pauline Johnson in  “The Lost Island,” Legends of Vancouver August Jack Khatsalano  as told to Major Mathews, Conversations with Khatsalano 1932-1954, City of Vancouver Archives, .Figure  50 (opposite) :   Island Ships- author’s collage78 7980 818 networked forestThe tale tale tellers and log fellers produced some of the finest Vancouver Toothpicks, as they were called, Spars that were over 100 feet long and 3’ square. The douglas fir trees here were so tall and straight , growing happily in the swampy land, that even after logged once, a second pass yielded the dozen or so beams destined for the Imperial Palace in Beijing. 112’ long clear, the toothpicks sailed across the pacific and form the roof beams of the Gate of Heavenly Peace in Tiananmen. On returning, the wooden ship brings back young men eager for a better life, who instead laid miles and miles of wooden railroad ties under horrendous working condi-tions. The trails of wood cross land, ocean, air. The city pushes ever further in wood.  The forest flickers in the candlelight on the wooden carvings in Tiananmen.Ships leave the Inlet laden with Vancouver lumber, bound for  all continents except Antarctica, though the explorer ships that sail there, have masts of douglas fir from here - strong and straight.Sous le pavé, le bois. Underneath the city, hardened to pavement, wood presents alternate possibilities. Before these streets, the skid roads were made from felled timbers, then the early city streets were wood cobble-stones, wooden mills processed the trees, the houses were wood, shingles, siding, framing, flooring, sheathing, decks, columns, the piles were wood, the piers were wood, the docks, the boats were wood, the paper and newsprint was made from wood pulp, the telephone poles, the railroad ties were wood. Fences were wood. The city grew in wood. And when the land ran out, ingenious as the new inhabitants were, they pushed deeper and deeper into the sea with wood. Making new boundaries, ordering with wood. The wood city exists in parallel, it slowly rots in moist, dark places. The wood city and the forest city are just below the surfaces of our perception, they grow and connect with the networks made in wood. 82 83Figure  53 :   Flooded Forest- author’s collage9. flooded forest“It was after a long, long time of this–this rain. The mountain-streams were swollen, the rivers choked, the sea began to rise–and yet it rained; for weeks and weeks it rained.The level lands were first to float in sea-water, then to disappear. The slopes were next to slip into the sea. The world was slowly being flooded. Hurriedly the tribes gathered in one spot, a place of safety far above the reach of the on-creeping sea.They held a Great Council and decided at once upon a plan of action. A giant canoe should be built, and some means contrived to anchor it in case the waters mounted to the heights. A giant tree was felled, and day and night they toiled over its construction into the most stupendous canoe the world has ever known. They also worked at a cable–the largest, the longest, the strongest that hands and teeth had ever made. Scores of them gathered and prepared the cedar-fibre; scores of them plaited, rolled, and seasoned it; scores of them chewed upon it inch by inch to make it pliable; scores of them oiled and worked, oiled and worked, oiled and worked it into a sea-resisting fabric.” [Though in another telling the women wove their own hair into the anchorage. Tree-women.] “And still the sea crept up, and up, and up. Last of all to be seen was the top of the tallest tree, then–all was a world of water.”1But the canoe was not the only thing afloat.The sea freed the many log booms, released young trees and loosened wooden poles, planks beams. Buoyed with lightness, the wood city floated up with the tides, leaving the heaviness sunken below. After some time, the tallest point of Vancouver emerges from the watery seas, an island.  Ecstatic, the people paddled toward it. And at the confluence of land and water, the largest log jam ever seen. Wooden detritus commingles with the tall trees of the forest preserve at Queen Elizabeth Park and domed tropical plants. Perhaps we can see the metaphors of the forest materials as as both arc, and source and seed for our new hybrid city. There is a way an elder can tell a tale. A bundle of short sticks (about 6 inches long) must be gathered. Each represents a chapter in the story. The first is placed in their hands and the tale is told stick by stick. The chapters in wood, are recombinable with no words written, yet lessons held within. 2Our story begins thus: from beginning to beginning:1 Joe Capilano, as told to Pauline Johnson in “Deep Waters,” Legends of Vancouver, Charles Hill-Tout, The Salish People: The Local Contribution of Charles Hill-Tout: Volume II: The Squamish and the Lillooet (Vancouver: Talonbooks, 1978), 19-20. 84 85through the forestAfter having come through the forest, we have a better and richer understanding of the complex interplay between architecture and our context, in this case–the forest. We have not only learned of the cyclical, web-like relations in the forest, its spatial and psychological metaphors, but we have begun to think a little bit like a forest. By drawing and representing as a form of research, and a means to digest archival material, I have understood the spaces of the forest-city as they exist across time, between cultures, in ebb and flow. The methodology of superimposing, exagerating, and drawing together many view poitns has been productive in wrapping my head around this sprawling issue. However dispersed they become, Vancouver’s deep roots inform its future. Armed with this knowledge we can practice an architecture that rebuilds the city through the forest.86 87Figure  54 :   Profile Plinth- author’s photographshybridsIn between reality and representation–the hybrid strives straddle the divide. In the case of this concep-tual model/plinth–the flow from present to past, from expected materiality to form. Moudling profiles are gradually cut into a centu-ry-old douglas fir beam from Vancouver, giving the plinth fabric-like, tablecloth qualities on the one hand, while invoking the form of a stump on the other. 88 89Figure  55 :   Forest Stories- author’s photographs of presentation bookletforest stories and imagesA booklet containing the stories used in re-telling the story of Vancouver through the forest, was distributing during the thesis presentation. Each source was paired with archival photographs –generating yet another reading of the project. 90 91Figure  56 :   Forest Stories II- author’s photographs of presentation booklet92 93Figure  57 :   Though the fabric - author’s closeup photograph of presentation tapestry94 95BibliographyAckerman, James. “The Conventions and Rhetoric of Architectural Drawing.” Origins (2002): 293-317.Alexander, Zeynep Çelik. “Neo-Naturalism.” Log, No. 31 (Spring 2014): 23-30. Allen, Stan. Practice: Architecture Technique and Repre-sentation. 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