UBC Graduate Research

Rewilding the West Schille, Blaire Donna 2019-04-26

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Blaire Donna SchilleBBA (Hons.), Mount Royal University, 2012Diploma Arch Tech (Hons.), Southern Alberta Institute of Technology, 2014SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OFMASTER OF ARCHITECTUREinTHE FACULTY OF APPLIED SCIENCE,SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE AND LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE,ARCHITECTURE PROGRAMCommittee:Prof. Joseph WatsonThena TakAriel VernonWe accept this report as conforming to the required standard:Rewilding the WestThena TakThe University of British ColumbiaApril 2019© Blaire Donna SchilleJoseph WatsonRewilding the Westimagining a n ecofeminist  futurevivIn 2060, the collapse of the oil industry in Alberta has turned Calgary into a shadow of its former self. The industry’s sharp decline led to soaring vacancy rates amongst the upper tax-bracket demographics, leaving the future of the city to be determined by those most disenfranchised by the economic fallout.The evolution of infrastructure as the primary determinant of urban space has continued globally, but post-oil Calgary has slipped behind the curve. The city’s situation demands more than costly demolitions. The inextricable forces of desire, culture, gender, class, sustenance, ritual, maintenance, technology, and economics driving Calgary and its people are far too complex to be handled by the next “innovative” solution. Previously-established infrastructures which now inhibit the connections they once enabled must be reinvented, to work with the natural forces of the landscape and forge new links within remaining communities. We understand the role of oil in sites of exploration, extraction, corporate business, and consumption - but oil also created a framework for social geography. The memory of industry is intimately connected with place-based identity, and the meanings attached to a place are shaped by the stories told about its past. Spaces that exist at the confluence of social and economic factors are just as much a part of the story of the petroleum industry and what will happen when it’s gone. This thesis creates opportunities for a diversified future through reconstructing the relationship between nature and the culture of a city shaped by submission to the global network of oil.AbstractFigure 1: Alberta illustrated, 1929vi viivviiviiixiiixv02668294104118130144AbstractContentsList of FiguresAcknowledgmentsDedicationThe StoryThe IndustryThe CityThe OperationsPrecedentsPresentationBibliographyAppendixviii ixFigure 1: Alberta illustrated, 1929Figure 2: Levels of engagementFigure 3: Disparity in CalgaryFigure 4: Urban migrationFigure 5: Oil cityFigure 6: Google search results, Calgary Oil CrisisFigure 7: The flightFigure 8: Urban aerialFigure 9: Life cycle of a girlFigure 10: Movement aerial Figure 11: City not within reach collage Figure 12: Serial sections Figure 13: Oil flow in North America Figure 14: Abandoned leisure collage Figure 15: Life cycle of a tree Figure 16: Breaking boundaries collage Figure 17: Overgrown and unbuilt collage Figure 18: Residential axonometricFigure 19: Existing site habitat, with projected flood     data Figure 20: Existing timeline of the siteFigure 21: Future site habitat, with projected ecological    corridorFigure 22: Existing and proposed site section List of Figuresiv35791315171921232527293337394145474951Figure 23: Life cycle of a bird Figure 24: Bird nest collage Figure 25: Riverbank axonometric Figure 26: Stitched edge axonometric Figure 27: Future timeline of the siteFigure 28: Bird blind collage Figure 29: Northern Alberta Figure 30: Global oil flow Figure 31: Golden Triangle, Pittsburgh PennsylvaniaFigure 32: Fanueil Hall, Boston Massachusetts Figure 33: Granville Island, Vancouver British     Columbia Figure 34: Map of Calgary Figure 35: Natural Regions and Subregions of Alberta Figure 36: Existing condition generative collage Figure 37: Existing condition mapFigure 38: Bow River flood mapsFigure 39: Final condition axonometric Figure 40: Floating Piers, Christo Figure 41: Longest Bench, Studio Weave Figure 42: Longest Bench, Studio Weave Figure 43: Space Waste, Daan RoosegaardeFigure 44: Varying Proximities, Broken City LabFigure 45: Potlach!, Elii53555759616367697577798385959799101105107108109111113For complete figure citations, refer to Figures Cited on page136.x xiFigure 46: On Avalon, La MasFigure 47: Hantz Woodlands, Hantz GroupFigure 48: Final review board and model setupFigure 49: Presentation board, contextFigure 50: Presentation board, the girlFigure 51: Presentation board, the birdFigure 52: Presentation board, the treeFigure 53: Presentation board, final conditionFigure 54: Projected condition model, neighbourhoodFigure 55: In process condition model, stitched middleFigure 56: Final condition model, rivers edgeFigure 57: Final condition site model, 1:1000  Figure 58: Canada’s oil and gas industry through time     and territory115116119120121122123124125126127128145xii xiiiFirst and foremost, thank you to my advisor, Joseph Watson, for his guidance, patience, and support throughout this process. To my committee members, Thena Tak and Ariel Vernon, thank you for your time, enthusiasm, and many thought provoking conversations.Roy Cloutier, Nicole Sylvia, and Fionn Byrne, thank you for making yourselves available when I felt stuck.To my peers and friends, especially Alena Pavan, Dylan Maeers, Lisa Kusaka, Arnold Jung, Nicole Thomson, Jordan Haylor, Sarah Baxendale, Jeanette Lazar, Line Siu, and Pera Hardy for their production support in the final week. Thank you for your willingness to help bring my ideas to life.Acknowledgmentsxiv xvTo my friends: For encouraging me and growing with me. For the last three years.To my family: For your unending love and support, and for believing in me enough to make up for the times I didn’t believe in myself.2The StoryThe following imagined future expands the narrative of cities that have faced deindustrialization. Through shedding light on the existing condition, this thesis serves as a provocation for ways to mitigate the trauma and loss of identity that is tied to flight of industry.43ExplorationRefiningProductionConsumptionTransportationProtestingFigure 2: Levels of engagementPipelines, refineries, towers.The will of a global economy rendered visible - a formless system that somehow gives shape to everything it encounters.65 Figure 3: Disparity in CalgaryUrban fabric has always told a story of have and have not:Calgary was not an exception.87 Figure 4: Urban migrationSmall town people flooded the city for decades, bringing their small town values that tempered some of the worst tendencies of petro-capitalism.But that was when the money was flowing.With every boom and bust cycle hearts hardened, eyes narrowed, and fingers clenched tighter around what is perceived as “ours”.109 Figure 5: Oil cityOil flowed through the city streets. It was impossible to move without being touched by it. It consumed all: a noxious substance distorting reality.11 12“Who are we?”The cloud of fear settled in.“What do we have?”Economic disparity grew.1413 Figure 6: Google search results, Calgary Oil CrisisAs oil money dried up the city first turned outward on the country.Then on the province.Until it had nowhere left to turn than on itself.1615 Figure 7: The flightThe haves fled, making a shell of the once glittering downtown.“There is nothing here for us” They said, their eyes already turned to the horizon.1817 Figure 8: Urban aerialThe city emptied and the temperature rose.The glass towers dirtied, black smudges in the sky.At first it was dry, and then it was very wet. The river rose and fell, its banks a graveyard for trinkets of time.The highways slowly emptied. A traffic oriented city that provided nowhere to go.2019SummerWinterAutumnSpring100 years0 yearseat breakfasteat dinnereat lunchschoolsleepworkspring equinox                                           autumn equinoxwinter solstice                                            summer solsticebirthdaysummer holidays    start of school yearfirst wordsfirst stepsmenopausepubertygrandmotherhoodmotherhoodmenstruationmenstruation menstruationmenstruationmenstruationmenstruationmenstruationmenstruationmenstruation menstruationmenstruationmenstruationnew year resolutionspring cleaningadulthoodseasonal depressionallergy seasongardeningcanningFigure 9: Life cycle of a girlThe girl knows this story.She thinks of it often, perched on the edge of her community where the bluff meets the air.She stretches out her hand as if to grasp something, looking west to the mess of the floodplain that was once a playground for the haves.2221 Figure 10: Movement aerialShe knows this area used to move: the natural and controlled, flowing alongside each other.The river, the golf course, the highway, and the canal.Fighting for space.Abandoned.2423 Figure 11: City outside of reachShe presides over it all: a kingdom of wreckage she still cannot touch.Nothing has ever been within reach from her place in this city.And so she will stay, like her mother and her mother’s mother. Physically cut off from the city they were obedient to.The city that left them behind.2625ABCDEFGHIFigure 12: Serial sectionsThe canal knows this story.It used to serve, and it took pride in that. Taming water from the river and pulling it to farmlands to the east.And every fall they would tend to it, draining it dry, tucked away for winter with the promise of new life in the spring.But they stopped coming, and the canal cracked under the sun. Weeping until it was so barren it thought it might turn to dust.2827Active RefineryPoint of protestExisting pipelineProposed pipelineCancelled pipelineFort McMurrayHoustonCalgaryFigure 13: Oil flow in North AmericaThe pipeline was supposed to be the answer. A $4.5 billion band-aid to keep the cries at bay. An attempt at negotiating between resource extraction and the environment.Generate jobs.Enrich lives.Stimulate economies.An investment in the future!(A future for whom?)“Shh”They said.3029 Figure 14: Abandoned leisure collageAnd her neighbourhood was quiet.People walked away from the houses they once took pride in. Their small piece of “have” abandoned in the hope of more.“There is nothing here for us”Her neighbours said, as they closed the door on the only community they had ever known.31 32Time marched on.Foundations cracked, frames shifted.And the outside began to make its way in.3433SummerWinterAutumnSpring100 years0 yearsforest fire seasonsnowshoe hare eat bark beavers collect fallen branches for damsbees collect leaf resinregenerationend of lifematurity reachedhollowed / dead trees become animal habitatleaves open                                 shed leavesflowers fertilized by pollen (female)shed catkins (male)pollen released (male)                                                               flowering (male)harvest for pulp woodharvest for veneer stockharvest for saw logsphotosynthesis (O2 released)respiration (CO2 released) spring windspring precipitationspring equinox                                           autumn equinoxwinter solstice                                            summer solsticeFigure 15: Life cycle of a treeThe tree knows this story.It knows it was once singular and contained.It grew: light and dark, full and bare, inching upwards and outwards until it became aware of the others.Singular.Contained.Leaves waved to each other in the breeze.35 36And every spring it would release its seeds.“Stay close”It would whisper.But the ground would be racked, seeds torn and discarded.“There is no place for you here”3837 Figure 16: Breaking boundaries collageUntil the racking slowed and stopped, and the tree grew and multiplied - no longer alone.It took the space it had once been denied, tearing up pavement and pushing against glass panes until they broke. Demanding to be allowed in.“This is ours”It said, vengefully snaking through the once controlled landscape.Turning hard into soft. Grey to green.4039 Figure 17: Overgrown and unbuilt collageAbandonment provided opportunity.Vacancies were filled, force that settled into harmony.They entered the spaces where life had overtaken loss. They stripped back the materials, and the material possessions left behind. They tended to the life that had grown - opportunities to make space for new kinds of neighbours.4241 Figure 18: Residential axonometric“What do we want?”They asked, renegotiating their environment in a way that was representative of all.What began as an individual effort grew, forming a new sense of community tied to place. Born of the memory of what was, and the hope of what could be.43 44“Something is here”They murmured.Until it became so loud it was heard at the highest places.“Something is there”They declared.4645GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG G GGGGGG G G GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGExisting Site Habitatwith projected flood dataHabitat:Grassland, anthropogenic, semi-naturalWetland open water, natural Grassland, naturalRiparian tall shrub, natural, willowBalsam Popular forest,naturalTall upland shrubDisturbed, anthropogenicRiparian gravel sand shouldersAspen forest, naturalUpland low shrub, naturalDoverSouthviewCalgary ZooInglewoodGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG G GGGGGG G G GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGExisting Site Habitatwith projected flood dataHabitat:Grassland, anthropogenic, semi-naturalWetland open water, natural Grassland, naturalRiparian tall shrub, natural, willowBalsam Popular forest,n turalTall upland shrubDisturbed, anthropogenicRiparian gravel sand shouldersAspen forest, naturalUpland low shrub, naturalDoverSouthviewCalgary ZooInglewoodFigure 19: Existing site habitat, with projected flood dataEarth was moved.Piles secured.A highway rerouted.No longer a wall to divide, a conveyor belt to witness the fragmentation left behind.4847Terra-forming was used to release the land from the confines of the narratives that had been placed on it by a series of powerful men.A saw mill, a gas well and refinery, Chinese market gardens, and a private golf club.“We are sorry”They said, disappearing back into the shadows.Reparations paid.Figure 20: Existing timeline of the site5049GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG G GGGGGG G G GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGFuture Site Habitatwith projected ecological corridorHabitat:Grassland, anthropogenic, semi-naturalWetland open water, natural Grassland, naturalRiparian tall shrub, natural, willowBalsam Popular forest,naturalTall upland shrubDisturbed, anthropogenicRiparian gravel sand shouldersAspen forest, naturalUpland low shrub, naturalProject hydrologyProjected riparianProjected anthropogenicDoverSouthviewCalgary ZooInglewoodGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG G GGGGGG G G GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGFuture Site Habitatwith projected ecological corridorHabitat:Grassland, anthropogenic, semi-naturalWetland open water, natural Grassland, n turalRiparian t ll shrub, natu al, willowBalsam Popular forest,naturalTall upland shrubDisturbed, anthropogenicRiparian gravel sand shouldersAspen forest, naturalUpland low shrub, naturalProject hydrologyProjected riparianProjected anthropogenicDoverSouthviewCalgary ZooInglewoodFigure 21: Future site habitat, with projected ecological corridorThe river flowed, releasing the once controlled land and enriching its banks downstream.Sediment provided fertile grounds for new life. It remembered what it could be.A corridor blossomed.5251Ecosystems crawled up the bluff, meeting humanity emerging from the previously isolated neighbourhood.They began to build.A path, a bench, the most rudimentary of structures.Slowly making their way to the new waters edge.“Can we rest here?”They asked, laying boards on top of piles as the river claimed the floodplain below.curbsidewalkfencesidewalkfencesidewalkcurbsingle family homesingle family homesingle family homesingle famil y homesingle family homefencebird blindbird blindbird blindbird blindcommunity theatremarketstoragegreenhousesingle family homesingle family homecurbroadroadroadhighwaycanaldredgingdredgingmediangolf coursebow riverfencefencefencefencebird habitatbird habitatbird habitat1:5001:1000tembling aspenbalsam poplarbirch15 m18 m25 mfloodplain reclaimed by riverproposed topographyexisting topography3 m4 mbermbermcanal bedbankshoulder shoulderbankFigure 22: Existing and proposed site section5453SummerWinterAutumnSpring40 years0 yearsend of lifesexual maturity reachedincubation period50% mortality rate                   eaglets are nest riddennest size growthlay eggsnest constructionfish diethunt larger mammals migration                                    increased overwintering  huntingcommunal tree congregationspring equinox                                           autumn equinoxwinter solstice                                            summer solsticehunting seasonriver feeding      mating seasonirrigation canal filled                                           irrigation canal drainedFigure 23: Life cycle of a birdThe bird knows this story.They were once many, soaring above it all.Witnessing growth of one and destruction of another.“You cannot touch us”They thought, nesting in the highest tree - both of and other.Until the tree fell.Consumed by flames, or machine, or both.5655 Figure 24: Bird nest collageDriven further, they became fewer.Nesting lower, following the winding water in hopes of food and shelter.Looking for reprieve.5857 Figure 25: Riverbank axonometricThey did not remember arriving, they only know now they are here.False trees mingle with real, providing safety along a river teaming with fish.6059 Figure 26: Stitched edge axonometricAs people moved down, and nature crept up, they discovered each other.What were once points of friction, have now become places of discovery.“You are here”They say, folding in on one another.6261The girl becomes a woman, then a mother.She tells stories of what was here(Nothing?)(Everything?)As her child runs ahead, pointing to the eagles flying above.She grew up here. She grew here. And it grew with her.She traces her finger along the line of the aspen trunk.Figure 27: Future timeline of the site6463 Figure 28: Bird blind collageWe are made of memory, perhaps we are made for oblivion.But something remains.“I am here”They said together.6665The Industry6867 Figure 29: Northern AlbertaThe relationship between the natural world and the people who inhabit it is complicated. We perceive nature as balanced and harmonious, something that is disturbed through human occupation. Ivan Illich writes “nature has been interpreted as a domain governed by the assumption of scarcity” and casts humans as “natures ever needy clients” (13). Slavoj Zizek counters this: “Nature is not a balanced totality which we humans disturb. Nature is a big series of unimaginable catastrophes. We profit from them. What is our main source of energy? Oil. What is oil? Oil reserves are material remainders of an unimaginable catastrophe.” This natural catastrophe has driven the global understanding of energy. It has politicized energy, as it is something that societies need that is both ubiquitous and insufficient. The uneven distribution of access to petroleum and crude oil plays a role in the uneven distribution of power and economy. Access to energy and the capital it generates has informed the global dissemination of infrastructure and resources.Oil has inscribed itself over the world, connecting us through production, administration, and consumption. Global patterns of production, which are influenced by local conditions of exploration and transportation, and human networks have linked the world’s oil related facilities. Large petroleum companies have created a web of interests and investment that extend to the built environment, resulting in a homogeneous language of headquarters and boom towns. Global Oil Flow, Figure 30, begins to map physical and financial links between areas of extraction and consumption. Large scale infrastructure is essential for transportation and trade - tracing oil through the world is tracing economic progress. The United States of America, China, and India are the largest importers, which is a direct link to the thriving and burgeoning economic state these countries are in. Countries that import petroleum are faced with absorbing price fluctuations: the cost of oil may increase, but the demand remains the same.7069 Figure 30: Global oil flowOil exports are controlled primarily by the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, or OPEC. OPEC is an intergovernmental organization created in 1960 by Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela as a reaction to coordinate petroleum policies and to provide member countries with economic aid. They meet regularly at their headquarters in Vienna, Austria - a location chosen for its neutrality and perceived consistent political and social stability. Today, OPEC has ten member countries: Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Venezuela. Together they hold 65% of global crude oil reserves and produce 40% of the world’s oil, meaning they have considerable influence on the price of oil (“About Us”, OPEC.org). They function as a cartel, maintaining a high cost of petroleum and setting strict guidelines on the amount of oil that makes it to market. OPEC is a small part of the global population, but they handle a huge portion of the production and distribution of energy. In December 2018, Qatar announced it was leaving OPEC to focus on natural gas production. This has been cited in the media as an indication of OPEC’s waning influence, especially in light of increased oil production in the United States and Russia (Colgan, “OPEC”). Fracking in the United States has increased production outside of OPEC had a major effect on worldwide oil prices. Oil production has increased and prices have dropped significantly, leaving OPEC in a delicate position. OPEC decided to maintain high production levels, and consequently low prices, in an attempt to push higher-cost producers out of the market and regain market share; at this point their efforts have been unsuccessful.OPEC leverages their reputation as mangers of the world’s petroleum markets to receive more diplomatic attention. However, they primarily serve the interests of Saudi Arabia, while other countries, like Venezuela, have found themselves in increasingly precarious economic positions. While OPEC emphasizes their economic and political significance through emphasizing their 71 72growing numbers - Gabon rejoined in 2016, Equatorial Guinea in 2017, and Republic of the Congo in 2018 - Qatar is the first Middle Eastern country to leave the group. Qatar’s former prime minister, Sheikh Hamad bin Jassim Al Thani, said OPEC “has become useless and adds nothing to us” and that its purpose was detrimental to Qatar’s national interests. (Colgan, “OPEC”). OPEC has served as a neutral ground for tensions in the middle east; Iraq and Iran remained in the organization through their eight-year war in the 1980’s (Colgan, 602). Qatar leaving OPEC indicates how little power and influence the group is perceived to have, and perhaps marks a turning point in the global oil power structure.Oil has seeped through the North American landscape. Invisible pipelines snake across the continent, outlining how power works in the most mundane and practical ways. The way oil companies intervene in architecture and urban design extends beyond company headquarters and oil towns – it influences the way transportation structures and both public and private space is experienced. In Deborah Cohen’s article “Infrastructures of Empire and Resistance”, she discusses how “we” build infrastructures but in turn they build “us”. “Infrastructure exceeds its most obvious forms – the pipes, roadways and rail that often monopolize our imaginaries. Social infrastructures are also built… Even intimacy is increasingly understood as infrastructural.” (Cowen) When it works, infrastructure is vital to existence, but when it is unevenly distributed it can inhibit connection and result in containment and dispossession. Infrastructure tied to the distribution and refining of oil touches nearly every part of the North American continent. Over 830,000 kilometers of pipeline connects Canada’s far north to the American south, carrying crude oil and the money associated with it. Hundreds of refineries line the American coast, moving American oil to international markets. Exploring the spacial relationships of North America’s pipelines and refineries outline the dependence Canada’s oil industry has on America. The dependence has clearly been noted, as Canada’s federal government recently purchased the Trans Mountain pipeline from the American oil company, Kinder Morgan. Currently, only 2% of oil produced in Canada is sold to international markets. We are approaching “peak oil”, the time when the maximum rate of petroleum extraction is reached, and there is dissonance over Canada’s role in claiming a piece of the financial benefits some perceive to be the right of a country containing an abundance of natural resources. As Canada’s internal pipeline and refining network cannot keep up with the extraction of crude oil, happening primarily in northern Alberta and Saskatchewan, production companies have been relegated to sell oil at a heavily discounted price to the American market. Western Canadian Select, which includes product from the oil sands, trades at just $30.62 US — less than half of the $73.36 that West Texas Intermediate (WTI), the U.S. gold standard, fetches on the open market (Tasker, CBC). Pipeline additions and expansions have been occurring steadily over the last 30 years, as petroleum extraction continues to climb. These additions have been met with increasingly vocal resistance, especially in recent years. Cohen writes: “This massive roll-out of new state and corporate infrastructure threatens to harden a future of colonial governance, fossil fuels, and finance capital. Indeed, this is why so much contemporary political revolt is oriented towards the infrastructural.” Indeed, in North America pipelines have been a site of protest: Dakota Access, Keystone XL, and Trans Mountain are all projects that have faced vehement opposition. The Northern Gateway, Energy East, and Mackenzie Gas Project are projects that have all been halted due, in large part, to public disapproval (Reeves).An understanding of the reach of the oil industry and the framework it operates in is essential to looking at interventions 73 74that have potential to work across scales without being systematic. Examining who has control in this framework, and how it is given (or taken), provides a lens to view agency within the built form. Deleuze wrote “there is no need to ask which is the toughest or most tolerable regime, for it’s within each of them that liberating and enslaving forces confront one another… there is no need to fear or hope, but only to look for new weapons” (5). How can the built form give agency to people who occupy it, and how can it be enabled without holding control? Subverting the existing power structure has potential to redistribute control, tweaking mechanisms to put power into other hands.7675 Figure 31: Golden Triangle, Pittsburgh PennsylvaniaDeindustrializationThe origins of deindustrialization go back to the Second World War, when Nazis would strip occupied areas of their industry; but it was only during the economic crisis of the 1970’s and 1980’s that the term resurfaced as an explanation for economic change. By the early 1980’s North America and Europe were losing millions of industrial jobs. Inner cities and one-industry towns were faced with urban decline and outmigration, with the displacement often being exceedingly gendered and racialized. The study of deindustrialization developed in response to the widespread decline of employment in manufacturing and basic industries. Deindustrialization has profound socio-economic, cultural, and political effects. Working class communities often suffer in silence and face stigmatization. Generations of working-class people have felt the trauma that has resulted from a loss of industry. Staughton Lynd famously wrote about the aftereffects of deindustrialization: “Why may a corporation unilaterally decide to destroy the livelihood of an entire community? Why should it be allowed to come into a community, dirty its air, foul its water, make use of the energies of its young people for generations, and then throw the place away like an orange peel and walk off?” (High, 7). The changes tied to deindustrialization have developed a sort of inevitability. Economic and social loss and abandoned sites must be contended with.The arts community has risen as one of the groups most interested in engaging with deindustrialization. Industrial heritage preservation has become popular, and former industrialized spaces are appropriated for new uses. Tourism, corporate capital investment, and gentrification are all common solutions, and hipster revitalization overshadows loss.Economic change in metropolitan areas is usually understood as “urban change”, Detroit being the notable exception. This privileges where people live, rather where they work, and moves the discussion away from economic disappearance toward urban 77 78planning and gentrification. This has resulted in what Steven High refers to as a “double erasure” of the working class. Factories close, and are then either demolished or converted into art spaces or luxury condominiums (6). Communities in close proximity to former industrial areas face blight or become displaced through gentrification. Corporate investment as a revitalization technique involves monetary investment from business sectors that often are not tied to the place experiencing deindustrialization. Involvement is viewed as a transaction, with an anticipated financial return. Pittsburgh’s Golden Triangle, and Les Halles in Paris are two examples of using corporate investment to revive areas that have faced deindustrialization. Collaboration between political and business elites pushed Pittsburgh through a post-steel era, offering financial incentives for private development and welcoming corporate investment. Power over “urban physical and economic development” was concentrated in the hands of corporations, who “ensured the city has the financial resources and political influence to carry out development designed to make the region once again safe for capitalism” (High, 193). Skyscrapers were built in the downtown core, the Golden Triangle, clearing neighbourhoods in the process, all with the intention of drawing white collar professionals to the area.Gentrification is often expressed as the absolute to aspire to in an urban renaissance, to move toward “a new world where the problems of the old world are left behind” (Smith, 6). Fanueil Hall anchors the gentrification of Boston’s downtown, but gentrification is a global phenomenon. Economies are remade to suite the demands of a post-industrial area, drawing in developers and bringing with them a residential property market aimed at the new residents. “These new residents and the buildings that house them have fundamentally transformed the economy, demography, and morphology of the inner city” (High, 234). This new morphology Figure 32: Fanueil Hall, Boston Massachusetts8079 Figure 33: Granville Island, Vancouver British Columbiabrings with it a higher cost of living and existing residents and businesses are pushed out to make room for the “right” kind of inhabitants.Industrial heritage preservation is on the rise, as public fascination with industrial abandonment draws people to sites where rubble becomes aestheticized into ruins. Ruins, however, are not found but made. Ruination is “an act perpetrated, a condition to which one is subject, and a cause of loss” (High, 9). To tour these spaces, is to fetishize loss. There is a very real and recent history that must be acknowledged and respected, rather than relegated to gritty backdrop.The memory of industry is intimately connected with place-based identities, and the meanings attached to a place are shaped by the stories told about its past. This identity is constantly being renegotiated; it is not static, and regeneration can occur, bringing with it a new sense of identity that builds on memory. Vancouver’s Granville Island attempts to recast its wood processing past as a quaint setting for artisanal commerce; while it’s intent may be questionable, its success is not. It is one of the most visited markets in Canada, with approximately 12 million visitors per year.81 82The City8483Calgary, Alberta51.0486° N, 114.0708° WWest to Rocky MountainsEast to FarmlandsFigure 34: Map of CalgaryThe appearance of oil goes hand in hand with the growth of new settlements; in areas of exploration and production these developments are temporary. Once a company has exploited a well, it abandons the area and the community around it. Oil and the infrastructure that supports it connects the world; it has built economies and, as I am theorizing in Calgary, brought them down. Architecture has been a product of energy regimes and part of a ploy to overturn them. Through understanding the relationship between resources and the public, Calgary can begin to grapple with nostalgic images of stability, the face of authority, and to create new standards. While resource extraction is highly profitable, it is increasingly criticized for being ecologically and culturally unsustainable. This proposal accepts the decommission of Alberta’s oil and gas industry, and questions how design might facilitate a more diverse, inclusive, and ecologically responsible future. The ubiquity of the oil industry in Calgary has resulted in oil, and the capital it brings with it, touching everything in the city. It has imposed a powerful, top down structure that has informed public space, pseudo public space, and livelihoods that have seemingly no connection to the oil industry. When this stops it will be traumatic for a large group of people because this is where they have chosen to build their lives.The research portion of this project engaged in notions of physical and social infrastructure, and the amplification of power networks. Understanding the potential in a future beyond the petroleum industry gives agency to the city that will feel its absence most acutely. It has become abundantly clear what the end state is – so how can the transition be managed? What role can architecture play in mitigating trauma for a city that is experiencing loss?8685 Figure 35: Natural Regions and Subregions of AlbertaCanadian ShieldBoreal ForestCentral ParklandFoothillsRocky MountainFoothills ParklandFoothills FescueNorthern FescueMixed GrassDry MixedgrassAlberta is the second most western province in Canada, located east of British Columbia and west of Saskatchewan. It has a population of nearly 4.3 million people, and is the youngest province with a median age of 36 years old. In 2016, 81% of Alberta’s population lived in urban areas (Alberta Municipal Affairs). It has two large cities, Calgary and Edmonton, and Edmonton is the province capital. Calgary functions as the headquarters of local and multi-national oil and gas companies. 13 of the 15 highest revenue generating companies in Alberta are tied to the energy industry, and Calgary has the highest concentration of head offices in Canada.Politically, Alberta has a history of voting conservative – the Progressive Conservative party governed for 44 years, until the New Democratic Party won a majority in 2015. Historically Alberta has had a strong economy; in 2013 Alberta’s per capita GDP exceeded the United States, Norway, and Switzerland (How Canada Performs). Industry is driven by oil and gas, agriculture, forestry, and tourism; the principal land use is agriculture.GeographyThe Rocky Mountains geographically bind Alberta to the west; they transfer into rolling foothills, before flattening into the prairies that stretch through Saskatchewan and into Manitoba. The highest point in Alberta is Mount Columbia, which stands at 3,747 meters; the Cypress Hills, located in south eastern Alberta, are the highest point between the Rocky Mountains and the Maritime provinces (Alberta).  Alberta’s oldest land occurs in the northeastern part, where the Canadian Shield stretches into the province. During the Paleozoic era, Alberta alternated between dry land and sea. The decay of the plant and animal life that evolved during this time formed the basis of most of the provinces oil deposits (Stamp).87 88Dozens of rivers snake through the province, with significant ones being the Athabasca, Bow, Oldman, Peace, Red Deer, Saskatchewan, Slave, and Smoky. The Bow and Elbow rivers run though Calgary. The city sprawls into the prairies, with the Rocky Mountains to the west and farmlands to the east. It is divided into four quadrants defined by major traffic arteries, with the city grid only breaking for the snaking rivers.ClimateAlberta experiences cold winters and relatively short and cooler summers. The proximity of the Rocky Mountains results in chinooks, dry pockets of warm air that rise over the mountains and send strong prevalent winds through the provinces south west. Calgary especially feels the effects of chinooks, often seeing temperatures rise drastically within hours and have extreme snow melting. Chinooks last a few days, and the city comes alive during them.Alberta has a dry climate, with precipitation ranging from 30-60cm annually. Precipitation happens primarily in May and June. The province experiences some of the clearest skies in the world, with an average of 2,300 hours of sunshine annually. Average January temperatures range from -8°C in the south, to -24°C in the north; average July temperatures range from 20°C in the south, to 16°C in the north (Stamp). Summer weather patterns influenced by tropical air masses bring with them large storms with heavy rain, lightening, hailstorms, and occasionally tornados (Downing and Pettapiece, 3).EcologyNatural Regions are the largest mapped ecological classification system in Alberta. They are defined by landscape patterns, vegetation, soils, and physical geography features. There are six Natural Regions found in Alberta: The Rocky Mountains, Foothills, Grassland, Parkland, Boreal Forest, and Canadian Shield. There are 21 Natural Subregions that exist within the Natural Regions; Natural Subregions are characterized by vegetation, climate, elevation, and latitudinal differences within a Region.Calgary is split between the Grassland and Parkland Natural Regions. The Grassland Natural Region comprises approximately 14% of Alberta, extending west to the Rocky Mountains and north to the southern edge of the Parkland Natural Region in central Alberta. The region is a flat-to-gently rolling plain with a few major hill systems. Alberta’s grasslands are part of the Great Plains that stretch from the Gulf of Mexico, through the United States and into Canada’s prairie provinces. There are four Natural Subregions within the Grassland Natural Region: Dry Mixedgrass, Mixedgrass, Northern Fescue, and Foothills Fescue (Downing and Pettapiece, 2). Vegetation in the Parkland area ranges from grasslands to aspen forests, while vegetation in the Grassland includes mixed grasses and fescues. The Foothills Parkland Subregion can be divided into three distinct vegetation communities. Mountain rough fescue – bluebunch fescue – needle-and-thread communities are located on the driest areas. Aspen forests with balsam poplar, white spruce, or Douglas fir, with snowberry, silverberry, white meadowsweet, prickly rose, and Saskatoon berry occur on moist, moderately drained northerly slopes. Willow groveland with a tall shrub canopy and wild red raspberry and wild white geranium are found on moderately drained western slopes (Downing and Pettapiece, 109).  The Foothills Fescue area is dominated by rough fescue, Idaho fescue, Parry’s oatgrass, and intermediate oatgrass. June grass, wheatgrass, porcupine grass, needle grass, and bluegrass all grow in this area. Forbs include sticky geranium, wooly gromwell, golden bean, prairie sagewort, low larkspur, heart-leaved buttercup, and western wild parsley. Narrow-leaf cottonwood forests are found exclusively in this area in Canada, occurring along the Oldman, Belly, Waterton, and St. Mary rivers (Downing and Pettapiece, 100).89 90Four potential sites located in Calgary and the surrounding area were examined as potential points of intervention. The sites were chosen to explore possibilities that may arise when the oil industry no longer has a presence in the province.Sites were identified as points of friction, in the hopes that possibilities could be generated through exploring places where conditions push up against each other. Attention was put on the interstitial space between the core, suburbs, light industrial areas, and the river network. Each site exploration focuses on a loss or vacancy that will exist in the city due to an absent petroleum industry, whether that be a physical loss felt through the vacancies in the downtown core, or an economic loss experienced through money flowing through the city.Calgary’s downtown core is home to corporate oil and gas headquarters, and was looked at as a potential site of intervention. There was a high rise boom in the last ten years, but the downtown is currently sitting at 28% office vacancy rate, even as more residential and corporate towers are still popping up in the skyline. The city’s towers have lost $12.6 billion in assessed value since 2015. This has shifted the property tax burden in a city of 1.4 million to near and outer suburbs. The city has subsidized the tax hikes but that isn’t a long term solution. Loss is already being felt due to changes in the oil industry. Artist collectives have started to take over space at a heavily discounted rate, and policy changes are being discussed to deal with the vacancy.Located west of downtown, the light industrial site is an intersection for flows through and toward the city. Rail, the Bow River, light rail transit, and vehicular arteries intertwine at a relatively underdeveloped industrial site. The main Greyhound bus terminal is on the west end of the site, adding another layer of movement to the city. Pegged for the next wave of city development and gentrification, “West Village” is a multi-cultural, low socio-economic area comprised of the neighbourhoods of Sunalta and Scarboro. Loss of possibility is coupled with relief, as Calgary’s economic downturn has resulted in the area largely being left alone. The potential rural site is located north of Calgary on the highway corridor that runs between Calgary and Edmonton. This rural site examines the loss that will be felt in the countryside when the oil industry ceases to exist. This 400 kilometre stretch of highway is one of the most urbanized regions in Alberta, and one of the densest in Canada. In 2001, 72% of Alberta’s population lived in this area. According to Robert Stamp, “A 2003 study by TD Bank Financial Group found the corridor to be the only Canadian urban centre to amass a U.S. level of wealth while maintaining a Canadian style quality of life, offering universal health care benefits. The study found that GDP per capita in the corridor was 10% above average U.S. metropolitan areas and 40% above other Canadian cities at that time.” This points directly to the presence of the oil industry, and suggests that this corridor is where many oil patch workers live.An absent industry is an absence of jobs and income, which will not be felt more than in rural Alberta. The job prospects are different outside of the city, and people who have spent their careers commuting to the oil patch to work for two weeks before retreating to their own country oasis for two weeks of rest are going to struggle the most. People who live in rural areas already face isolation, and the perceived loss of identity of an Alberta without oil will only exacerbate this. The final site is the one that was pursued for the design portion of this project. Located just east of the downtown core, the Inglewood Golf and Curling Club is a semi-private site of leisure. It sits on an eyot at the crossroads between the Bow River, a major highway, and train tracks. Dover, a low socio-economic neighbourhood is east of the club, separated by a narrow offshoot of the Bow River, and Deerfoot Trail – Calgary’s widest and fastest flowing traffic artery. Physically cut off from the cities major outreach Site Exploration91 92programs, Dover and Southview overlook the affluence that drove Calgary’s development. In 2018 over 40% of the families in these neighbourhoods were one parent families, over 30% low-income females, and the average household income was below 40K/year, in comparison with the city’s average of 75K/year.Since the arrival of European settlers in 1750 the story of this site has primarily been controlled by a series of powerful men. Indigenous treaties were signed in 1876 and 77, and James Walker bought the property in 1883. Over the next 100 years it was the site of a saw mill, gas well, refinery, Chinese market gardens, bird sanctuary, and a private golf club. The site has been dynamic through time but it has also acted as an inhibitor. It has been a gatekeeper for access to wealthThe Club is relatively low lying topographically, and it has experienced severe flooding in the past. This happened most notably in 2013 when southern Alberta experienced catastrophic floods that left claimed five lives and cost over $5 billion in damage. Rising river levels provide another constraint to push against, especially looking to the future and the effects climate change will have on the city.The site exploration yielded an intervention location for the second portion of this graduation project. This proposal will be located on the leisure site, chosen for the dynamic factors that surround it. The river and rising water levels emphasize the temporal aspects of the project – allowing the intervention to interact with projected climate change extremes.93 94The Operations9695 Figure 36: Existing condition generative collageThe collapse of oil will not be pretty. It is political, it will be traumatic, and the void left economically will be felt for years to come. Architecture does not has the tools to address this, rather, it is the duty of the profession to intervene where possible and to engage with the future in a way that creates possibilities and offers hope. “By analyzing the way industrial work and its loss have been remembered and represented... (We might) reveal the ongoing contestation between past ideas about work, class, and place, and a present in which those things have been destabilized not only by deindustrialization but by current economic conditions” (High, 8). Architects and designers can perform urban acupuncture – intervene in with intention, and perhaps the systems of control can be upended through death by one thousand cuts.Imagining the combined flight and collapse of industry affords a Calgary that is on its own. The city is a site of abandonment, allowing for possibilities being created through vacancy. Abandonment forces the issue, creating opportunity for Calgary to carve a future for itself without looking to corporate investment. Agency can be redirected to the people who are experiencing change in the city, not to those who see it only as a financial investment. Calgary’s future is told through a series of operations occurring across scales of policy and physical interventions. With the intention of investing in Canada’s future, generating jobs, and stimulating the economy, the government of Canada spent 4.5 billion dollars on a pipeline that would never be built. The pipeline was a futile effort – it could not make the intended difference because it served to enable petro-capitalism and maintain status quo.The federal government since realized that a macro solution of purchasing a pipeline could never have worked to make a difference in the lives of Canadians. As retribution for that mistake, a pilot project has been put forward to invest in major infrastructure that provides the framework for agency and interventions to unfold. 9897Boundary of Topography Model1:1000ExistingSite Plan1:2500Deerfoot TrailBow RiverInglewood Golf and Country ClubBack nineFront nine 17th Avenue SEChinese Market GardenGas WellRefinerySawmillFigure 37: Existing condition planInfrastructure is necessary, but the violence it enacts is not. It can foster transformation as well as reproduction. In contrast to top-down infrastructure - communities, movements, and networks can assemble creative alternatives that respond to needs and desires for a different future as they help bring them into being (Cowen). This will unfold in the communities of Dover and Southview. While the collapse of oil has made a shell of the city, there are people who are not mobile due to their socio-economic standing in the city. These people were always going to be left behind to pick up the pieces.Left to its own devices, Calgary’s ecology pushes back against the petro-capitalist framework that has constrained growth. Abandoned sites act as a refuge for biodiversity, spatializing the gap that exists between the unprocessed reality of the land and the translation to a site for architectural intervention.The MacroThe federal government intervenes in Calgary in an attempt to reconnect Dover and Southview to the Inglewood Golf Course - a site that has previously been inaccessible. Rerouting Deerfoot Trail and the canal allows for major regrading work to occur, thus removing the two major barriers between the communities and the rivers edge.Dredging cuts are made along the west riverbank, aiding in the erosion and eventual erasure of the golf course. While natural flooding of the course occurs, dredging speeds the process up, and wood piles are driven to encourage sediment build up.Tree planting mingled with piles along the new edge allows for roots to fortify the riverbank. Sediment from the eroded land is carried downstream, providing fertile grounds for habitat. The natural co-mingles with the controlled and an ecological corridor blossoms. The site, with its potential for transformation and change, is 1009920% Flooding2% Flooding10% Flooding1% Flooding5% Flooding0.5% Flooding5 year flooding50 year flooding10 year flooding100 year flooding20 year flooding200 year floodingFigure 38: Bow River flood mapsallowed to emerge in unexpected ways.The GrassrootsThe residents of Dover and Southview have been hanging on to the lowest rung of the economic system that has driven Calgary. While they are less mobile than their middle class counterparts, a lack of industry and opportunity results in foreclosures. Alberta is one of only two provinces that allows people to foreclose on their homes without facing financial repercussion beyond the immediate loss. Inside vs. outside and natural vs. unnatural starts to blur as homes fall into disrepair and are abandoned. Slowly, the residents unlearn the separation and experiment. Learning how to “make with” rather than exploit other species and materials to unsettle anthropocentric limitations and transform the means of design (Hutton, 21).The people remaining in the communities view vacancies as opportunities and reprogram the empty single family homes. Unbuilding their neighbourhood allows for diversity and opportunity. Houses can become market spaces, theatres, artist studios, communal kitchens, greenhouses, disassembled material libraries, educational spaces, and apiaries. The possibilities are as endless as the creativity and desires of the people remaining.The Stitched MiddleRegraded land leading to the changing riverbank provides a stage for the systems on the site to meet. People emerge from their previously isolated communities, wild grasses and trees flourish, and birds and animals find space in the city. A series of bird blinds are built, acting as an architectural facilitator.The middle redefines notions of community engaged with the rewilding development. Eventually, the systems on the site become 102101 Figure 39: Final condition axonometricso familiar with one another, there is no longer an “other”. The neighbourhood and the riverbank fold in on each other and the stitch becomes seamless. Non-human actancts work alongside humans as co-designers of their environment.The design of the future responds to the dissonance inherent to the project of re-naturalization, challenging the idea that a landscape can be returned to its “original state”, much in the way that a new industry is assumed to restore Calgary to its former glory. There is no going back, and the only way forward is to image a world unlike the one we know. Eco-feminism allows for opportunities to explore and express alienation as well as offer a fictional description of the kind of world that could exist. One where living systems are integrated into an altered social, economic, ethical, and conceptual framework. Exploring a future through human and non-human inhabitants reorganizes the hierarchy of actors within the world. Surrendering to the forces beyond our control and changing the scope of control allows for intimacy with the natural world and each other. It positions the human experience as one that is equal to the vegetal and animal, reframing the role of the human to one of partnership rather than ownership.103 104Precedents106105 Figure 40: Floating Piers, ChristoChriso and Jeanne-Claude’s installation on Lake Iseo in Italy lasted for two weeks in June of 2016. It used pontoons to connect two small islands – Monte Isola and the island of San Paolo – in the centre of the lake to the shoreline of the town of Sulzano. The pontoons were anchored to the lake bottom to form piers, which was then covered with three kilometres of saffron coloured fabric. The installation allowed anyone to inhabit a space, the water, that is typically privileged through leisure access by boat. It created democratized space by allowing anyone to occupy the water simply through movement. The installation was free to visit, and was financed by the sale of some of Christo’s work, further emphasizing the importance of accessibility to all.“I know these projects are totally irrational, totally useless,” Christo has said. “The world can live without them, nobody needs them, only me and Jeanne-Claude. She always made the point that they exist because we like to have them, and if others like them, it’s only a bonus” (Povoledo).The longest bench by UK architecture firm Studio Weave is located along the beach in Littlehampton, West Sussex. The bench, completed in July 2010, is 324 meters long, following the existing promenade and ends at a beach café. The bench is colourful and sculptural, made from thousands of reclaimed tropical hardwood slats. It is intended to be added to and changed through time, with the goal of eventually seating over 1000 people. Funding of the project occurred in part by allowing people to buy and personalize their own slat. Two existing bronze shelters that were deemed dirty and unsafe by local children are inhabited by the more fantastical sections of loops, creating a playground within the shelter. Both projects seek to create a sense of place on their respective sites, responding directly to the environment and connecting spaces that would otherwise seem disparate. Democracy of space is created through movement and in moments of rest.107 108Figure 41: Longest Bench, Studio Weave Figure 42: Longest Bench, Studio Weave110109 Figure 43: Space Waste, Daan RoosegaardeDaan Roosegaarde’s Space Waste Lab uses live installations to draw attention to a problem with no solution – space debris or “the universe’s smog”. Currently installations are located in the Netherlands. The installations intent is to make you think about something that you are otherwise unaware of; according to Roosegaard there are currently more than 29,000 objects larger than 10 centimeters in floating around in space. These objects are parts of broken rockets and satellites that can damage working satellites and interfere with digital communication. The installations are meant to be generative and to re-frame the way people think about space through using beams of light projected into the dark sky to track specific pieces of waste, not only bringing attention to the presence of waste, but allowed it to be visualized as well. They have also given way to a second phase of the project – eventual capture and upcycling of space waste.Broken City Lab’s project, Varying Proximities, is a residency that happened in collaboration with the City of Calgary and the Watershed+ program. The Watershed+ program is a public art residency that creates a discussion between the people of Calgary and the city’s watershed. The project personifies the river, aiming to provoke dialogue and spark memories of the rivers that are a defining feature of Calgary’s landscape and identity. A toll-free number was set up to connect callers to the rushing water of the river; “Hello. One moment as I connect you to the Bow River” is the greeting callers are met with. Bow inspired hard candies were created taking colour and flavour inspiration from the river, allowing residents to “wonder about where the flavours and colours of the candies end and their own subjective experiences and memories of the Bow begin” (Broken City Lab). Varying Proximities also created a catalogue of Google search results from “The Bow River”, and distributed a series of River Signs that ask questions about the river. Is the river hopeless? Is the river kind? Is the river unnatural? Is the river jealous? Nearly 100 questions were posed, asking viewers to examine how they relate to 112111 Figure 44: Varying Proximities, Broken City Labtheir ideas about the river.Both interventions make you think about something that is normally taken for granted, whether it is immediately in front of you (the river), or unseen (space waste). At the very least, the projects provoke a reexamination of the power of the aesthetic; at the most, they provoke an audience wider than has ever been possible to reflect on things that are right under our noses.The final set of precedent works look at projects that give back to the context they are built in. In “Potlach!”, Spanish architecture firm Elii appropriates the indigenous gift exchanging ceremony. Part of Madrid’s yearly art festival, El Ranchito, Elii gave local artists a “gift” – folding greenhouses that contained everything they need to make a communal home in a warehouse for a few weeks. The greenhouses are transported by adult sized tricycles, which are pedaled to the perfect spot to set up camp for the duration of the festival. The greenhouses can exist on their own, or be interconnected to create communal spaces, encouraging collaboration. The artists then create art that was gifted back to the city (Elii).Los Angeles architecture firm La Mas creates low cost, short term interventions. On Avalon is intended to enhance the safety and experience of a boulevard in LA. The project is meant to generate discussion that will inform permanent design installations. A series of pilot projects featured low-cost solutions that had potential to create long-term change. On Avalon also partnered with local business and community members to create events that allow for feedback on the installations, ensuring that subsequent interventions work for all (La Mas).Hantz Woodlands is the brainchild of business financial services CEO John Hantz. Group has bought up abandoned homes in blighted areas with the intent of clearing lots and creating a large urban farm. According to the Hantz Group, the desired outcome is “cleaner, safer neighborhoods, improved property values, a 114113 Figure 45: Potlach!, Eliirekindled local economy, and improved schools” (Hantz Farms Detroit). To date, they have cleared 2,000 parcels within one square mile, demolished 62 “dangerous” structures, and planted 25,000 oak, maple, birch, and poplar trees. Critics of the project believe that the Hantz Group is receiving preferred treatment, and ownership of the properties being bought should have been offered to residents before Hantz. Possibilities are imagined through drawing attention to things that have been overlooked or taken as status quo in Detroit and Los Angeles, and an existing framework of a festival is used to do more for artists and the city in Madrid. All three precedent interventions acknowledge a large problem, but don’t provide a big solution. They only seek to provide opportunity.115 116Figure 47: Hantz Woodlands, Hantz GroupFigure 46: On Avalon, La Mas117 118Presentation119 120Figure 48: Final review board and model setup Figure 49: Presentation board, context121 122Figure 50: Presentation board, the girl Figure 51: Presentation board, the bird123 124Figure 52: Presentation board, the tree Figure 53: Presentation board, final condition125 126Figure 54: Projected condition model, neighbourhood Figure 55: In process condition model, stitched middle127 128Figure 56: Final condition model, rivers edge Figure 57: Final condition site model, 1:1000129 130Bibliography131 132Aagerstoun, Mary Jo, and Elissa Auther. “Considering Feminist Activist Art.” NWSA Journal, vol. 19, no. 1, 2007, pp. vii-xiv. JSTOR, JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/4317227. “About Us.” OPEC, www.opec.org/opec_web/en/about_us/24.htm. 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Accessed 10 October 2018.135 136Povoledo, Elisabetta. “Christo’s Newest Project: Walking on Water.” The New York Times, 16 June 2016, nytimes.com/2016/06/17/arts/design/christos-newest-project-walking-on-water.html.Reeves, Andrew and J.t. Ryan. “Pipelines in Canada”. The Canadian Encyclopedia, 11 September 2018, Historica Canada. www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/pipeline. Accessed 12 November 2018.Martin, Reinhold, and Project Muse University Press eBooks. Utopia’s Ghost: Architecture and Postmodernism, again. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 2010.Russum, David. “History of the Canadian Oil Industry.” Geo-Help Inc. www.geohelp.net/history.html. Accessed 12 November  2018.Sandalack, Beverly A., and Ann Davis. Excursions into the Cultural Landscapes of Alberta. Nickle Arts Museum, Calgary, Alta, 2005.Scott, James C. Seeing like a state: How certain schemes to improve the human condition have failed. Yale Uiversity Press, 1998.Smith, Neil. The New Urban Frontier: Gentrification and the Revanchist City. Taylor and Francis, Florence, 2005, doi:10.4324/9780203975640.Stamp, Robert M.. “Alberta”. The Canadian Encyclopedia, 25 January 2018, Historica Canada. www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/alberta. Accessed 06 December 2018.“The Bow South Block Plaza.” Sturgess Architecture. www.sturgessarchitecture.com/portfolio/the-bow-south-block-plaza/. Accessed 04 December 2018.Tasker, John Paul. “Crude-by-rail sees massive increase since Trans Mountain was pitched in 2012.” CBC. www.cbc.ca/news/politics/tasker-crude-by-rail-eight-fold-increase-1.4842410. Accessed 05 October 2018.“Types of Municipalities in Alberta.” Alberta Municipal Affairs. May 16, 2006. Accessed 05 December 2018.White, Stephanie. Unbuilt Calgary. Vol. 4, Dundurn, Toronto, 2012.137 138Figures Cited139 140Figure 1: “Alberta illustrated, 1929.” World Atlas. www.    worldatlas.com/webimage/countrys/namerica/   province/abzland.htm. Accessed 05 December    2018.Figure 2: “Levels of engagement.” Author.Figure 3: “Disparity in Calgary.” Map data: Google Earth    2019 Digital Globe.Figure 4: “Urban migration.” Author.Figure 5: “Oil city.” Author.Figure 6: “Google search results, Calgary Oil Crisis.”     Screenshot by author.Figure 7: “The flight.” Author.Figure 8: “Urban aerial.” Map data: Google Earth 2019    Digital Globe.Figure 9: “Life cycle of a girl.” Author.Figure 10: “Movement aerial.” Map data: Google Earth     2019 Digital Globe.Figure 11: “City not within reach collage.” Author. Figure 12: “Serial sections.” Author. Figure 13: “Oil flow in North America.” Author. Figure 14: “Abandoned leisure collage.” Author. Figure 15: “Life cycle of a tree.” Author. Figure 16: “Breaking boundaries collage.” Author. Figure 17: “Overgrown and unbuilt collage.” Author. Figure 18: “Residential axonometric.” Author.Figure 19: “Existing site habitat, with projected flood     data.” Author. Figure 20: “Existing timeline of the site.” Author.Figure 21: “Future site habitat, with projected ecological    corridor.” Author.Figure 22: “Existing and proposed site section.” Author. Figure 23: “Life cycle of a bird.” Author. Figure 24: “Bird nest collage.” Author. Figure 25: “Riverbank axonometric.” Author. Figure 26: “Stitched edge axonometric.” Author. Figure 27: “Future timeline of the site.” Author.Figure 28: “Bird blind collage.” Author. Figure 29: “Northern Alberta.” Map data: Google Earth    2019 Digital Globe.Figure 30: “Global oil flow.” Author. Figure 31: “Golden Triangle, Pittsburgh Pennsylvania.”     Sean Pavon. The Telegraph. www.telegraph.co.uk/   travel/destinations/north-america/united-                                                         states/articles/how-pittsburgh-became-an-                                           unlikely-cultural-hub/Figure 32: “Fanueil Hall, Boston Massachusetts.” Unknown    author. www.faneuilhallmarketplace.comFigure 33: “Granville Island, Vancouver British     Columbia.” Stuart Dee. Getty Images.Figure 34: “Map of Calgary.” Author. Figure 35: “Natural Regions and Subregions of Alberta.”    Author. Figure 36: “Existing condition generative collage.”     Author. Figure 37: “Existing condition map.” Author.Figure 38: “Bow River flood maps.” Author.Figure 39: “Final condition axonometric.” Author. Figure 40: “Floating Piers, Christo.” Wolfgang Volz. Christo.   christojeanneclaude.net/projects/the-floating-   piers. Accessed 10 October 2018Figure 41: “Longest Bench, Studio Weave.” Studio     Weave. www.studioweave.com/projects/longest-   bench/. Accessed 10 October 2018 Figure 42: “Longest Bench, Studio Weave.” Studio   141 142  Weave. www.studioweave.com/projects/longest-   bench/. Accessed 10 October 2018 Figure 43: “Space Waste, Daan Roosegaarde.” Space Waste    Lab. www.studioroosegaarde.net/project/space-   waste-lab. Accessed 10 October 2018.Figure 44: “Varying Proximities, Broken City Lab.”Broken    City Lab. 31 July 2014. www.brokencitylab.org/   blog/varying-proximities-a-new-series-of-    works-by-broken-city-lab/. Accessed 10 October    2018.Figure 45: “Potlach!.” Elii. elii.es/en/portfolio/potlach-2/.   Accessed 10 October 2018.Figure 46: “On Avalon.” La Mas. www.mas.la/on-avalon-1/.    Accessed 10 October 2018.Figure 47: “Hantz Woodlands, Hantz Group.” Hantz Farms    Detroit. www.hantzfarmsdetroit.com/ourstory.   html. Accessed 06 December 2018.Figure 48: “Final review board and model setup.” Author.Figure 49: “Presentation board, context.” Author.Figure 50: “Presentation board, the girl.” Author.Figure 51: “Presentation board, the bird.” Author.Figure 52: “Presentation board, the tree.” Author.Figure 53: “Presentation board, final condition.” Author.Figure 54: “Projected condition model, neighbourhood.”    Author.Figure 55: “In process condition model, stitched middle.”    Author.Figure 56: “Final condition model, rivers edge.” Author.Figure 57: “Final condition site model, 1:1000.” Author. Figure 58: “Canada’s oil and gas industry through time     and territory.” Author.143 144Appendix1461451842185218741902191419231920193019291936194719481950195319511965195619731977198019851987200020022016population of Calgaryprice of oilFigure 58:  Canada’s oil and gas industry through time and territoryHistory of Oil in CanadaThe Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) is created in order to map Canada’s natural resources.Charles Tripp creates the International Mining and Manufacturing Company, the first registered oil company in North America.The first North American oil well is drilled in Lambton County, Ontario. While the oil field here is relatively small and nearly exhausted after a few years of production, it marks the beginning of Canada’s oil industry.George Mercer Dawson conducts numerous surveys of western Canada and its resources for the International Boundary Commission and the GSC. He reports oil seeps in the Waterton area, 225 km south of Calgary.The first oil producing well in western Canada is created when the Rocky Mountain Development Company drills a well on Cameron Creek, in what is now Waterton Lakes National Park.On May 14, 1914, the Dingman No. 1 well strikes wet gas in the Devonian reef formation under the surface of Turner Valley, Alberta. Other wells are soon drilled, and the Turner Valley field becomes Canada’s largest oil and gas producer.184218521858187419021914147 148Imperial Oil geologist, Ted Link, strikes oil at Norman Wells in the Northwest Territories, making it the world’s northernmost oil reservoir.The large Wainwright oil field is discovered by British Petroleum, reviving hopes for the Alberta oil industry.Chemist Karl Clark receives a patent for his technique of extracting oil from sand using hot water and a chemical agent. This is the basis for oil sands mining projects decades later. The agreement transferring jurisdiction of natural resources from the federal to the provincial government is signed in Ottawa, and enacted the following year. The Oil Column phase of Turner Valley development begins. The Royalties No. 1 oil discovery, in the Mississippian geological structure under Turner Valley, sets off another oil boom for the region.The discovery of the Leduc oil field, then the largest and most lucrative yet found, comes after decades of fruitless searching and drilling. It marks the beginning of Alberta’s modern oil industry and completely revolutionizes the province’s economy and prospects.Imperial Oil finds a second major oil field near Redwater, northeast of Edmonton. Larger and easier to access than Leduc, this discovery confirms Alberta’s future as a major oil producer.The Inter-provincial pipeline expands the market for Alberta’s oil. Completed between Edmonton and Superior, Wisconsin, in 1950, the pipeline is a vital transportation link that make Alberta’s oilfields financially viable.19201923192919301936194719481950The first oil is discovered at Fort St. John, in northeast British Columbia.The Trans Mountain Pipeline, completed from Edmonton, Alberta, to Burnaby, British Columbia, opens up Pacific markets for Alberta’s oil production.The oil at Pembina, about 100km southwest of Edmonton, is accessed by a developing technology called sandstone fracturing or “fracking.” This technology makes it possible to extract previously inaccessible oil reserves and becomes more widely used throughout Alberta in the following decades.The Inter-provincial pipeline is expanded and extended to Sarnia, Ontario, transporting more than 200,000 barrels a day.Oil is discovered in Alberta’s remote northwest.OPEC begins restricting oil exports to much of the Western world, including Canada. Fuel shortages become common, and the price of Alberta oil, one of the few remaining reliable and friendly sources of oil for industrialized nations, skyrockets.Chevron Oil opens the West Pembina oil field. It is the largest discovery in ten years and revives hopes for Alberta’s oil sector, which had been suffering from a lack of new discoveries over the previous decade.The National Energy Program (NEP) is created by the federal government to ensure a reliable and affordable supply of oil and gas for Canadian industry. The provincial government perceives it as an unwarranted intrusion and as sacrificing Alberta’s interests in favour of those of 1951195319561965197319771980149 150Central Canada. Although a compromise is reached in 1981, bitter memories of the NEP continue to characterize Alberta-Central Canada relations.The Governments of Alberta, British Columbia and Saskatchewan negotiate the Western Accord, which ends the National Energy Program, deregulates oil prices, and encourages new investment in western Canada’s oil sector.The Trans Mountain pipeline’s biggest spill occurs at a tank farm in the Edmonton area. Nearly 10,000 barrels of oil are released.The United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development releases the report “Our Common Future”, encouraging the concept of “sustainable development” in an attempt to balance First World concerns about human rights and environmental degradation with Third World nations’ need for economic development. Although not directly related to the oil sector, the concept forms the basis for future anti-pollution and climate change strategies.The World Petroleum Congress, held for the first time in Calgary, attracts industry and political leaders from around the world. A parallel counter-congress and protests occur in the city at the same time. Alberta’s oil sector faces pressure from increasingly dedicated and organized environmental and human rights activists.The oil sands dominate oil production in Alberta and conventional oil production is surpassed by oil sands production for the first time.Kinder Morgan announces it’s intention to expand the Trans Mountain pipeline after receiving support from oil shippers. Public consultations begin.19851987200020022012201320142016201720182019Kinder Morgan submits application to expand the Trans Mountain pipeline, with construction proposed to begin in 2017 and service by December 2019.More than 100 people are arrested after they camp out in a conservation area on Burnaby Mountain to block crews from conducting drilling and survey work related to the pipeline expansion.Ottawa appoints a panel to conduct an environmental review of the Trans Mountain expansion project. The National Energy Board (NEB) recommends approval of the pipeline, subject to 157 conditions, concluding that it is in the public interest.Forest fire rips through Fort McMurray and the surrounding area, destroying much of the land.The B.C. NDP and Green party form a coalition to topple the Liberal party; they agree stopping the pipeline expansion is of utmost priority.Canada’s Federal Liberal government announces a deal to purchase the Trans Mountain pipeline and expansion project from Kinder Morgan Canada for $4.5 billion.The United Conservative Party (UCP) wins a majority in Alberta’s provincial election. The UCP ran on a platform that vowed create a “war room” to defend Alberta’s energy interests, and to roll back the climate change initiatives introduced by the outgoing NDP party.151 152Levels of EngagementExplorationOil exploration involves the search for rock formations associated with oil or natural gas deposits, and geophysical prospecting and exploratory drilling. The exploration phase of oil engagement occurs before the development of a field has been decided on. In the past surface features, including petroleum seeps or gas pockmarks indicated the presence of gas. Today, geological survey mapping allows for analysis of potential hydrocarbon bearing rock.There is a high financial cost associated with drilling a well, meaning companies spend a large amount of time and money in the exploration phase to ensure they have identified an optimal site. Geological field assessments occur using magnetic, gravimetric, or seismic surveying methods (Devold, 5). Exploration data is analyzed and drilling only occurs when geological modeling shows a high probability of finding oil or gas. ProductionOil production is the process of extracting hydrocarbons and separating the mixture of liquid hydrocarbon, water, gas, and solids. Oil must be free of gas, and gas must be stabilized and free of liquids before they are exported. Onshore production is considered to be a more economically viable from of oil production (Devold, 7). Production occurs in a network, with several thousand crude producing wells feeding into a processing plant. Exploration and production are known as “upstream” activities. Energy, in this level of engagement, is nature’s capital. The labour involved with exploration and production is less “human vigor” and more monitoring and surveying. Energy results in nature being re-framed as the human worker (Illich, 13). Emphasis is placed on servicing the oil wells, servicing nature, and contracted companies provide much of the technical expertise required at this stage. Support camps are set up around drilling sites, generally providing workforce accommodation, food facilities, maintenance support, and waste collection and disposal facilities. A permanent workforce replaces the support camps once a well site is established; this group is usually accommodated by the local area and ideally absorbed into communities. Companies involved in the high-risk/high-reward area of exploration and production focus on finding, augmenting, producing and merchandising different types of oil and gas.TransportationOil transportation is referred to as “midstream” activities. Pipelines, rail, and vehicles are all used to move crude oil from the well site to refineries and loading facilities. Pipelines are the most efficient method of transporting large quantities of oil, and are widely considered to be the safest in terms of potential for loss of human life. Pipelines require less energy to operate than truck and rail but, unfortunately, the efficiency of pipelines also means they are the most catastrophic environmentally when an oil spill does occur. Rail has grown as an alternative method of transportation, as production has surpassed pipeline capacity. In 2016, about 100,000 barrels of oil were moved by rail each day (Devold, 17). Rail allows for larger amounts of oil to be transported than truck, but they also come with slower speeds, high carbon emissions, and the potential for serious accidents. Truck transportation has the greatest flexibility in terms of potential destinations, and nearly every petroleum product is transported by vehicle at one point in the process. RefiningRefining is the process of removing unwanted substances, and aims to provide products according to agreed specifications. Gasoline, 153 154diesel, and jet fuel are the most common refined petroleum products, but petroleum is present in many daily products – from shampoo to plastic. The refining process begins with heating crude oil past evaporation point to ensure various contaminants are vapourized and separately condensed. Grease, waxes, and asphalt are all produced from condensed residues (Mcnamara).The economic success of a modern refinery depends on its ability to accept almost any available crude. With a variety of processes such as cracking, reforming, additives and blending, it can provide product in quantity and quality to meet demand. The refinery operations often include product distribution terminals for dispensing product to bulk customers such as airports, gasoline stations, ports and industries (Devold, 19).Canada currently has 15 refineries scattered across Canada, with the main refining centres are Edmonton, Sarnia and Montreal (Bott).MarketingMarketing oil refers to the marketing and distribution of products derived from crude oil; this includes companies that are wholesale suppliers of refined products. The petroleum industries directly employed around 215 600 Canadians in 1997 and an additional 231 300 indirect jobs provided goods and services for the industries. About half of the jobs involved marketing, which includes heating-fuel deliveries and the operation of retail gasoline outlets (Bott). The refining and processing, distributing, and marketing of oil are known as “downstream” activities.ConsumptionPer capita, Canadians use a lot of energy; this is largely attributed to Canada’s dispersed population and cold climate. Residential uses account for 20% of secondary energy use, with 85% of this being space and water heating. Oil products are used in 18% of industrial energy use, and 94% of transportation energy use (Brooks et. al). Heating and transportation are the first things that come to mind when oil consumption is discussed, but in fact refineries produce liquids the petrochemical industry uses to make chemicals and plastics. Plastic, electronics, and clothing are all manufactured using oil products. Oil products are used in the creation of building materials from air and vapour barriers, to the machining of steel, concrete, and timber.ProtestingPipeline protests have shown to be successful, the Energy East and Northern Gateway pipelines have not gone ahead, and the Trans Mountain pipeline has been stalled to the point it is fair to question if it will be built. North Dakota protests, and more recently the “Camp Cloud” protest in Burnaby have received a lot of media attention as activists seek to get their message out and multi-billion dollar projects are stalled. Pipeline protests highlight the complex relationship we have with oil. People living at Camp Cloud are using petroleum products every day; even the way people arrive to protests will involve some sort of oil consumption. That is not to say that protesting is inappropriate if one consumes oil products, merely it draws attention to the ubiquity of petroleum, and asks one to consider the line that is deemed acceptable when it comes to the exploitation of nature.


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