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Exuberant Architecture : Towards a Gender Inclusive Hair Space Chen, Arkgo Yun Hsi 2019-04-26

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© Copyright April 2019      University of British ColumbiaExuberant ArchitectureTowards a Gender Inclusive Hair SpaceExuberant ArchitectureTowards a Gender Inclusive Hair SpaceCommittee Members / GP2 Chair Thena Tak - B Arch, M Arch  School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture /GP 1 Chair  Mari Fujita - B. A , M. Arch School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture / CommitteeDónal O’Donoghue - PHD, Professor of Art Education in the Department of Curriculum and Pedagogy  by Arkgo Yun Hsi Chen B. Arch Sci,  British Columbia Institute of Technology , 2016iiiBy Arkgo Yun Hsi Chen Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Architecture in the Faculty of Graduate Studies School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture program. We accept this report as conforming to be required standard Thena Tak,   B. Arch, M. Arch Mari Fujita,  B. A , M. Arch   Dónal O’Donoghue, PhD Exuberant ArchitectureTowards a Gender Inclusive Hair Space© Copyright April 2019      University of British ColumbiaivBarber shop is a space “ Where gender knowledge is produced and exchanged. It is forever complex to discuss, where, when, how, and why each one of us developed our sense of gender identities. But the key would be to question of how gender can be expressed in certain spaces.” (O’Donoghue, 2012)Abstract Long or short, straight or curly, even completely bald – hair is a crucial social and cultural indicator and an instant visual cue of one’s gender identity. The topic of gender identity and hair space is extensive in describing not only the role of hair in displaying social identity but also the importance of barbershops within the greater city network. Often barbershops are spaces where gender is expressed, performed and constructed. It is an architectural space where self-identity is fully nurtured and respected.What can architecture draw from gender theorists? How would we come about to design a community that is open to a variety of flexible idiosyncrasies?  Gender inclusive space shall be an entirely fluid space that share a sense of belonging and identity that celebrates sexuality and gender rather than hiding it. All in all, the aim of this thesis is to address gender identity, inclusivity, and social issues in architecture. The blurring of gender boundaries aims to create a third space for other definitions beyond the two sexes. It is no longer a question of whether this will happen, but a matter of when.viContentTable of Contents Title          iv Abstract         vi List of Tables        viii List of Figures        viiii Acknowledgments        x  Part I : Thesis         01    Introduction       02  Urgency         Why Barbershop I     03   Why Batbershop II     05  Discourse   Gender Identity in Hair Space    07  Towards a non-binary gender inclusive Hair Space 09  Framework    Designing for Gender Inclusivity    11       Part II : Research    The Evolution of Barbershop     19  Case Studies        23  The Chair        37  The Mirror        41  Part III : Design     Site        46  Program       54    Plan  + Axo        56  Sections + Elevations      59  Visualizations       61  Models         67  Conclusions        72 Bibliography        74 viiiFig 1 Graphic, Gender fluidity 2019  [ Chen ] Fig 2 An photography image of a Barbershop in Taiwan,  a multi generational barber shop. 2018 [ Chen ] Fig 3 An photography image of a Barbershop in Taiwan,  a multi generational barber shop. 2018 [ Chen ] Fig 4 A mind map on the potential future focus area of study.  2018 [ Chen ] Fig 5 A collective images from presentation slides based on  urgency and discourse [ Chen  ]   Detail photos are from web-sources with and not  limited to, 2000 - 2018 [ CNN, CBC, Ciniplex  Entertainment ]  Fig 6 Diagram, Gender Alignment, Towards a gender  inclusive hair space.  [ Chen ]  Fig 7 Sketch , The need for inclusive queer space,[ Chen ] Fig 8 Diagram, Aaron Betsky on Queer Space - Non Binary  Space.  [ Chen ]  Fig 9  An photography image of mirror space at an a  barbershop. 2018 [ Chen ]  Fig 10 Sketch , Diagram showing some speculation of future  barber chair and mirror based on their history. [ Chen ]  Fig 11 A time; Evolution of hair-space 2018 . [ Chen ] Fig12 Hair Space Catalogue based on Most and Least Defined  Mirror /  Chair , 2019 [ Chen ] Fig13 Hair Space Catalogue based on Most and Least Defined  Mirror /  Chair Category 1 - 9 , 2019 [ Chen ]  Fig 14  The interior of the Maxin Barbershop,  2018 [ Chen ]Fig 15 The interior of the Roma Barbershop,  2018 [ Chen ]  Fig 16  The interior of the re-edit salon, 2015  [ Masuda, DesignBoom.com ]  Fig 17  The interior of the mobile cart ,  2016 [ Yatzer ]  Fig 18 The interior of the barber  2017 [ TMOB.CA ]  Fig 19  The interior of the performance space    2018 [ Chen ]  Fig 20 The Coast Treatment of  Sculptor barber  2017  [ Pechakucha ]Fig 21  The view from the interior of the Gallery 2010   [ Designboom ] Fig 22 The Street Barber in action  2010 [ Dawn.com ]  ]  Fig 23 Analytical Sectional of a Barber Chair, 2019   [ Chen ] Fig 24 Analytical Sectional of a Barber Chair, 2019   [ Chen ] Fig 25 Analytical Plan of a Barber Chair, 2019     [ Chen ] Fig 26 Analytical Plan of a Barber Chair, 2019     [ Chen ] Fig 27 Analytical Section of a Mirror Space, 2019     [ Chen ] Fig 28 Analytical Section of a Mirror Space, 2019     [ Chen ] Fig 29 Analytical Plan of a Mirror Space, 2019     [ Chen ] Fig 30 Analytical Plan of a Mirror Space, 2019     [ Chen ] Fig 31   Multiplicity of Gender , 2019  [ Chen ]  Images are also from Farzads Barbershops Instagram Fig 32   Site Study, Act of force upon the site , 2019 [ Chen ] Fig 33   Shadow Study , 2019 [ Chen ] Fig 34   Site Remediation Study , 2019 [ Chen ] Fig 35 Exterior  View From Burrard St  , 2019 [ Chen ] Fig 36   Axo Diagram of the spatial Program  , 2019 [ Chen ] Fig 37 Site Plan  , 2019 [ Chen ] Fig 38 Gradient Wall Detail, 2019 [ Chen ] Fig 39 Axo Drawings, 2019 [ Chen ] Fig 40 EW Section + Elevation  2019 [ Chen ]  Fig 41 NS Section + Elevation  2019 [ Chen ]  Fig 42 Greeting Space Render, 2019 [ Chen ]  Fig 43 Examining Space Render, 2019 [ Chen ]  Fig 44 Transformation Space Render I, 2019 [ Chen ]  Fig 45 Transformation Space Render II , 2019 [ Chen ]  Fig 46 Exuberant Walk Space Render  2019 [ Chen ]  Fig 47 An Image of Future Barbershop, 2019 [ Chen ]  Fig 48 Model 1:100 [ Chen ] Fig 49 Model 1:100 [ Chen ] Fig 50 Material Dichroic Glass[ Chen ] Fig 51 Material Dichroic Glass[ Chen ] Fig 52 Identity and Hair Space 2019 [ Chen ] FiguresviiiAcknowledgment The Work of this thesis is harder than I thought and more rewarding than I could have ever imagined.  I am sincerely grateful to all those who has taken part throughout my journey.  This thesis is dedicated for you all.   First, I would like to express my most sincere gratitude to my GP advisors  Thena Tak, Mari Fujita and Dónal O’Donoghue. It has been truly synergistic to have such a fun and professional committee.   Thena Tak - for your consistent guidance and critical support throughout. Your critical voice on the concepts  of thesis ensured I to built an argument for every move I make.   Mari Fujita, for your energy and ongoing encouragement thought-out the design process.  Your creative imaginations allowed me to see things from the other side.  Dónal O’Donoghue  - your ability to summarize and clarify what I was thinking. Your words and arguments always strength my believe in this thesis further.        To barbers/ Salon that I interviewed, thank you for showing me the per formative art of hair cutting. It is certainly a profession that takes in a lot of skill and pride.   To Thesis Team, Thank you for who gave time and energy in helping out for the final push of thesis:  Retaw Liu, Zoli Chan, Katherine Co, Noah Cai and Amy Wu, Shannon Macgillivary.   To Team UN, thank you for providing stood by me during every struggle and all my successes. That is true friendship.My Partner, For always being on my side, for your protection and support, for sharing my dreams I do thank you,.  Next I want to thank my family for all their support. You are the source of my strength, motivation  and nourishment.  I have cherish the freedom to be the best and who I am.   Finally, since this project is a culmination of Three years of learning in Lasserre and Annex, I must thank my classmates, colleagues and faculty for being part of this memorable journey.     xFig1 - Graphic, Gender fluidity  2019 [ Chen ]ThesisWhy ? “All things change except barbers, the ways of barbers and the surroundings of barbers. “- Mark TwainThe thesis aims to disobey to the notion that barbershop tends to stay traditional. It will challenge the ordinary by rediscovering, refining and re-celebrate barbershop as an exuberant social space1Fig1 - Graphic, Gender fluidity  2019 [ Chen ]Long or short, straight or wavy, even completely bald – hair is a crucial social and cultural indicator, an instant visual cue of role and gender.  More intimate, more personal.  Hair is a body that can be modified into different exciting properties and forms. Most importantly, hair reminds us of the most fundamental part of our being and a record of our origins. 1  Hair, because of its unique properties, has shaped human evolution, social communication, industry, economics, forensics and art. The topic is expansive not only describing the role of body hair in sending social and gender identities but also the importance of a Barbershop within the greater city network.2  Often or not Barbershops acts as a public space within a community holding much essence of  its locality.In the age of rapid technology growth on media and globalization Architecture’s form and purpose had always been in a constant shift for new adaption or repulsion. Yet the Barbershops today are often on the ordinary and remains unchanged and traditional.  Therefore, there is an urgency to challenge the ordinary by exploring the productive potential of mundane spaces. Hoping to be able to substantiate their existence through grounded necessity and function.  What would be the future form of Barbershop?    Will the advancing hair science and research Will the advancement of hair science and 1 Pivetta, the barber book, 8 2 Stenn, Hair a human history ,27 3 O’Donoghue, 9research promise Barbershops to evolve in a much more exciting way? Can technology such a photogrammetry be used in generating facial and hair data within Barbershops?Barbershop in response to the making and construction of gender expression. What is a Barbershop and what is masculinity?  As one describes, Barbershop is a space “ Where gender knowledge is produced and exchanged. It is forever complex to discuss, where, when, how, and why each one of us develop our sense of sexual identities and orientation. But the key would be to question how genders can be taught in certain spaces.” 3 Thus, further questions would provoke whether or not there is a sense of the power of identity-making that is enrolled in these spaces including gender make. In order to rediscover or re-celebrate Barbershops,  an exploration and analysis of the Barbershop’s architectural spaces will then begin to seek for ways to discover and propose a new architectural typology that is unrestrained and exuberant. Introduction 2The Urgency - Why ?  .   “All things change except barbers, the ways of barbers and the surroundings of barbers. “  – Mark Twain1  Barbershops century ago were not too different from the ones we experience today. Present day Barbershops appear to evoke that of an earlier era.  First, unlike most downtown businesses, Barbershops are mostly non-franchised, individually owned and independently operated.  The decoration remains traditional and the experience too.   The urgency is, thus,  to reconsider ways to challenge the ordinary by rediscovering, refining, and re-celebrating Barbershops as a social space.    Barbershops could be a rich space of relations where effects, sensations, and intensities are produced. It is a space for people to narrate their own sense of becoming.  So the augment of this thesis is that, why do barbershops have to stay the way it is today? There is a certainty in that barbershop could have a much more exuberant program and space. All, in becoming an exuberant architectural space.   1 O’Donoghue, The Promise of intimacy as a way of learning and performing Masculinities, 2012   // What if a barbershop was about the idea performance? // what if a barbershop is mixed in with a clinic that could examine on your hair condition and ways on how it could be changed.// what if a barbershop has a smoothie bar that produces healthy drinks // what if a barbershop is a combined with a live broadcasting 24/7 retail online shop// what if a barbershop is about art making by collecting images and stories of people.  A book is to be published every 2 months. // What if a barbershop is a therapy center that allows a certain degree of care and consultation // What if a barbershop is an educational center to train and certify the next generational of barbers?// what if a barbershop provides a place for meditation and contemplation for self-reflection and well-being?// what if a barbershop ......... ( more) 3Fig 2 - An photography image of a Barbershop in Taiwan, a multi generational barber shop. 2018 [ Chen ] 4The Urgency - Why ? II  Barbershop as a unit of structural analysis didn’t come to my mind until I visited my father’s barbershop. I was jet-lagged when I returned from Vancouver to my hometown Chuanghua Taiwan.  My father asked me if I would like to go to a barbershop with him. Without anything better to do, I followed. I was introduced to Barber Lin, who surprisingly had been the barber for both my father and my grandfather.  Even he was bitter at my father for never taking me to him for cuts as he took pride in being our family barber.Barber Lin, invited my dad to have a seat on the chair. The performance began. From the splashing sound of the running water to the whipping sound of the hot towel, and to the noise from the scissors snipping, orchestrates in the background as Barber Lin turns my dad in a squeaky 50 year-old chair in the foreground. Then Architecturally, there was something about the position of whom and where they were located. From where I was sitting, I realized I could see everything. Including the TV screen right above me as I could see it through the mirror.  I could also look at the streets outside as the mirror also reflected the outdoor into the 1 Betsky, Aaron, Queer Space and same sex desire,10indoor.  Thus, as an architectural student, I was fascinated by the space within the barbershop. It was so rich in content that I felt it was worth studying. Like what the author described “ Barbershop is a site of formation, a place where people are enacted, staged, tried on, surveyed, recognized and regulated through language, performance and appearance. “ and as space architecturally “ Barbershop is a complex one where it has a play on illusions and self-identifying.”  1            5Fig 3 - An photography image of a Barbershop in Taiwan, a multi generational barber shop. 2018 [ Chen ] 6Gender / Sexuality is rather public, and the public is created in the way how we engage. Similarly, architecture spaces are rather public; it is about how we identify yourself within a space.  Therefore, the relationships and intimacy that is allowed within a barbershop becomes significantly interesting. It is “A space of intimacy,  A pure space activated by the body”1  We understand the meaningfulness of  engagement, not only in the functionality of the action but in the knowing. Donal O’Donoghue, explored the “promise of intimacy as a masculinity practice, as a way of learning and performing masculinities in barbershops.” 2 The author chose barbershop as a unit of analysis and study on its association with heterosexual masculinities. As a practicing architectural designer, it becomes aware and interesting to me to think of barbershop as a learning space or even a medium through which gender are being formed and expressed. Such space has a strong sense of power where youth learn to how to become a man. It is a social space where intergeneration passes on their tradition and culture. For the first time, I thought to myself that, barbershops are this rich in its content and its gender and social impact has big potentials.    1 Betsky, Aaron, Queer Space and same sex desire,102 O’Donoghue, The Promise of intimacy as a way of learning and performing Masculinities, 20123 O’Donoghue, The Promise of intimacy as a way of learning and performing Masculinities, 2012The author describes the space as “ Where gender knowledge is produced and exchanged.” 3 . It is forever complex to discuss, where, when, how, and why each one of us developed our sense of sexuality identities and orientation. But through this reading, the concepts of thinking how gender  can be taught in certain spaces could be one way of looking at the development of one’s sexuality  I recall, my experience of hair cutting hasBeen salons instead of barbershops. I would argue that salons tend to be the opposite of barbershops where women dominance and presence are shown. The idea of beauty, fashion magazines, colorful hairs, and women laugher can be found and is quite contrary to the atmosphere of a barbershop.. Thus, space designed for certain sexuality and used by certain gender become apparent as a space for gender identity learning. The question, then follows, is  of Gender Identity in the making is evident within the architecture and programs of barbershops and salons.       Gender Identity  of Hair SpaceRight Image >>>>>  A series of mind map collage study that were conducted to explore the overall relationship and connection of hair cutting to the greater architectural context.  Key focus of future study were then identified - Gender Division,  Devices  ( Chair and Mirror ), Barbers historical identity. 7Fig 4 - A mind map on the potential future focus area of study. 2018 [ Chen ]  8Now speaking of gender,  its urgent that we are aware of  that.  We are living in a time of gender revolution.  A cultural shift is happening today, and it’s an important one. We are moving away from society’s defined binary norms of gender and towards  a more open, blended, and fluid culture.  In a broad academic discipline that can have many meanings. The Constructivist Gender Theorists Judith Bulter holds that gender is performative as it is “a stylized repetition of acts . . . which are internally discontinuous . . .[so that] the appearance of substance is precisely that, a constructed identity, a performative accomplishment which the mundane social audience, including the actors themselves, come to believe and to perform in the mode of belief.”1  The discourse explains that gender is entirely a social construction and is “real only to the extent that it is performed” Judith said. The categorization of LGBT2SQIA+ has allowed movements to lobby and win rights in the West but they also restrict identity and impose a new era of artificial expectations on genders.  Thus,  What can architecture draw from gender theorists? How would we come about to design a community that is open to a variety of flexible idiosyncrasies?  Gender inclusive space shall be an entirely fluid space that shared a sense of belonging and identity that celebrates sexuality and gender rather than hiding it.  1 Butler Judith, Gender Trouble You could look at gender from different perspectives. Individuals have their own personal conviction of which gender (one, several, or neither) gender they identify with. It is not always possible to guess from an outsider’s perspective what someone’s gender identity is, because it is a personal identity experienced only by that individual. Moreover, how someone expresses themselves through their hairstyle may not match the way they feel internally, or match what society may expect of them, being a certain gender. Thus, the study and understanding of gender inclusive space, is to embrace on the idea of respect, a sense of belonging and inclusive for all .  So the aim of this thesis will address gender identity, inclusivity, and social issues in architecture. The blurring of gender boundaries aims to create a third space for other definitions beyond the two sexes. It is no longer a question of whether this will happen, but a matter of when.       Towards a non-binary  gender inclusive Hair Space9Fig 5  - A collective images from presentation slides based on urgency and discourse [ Chen  ]  Detail photos are from web-sources with and not limited to [ CNN, CBC, cINEPLEX Entertainment ]  10Fig 6 - Gender Alignment, Towards a gender inclusive hair space.  [ Chen ]  11<<<<< Left Image  A gender inclusive Hair space is an place that shall nurture and Foster Gender Alginmens  - the understanding of ones gender identity to ones desired gender expression. Is the core of gender thory on how gender is being performed. So here, The series of dashed line illustrators the varies form and ways of how Gender Alignment  is never settled and is ever changing.  Thus, the aim of the thesis is to design a third space that can embrace all and construct all. 12 “It is critical that we embrace the challenge to rethink even our most familiar spaces. We have a responsibility to use design to support basic rights for everyone and the evolving needs of our communities” 1    We are opening up to the idea that binary conceptions of gender are unnecessarily rigid and don’t correspond to the self-identification of a many, and even that people’s sense of their gender may not correspond to their biological sex. In this new world, a bland opposition between “he” and “she” seems increasingly antique, and even disrespectful to many.The Traditional masculine and feminine roles are being challenged through advances in science and technology, and by cultural shifts stemming from the evolution of sexual politics and media depictions of gender.  “Identity is no longer clearly defined as female or male, but by increasingly visible manifestations of sexuality or lack thereof.”  Designers, who should focus a critical eye on society’s issues, need to work within this discourse and help promote acceptance and change.Universal  inclusivity is the term used to indicate “spaces that can be used by people of all abilities and genders. This includes multiple users, families, caregivers, and people with disabilities. There is an emerging best practice to use the term ‘universal’ instead of ‘gender neutral’ and ‘all gender. 1 Condon, Darryl HCMA Designing for Inclusivity 2018Gender Identity is the personal sense of one’s own genderGender Expressionthe external manifestation of a person’s gender identity, usually expressed through clothing, mannerisms, chosen names and hair. Your gender expression may or may not conform to masculine or feminine socially defined behaviors and characteristicsGender Neutrality is the movement to end discrimination of gender altogether in society through means of gender-neutral language, the end of  gender segregationnon-binary ( genderqueer) is a catch-all category for gender identities that are not exclusively masculine or feminine— identities which are outside the gender binary Gender queer may express a combination of masculinity and femininity, or neither, in their gender expression. They may identify as either having an overlap of, or indefinite lines between, gender identityHaving two or more genders ( bi-gender, trigender, or pangender); having no gender (agender, non-gender, genderless, genderfree or neutrois); moving between genders or having a fluctuating gender identity (genderfluid) being third gender or other-gendered, a category which includes those who do not place a name to their gender.Designing for Gender Inclusivity13Fig 7 - Sketch , The need for inclusive queer space, the expansion of  the threshold between the private closet and public forum [ Chen] 14Fig 8 -  Aaron Betsky on Queer Space - Non Binory Space.  [ Chen ]  15<<<<< Left Image Aaron Betsky referred to a gender inclusive space  in his book Queer space, arhitecture and same sex desire as the Public  Forum.  It is a community embracing architecture that allows a level of privacy yet are configured to encourage community.  This diagram shows the  interrelationship of the closet space as bing the most comforting one to the public forum.  16Research  “Barbershops of today function as a medium through which social life happens.”    Barbershop is a place that is distinguished from others by its function, materiality and recognizable spatial practices - The act of performing gender expressions. 17Fig 9 - An photography image of mirror space at an a barbershop in Kerrisdale. 2018 [ Chen ]  This part of the research spanned from Later GP1 to Early GP2. Regular barbershop / salons visits were documented to form a unit of analysis based on their types. Also, interviews with barbers were generally conducted through verbal conversations. The list of the barbershops some I was able to visit personally to document while others were ones that were carefully selected through the web.  Other main key area of focus was to closely look at the relationship of the chair and mirror. Basic plan diagram of how mirror behave in space can be seen in the following diagrams.  Traditional Barbershop •Red Rose Barber – Taipei, Taiwan ;   Intergenerational; technique based •Fazad’s Barber – Vancouver, Canada ; Traditional   Italian, Social Integration•The Blind Barber – NewYork; Barber with BarModern Barber•Burly Barber  - Vancouver, Canada ; Gender Mixed Barbershops•Sleek Barber – Taichung, Taiwan ; Barber battles, Mobile Barbers•Hairdresser’s Salon Talstrasse Zurich; Architecture•How Fun Salon – Taipei, Taiwan – Central Path Contemporary Barber •Sculptor Barber – Taipei, Taiwan ; Popup shop , Experiential cuts Research18 Hair as a body part meriting serious cultural and scientific attention is - and has been throughout history. - A foreign concept to many people.  Is it fixed ? or is it much more exciting and full of energy. This is a timeline produced looking into the history of hair and barbershops. The aim is to find evidences and continuity from the past yet relating it to the present and implementing into the future.  Many interesting findings include how Barbershops were once a highly profiled social space that people gather and meet.  Also, the sense of spirituality is highly evaluated in the social context form many cultures.Hair and Spirits,  Hair and Beliefs,Hair and Social Space, Hair and Medicine, Hair and Power, Hair and Fashion No Present time, barbershop remains traditional. Over the course of the twentieth century, the technology involved in hairdressingchanged significantly. Women hairdressers enthusiastically adopted technological innovations for cosmetic purposes while barbers resisted change.1     1 Smith Catherine, Technology and gender: barbers and hairdressers,2009 Unlike other trades where feminization suggested deskilling, in ladies’ hairdressing women became moreskilled, and when men adopted longer hair, many male barbers went out of business. Therefore, technology played an important role in building the business of hairdressers.It is evident that the culture of hair has evolved throughout time.  The act of hair trimming and the space for doing so was once only for the privileges. Then was transformed into to barber space that is much more social and public. The barbering tools continue to advance from both the materials to its function.  Further, if barbershop was once a highly crucial social space, what would be its role and significance today? This allowed the thesis to have an opportunity to look at the urgency of how shall  barbershops stay the same or could have a future twist to celebrate this social space.          The Evolution of Barbershop19Fig 10 - Sketch , Diagram showing some speculation of future barber chair and mirror based on their history. [ Chen]  205000 BC 10,000  BC the birth of barbering The cuting of the hair was ritual performed by the tribal prests, it was believed that cutting the hait would ride the body of evil spirites . Sharpen Flint or oyster shells were usedEVOLUTION OF BARBERSHIOS BARBER / Barba - [ Bahr-uh ]理髮廳1745AD Tonsorial artist HAIR AND PURITY  Ancient Egyptians were credited with being the first to cultivate beauty in an extravagant fashion.  Combs, brushes, mirror, cosmetics, scissors and razors where made of tempered copper.   High Ranking Men and Women of Egypt had their heads shaved to ensure their purity before entering the temple.  -  Baber Meryma’at In the early Paleolithic societies, those who cut the hair were the ones with the highest authority among all the social classes. It was believed that into the hair dwelled the people’s soul, so the hair was the way that thoughts were expressed in a physic form. To cut the hair was a way to remove accumulated evil esence and to renew energies. So the task was entrusted to the wisest, the priests. The beliefs, rituals and supersti -tions of early cilivzations varies. The Greeks philosopher Pythagoras beielved hair is source of the brains inspiration. Native American tribes believed that hair and body are so linked that anyone possessing a lock of hair of another can work on his will on that indiviuals. 1300 BC BRONZ AGEIRON AGEEarliest Known Scissors Bronze age, STONE AGEHAIR AND SPIRITS Barbering was introduced to Rome by the Greek colonies in Sicily in 296 BC, P.Ticinius Mena was reported one of the first barbers. Men in Ancient Greece would have their beards, hair, and finger-nails trimmed and styled by the κκκκκκκ (cureus), in an agora (market place) which also served as a social gathering for debates and gossip. Barber shops quickly became very popular centres for daily news and gossip.  A morning visit to the tonsor became a part of the daily routine, as important as the visit to the public baths, and a young man’s first shave (tonsura) was considered an essential part of his coming of age ceremony. A few Roman tonsores became wealthy and influential, run-ning shops that were favourite public locations of high society; however, most were simple tradesmen, who owned small storefronts or worked in the streets for low prices. ’Baths, ac-tivites  corrupt our bodies, but baths, acticites also make life worth living’), they were also the summit of civil engineering. 500 BC 300 BC 身體髮膚,受之父母,不敢毀傷,孝之始也;XIAO JING - Confucianism 1800 words  The Empire shall use it to rule the ethic of the couty, and family.  Our bodies - to every hair and bit of skin - are received by us from our parents, and we must not presume to injure or wound them. This is the beginning of filial piety. When we have established our character by the practice of the (filial) course, so as to make our name famous in future ages and thereby glorify our parents, this is the end of filial piety. Three Teaching - Confucianism Taoism Buddhism立身行道,揚名於後世, 以顯父母,孝之終也。  GOLDEN AGEthe first barbershopIn the 3rd century BC, Alexander the Great conquered almost all Asia and he was defeated in several fights against the Persians because of the beards of his soldiers. Persians used to grab them by their beards pulling them off their horses, thus killing them and winning most of the battles. Alexander proclaimed in all his domains an order establishing that all his soldiers ought to be clean shaven. Very soon, the rest of the population adopted the fashion and beards were stopped of using. The more shavings they needed, more job was required from the barbers, who then had to attend their clients every two or three days. the raise of barbershopHAIR - BIELEVES HAIR  AND SOCIAL SPACE1861  Turkish Baths + Barber 100 BC HAIR  AND POWERthe raise of hair science - dye and wigs Cosmetics and hairstyling required mirrors, which were made of highly polished bronze or silver in rectangular or round shapes. Blonde hair was greatly admired by the Romans. Roman women used a form of hair dye to produce the prized blond hair - tallow lime. Grey hair was also dyed using a form of walnut dye. Wigs were common in Ancient Rome which were combed into elaborate hairstyles. Some country slaves had their heads shaven and their hair was used to produce wigs for wealthy Roman women. The color of theReligion, occupation, and politics influenced the length and style of hair and the wearing of a beard.  The pope had to set a particular style of hair to the clergymen as the Tonsure of St Peter style,  Further by the seventeenth century in England political affiliation and reli-gion could be indicated by the long, curling locks of the royalist, Anglican Cavaliers and the cropped hair of the parliamentarian, puritan roundheads. British barristers wore gray wigs, while the various branches of the law and the military wore specific styles according to their position or military cops. In France,most noble man wore wigs becuase the king Louis XIV was balding. 1600 AD 1700s, wigs were the latest fashion! ! The fashion of wearing wigs began with the royalty in France; it spread to England and then to America. In colonial times, the gentlemen, not the ladies, wore wig. Wigmakers used a head-shaped wooden form, called a blockhead, to design their wigs. Some wigs were made from human hair. Others were made from the hair of a horse, a yak, or a goat. A wig took a long time to make, as much as hundreds of hours for a full wig. Barbers did both wig making and wig maintenacne. barbershop and wigmaker By the miffle ages, barbers also entered the world of medcine, where they figured prom-inently in the development of surgery. in 1163, Pope Alexander III forbade the clergy in practicing medicine which then pass on the tasks to barbers. Barbers then practices of bloodleeting, minor surgery, herbal remedies, and tooth pulling. For Centuries dentistry was only performed by barbers, and for thousans years they were known and Barber-Sur-geons. HAIR  AND MEDICINE 1000AD1540AD In 1096 the French barber surgeons formed their first guild. Which they evenually extab-lished  had also founded the school  of St. Cosmo and St. Domain in Paris for the study of medicine.  In UK, The Worshipful Company of Barbers was created in London in 1308., with the objective to regulate and over see the profession. It consisted of two classes of barbers, one who speicalize in hair and one speicalized in surgery. Finally in 1540, The english Sur-geon and barber builds merge and become the Company of Barber Surgeons, but Barbers were restricted to bloodletting, toothdrawing, cauterization and the tonsorial operations.  However the board of governors, regulating the operations of the surgeons and barber-sur-geons, consisted of two surgeons and two barbers.The rise of Barber - Surgeons As the evidancescience of medicine, surgery and dentistry advanced, the barbers became less and less capable of performing the triple functions of barber-surgeon-dentist.  The surgeons wished to be separated entirely from the barbers. By an act of parliament, which received the sanction of the king, the alliance between the barbers and surgeons was dis-solved in June, 1745.  Two separate companies were formed and the property, formerly owned by the barbers and surgeons jointly, was divided among the two companies. This marked the decline of the barber profession.The fall of Barber - SurgeonsHAIR  AND FASHIONWaretime 20th Century saw almost all men having short, military-like hairstyles. Howev-er, the rise of beatlemania and the Swinging Sixties prompted longer hairstyles to become the fashon. New Cutting techniques were developed and barbers that failed to adapt were forced out of business. in 1929, National Association of Barber Boards of America ( NABBA) were established. the state of board are primarily concerned with the protection of the health, safty and wel-fare of the public as wll as maintaining high educational standard to assure competent and skilled service. 1900AD State Barber Boards2000 AD 留髮不留頭,留頭不留髮 5000 BC 10,000  BC the birth of barbering The cuting of the hair was ritual performed by the tribal prests, it was believed that cutting the hait would ride the body of evil spirites . Sharpen Flint or oyster shells were usedEVOLUTION OF BARBERSHIOS BARBER / Barba - [ Bahr-uh ]理髮廳1745AD Tonsorial artist HAIR AND PURITY  Ancient Egyptians were credited with being the first to cultivate beauty in an extravagant fashion.  Combs, brushes, mirror, cosmetics, scissors and razors where made of tempered copper.   High Ranking Men and Women of Egypt had their heads shaved to ensure their purity before entering the temple.  -  Baber Meryma’at In the early Paleolithic societies, those who cut the hair were the ones with the highest authority among all the social classes. It was believed that into the hair dwelled the people’s soul, so the hair was the way that thoughts were expressed in a physic form. To cut the hair was a way to remove accumulated evil esence and to renew energies. So the task was entrusted to the wisest, the priests. The beliefs, rituals and supersti-tions of early cilivzations varies. The Greeks philosopher Pythagoras beielved hair is source of the brains inspiration. Native American tribes believed that hair and body are so linked that anyone possessing a lock of hair of another can work on his will on that indiviuals. 1300 BC BRONZ AGEIRON AGEEarliest Known Scissors  Bronze age, STONE AGEHAIR AND SPIRITS Barbering was introduced to Rome by the Greek colonies in Sicily in 296 BC, P.Ticinius Mena was reported one of the first barbers. Men in Ancient Greece would have their beards, hair, and finger-nails trimmed and styled by the κκκκκκκ (cureus), in an agora (market place) which also served as a social gathering for debates and gossip. Barber shops quickly became very popular centres for daily news and gossip.  A morning visit to the tonsor became a part of the daily routine, as important as the visit to the public baths, and a young man’s first shave (tonsura) was considered an essential part of his coming of age ceremony. A few Roman tonsores became wealthy and influential, run-ning shops that were favourite public locations of high society; however, most were simple tradesmen, who owned small storefronts or worked in the streets for low prices. ’Baths, ac-tivites  corrupt our bodies, but baths, acticites also make life worth living’), they were also the summit of civil engineering. 500 BC 300 BC 身體髮膚,受之父母,不敢毀傷,孝之始也;XIAO JING - Confucianism 1800 words  The Empire shall use it to rule the ethic of the couty, and family.  Our bodies - to every hair and bit of skin - are received by us from our parents, and we must not presume to injure or wound them. This is the beginning of filial piety. When we have established our character by the practice of the (filial) course, so as to make our name famous in future ages and thereby glorify our parents, this is the end of filial piety. Three Teaching - Confucianism Taoism Buddhism立身行道,揚名於後世, 以顯父母,孝之終也。  GOLDEN AGEthe first barbershopIn the 3rd century BC, Alexander the Great conquered almost all Asia and he was defeated in several fights against the Persians because of the beards of his soldiers. Persians used to grab them by their beards pulling them off their horses, thus killing them and winning most of the battles. Alexander proclaimed in all his domains an order establishing that all his soldiers ought to be clean shaven. Very soon, the rest of the population adopted the fashion and beards were stopped of using. The more shavings they needed, more job was required from the barbers, who then had to attend their clients every two or three days. the raise of barbershopHAIR - BIELEVES HAIR  AND SOCIAL SPACE1861  Turkish Baths + Barber 100 BC HAIR  AND POWERthe raise of hair science - dye and wigs Cosmetics and hairstyling required mirrors, which were made of highly polished bronze or silver in rectangular or round shapes. Blonde hair was greatly admired by the Romans. Roman women used a form of hair dye to produce the prized blond hair - tallow lime. Grey hair was also dyed using a form of walnut dye. Wigs were common in Ancient Rome which were combed into elaborate hairstyles. Some country slaves had their heads shaven and their hair was used to produce wigs for wealthy Roman women. The color of theReligion, occupation, and politics influenced the length and style of hair and the wearing of a beard.  The pope had to set a particular style of hair to the clergymen as the Tonsure of St Peter style,  Further by the seventeenth century in England political affiliation and reli-gion could be indicated by the long, curling locks of the royalist, Anglican Cavaliers and the cropped hair of the parliamentarian, puritan roundheads. British barristers wore gray wigs, while the various branches of the law and the military wore specific styles according to their position or military cops. In France,most noble man wore wigs becuase the king Louis XIV was balding. 1600 AD 1700s, wigs were the latest fashion! ! The fashion of wearing wigs began with the royalty in France; it spread to England and then to America. In colonial times, the gentlemen, not the ladies, wore wig. Wigmakers used a head-shaped wooden form, called a blockhead, to design their wigs. Some wigs were made from human hair. Others were made from the hair of a horse, a yak, or a goat. A wig took a long time to make, as much as hundreds of hours for a full wig. Barbers did both wig making and wig maintenacne. barbershop and wigmaker By the miffle ages, barbers also entered the world of medcine, where they figured prom-inently in the development of surgery. in 1163, Pope Alexander III forbade the clergy in practicing medicine which then pass on the tasks to barbers. Barbers then practices of bloodleeting, minor surgery, herbal remedies, and tooth pulling. For Centuries dentistry was only performed by barbers, and for thousans years they were known and Barber-Sur-geons. HAIR  AND MEDICINE 1000AD1540AD In 1096 the French barber surgeons formed their first guild. Which they evenually extab-lished  had also founded the school  of St. Cosmo and St. Domain in Paris for the study of medicine.  In UK, The Worshipful Company of Barbers was created in London in 1308., with the objective to regulate and over see the profession. It consisted of two classes of barbers, one who speicalize in hair and one speicalized in surgery. Finally in 1540, The english Sur-geon and barber builds merge and become the Company of Barber Surgeons, but Barbers were restricted to bloodletting, toothdrawing, cauterization and the tonsorial operations.  However the board of governors, regulating the operations of the surgeons and barber-sur-geons, consisted of two surgeons and two barbers.The rise of Barber - Surgeons As the evidancescience of medicine, surgery and dentistry advanced, the barbers became less and less capable of performing the triple functions of barber-surgeon-dentist.  The surgeons wished to be separated entirely from the barbers. By an act of parliament, which received the sanction of the king, the alliance between the barbers and surgeons was dis-solved in June, 1745.  Two separate companies were formed and the property, formerly owned by the barbers and surgeons jointly, was divided among the two companies. This marked the decline of the barber profession.The fall of Barber - SurgeonsHAIR  AND FASHIONWaretime 20th Century saw almost all men having short, military-like hairstyles. Howev-er, the rise of beatlemania and the Swinging Sixties prompted longer hairstyles to become the fashon. New Cutting techniques were developed and barbers that failed to adapt were forced out of business. in 1929, National Association of Barber Boards of America ( NABBA) were established. the state of board are primarily concerned with the protection of the health, safty and wel-fare of the public as wll as maintaining high educational standard to assure competent and skilled service. 1900AD State Barber Boards2000 AD 留髮不留頭,留頭不留髮 215000 BC 10,000  BC the birth of barbering The cuting of the hair was ritual performed by the tribal prests, it was believed that cutting the hait would ride the body of evil spirites . Sharpen Flint or oyster shells were usedEVOLUTION OF BARBERSHIOS BARBER / Barba - [ Bahr-uh ]理髮廳1745AD Tonsorial artist HAIR AND PURITY  Ancient Egyptians were credited with being the first to cultivate beauty in an extravagant fashion.  Combs, brushes, mirror, cosmetics, scissors and razors where made of tempered copper.   High Ranking Men and Women of Egypt had their heads shaved to ensure their purity before entering the temple.  -  Baber Meryma’at In the early Paleolithic societies, those who cut the hair were the ones with the highest authority among all the social classes. It was believed that into the hair dwelled the people’s soul, so the hair was the way that thoughts were expressed in a physic form. To cut the hair was a way to remove accumulated evil esence and to renew energies. So the task was entrusted to the wisest, the priests. The beliefs, rituals and supersti-tions of early cilivzations varies. The Greeks philosopher Pythagoras beielved hair is source of the brains inspiration. Native American tribes believed that hair and body are so linked that anyone possessing a lock of hair of another can work on his will on that indiviuals. 1300 BC BRONZ AGEIRON AGEEarliest Known Scissors Bronze age, STONE AGEHAIR AND SPIRITS Barbering was introduced to Rome by the Greek colonies in Sicily in 296 BC, P.Ticinius Mena was reported one of the first barbers. Men in Ancient Greece would have their beards, hair, and finger-nails trimmed and styled by the κκκκκκκ (cureus), in an agora (market place) which also served as a social gathering for debates and gossip. Barber shops quickly became very popular centres for daily news and gossip.  A morning visit to the tonsor became a part of the daily routine, as important as the visit to the public baths, and a young man’s first shave (tonsura) was considered an essential part of his coming of age ceremony. A few Roman tonsores became wealthy and influential, run -ning shops that were favourite public locations of high society; however, most were simple tradesmen, who owned small storefronts or worked in the streets for low prices. ’Baths, ac-tivites  corrupt our bodies, but baths, acticites also make life worth living’), they were also the summit of civil engineering. 500 BC 300 BC 身體髮膚,受之父母,不敢毀傷,孝之始也;XIAO JING - Confucianism 1800 words  The Empire shall use it to rule the ethic of the couty, and family.  Our bodies - to every hair and bit of skin - are received by us from our parents, and we must not presume to injure or wound them. This is the beginning of filial piety. When we have established our character by the practice of the (filial) course, so as to make our name famous in future ages and thereby glorify our parents, this is the end of filial piety. Three Teaching - Confucianism Taoism Buddhism立身行道,揚名於後世, 以顯父母,孝之終也。  GOLDEN AGEthe first barbershopIn the 3rd century BC, Alexander the Great conquered almost all Asia and he was defeated in several fights against the Persians because of the beards of his soldiers. Persians used to grab them by their beards pulling them off their horses, thus killing them and winning most of the battles. Alexander proclaimed in all his domains an order establishing that all his soldiers ought to be clean shaven. Very soon, the rest of the population adopted the fashion and beards were stopped of using. The more shavings they needed, more job was required from the barbers, who then had to attend their clients every two or three days. the raise of barbershopHAIR - BIELEVES HAIR  AND SOCIAL SPACE1861  Turkish Baths + Barber 100 BC HAIR  AND POWERthe raise of hair science - dye and wigs Cosmetics and hairstyling required mirrors, which were made of highly polished bronze or silver in rectangular or round shapes. Blonde hair was greatly admired by the Romans. Roman women used a form of hair dye to produce the prized blond hair - tallow lime. Grey hair was also dyed using a form of walnut dye. Wigs were common in Ancient Rome which were combed into elaborate hairstyles. Some country slaves had their heads shaven and their hair was used to produce wigs for wealthy Roman women. The color of theReligion, occupation, and politics influenced the length and style of hair and the wearing of a beard.  The pope had to set a particular style of hair to the clergymen as the Tonsure of St Peter style,  Further by the seventeenth century in England political affiliation and reli-gion could be indicated by the long, curling locks of the royalist, Anglican Cavaliers and the cropped hair of the parliamentarian, puritan roundheads. British barristers wore gray wigs, while the various branches of the law and the military wore specific styles according to their position or military cops. In France,most noble man wore wigs becuase the king Louis XIV was balding. 1600 AD 1700s, wigs were the latest fashion! ! The fashion of wearing wigs began with the royalty in France; it spread to England and then to America. In colonial times, the gentlemen, not the ladies, wore wig. Wigmakers used a head-shaped wooden form, called a blockhead, to design their wigs. Some wigs were made from human hair. Others were made from the hair of a horse, a yak, or a goat. A wig took a long time to make, as much as hundreds of hours for a full wig. Barbers did both wig making and wig maintenacne. barbershop and wigmaker By the miffle ages, barbers also entered the world of medcine, where they figured prom-inently in the development of surgery. in 1163, Pope Alexander III forbade the clergy in practicing medicine which then pass on the tasks to barbers. Barbers then practices of bloodleeting, minor surgery, herbal remedies, and tooth pulling. For Centuries dentistry was only performed by barbers, and for thousans years they were known and Barber-Sur-geons. HAIR  AND MEDICINE 1000AD1540AD In 1096 the French barber surgeons formed their first guild. Which they evenually extab-lished  had also founded the school  of St. Cosmo and St. Domain in Paris for the study of medicine.  In UK, The Worshipful Company of Barbers was created in London in 1308., with the objective to regulate and over see the profession. It consisted of two classes of barbers, one who speicalize in hair and one speicalized in surgery. Finally in 1540, The english Sur-geon and barber builds merge and become the Company of Barber Surgeons, but Barbers were restricted to bloodletting, toothdrawing, cauterization and the tonsorial operations.  However the board of governors, regulating the operations of the surgeons and barber-sur-geons, consisted of two surgeons and two barbers.The rise of Barber - Surgeons As the evidancescience of medicine, surgery and dentistry advanced, the barbers became less and less capable of performing the triple functions of barber-surgeon-dentist.  The surgeons wished to be separated entirely from the barbers. By an act of parliament, which received the sanction of the king, the alliance between the barbers and surgeons was dis-solved in June, 1745.  Two separate companies were formed and the property, formerly owned by the barbers and surgeons jointly, was divided among the two companies. This marked the decline of the barber profession.The fall of Barber - SurgeonsHAIR  AND FASHIONWaretime 20th Century saw almost all men having short, military-like hairstyles. Howev-er, the rise of beatlemania and the Swinging Sixties prompted longer hairstyles to become the fashon. New Cutting techniques were developed and barbers that failed to adapt were forced out of business. in 1929, National Association of Barber Boards of America ( NABBA) were established. the state of board are primarily concerned with the protection of the health, safty and wel-fare of the public as wll as maintaining high educational standard to assure competent and skilled service. 1900AD State Barber Boards2000 AD 留髮不留頭,留頭不留髮 Fig11 -  A time; Evolution of hairspace 2018 . [ Chen ]  22Hair Space Analysis  In this part of the research, I begin to attempt to categorize different types of barbershops based on two critical devices within the barbershop - Mirror and Chair. First ,  being the “chair” and it is about a site, a location, a sense of place for action -  “ A place for performance.” The choice of the chair is critical as it is the central origin place of the activity and relationship building between the barber and the client.  The mirror is then placed based on the center of the chair. Further, either high-performance chair or a simple wooden chair, the act of one sitting down while the artist performs is one common unity throughout all barbershops. It might have to do with the simplicity of comfort but also for the barbers to be able to access the client quickly.  The sense of height and leveling becomes extremely interesting as one sits down which allows the barber to gain an understanding of control and power to act on your behalf to perform hair trimming. Second is the “mirror,” and it is about an extension of space, a double dimension, a visual illusion - “A place for reflectiveness.” 1 The mirror is where you appear to yourself, primping and posing, examining and admiring yourself. Mirror space is an alternative world that is unreal.    1 Betsky, Aaron, Queer Space and same sex desire,10The mirror space is often like a display, it could be as simple as a single glass of the reflective mirror, or it could become a space for barbers to store and display their tools.  Therefore, other than the barbers own preferred tools, the most fundamental elements of an active barbershops is the chair and the mirror. Thus, in the precedent study below I have ordered them according to their degree of emphasis on each device. - The mirror space, the Chair space.                 23Fig12 -  Hair Space Catalogue based on Most and Least Defined Mirror /  Chair , 2019 [ Chen ] 24PRECEDENTS STUDY25Fig13 -  Hair Space Catalogue based on Most and Least Defined Mirror /  Chair Category 1 - 9 , 2019 [ Chen ] 26Context  Urban - Commercial Mixed used Property   // The most Traditional   One Seat;  One Mirror;  One Artist  Located in Kerrisdale Canada  Barber Maxim is  originally from  Italy.  His Barbershop is a co-living space,   the barbershop is the front, so he called his stage,  the home is at the back so he called for him to rest.   “ I am an artist,  I see every cut as if it was  a way of performance “    Fig 14  - The interior of the Maxin Barbershop,  2018 [ Chen ] SEATMIRRORBARBERSHOP ANALYSIS + CATALOGUEHAIR BY MAXIM 1 ARTIST + 1 SEAT  VANCOUVER, CANADAROMA’S BARBERSHOP  4 ARTIST + 4 SEATS  NEW YORK, USA RE-EDIT HAIR SALON  3 ARTIST + 3 SEATS  OSAKA, JAPANTAZPOS THE FLYING HAIR DRESSERS  1 ARTISTs + 1 SEAT  MUNICH. GERMANYMAD ONE BARBER  5 ARTISTs + 5 SEATS  TORONTO, CANADA(      )  PER FORMATIVE SPACE 5 ARTISTs + 5 SEATS  TAIPEI, TAIWANSCULPTOR BARBER 1 ARTIST + 1 SEATS  TAIPEI, TAIWANTHE DKUK GALLERY 1 ARTIST + 2 SEATS   LONDON, UKNo Name  1 ARTIST + 1 SEAT DELHI , INDIA+  HOME    + TRANSIT  + MINIMAL  + MOBILE CART  + RETAIL SHOP + CAFE & BAR + NATURE + GALLERY + LANDSCAPE127Context  Urban - Commercial Subway   // The most Rapid   Four Seats;  Four Mirrors;  Four  Artist  Located in New York  A barbershop that is niched inside a transit subway by times square station In between the stairs.   Barbering is much like  a transaction.  Everything was done  super fast.    There were little conversations,       Fig 15  - The interior of the Roma Barbershop,  2018 [ Chen ]  SEATMIRRORBARBERSHOP ANALYSIS + CATALOGUEHAIR BY MAXIM 1 ARTIST + 1 SEAT  VANCOUVER, CANADAROMA’S BARBERSHOP  4 ARTIST + 4 SEATS  NEW YORK, USA RE-EDIT HAIR SALON  3 ARTIST + 3 SEATS  OSAKA, JAPANTAZPOS THE FLYING HAIR DRESSERS  1 ARTISTs + 1 SEAT  MUNICH. GERMANYMAD ONE BARBER  5 ARTISTs + 5 SEATS  TORONTO, CANADA(      )  PER FORMATIVE SPACE 5 ARTISTs + 5 SEATS  TAIPEI, TAIWANSCULPTOR BARBER 1 ARTIST + 1 SEATS  TAIPEI, TAIWANTHE DKUK GALLERY 1 ARTIST + 2 SEATS   LONDON, UKNo Name  1 ARTIST + 1 SEAT DELHI , INDIA+  HOME    + TRANSIT  + MINIMAL  + MOBILE CART  + RETAIL SHOP + CAFE & BAR + NATURE + GALLERY + LANDSCAPE228Context  Urban - Residential Mixed used Property   // The most minimal  Three Seats;  Three Mirrors;  Two  Artists  Located in Japan  the name ‘re-edit was chosen to describe the process of altering something already in existence to bring out and preserve its inherent value.  In this minimal Salon, the artist even reduced the barbering chair to a  regular chair.   The interior is defined by the gridded ceiling above.    3Fig 16  - The interior of the re-ed-it salon, Design Boom,  2015 [ Masuda ]  SEATMIRRORBARBERSHOP ANALYSIS + CATALOGUEHAIR BY MAXIM 1 ARTIST + 1 SEAT  VANCOUVER, CANADAROMA’S BARBERSHOP  4 ARTIST + 4 SEATS  NEW YORK, USA RE-EDIT HAIR SALON  3 ARTIST + 3 SEATS  OSAKA, JAPANTAZPOS THE FLYING HAIR DRESSERS  1 ARTISTs + 1 SEAT  MUNICH. GERMANYMAD ONE BARBER  5 ARTISTs + 5 SEATS  TORONTO, CANADA(      )  PER FORMATIVE SPACE 5 ARTISTs + 5 SEATS  TAIPEI, TAIWANSCULPTOR BARBER 1 ARTIST + 1 SEATS  TAIPEI, TAIWANTHE DKUK GALLERY 1 ARTIST + 2 SEATS   LONDON, UKNo Name  1 ARTIST + 1 SEAT DELHI , INDIA+  HOME    + TRANSIT  + MINIMAL  + MOBILE CART  + RETAIL SHOP + CAFE & BAR + NATURE + GALLERY + LANDSCAPE29Context  Urban - Roads, Parade  // The most Mobile  One Seat;  One Mirror;  One Artist  Located in Germany  Or it could simply be located anywhere. It is a barbershop in a mobile cart.   A Mobile Hair Salon: Applies on the notion that a barbershop does not need to have a station location.   It could be much like a service that roams around town at different given time and location.  “ What number are you “.        4Fig 17  - The interior of the mobile cart ,    2016 [ Yatzer ]  SEATMIRRORBARBERSHOP ANALYSIS + CATALOGUEHAIR BY MAXIM 1 ARTIST + 1 SEAT  VANCOUVER, CANADAROMA’S BARBERSHOP  4 ARTIST + 4 SEATS  NEW YORK, USA RE-EDIT HAIR SALON  3 ARTIST + 3 SEATS  OSAKA, JAPANTAZPOS THE FLYING HAIR DRESSERS  1 ARTISTs + 1 SEAT  MUNICH. GERMANYMAD ONE BARBER  5 ARTISTs + 5 SEATS  TORONTO, CANADA(      )  PER FORMATIVE SPACE 5 ARTISTs + 5 SEATS  TAIPEI, TAIWANSCULPTOR BARBER 1 ARTIST + 1 SEATS  TAIPEI, TAIWANTHE DKUK GALLERY 1 ARTIST + 2 SEATS   LONDON, UKNo Name  1 ARTIST + 1 SEAT DELHI , INDIA+  HOME    + TRANSIT  + MINIMAL  + MOBILE CART  + RETAIL SHOP + CAFE & BAR + NATURE + GALLERY + LANDSCAPE30Context  Urban - Retail Within a Retail Shop   // The most communal  Five Seats;  Five Mirrors;  Five Artists  Located in Toronto Canada  This barbershop is much like a community barbershop.   It is located inside a basement of a retail store and has always been a center of the gather.  The space is rather honest with all that is needed - course no windows. Instead of having a set spot for tools, the tools are on cartwheels.   The price is kept rather cheap mainly due to the fact that they co-share a space with the retail.    5Fig 18  - The interior of the barber  2017 [ TMOB.CA ]  SEATMIRRORBARBERSHOP ANALYSIS + CATALOGUEHAIR BY MAXIM 1 ARTIST + 1 SEAT  VANCOUVER, CANADAROMA’S BARBERSHOP  4 ARTIST + 4 SEATS  NEW YORK, USA RE-EDIT HAIR SALON  3 ARTIST + 3 SEATS  OSAKA, JAPANTAZPOS THE FLYING HAIR DRESSERS  1 ARTISTs + 1 SEAT  MUNICH. GERMANYMAD ONE BARBER  5 ARTISTs + 5 SEATS  TORONTO, CANADA(      )  PER FORMATIVE SPACE 5 ARTISTs + 5 SEATS  TAIPEI, TAIWANSCULPTOR BARBER 1 ARTIST + 1 SEATS  TAIPEI, TAIWANTHE DKUK GALLERY 1 ARTIST + 2 SEATS   LONDON, UKNo Name  1 ARTIST + 1 SEAT DELHI , INDIA+  HOME    + TRANSIT  + MINIMAL  + MOBILE CART  + RETAIL SHOP + CAFE & BAR + NATURE + GALLERY + LANDSCAPE31Context  Urban - Mixed used  // The most social  5 Seats;  5 Mirrors ;  5  Artists  Located in Taipei   This is a home to many hairdressers or barbers and makeup artist.   They are freelancers,  who would only come by appointment  The place consists of a debate room, gallery and a bar.   At any given time, you could  walk into this space and  have a seat to start a conversation.      6Fig 19  - The interior of the 90 performance space            2018 [ Chen ]  SEATMIRRORBARBERSHOP ANALYSIS + CATALOGUEHAIR BY MAXIM 1 ARTIST + 1 SEAT  VANCOUVER, CANADAROMA’S BARBERSHOP  4 ARTIST + 4 SEATS  NEW YORK, USA RE-EDIT HAIR SALON  3 ARTIST + 3 SEATS  OSAKA, JAPANTAZPOS THE FLYING HAIR DRESSERS  1 ARTISTs + 1 SEAT  MUNICH. GERMANYMAD ONE BARBER  5 ARTISTs + 5 SEATS  TORONTO, CANADA(      )  PER FORMATIVE SPACE 5 ARTISTs + 5 SEATS  TAIPEI, TAIWANSCULPTOR BARBER 1 ARTIST + 1 SEATS  TAIPEI, TAIWANTHE DKUK GALLERY 1 ARTIST + 2 SEATS   LONDON, UKNo Name  1 ARTIST + 1 SEAT DELHI , INDIA+  HOME    + TRANSIT  + MINIMAL  + MOBILE CART  + RETAIL SHOP + CAFE & BAR + NATURE + GALLERY + LANDSCAPE32Context  Coast By the water   // The most Experimental  One Seats;  No Mirrors;  One Artists  Located in Taipei Taiwan  The real location, is unknown. The real purpose, is to let go.  Sculptor Barber is a contemporary barbershop they seek for ways to  elevate the concept of  relief and rebirth.   One of their service,  includes in a hair treatment by the ocean.    No mirror, No walls. Just you, the artist,  and the chair. 7Fig 20  - The Coast Treatment of  Sculptor barber  2017 [ Pechakucha ]SEATMIRRORBARBERSHOP ANALYSIS + CATALOGUEHAIR BY MAXIM 1 ARTIST + 1 SEAT  VANCOUVER, CANADAROMA’S BARBERSHOP  4 ARTIST + 4 SEATS  NEW YORK, USA RE-EDIT HAIR SALON  3 ARTIST + 3 SEATS  OSAKA, JAPANTAZPOS THE FLYING HAIR DRESSERS  1 ARTISTs + 1 SEAT  MUNICH. GERMANYMAD ONE BARBER  5 ARTISTs + 5 SEATS  TORONTO, CANADA(      )  PER FORMATIVE SPACE 5 ARTISTs + 5 SEATS  TAIPEI, TAIWANSCULPTOR BARBER 1 ARTIST + 1 SEATS  TAIPEI, TAIWANTHE DKUK GALLERY 1 ARTIST + 2 SEATS   LONDON, UKNo Name  1 ARTIST + 1 SEAT DELHI , INDIA+  HOME    + TRANSIT  + MINIMAL  + MOBILE CART  + RETAIL SHOP + CAFE & BAR + NATURE + GALLERY + LANDSCAPE33Context  Market  // The most arty  Two Seats;  No Mirrors ;  One Artists  Located in London, UK  London’s smallest gallery operates as both exhibition venue and a hair salon.  It plays on the concept of play.  At one instance, there are no mirrors but just paintings.   At another instance, there is a projector for videos.   ‘The design explores the act of looking through the use of frames, translucencies, perforations and reflections. space also considers how we are seen (or not) just as much as how we look at.     8Fig21  - The view from the interi-or of the Gallery [Design boom ] SEATMIRRORBARBERSHOP ANALYSIS + CATALOGUEHAIR BY MAXIM 1 ARTIST + 1 SEAT  VANCOUVER, CANADAROMA’S BARBERSHOP  4 ARTIST + 4 SEATS  NEW YORK, USA RE-EDIT HAIR SALON  3 ARTIST + 3 SEATS  OSAKA, JAPANTAZPOS THE FLYING HAIR DRESSERS  1 ARTISTs + 1 SEAT  MUNICH. GERMANYMAD ONE BARBER  5 ARTISTs + 5 SEATS  TORONTO, CANADA(      )  PER FORMATIVE SPACE 5 ARTISTs + 5 SEATS  TAIPEI, TAIWANSCULPTOR BARBER 1 ARTIST + 1 SEATS  TAIPEI, TAIWANTHE DKUK GALLERY 1 ARTIST + 2 SEATS   LONDON, UKNo Name  1 ARTIST + 1 SEAT DELHI , INDIA+  HOME    + TRANSIT  + MINIMAL  + MOBILE CART  + RETAIL SHOP + CAFE & BAR + NATURE + GALLERY + LANDSCAPE34Context  Urban - Parks    // The most natural One Seats;  One  Mirrors;  One  Artists  Located in Delhi India  What does it mean to be a barber? and where does barber take place?   Similar to the action of how barbers gather to cut for the homeless. In this case in many other cultures, the act of hair trimming can be as simple as under a tree.   A simple chair, A simple Mirror.  Totally off the grid.  It can happen anywhere.    9Fig 22  - The Street Barber in action  2010 [ Dawn.com ]  SEATMIRRORBARBERSHOP ANALYSIS + CATALOGUEHAIR BY MAXIM 1 ARTIST + 1 SEAT  VANCOUVER, CANADAROMA’S BARBERSHOP  4 ARTIST + 4 SEATS  NEW YORK, USA RE-EDIT HAIR SALON  3 ARTIST + 3 SEATS  OSAKA, JAPANTAZPOS THE FLYING HAIR DRESSERS  1 ARTISTs + 1 SEAT  MUNICH. GERMANYMAD ONE BARBER  5 ARTISTs + 5 SEATS  TORONTO, CANADA(      )  PER FORMATIVE SPACE 5 ARTISTs + 5 SEATS  TAIPEI, TAIWANSCULPTOR BARBER 1 ARTIST + 1 SEATS  TAIPEI, TAIWANTHE DKUK GALLERY 1 ARTIST + 2 SEATS   LONDON, UKNo Name  1 ARTIST + 1 SEAT DELHI , INDIA+  HOME    + TRANSIT  + MINIMAL  + MOBILE CART  + RETAIL SHOP + CAFE & BAR + NATURE + GALLERY + LANDSCAPE35STUDIES“ The poses of the body exaggerated in gesture, move through space and become activated, staged, and distorted. The Mirror allows a choreography of gesture - extending views into space, breaking the mute boundaries of the skin to create an ideal image of the self. Queer space aims translate gestural language into the the very basic building blocks of queer  architecture. “     - Arron BetskyFig 23  - Analytical Sectional of a Barber Chair, 2019 [ Chen ]Right Image >>>>>  AJUSTABILITY.  Barbershops spaces must be responsive to human dimension.  Given the tremendous variability in body size, both in terms of the customer-and the stylist and the nature of the activity involved, it is virtually impossible  to accommodate the majority of people with out a degree of usability to  compensate for the great variability in body size37Fig 24  - Analytical Sectional of a Barber Chair, 2019 [ Chen ]<<<<< Left Image The performative act of hair cutting is shown here in a radial way. The sequence of hair cutting is shown from greeting -> consulting -> hair cutting -> shaving -> styling -> suggestions for next appointment. 38Fig 25  - Analytical Plan of a Barber Chair, 2019 [ Chen ]Right Image >>>>>   The Contact, and orientation . Designer should explore ways to make the operation more responsive to the limitation imposed by body and space.  Further, circuital phase of the interface involved the head and wash basin. Note that the distance of  150mm is marked for being the intimate distance between two being. And >1200mm is marked for the distance for a comfortable local dialogue. 39Fig 26  - Analytical Plan of a Barber Chair, 2019 [ Chen ]<<<<< Left Image The perspective from the subjects side is shown here. The pictures here are taken upon a visit of a traditional barbershop in Taichung Taiwan. The visual Que and multi layering of the mirror space were merged together with the products and items that were being displayed by the barber.  40Fig 27  - Analytical Section of a Mirror Space, 2019 [ Chen ]Right Image >>>>>   The Contact, and orientation . Designer should explore ways to make the operation more responsive to the limitation imposed by body and space.  Further, circuital phase of the interface involved the head and wash basin. Note that the distance of  150mm is marked for being the intimate distance between two being. And >1200mm is marked for the distance for a comfortable local dialogue. 41Fig 28 - Analytical Section of a Mirror Space, 2019 [ Chen ]<<<<< Left Image The mirror is where you appear to yourself, primping and posing, examining and admiring yourself. However,  The mirror is good for appearing but: as soon as you look away from it, it ceases to function.   Mirror space is free and open, shifting and ephemeral, and your constrained by its lack of reality.  Thus, You can never live in the mirror.  42Fig 29  - Analytical Plan of a Mirror Space, 2019 [ Chen ]Right Image >>>>>   The Contact, and orientation . Designer should explore ways to make the operation more responsive to the limitation imposed by body and space.  Further, circuital phase of the interface involved the head and wash basin. Note that the distance of  150mm is marked for being the intimate distance between two being. And >1200mm is marked for the distance for a comfortable local dialogue. 43Fig 30 - Analytical Plan of a Mirror Space, 2019 [ Chen ]<<<<< Left Image Multiplicity of Surfaces-mirror space provides great opportunity to explore the infinite interior However, it is limited to only the surface and only allows one function - reflection the aim of the project will seek for ways to allow multiplicity of digital surface.much like an interactive user friendly surface for both viewing and purchases 44<<<<< Left Image Barbershop Serves as a productive space to think about learning gender a place where masculinities are enacted, staged, tried on,  surveyed, recognized and related through language, performance and appearance. Fig 31   - Multiplicity of Gender , 2019 [ Chen ] Images are also from Farzads Barbershops Instagram45SITE“A site of identity formation, a place where we are enacted, staged, tried on, surveyed, recognized and regulated through language, performance and appearance. “  A site of information,  a place where we share experiences, memories, emotions, thoughts, and expressions.  46SITE ANALYSIS   Since their first recorded history at the turn of the 20th century, ‘gay villages’ have played an important role in the increased visibility of the LGBTQ2+ community, and the overall acceptance of gender and sexual minorities.Davie Village (also known as Davie District or simply Davie Street) is a neighborhood in the West End of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. It is the home of the city’s LGBTQ2+ subculture, and, as such, is often considered a gay village, or LGBTQ2+ neighborhood. Davie Village is centered on Davie Street and roughly includes the area between Burrard and Jervis streets. Davie Street—and, by extension, the Village—is named in honor of A.E.B. Davie, eighth Premier of British Columbia from 1887 to 1889; A.E.B’s brother Theodore was also Premier, from 1892 to 1895Often located in highly-dense, inner city districts, ‘gay ghettos’ emerged as places of refuge for members of the queer community in an age when society made no effort to disguise rampant homophobia, transphobia, and discrimination. These villages embraced diversity and became landing pads for newcomers to cities.Historically, “ at a time when homosexuality was illegal, very few establishments welcomed members of the LGBTQ2+ community. These early gathering spaces appropriated spaces for safety and support, and fostered a shared sense of identity that celebrated sexuality rather than hiding it. This increased sense of belonging. “ 1  1 Balakshin Jim, “Heart of Davie Village” 2017The Project site property is located on the south west corner of Burrard Street and Davie Street in Vancouver’s West End and the gateway to Davie Village. The current site is the last gas station within the downtown of Vancouver. Thus, as the property has already been sold. the project is bound to undergo some site remediation for approx 5 - 10 years.  Remediation will be done through inserting Bio Microorganism that would decompose the activated contaminate that is under the site. –with hopes the temporary installation can find a home in the area. In accordance with the West End Community Plan, 1205 Burrard Street is located in Area “G” of the Burrard Corridor. Building heights in this area can be considered up to a maximum of 300 feet (91.4 m). Rezoning applications to increase density can be considered. New developments in Area “G” that front onto Burrard Street should in the form of a tower with a commercial podium. Maximum density for this area are determined on a site by site basis. Additionally, the maximum floor plate of the residential portion above the podium can be a maximum of 5,500 SF (511 SM).Legal  Address  1205 Burnard StreetSite Area : 7,292 SFZoning : DD Comprehensive Development FSR : Maximum  6.0Height : Maximum 300 ft  914 Meters Estimated Property Value : 40 Million Sold : 201747Fig 32   - Site Study, Act of force upon the site , 2019 [ Chen ] 48Fig 33   -  Shadow Analysis  , 2019 [ Chen ] 49Fig 34   -  Site Remediation  , 2019 [ Chen ]50Design“What can architecture draw from gender theorists? How would we come about to design a community that is open to a variety of flexible idiosyncrasies?  The design of the thesis project aims to strive for inclusivity and access for all. “  51Design   The final design of a gender inclusive architecture is so called “ The Matrix”, The Matrix serves as a productive space to think about the construction of gender.  As an temporary architecture, it  function as a medium through which social life happens. A place for gender expression formation, a place where gender expression  are enacted, staged and tried on, surveyed, recognized and related through language, performance and appearance. “Entering from the lane, The sequence are broken down into these 5 stages of programs. The Greeting  - This space act as both waiting and a formal consultation space where you are able to get professional examinations and information on the latest technology on hair related topic. The Examining - Much like a closet,  It is the ultimate interior, the place where interiority and curiosity of self starts. It is a space where you return to your body. Subject are to put on an identity cape prior to entering to the main transformative space. The Transform - It is a space where past and future is mingled and could become interchanged, it is a space where you can define yourself, constructing an identity out of what you wanted.  A space of highly trained professionals suiting all your needs. There are no boundaries only exuberance. Each nodes gets its own rotational mirror and barber chair. One or Two or many could form their own ways of orientation according to their liking. Groups could get their hair cut together to provide a sense of togetherness. Or could just be by individual. The washing station is also a key one, as it is a communal wash station. VR sets will be provided during hair and scalp treatment to allow the best plug away relaxation and expedience. The admiring, it is an alternate world of new you.  It could be unreal yet true reflection of your own identity.  A consultation room is also available for those who may need to have a session with a specialist. The Stage Walk. At the final stage,  It is a 9 m long walk that encourage confidence and the recognition of the self. A complete showcase of your own self with your fresh gender expression. The Forum . The Forum is a gender inclusive space that is open to all.  It act as the public space that connects the building to the rest of the Davie Village. All in all,  Gender inclusive space shall be an entirely fluid space that shared a sense of belonging and identity that celebrates sexuality and gender rather than hiding it ! Designers should focus a critical eye on society’s issues, need to work within this discourse and help promote acceptance and change.We shall try to create some room for other definitions beyond the two genders. It’s no longer a question of whether this will happen, just when. .        52Fig 35   - Render  View From Burrard St  , 2019 [ Chen ] 53Design      Designing for Inclusivity is an document of study.  The design strategies in this report offer a guide to important considerations in the design of gender inclusive space. These principles  encourage higher standards of privacy, accessibility, and comfort for Gender Binary spaces. They also intend to help mitigate commonconcerns regarding safety and privacy for various users. The five strategies are:1                 “—either alone or alongsidegender-designated options—is an opportunity to embrace the evolution of our communities’ needs, and to champion inclusivity and accessibility for all. “ 21 2 HCMA, Desiging for inclusvity, 2018                   54Fig 36   - Axo Diagram of Program  , 2019 [ Chen ] 55BURRARD STREETEXISTDAVIE STREETLANE WAYPROPERTY LINEBUS STATION+ 0.00+ 0.36MECH+ 0.36+ 0.36PROPERTY LINEPROPERTY LINEGREETINGEXAMININGTRANSFORMADMIRINGSTAGE WALKFORUMW/CRUN WAYW/CWAITING  AREACONSULTING RETURNPICK UPCHOREOGRAPHYHAIR + FACE SCANHAIR + FACE SCANCAPE ONCAPE OFF“ HEAT + COLOR”“ PERFORMANCE ”“ WE ARETOGETHER”“ CUT AND GO ”“ WASH AWAY”“POP UP STATION ”“ CHAT  CHAT CHAT ”ALL THE PAIN OF YESTERDAY“ EVERYTHING IS AWESOME ! ”“ 3D  HAIR EXTENTION “EXPERT“ FACE TO FACE”+ + + + + + + +PLAN 1:50EW SECTIONNS SECTIONFig 37   -  Site Plan  , 2019 [ Chen ]56<<<<< Left Image Gender Fluidity Wall. Inspired by the ever changing nature and fluidity of gender identities and expression. This is a wall divider that are able to sense movement and rotate on reflections and gradients of light.  It is like a barberpole that is moving and spending within a space. Fig 38  - Detail of the Gender Fluidity Wall  , 2019 [ Chen ] 57GENDER FLUIDITY ORDERED GRID 3.0MTRANSFORMATIONSOCIAL IMPACTISOMETRIC DRAWING 1:100Fig 39   -  Building Axo  , 2019 [ Chen ] 58Fig 40   - EW Section + Elevation , 2019 [ Chen ] 59Fig 41 - NS Section + Elevation, 2019 [ Chen ]60Fig 42  -Greeting Space Render  , 2019 [ Chen ] 61Fig 43   -  Examining Space Render  , 2019 [ Chen ] 62Fig 44  - Transformation Space , 2019 [ Chen ] 63Fig 45   -  Transformation Space  , 2019 [ Chen ] 64Fig 46  - Admiring Space , 2019 [ Chen ] 65Fig 47   -  Exuberant Walk Space  , 2019 [ Chen ] 66Fig 48  - Model 1:100 , 2019 [ Chen ] 67Fig 49   -  Model 1:100 , 2019 [ Chen ] 68Fig 50   - Dichronic Glass , 2019 [ Chen ] 69Fig 51   -  Dichronic Glass, 2019 [ Chen ] 70+“It is critical that we embrace the challenge to rethink even our most familiar spaces. We have a responsibility to use design to support basic rights for everyone and the evolving needs of our communities.”   - Darryl Condon - HCMA Architecture  71Conclusion This thesis, Exuberant Architecture - Towards a gender inclusive hair space,  gives is an opportunity to embrace the evolution of our communities’ needs, and to champion inclusive and accessibility for all gender identities. The act of acknowledge ones own identity forms the most pure and basic ways of social harmony.   Fig 52  - Identity and Hair Space 2019 [ Chen ] 7273BiliographyBarber, Kristen. Styling Masculinity: Gender, Class, and Inequality in the Men’s Grooming Industry. Rutgers University Press., 2016. Betsky, Aaron. Queer Space: Architecture and Same-Sex Desire. William Morrow, 1997. Brookes, Barbara, and Catherine Smith. “Technology and Gender: Barbers and Hairdressers in New Zealand, 1900–1970.”  History and Technology, vol. 25, no. 4, 2009, pp. 365–386., doi:10.1080/07341510903313055. Bryer, Robin. The History of Hair: Fashion and Fantasy down the Ages. Philip Wilson, 2000. Chugh, Shalene, and Philip Hancock. “Networks of Aestheticization: the Architecture, Artefacts and Embodiment of Hairdressing Salons.” Work, Employment and Society, vol. 23, no. 3, 2009, pp. 460–476., doi:10.1177/0950017009337060. Colletti, Marjan. Exuberance: New Virtuosity in Contemporary Architecture. Wiley, 2010. Condon, Darryl, et al. Places: Public Architecture: HCMA Architectura * Design. ORO Editions, 2015. Deschênes, Olivia Daigneault. “Doing Feminism in Architecture .” UBC, 2018. Doan, Petra L. Planning and LGBTQ Communities: the Need for Inclusive Queer Spaces. Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2015. Ingold, Tim. Making: Anthropology, Archaeology, Art and Architecture. Routledge, 2013. KIRLOSS, RAFAELA. “The Body and (Its) Architecture.” UBC, 2014. Kuhlmann Dörte. Gender Studies in Architecture: Space, Power and Difference. Routledge, 2013. Learning, Cengage. Milady’s Standard Professional Barbering: Individual Version. Milady Pub Corp, 2010. Muñoz José Esteban. Cruising Utopia: the Then and There of Queer Futurity. New York University Press, 2019. O’Donoghue, D. (2012). The Promise of Intimacy as a Way of Learning and Performing Masculinities: Fred Herzog’s. In D. O’Donoghue, Canadian Men and Masculinities: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives (pp. 313-328). Canadian Scholars’ Panero, Julius, and Martin Zelnik. Human Dimension & Interior Space: a Source Book of Design Reference Standards. Whitney Library of Design, 1979. Pivetta, Giulia. The Barber Book. Phaidon, 2016. Sanders, Joel. Stud: Architectures of Masculinity. Princeton Architectural Press, 1999. Stenn, Kurt S. Hair: a Human History. Pegasus Books, 2017. Unknown. The Art of Shaving. The 20th Century Corresponnence School New York, 2012. Vallerand, Olivier. “Homonormative Architecture & Queer Space: the Evolution of Gay Bars and Clubs in Montréal.” Mc Gill University , 2010.74“ I am in the deep oceans with a strong current. “ 75by Arkgo Yun Hsi Chen Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Architecture in the Faculty of Graduate Studies School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture program. In Presenting this report in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the advanced degree in the Architecture Program at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Architecture Reading Room shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this report for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Chair of Architecture or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without  a written permission by the school .  Name of Author Date Signature Exuberant ArchitectureTowards a Gender Inclusive Hair Space© Copyright April 2019      University of British ColumbiaReading Room Authorization 7677

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