UBC Graduate Research

Leaky Condo 2.0 Ishimura, Genta 2019-04-26

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Leaky Condo 2.0byGenta IshimuraB. EnDs (Hons), University of British Columbia, 2009SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREEofMASTER ARCHITECTUREinTHE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIESSchool of Architecture and Landscape ArchitectureArchitecture ProgramGP1 Advisor Sherry McKayGP2 Committee Bill Pechet (Chair)Chris MacdonaldChad ManleyPeeroj Thakre© Genta IshimuraThe University of British ColumbiaApril 2019Bill PechetSherry McKayWe accept this report as conforming to the required standardiiiSince the development of modern technology and industry, the window as an architectural element has lost its agency as a mediator of public/private, interior/exterior, individual/collective and has become a simply a product of enclosure. Through the survey of existing regional windows, this thesis works on gaining a better understanding of Vancouver’s cultural milieu by providing a genealogical framework for the foundation of a generative process by critically examining the collective memory of this city.  The proposal will situate itself in the near future, by re-imagining Vancouver’s relationship to the window, where a widespread building envelope failure begins to affect its most ubiquitous building form - the window wall tower. With accruing cost of repair paralyzing many into entropic disarray, a new narrative with the city emerges through the act of re-skinning the existing in order to reconsider its latent potentials. Strategically, negotiating the existing buildings into the rhetoric of sustainability provides new possibilities nested in the act of repairing. Proposed architecture finds itself working within the rules of the existing while addressing many of its failures that has spiralled the city into a state of crisis. In tapping into the city’s obsession with speculation, this new speculative process based on repair allows dwellers to engage with its environment in an open-ended manner.  To place this projected future, the proposed site will return to the epicentre of where this all began, the Concord Pacific developments on the former Expo lands. Effects of multiplicity, strange familiarity, and urgent imagination compose the language to not only challenge the status quo but openly invites individuals to imagine together what this future might look like.   AbstractvContentsiii. Abstractv. Contentsvi. List of Figuresix. Acknowledgmentxi. Dedicationxii. Preface1 Thesis Statement2 1. Window as Collective Memory4 2. History & Development10 3. Context20 4. Case Studies24 5. Proposed Site28 6. Framework30 7. The Building34 8. Program36 9. Depreciation Report40 10. Opportunities and Strategies42 11. Design Proposal73  Bibliography81 Appendix 1: Windowscape Guidebook102 Appendix 2: Windowscape TimelineviList of Figuresxiii.  Photo - Philadelphia Row House     Fig.1 3  A View from an Apartment, Jeff Wall    Fig. 25  Shed roof house at Comiaken Village   Fig. 3 5  Klondike Outfitters at 160 Cordova Street   Fig. 4 6       BC Electric Building      Fig. 57  Typical Vancouver Special     Fig. 69  Pre-Expo Vancouver      Fig. 79  Post-Expo Vancouver      Fig. 89  Leaky Condo Envelope Repair    Fig. 910  Vancouver Skyline      Fig. 1011  City of Vancouver FSR “Advertisement”   Fig. 11 13  Envelope Repair - Tower     Fig. 1215  Renoviction - Barkley Tower Protest    Fig. 1316  Infrared Scan - Slab Edge Balcony    Fig. 1417  Pie Chart - Industry Energy Use in United States (2010) Fig. 1517  Pie Chart - Residential Energy Use in Canada (2013) Fig. 1618  907 Beach Ave - Coral Court Tower    Fig. 1718  Window Wall Section     Fig. 1819  One Wall Centre      Fig. 1919  Curtain Wall Section      Fig. 2020  One Wall Centre - Repair     Fig. 2121  One Wall Centre - Scaffolding    Fig. 2221  One Wall Centre - Window Failure    Fig. 2322  Transformation of 530 Dwelling, Bordeaux France  Fig. 2423  Mid-Construction of refurbishment    Fig. 2523  Extended Wintegarden     Fig. 2624  Proposed Site - Marinaside Resort    Fig. 2725  Context Plan - 5 Min. Radius    Fig. 2826  O.D.P, Zones       Fig. 2927  Proposed Site - O.D.P. Area 4    Fig. 3028  Vancouver Building Age Map    Fig. 3129  Speculative Scenario      Fig. 3229  Diagram - Building in the Anthropocene   Fig. 3330  Section - 1077 Marinaside Crescent    Fig. 3431  Typical Floor Plan - 1077 Marinaside Crescent  Fig. 3532  Photo - View from Cambie Bridge     Fig. 36 33  Typical Section - 1077 Marinaside Crescent   Fig. 3733  Photo - West Elevation 1077 Marinaside Crescent  Fig. 38 35  Google Streetview - Podium Condition   Fig. 39 35       Typical Condo Amenity Spaces    Fig. 4036  RDH Depreciation Report - Cover    Fig. 4137  RDH Depreciation Report - Repair Cost Distribution Fig. 42vii37  RDH Depreciation Report - Projected Timeline  Fig. 4338  Photo - 1077 Marinaside Crescent    Fig. 4439  Thermal Image - 1077 Marinaside Crescent   Fig. 4540  Diagram - Existing Formula     Fig. 46 41  Diagram - Grasshopper and the And 2019   Fig. 4742  Proposal - Isometric View     Fig. 4843  Proposal - Site Plan      Fig. 4944  Proposal - Section Detail     Fig. 5045  Existing - Elevation Analysis     Fig. 5145  Proposal - Elevation      Fig. 5246  Proposal - Construction Sequence    Fig. 5347  Animation - Repairing Cityscape    Fig. 5448,49  Diagrams - Seasonal Conditions by Orientation  Fig. 5550  Proposal - Plan Variation     Fig. 5651  Animation - Plan Variation     Fig. 5752  North Facade - Elevation Collage    Fig. 5853  North Facade - Isometric Sketch: Powder Room  Fig. 5954  North Facade - Isometric Sketch: Bathing Room  Fig. 6055  North Facade - Isometric Sketch: Atelier   Fig. 6156  East Facade - Elevation Collage    Fig. 6257  East Facade - Isometric Sketch: Meditation Room  Fig. 6358  East Facade - Isometric Sketch: Curtain Room  Fig. 6459  East Facade - Isometric Sketch: Wintergarden  Fig. 6560  South Facade - Elevation Collage    Fig. 6661  South Facade - Isometric Sketch: Small Home Office Fig. 6762  South Facade - Isometric Sketch: Extension of Living Fig. 6863  South Facade - Isometric Sketch: Bed Window  Fig. 6964  West Facade - Elevation Collage    Fig. 7065  West Facade - Isometric Sketch: Bay Window  Fig. 7166  West Facade - Isometric Sketch: Double Glazed  Fig. 7267  West Facade - Isometric Sketch: Two Units   Fig. 7368  Model Photo - West Facade     Fig. 7468  Model Photo - Southwest Facade    Fig. 7569  Model Photo - South Facade     Fig. 7669  Model Photo - North Facade     Fig. 7769  Model Photo - North Facade     Fig. 7870  Model Photo - Top view Northwest corner   Fig. 7970  Model Photo - Top view Southwest corner   Fig. 8071  Model Photo - Top view Northeast corner   Fig. 8171  Model Photo - Top view Southeast corner   Fig. 8272  Photo - Thesis defense     Fig. 8372  Presentation panels      Fig. 84ixAcknowledgmentThroughout both the Part I and Part II of this graduate project, I have received a great deal of support and assistance. First and foremost, I would like to thank my Part I mentor Dr. Sherry McKay and Part II supervisor Bill Pechet for their expertise, patience, and guidance throughout the process.To my committee members: Chris Macdonald, Chad Manley, and Peeroj Thakre, my sincere appreciation for your time, insights and critical feedbacks. Thank you to my colleagues and friends for their production support during the lead up to the thesis defense: Chris Boni, Nigel Dembicki, Karen Gill, Shannon MacGillivray, Paula Martinez, Yuki Nakahara, Sarah Sako, Line Siu, Mitch Stookey, Samara Visram, and Sherman Wai.Last but not least, I would like to thank my wife, Hannah, for your unconditional love and support.xiDedicationI wish to dedicate this thesis to my late mother, Mariko Ishimura. Thank you for providing me with an adventurous and wonderful childhood.xiiLike so many others before me that have come to this place, I am an immigrant, who now calls Vancouver home. Some may settle, and others move away. Whatever the outcome, the totality of experiences and a mix of cultures contribute to the makeshift of this city. The collective memory1 of a city then is continuously in flux, as something that is profoundly shaped by the mutually responsive relationship between social groups and the places they inhabit.  My interests in architecture stem from this delicate continuity between the contemporary situation and past architecture. In 2012, during my travels in Philadelphia, I came across a row house next to an empty lot that made me pause and wonder what I was seeing. For whatever reason, the building that stood on the now vacant lot has disappeared, however, the traces of this past was imprinted directly onto the brick wall of the adjacent building (Figure 1). After some investigation, I came to realize that this was due to how this typology was constructed, and that resulted in painting directly onto the adjacent wall. This experience, amongst many others, has shaped the way I view the world as an architect but also as an observer and an investigator. I firmly believe that it is only by understanding and reflecting on the past that architecture can continue to be a relevant social and artistic discipline that foster a certain level of agency within the practice. As something both subjective and objective, this thesis will unpack the relatively brief yet dense history of Vancouver through the lens of the window.   As many scholars and architects have extensively contributed to the study of windows, this thesis has specifically borrowed from and re-contextualized the research of Yoshiharu Tsukamoto and Momoyo Kaijima’s.2 My time at ETH Zurich in Momoyo Kaijima’s 2018 winter semester studio Window Behaviorology: Switzerland, have greatly influenced the framework for this research. The work of the studio typologically analyzed the windows of Switzerland to develop strategies for new window types to be deployed to contemporary architectural questions. Applying this methodology to Vancouver, initial research has collected and visualized a cross-section of distinct regional windows through comparative analysis to uncover visible and invisible relationships between human and natural behaviours.1 As defined by Maurice Halbwachs and later elaborated by Christine M. Boyer in The City of    Collective Memory2 Windowscape 1, 2, and 3 as well as their research with Window Research Institute have been    referred to for this Graduate ThesisPreface“History has never copied earlier history and if it ever had done so that would not matter in history; in a certain sense history would come to a halt with that act. The only act that qualifies as historical is that which in some way introduces something additional, a new element, in the world, from which a new story can be generated and the thread taken up anew.”- Karl Friedrich Schinkel, “Das architektonische Lehrbuch”xiii“Genealogy is gray, meticulous, and patiently documentary. It operates on a field of entangled and confused parchments, on documents that have been scratched over and recopied many times….From these elements, however, genealogy retrieves an indispensable restraint: it must record the singularity of events outside of any monotonous finality; it must seek them in the most unpromising places, in what we tend to feel is without history – in sentiments, love, conscience, instincts; it must be sensitive to their recurrence, not in order to trace the gradual curve of their evolution, but to isolate the different scenes where they engage in different roles.” - Michel Foucault, “Nietzsche, Genealogy, History”Figure 1. Imprint of Collective Memory. Row House, Philadelphia Source: Author1Thesis StatementFor generations, windows have been an integral part of the building’s skin, allowing natural and human behaviours to act and react in an ecology. The inevitable failure of the optimized building envelopes built between the late 1980s to mid-2000s and the research into the subsequent replacement of these windows engage a new narrative with the city, revealing value and potential embedded in delightful qualities of the window.21. Window as Collective MemoryThe English word “window” derives from the Old Norse vindauga (from vindr, “wind” and auga, “eye”) and emphasizes the etymological root of the eye, open to the wind.1 Different cultures and languages have different etymologies for this word, but in the most general sense, windows allow natural light into and provide ventilation for an enclosed space. These two fundamental phenomena have an immense effect on how space is perceived.   A window is also the architectural element behaving between/with human, nature, and often considered as the “eye of the building.” Traditionally, these relationships between human and nature/culture coexisted with some sense of consideration to each element. This way of building and thinking resulted in an architecture that was hyper-specific to its local conditions. With the development of modern technology and industry in the 20th century, these relationships that the window represented began to diminish, moving further and further away from each other. The window has become merely a product of enclosures and lost touch with the dwellers who contribute to the collective memory of the city.  As explained in Christine M. Boyer’s work The City of Collective Memory,2 memory is something that unfolds in a spatial framework and remembrance is visible in the arrangement of cities/places. Thus, it is understood that the city is a collection of representational forms that link the collective memory. Jeff Wall, a prominent photographer from Vancouver, skillfully captures this notion into a formulated scene in A view from an Apartment (Figure 2). As the title mentions, the constructed image depicts a rather ordinary everyday scene with a large window in the background which captures the panorama of the city with all its activities. The contrast of the view into the everyday enclosed space with a framed view of the vast urbanity reveals the inherent power of windows - simultaneously individual and collective.   To begin unpacking the collective memory of Vancouver, a brief historical analysis of developments in Vancouver with a focus on the window will layout the foundation. Three distinctive historical periods have been selected to capture the spirit of each era with significant events (Appendix 2).1 “Window | Definition of Window in English by Oxford Dictionaries,” Oxford Dictionaries |   English, , accessed December 06, 2018, https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/window.2 M. C. Boyer, The City of Collective Memory: Its Historical Imagery and Architectural    Entertainments (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2006).3Figure 2. A View from an Apartment, Jeff WallSource: Tate Modern Website4Pre-War2. History & DevelopmentThe region we now call Vancouver has long been inhabited by the Squamish, Tsliel-Watuth and Musqueam people. Until the arrival of a trading post, which was set up at Fort Langley by the Hudson Bay Company in 1827, Indigenous people lived together with the natural system.1 Although there were local variations, the vernacular architectural typology of the PacificNorthwest region utilized the abundant supplies of western red cedar to produce plank houses (Figure 3). As most coastal people occupied permanent winter village sites from fall to spring and lived in either fixed or portable dwellings in the summer, plank houses were sometimes dismantled to enclose summer houses. Windows, as understood from a Western notion of architecture, was not a dominant element within Indigenous built structures and architecture. For instance, the plank house had a window like openings only existing in the entrance and the roof for ventilation.2   Colonial settlements continued as immigrants sought prosperous opportunities in a new place. This pattern amplified during the 1860’s gold rush in the Cariboo Mountains. Thousands of miners, many from California, flooded into the region in hopes of striking rich. Discoveries of gold up north continued this fever, resulting in an influx of more people arriving in Vancouver as a place to gather necessary information and equipment.  As it is understood now, it was the ones providing these supplies and services that profited the most (Figure 4).   The surge of people also meant an increasing need for adequate shelter. British Columbia Mills & Lumber Company saw this as an opportunity with a limited number of builders to match the demand and began fabricating panelized homes made from the materials at their sawmill (Appendix 1).3 Although short-lived, the company created various models to meet the different demands.   In April of 1886, Vancouver incorporated as a city, further establishing itself as a regional hub and its colonial influence. As the economy and the city grew, by the 1930s, Vancouver was considered Canada’s major Pacific coast port.  1 Edward Mills and Harold D. Kalman, “Architectural History of Indigenous Peoples in     Canada,” The Canadian Encyclopedia, September 30, 2007, , accessed November 20, 2018, https://   www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/architectural-history-early-first-nations.2 Ibid3 Penny Street, “Our BC Mills Legacy,” Heritage Vancouver Newsletter 15. No 5 (November 2006).5Figure 3. Shed roof house at Comiaken VillageSource: F. Dally, ca. 1869. B.C. Archives PN6481Figure 4. Exterior of Clubb and Stewart Mens’ Furnishings (Klondike Outfitters) Source: City of Vancouver Archives, AM54-S4-2-: CVA 371-8786After the First World War, notions of Modernism in architecture forever changed the built environment, and this further intensified after the Second World War (Figure 5). Vancouver was no exception, and the post-war change in the architectural landscape can be attributed to a host of variables, including but not limited to an influx of new population, technological advancements allowing for mass production, and the beginnings of stringent zoning and building bylaws.  With the end of World War II, the need to rapidly house the returning soldiers and their families became the pressing challenge of the time. The mid-century builder emerged out of this scenario and produced a predominant typology in the suburban areas (Appendix 1).1 Function over style was its defining characteristics, with a simple form consisting of a hipped roof on a box-like structure and inexpensive materials as its palette defined the type. The large picture window that typically faces the front yard and the street was an extension of the domestic domain – private property controlled by the occupants of the house.2 This picture window also connotes a sense of domesticity which speaks of the defined nuclear family structure of its time. 1	 “Mid-Century	Builder	•	Vancouver	Heritage	Foundation,”	Vancouver	Heritage	Foundation,		 accessed November 10, 2018, http://www.vancouverheritagefoundation.org/house-styles/mid-cen  tury-vernacular/.2 Hilde Heynen, Negotiating Domesticity: Spatial Productions of Gender in Modern Architecture   (Routledge, 2005), 209.Post-WarFigure 5. BC Electric Head Office, 1955-57. Warrington, JRAIC 1958.Source: http://spacing.ca/vancouver/2014/07/23/modernism-van-couver-part-one-post-war-idealism/7Growth continued as Vancouver welcomed more people including new immigrants and began to build up as well as sprawl like many North American cities. Beginning in the late 1960s into 1970s, non-market rental towers were built in urban areas such as the West End, as developers benefited from various incentives provided by the federal government (Appendix 1).3 This incentive program allowed for smaller developers including professionals with little surplus income to invest in housing.4   The Vancouver Special, on the other end, became a predominant architectural style of the single detached homes during the same period (Figure 6). This typology is characterized by the front-gabled, 2-storey box-like structure with low-pitched roofs and balconies across the front of the house.5 A repeated typology, the Vancouver Special was in response to the City of Vancouver’s setback by-laws and allowable building envelope of the time.6 Basements were not included in the Floor Space Ratio calculations, and the design is a direct manifestation of maximizing square footage on a given site.7 Original windows consisted of slider and fixed aluminum framed windows, which was the most economical frame at the time (Appendix 1). Alteration to the Vancouver Special is another unique trait of this typology, especially at the rear of the property. Over time, due to changing needs, many decks were enclosed, perhaps illegally, to further extend one’s living spaces (Appendix 1). 3 Tony Crook, “The Supply of Private Rented Housing in Canada,” Netherlands Journal of Housing   and the Built Environment 13, no. 3 (1998): , doi:10.1007/bf02496782.4 Christopher Cheung, “Should Old Rental Buildings Be Saved - or Sacrificed?” The Tyee, February   14, 2017, , accessed November 11, 2018, https://thetyee.ca/News/2017/02/14/Should-    Old-Rental-Buildings-Be-Saved/.5	 “Vancouver	Special	•	Vancouver	Heritage	Foundation,”	Vancouver	Heritage	Foundation,	,	accessed		 September 20, 2018, http://www.vancouverheritagefoundation.org/house-styles/vancouver-   special/.6 Ibid.7 Ibid.Figure 6. Typical Vancouver SpecialSource: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vancouver_Spe-cial#/media/File:Vancouver_spcials_01.jpg8Post-ExpoIn 1986, Vancouver invited the world for the centenary birthday party and this event forever changed the dynamics of the city (Figure 7). Themed as “Transportation and Communication: World in Motion – World in Touch,” Expo 86 became very much a coming-out party for Vancouver as it opened its doors to the global stage.1 Despite the event’s deficit of $311 million, the event was considered a tremendous success.2 Much of its legacy still resonates to this day, from the iconic geodesic dome structure we call Science World to the well-used Expo Line that connects much of Lower Mainland to its core. However, the most significant impact, regarding magnitude, could be the Concord Pacific developments that have been built over the former Expo lands. Purchased by Hong Kong billionaire, Li Ka-Shing, Concord Pacific completely transformed the neighbourhood, as they would go on to redevelop much of the north side of False Creek with the podium tower typology (Figure 8).3 The development also set the tone for other well-funded developers throughout the 1990s to produce similar if not identical kinds of built forms. Referred to as Vancouverism,4 an urban development process and style for which Vancouver has become known, this formulaic approach to development is still very much active despite its lack of architectural consideration and intrusive nature.   During this same period, a separate event was beginning to reveal itself due to poor building envelope details. The Leaky Condo Crisis affected (and still affecting) many of the 3 to 4 storey strata buildings in and around the Fairview Slopes neighbourhood (Figure 9).5 This ongoing construction, financial, and legal crisis is estimated at $4 billion in damage over 900 buildings and 31,000 individual housing units built between the late 1980s and early 2000s.6 Considered the most extensive and most costly reconstruction of housing stock in Canadian history, the bitter lessons from this experience have resulted in much more careful consideration of the building envelope, including the windows, that defaults to optimized and standardized detailing which has reduced the threshold to a mere product.  Throughout these three distinct periods, it is evident that Vancouver has always been a territory of transition, continually coming and going. From the seasonal lifestyle of the First Nations people to the transient workers of the gold rush era to the international citizens of today, Vancouver’s collective memory viewed from the lens of windows provides the greater context to understand why the things are the way they are today. 1 Bruce Mason, “The Lingering World Class Costs of Expo 86,” Common Ground, January 28,   2017, , accessed October 15, 2018, https://commonground.ca/the-impacts-of-expo-86-30-years-  later/.2 Ibid.3 Mary Janigan, “Canadian Cities Are in Decline,” Mcleans, June 03, 2002.4 Vancouverism in this research report refers to tall slim towers for density, widely separated by low-  rise buildings, for light, air, and views. It means many parks, walkable streets, and public spaces,   combined with an emphasis on sustainable forms of transit.5 Jiwu Rao, Users.encs.concordia.ca, , accessed December 02, 2018, http://users.encs.concordia.  ca/~raojw/crd/concept/concept000060.html.6 Ibid.9Figure 7. Pre-Expo VancouverSource: Concord Pacific Developments, CommunitiesFigure 8. Post-Expo VancouverSource: Concord Pacific Developments, CommunitiesFigure 9. Leaky Condo Envelope Restoration Source: http://editart.club/fruva.html10There are about 600,000 condo units in Metro Vancouver and 130,000 of those in the City of Vancouver.1 Many of them exist within the podium tower, and the impact it has on the built environment is undeniable (Figure 10). The condo boom has led to increased density, higher land prices, more vacant dwellings, more vertical neighbourhoods, fewer purpose-built rental units, more investor owners (domestic and offshore) and discord between different kinds of condo owners and users. 2  The podium tower typology has defined Vancouver’s recent history. Identified as part of Vancouverism, this typology has dramatically affected how this city is identified and experienced through the planned urban densification (Appendix 1). During Larry Beasley’s tenure as City of Vancouver’s Director of Planning during the ’90s into the 2000s, this typology has multiplied itself hundreds of times and, as a result, this phenomena has become a dominant typology since its inception. As a formula, guided by this region’s zoning bylaws, there is not much distinction between one to another. Moreover, as such, the task of singling out something heterogeneous is a task that is counter-productive to the nature of its condition. To specify a site for GP II, this section will cover the repeating conditions and its specific characteristics within the prescribed formula of the podium tower.1 Douglas Todd, “Douglas Todd: Condos Changed Metro Vancouver Forever, for Better and Worse,”   editorial, October 18, 2018, , accessed October 22, 2018, https://vancouversun.com/opinion/  columnists/douglas-todd-condos-changed-metro-vancouver-forever-for-better-and-worse.2 Ibid.Impact of the Podium TowerFigure 10. Vancouver Skyline Across False CreekSource: Thom Quine, Flickr3. Context11Standards for Building in the FutureTo combat climate change, governmental bodies have been introducing new policies to protect what is left of the planet. Locally, the City of Vancouver is trying to be the greenest city in the world by the year 2020. An extremely tall order to accomplish as ambiguous as it is.  Guidelines such as the Zero Emissions Building Plan have been working in parallel with the Greenest City Action Plan 2020 to contribute to this effort. Four action strategies have been introduced to eliminate operational greenhouse gas emissions by 2025 and no greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 on all new buildings. To entice developers primarily concerned with profit margins, the City of Vancouver is offering up to 5% more FSR1 on new construction if they commit and meet the stringent guidelines (Figure 11).2 The logic of this mechanism is to offset the added cost construction in exchange for a more buildable area. It is evident throughout our local history that this tactic of offering FSR has worked in implementing change and is perhaps one of the only tools that the city could genuinely leverage.  Whether Vancouver will become the greenest city in the distant future is still to be determined. Many skeptics believe this goal will not be met, along with many other political promises. Regardless of these opinions, the emphasis on sustainability at the municipal, provincial and the federal level speak of the magnitude of the effect of climate change. However, these standards primarily target new construction and neglect the alterations and upgrades of existing buildings, which make up most of our built landscape. It is time to consider the viability of such ideas seriously.1 The floor space ratio is the ratio of the gross floor area of a development to the site area expressed   as a factor of 1. That is, the total floor area on all levels of the building minus any exclusions   provided for in the definition of gross floor area, divided by the site area.2 To qualify for up to a 5% floor space ratio (FSR) increase, projects must be a Certified Passive   House or an International Living Future Institute Zero Energy standard project, Development   Permit project in a District Schedule Zone, and/or project with 6 or more residential units (City of   Vancouver, Zero Emissions Building Tool Kit).Figure 11. City of Vancouver “Advertisement” for FSRSource: City of Vancouver, Zero Emissions Building Tool Kit12Common Property and the Cost of RepairThe reality of asset management1 and building maintenance is to neglect, defer, and wait until failures occur.2 This delay is partly due to the significant costs of such repairs but is also dictated by how the strata ownership model decide on such decisions. In typical strata housing, the owners own their individual strata parcels and together own the common properties and manage assets as a strata corporation, where a strata council is formed to make decisions on behalf of the owners.3 Under the Strata Property Act, any alteration to the common property must be passed by a 3/4 vote at an annual or special general meeting if the alteration will result in a significant change in the use or appearance of common property or a shared asset.4 With such an onerous and challenging system, it only makes sense that many of the strata buildings wait until failures occur.  The Leaky Condo Crisis has shown us that these damages to buildings, as both a financial asset and as dwellings for people, have immense implications. Buildings, like anything else in life, age over time and require maintenance. However, how soon is too soon? The Coral Court Tower on 907 Beach Avenue was built in 1994 and has undergone significant envelope repairs 20 years after it was constructed (Figure 12). The cost of this repair worked out to approximately $55,000 CDN per unit.5  With similar typologies built around the same era scattered throughout Vancouver and its surrounding regions, it is only a matter of time until the other buildings require a significant upgrade.1 Asset management refers to systematic approach to the governance and realization of value from   the things that a group or entity is responsible for, over their whole life cycles.2 David Albrice, “ The Warning Signs of Asset Failure,” RDH Building Science, May 15, 2018, ,   accessed November 16, 2018, https://www.rdh.com/the-warning-signs-of-asset-failure/.3 Office of Housing and Construction Standards, “Strata Housing,” Province of British Columbia,   September 26, 2017, , accessed November 11, 2018, https://www2.gov.bc.ca/gov/content/housing-  tenancy/strata-housing.4 Ibid.5 Digitalmonkblog, “Tower at 907 Beach Avenue Is Being Reclad. Only 20 Years Old. Sign of the   Times?” CityHallWatch: Tools to Engage in Vancouver City Decisions, June 09, 2014, , accessed   November 28, 2018, https://cityhallwatch.wordpress.com/2014/04/23/tower-reclad-future/.13Figure 12. 907 Beach - Envelope RepairSource: https://cityhallwatch.wordpress.com/2014/04/23/tower-reclad-future/14Renoviction1 is a term that refers to the eviction of all of a building’s tenants because of a planned large-scale renovation.  Berkley Tower on 1770 Davie St. is currently going through this process of renoviction. All current residents of the rental building have to vacate their homes due to an extensive renovation of the building by its recent new owner, Reliance Properties (Figure 13). They intend to convert all 56 units into high-end luxury units.2 A topical and sensitive issue, both sides have defended their rights. Local media were quick to cover the story; mainly focussing on whether or not landlords have the right to renovate their properties, not if tenants have the right to remain in their homes. According to the precedent law through the Supreme Court of BC, however, tenants should be allowed to maintain their tenancies during renovations.3 This contentious issue has created tension between renters and homeowners and landlords, as was evident in the recent results of the local election. The jury is still out on whether renters will be protected from any future displacement due to renovations, however,  as building stocks age, we will see an increasing number of this type of situation, regardless if one rent or owns. An urgent imagination is required to allow for alternative repairing methods1 “Renoviction,” Women’s Rights Dictionary Definition | Women’s Rights Defined, , accessed   December 04, 2018, https://www.yourdictionary.com/renoviction.2 Karin Larsen, “West End Tower Tenants Rally against Looming Renovictions | CBC News,”   CBCnews, September 26, 2018, , accessed October 24, 2018, https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/  british-columbia/west-end-tower-tenants-rally-against-looming-renovictions-1.4837664.3 “Law | Berkeley Tower Tenants,” Home | Berkeley Tower Tenants, , accessed October 27, 2018,   https://berkeleytower.wixsite.com/tenants/the-supreme-court.Renoviction and Displacement15Figure 13. 1770 Davie St. - Berkley Tower Renoviction ProtestSource: Vancouver Tenants Union, Facebook Group16Buildings account for 40% of Canada’s energy use, and the building envelope plays an integral part in mitigating this number (Figure 15).1 Typically consisting of exterior cladding, insulation, interior finish, and fenestration, the building envelope can drastically reduce heating and cooling loads that account for much of building energy consumption (Figure 16). Exposed slab edges, a common trait in residential high-rise buildings are the second most significant source of thermal bridging in a multi-storey building (Figure 14).2 Legislative measures have begun to take note of this in recent years with the introduction of the BC Building Step Code to reduce building’s heating and cooling load on any new constructions. The City of Vancouver in recent years have taken further initiatives by introducing guidelines such as the Zero Emissions Building Plan and Passivehaus Design principles, to reduce the buildings ecological footprint.3 Applicable only to new buildings, this plan does not address the embodied energy of the new construction, although it does address part of the problem. To ask the same question but of an existing condition will allow for a more holistic definition of sustainability, one that is not just guided by the environmental and the economic but overall quality of a building that is generous to a wide range of people. 1 US Department of Energy, “Energy Efficiency Trends in Residential and Commercial Buildings -   August 2010,” 2010, , doi:10.2172/1218835.2 The Importance of Slab Edge & Balcony Thermal Bridges, report, September 24, 2013, , accessed   October 20, 2018, https://www.rdh.com/research-forensics/publications/balcony-slab-edge-study-  r-values-energy-code-canada/.3 City Of Vancouver, “Green Building and Renovating,” City of Vancouver, May 07, 2018, , accessed   November 05, 2018, https://vancouver.ca/home-property-development/green-building-and-  renovating.aspx.Existing Building EnvelopeFigure 14. Infrared Scan - Slab Edge BalconySource: RDH Building Engineering LTD., The Im-portance of Slab Edge & Balcony Thermal Bridges, Report #117Figure 15. Energy use in United States, 2010Source: Author. Adapted from US Department of Energy Report “Energy Efficiency Trends in residential and Commercial Buildings, 2010Figure 16. Distribution of residential energy use by end-use in Canada, 2013Source: Author. Adapted from Energy Efficiency Trends in Canada 1990 to 2013Transportation Industrial Residential Building Commercial BuildingTransportation (28.6%)Industrial(29.8%)All Buildings(41.5%)Residential(22.4%)Commercial(22.4%)Water Heating(17%)Appliances(14%)Lighting(4%)Space Cooling(1%)Space Heating(63%)18Two Tower Window ConditionsFigure 18. Window Wall SectionSource: AuthorFigure 17.  907 Beach Avenue - Coral CourtSource: BCFloorPlans.netPost-Expo (1987-1999)Window Wall1Also known as storefront windows, the window wall is achieved by placing glazing between a building’s concrete slabs, using the slabs as structural support (Figure 18).2 It is most commonly applied to residential high-rise buildings as it is significantly more cost-effective as opposed to the Curtain Wall system and also allows for more customizable sections such as balcony doors. Typically, Window Wall glazing systems are detailed to have a break between the glass, with slab covers in the form of minimally insulated spandrel panels that are used to conceal the concrete.1 Marquis, P., Ali, H., Mirhadi, F., McCabe, B.Y., Shahi, A., De Berardis, P., Lyall, R. “Window Wall and Curtain Wall: An objective review”. CSCE/CRC International Construction Specialty Conference. Vancouver, British Columbia, May 31 to June 3, 20172 “Curtain Wall vs. Window Wall: What’s the Difference? | Lenmak Exteriors,” Lenmak, October    02, 2018, , accessed December 03, 2018, https://www.lenmak.com/curtain-window-wall/.19Figure 20. Curtain Wall SectionSource: AuthorFigure 19. One Wall CentreSource: ItzaFineDay, FlickrPost-Expo (~2000)Curtain Wall3A curtain wall is a glazed wall system hung off a concrete slab using anchors (Figure 20). This self-supporting unitized system is installed from the outside using cranes and is used to give the exterior facade a unified glass aesthetic. Most often used on commercial buildings, curtain walls are more costly than storefront windows but have much better energy performance because of the continuous thermal barrier, minimizing thermal breaks at the slab edge conditions. 3 Ibid.20One Wall Centre Envelope Repair1Building Envelope Consultant: RDHLocation: Vancouver, BCYear: 2006 - 2011Size:  42,955 m2Height: 149.8 m (48 floors)One Wall Centre, designed by Busby Perkins + Will, is a 48 storey elliptically shaped tower consisting of a hotel on the first 31 floors and residential units on the upper 17 levels (Figure 21). RDH, a building envelope consultancy firm was approached by the owners of the residential units to investigate the cause of fogging on the windows or insulating glass units.2 Residential units had clear, non-reflective glazing as opposed to the hotel floors’ reflective glazing and the consultants identified that systemic failure of the IGU was the cause to the fogging (Figure 23). The replacement work of the failed glazing units was carried out by a team of qualified contractors who suspended and hung a scaffolding ring platform from the top of the building (Figure 22). This system allowed for quick workflow, where a 500 lb glazing unit was replaced from the exterior of the building with minimal disruption to the dwellers of these suites.1 “One Wall Centre Case Study,” RDH Building Science, , accessed November 19, 2018, https://   www.rdh.com/case-studies/the-sheraton-wall-centre/.2 Insulating Glass Units, more commonly known as double glazing, and increasingly triple or even    quadruple panes of glass are separated by a vacuum or gas gilled space to reduce heat     transfer across a part of the building envelope (RDH Building Science).Figure 21. One Wall Centre - RepairSource: SkyscraperPage Forum4. Case Studies21Figure 22. One Wall Centre - ScaffoldingSource: RDH Building Engineering LTD.Figure 23. One Wall Centre - Window FailureSource: RDH Building Engineering LTD.22Transformation de 530 logements, bâtiments G, H, I, quartier du Grand Parc1Architect: Lacaton & VassalLocation: Bordeaux, FranceYear: 2011 - 2016Size: 44, 210 m2 existing + 23, 500 m2 extensions (68, 000 m2 with wintergardens)A housing project realized by the French architecture firm Lacaton & Vassal, this proposal adds an extended winter garden and balconies to an existing 1960’s urban housing project (Figure 24). The three buildings G, H, and I consist of 10 to 15 floors in height and house 530 dwelling units. The conceptual approach was to make minimal yet generous interventions to the existing framework, resulting in the existing tenants remaining in their home during construction (Figure 25, 26). The extension also contributed to significant cost savings for the project budget by nearly half the budget for a new building. This project and much of the duo’s practice have operated within the existing with a motto to “never demolish, never remove or replace, always add, transform and reuse!” 2 1 Lacaton & Vassal, , accessed November 23, 2018, https://www.lacatonvassal.com/index.    php?idp=80.2 David Huber, “Lacaton & Vassal Have a Strategy to Save France’s Social Housing,” Metropolis,    March 15, 2017, , accessed November 25, 2018, https://www.metropolismag.com/ideas/    preservation/lacaton-vassal-pioneered-strategy-saving-france-social-housing/.Figure 24. Transformation de 530 logements, bâtiments G, H, I, quartier du Grand ParcSource: Lacaton & Vassal23Figure 25. Mid-construction of RefurbishmentSource: Lacaton & VassalFigure 26. Extended WintergardenSource: Lacaton & Vassal24Figure 27. Proposed Site - Marinaside Resorts - 1077 & 1099Source: https://www.vancouverfloorplans.com/1077marinaside/5. Proposed SiteThe Concord Pacific development on the former Expo 86 lands reveals both the success of persistent planning guidelines to implement density and also an immense failure as a manifestation of such formulaic tactics. The podium towers of this area are direct results of this and define much of the neighbouring areas and beyond. This built form also outwardly exhibits the logic of densification in a kind of vociferous manner. In reality, the built environment represents the shifting nature of this city, both physically and functionally, revealing signs of prosperity, exclusivity, and obsession with the view that surrounds us. Bordered by the Cambie Bridge to the east, Downtown core to the north, False Creek and seawall to the south, this area is inherently complex due to its history and positioning in the city and well overdue for a change.The proposed site is a podium tower development called Marinaside Resort, at 1077 and 1099 Marinaside Crescent in Vancouver (Figure 27). It was designed by James Cheng Architects LTD. and developed by Concord Pacific. The freehold strata titled luxury condominium and townhouses currently contain a total of 155 units in two residential towers in a Comprehensive Development 1 zone (CD-1). The two towers have heights 15 stories to 26, with townhouses and commercial development infilling between the two as the podium. Local amenities include restaurants, a high-end grocery store, several small retail outlets, office buildings, and publicly accessible parks along the seawall as well as Roundhouse community centre all within 5-minute walking distance (Figure 28).Most importantly, this site symbolizes some significance as the development that ignited much of the other subsequent podium towers projects. It is only appropriate to return to the epicentre of this malignant growth pattern.25Figure 28. Proposed Site - 5 Minutes Walking RadiusSource: Google Earth500 mEXPO BLVDMARINASIDE CRESCENTPROPOSEDSITE26Official Development Plan: False Creek NorthThe project site is located within the City of Vancouver’s Yaletown neighbourhood. It falls under the False Creek North Official Development Plan (O.D.P). The O.D.P. boundary hugs the shoreline and includes areas past B.C. place (Figure 29).  Ownership type on the proposed site is a freehold strata title that is managed by Rancho Management Services. The Sub-area of this site falls under #4 Quayside, according to the O.D.P. (Figure 30). The breakdown of the “affordable” to market-rate residential units ratio in this sub-area on the table in Figure 30 reveals the particular impression of this planned neighbourhood. Deciphering the bureaucratic jargons of the Official Development Plan, it is evident that the urban planning principle of densification has failed miserably to create diversity and inclusivity. Figure 29. Proposed Site - O.D.P. BoundarySource: https://vancouver.ca/your-government/official-development-plan-bylaws.aspxFalse Creek NorthCity of VancouverFCNOfficialDevelopment Plans18October 200827The following is an excerpt from False Creek North Official Development Plan Section 6.4 Area 4:Figure 30. Proposed Site - O.D.P. Sub-Area 4Source: https://vancouver.ca/your-government/official-development-plan-bylaws.aspxFalse Creek NorthCity of VancouverFCNOfficial Development Plans21November 2014False Creek NorthCity of Vancouver FCNOfficial Development Plans 16 May 20136.3 Area 3This primarily residential area consists of three city blocks.  Pacific Boulevard is to be lined with street enclosure buildings containing retail and other pedestrian interest uses at grade with taller buildings rising from them.  The character of Yaletown is to be reflected in the lower levels of buildings.  Some visual exposure to Yaletown from Pacific Boulevard is to be provided at street corners.  The lanes bordering this area are to service Yaletown and this area.  They are also to be linked to entry courts which provide visual amenity and exposure to nearby development.6.4 Area 4This area is to be oriented around a major bay which contains a marina.  This marina is to include visitors’ moorage and public access to the water.  The crescent shape of the bay is to be defined by a waterfront street lined on the north by a pedestrian walkway and shops, and on the south by the waterfront walkway.  A continuous retail link to Downtown is to be provided along Davie Street which terminates in a water view.  A park at the eastern edge of this area is to accommodate car-top boat launching.  6.5 Areas 5(a), 5(b) East and 5(b) WestThis mixed use area comprises several parcels defined by streets and bridge ramps.  Retail and service uses are encouraged at street level.  Area 5(b) West is intended to include a high rise form above the podium level, to identify an important gateway leading from the Cambie Bridge into the downtown area. Residential use above the podium level is to be in high-rise building form in Area 5(b) West and in mid-rise slab building form in Area 5(b) East to preserve the view corridor from the Cambie Bridge.  Both sites must have an integrated public realm which includes both pedestrian and bicycle linkages.6.6 Area 6(a)This residential area is to focus around a waterfront park.  Special attention, at the sub-area zoning stage, is to be paid to mitigating bridge impacts and the affects of the adjacent regional facilities.6.7 Area 6(b) (Plaza of Nations Complex)The Plaza of Nations Complex consists of three commercial buildings around a partially covered plaza area.  It is intended that the buildings remain and be used for commercial purposes.  A family sports and entertainment centre may be permitted within an existing building.  Public access is to be provided and guaranteed through the site at all times unless the City Engineer approves otherwise for special events.  The performance space within the plaza is to be made available for events on a commercial basis. Except for office use referred to in section 3.2.2, hotel use referred to in section 3.2.3 and retail use referred to in section 3.2.4, it is intended that the development of this site remain generally as built as of April 10, 1990.6.8 Area 6(c)This commercial area is located on the western edge of a major waterfront park and extends between the viaducts east of Abbott Street.  Retail use is to be extended along the west side of Abbott Street to the waterfront.  Abbott Street is to be extended for a short distance along the water to Carrall Street.  A marina will be considered in the small bay with respect to the policy of encouraging non-power craft at the east end of False Creek.  Berths will be located to provide a water view down Abbott Street.  The land between the viaducts is to be developed with residential amenities and parking as determined at the sub-area zoning stage.286. FrameworkFrom the lens of windows, the tower typology and the expansive glass provides a powerful visual connection to the outside. The sense of being protected within an interior space while having a broad panorama can have an almost elemental appeal. However, these towers also no longer register the public, the private or social significance of the spaces within its envelope. Bedrooms and living rooms are given the same glazing, while the most private of the space of the bathroom has migrated to the windowless interior of the plan. The etiquette of sociability once registered in the window’s dimension, and placement in the wall has been eliminated in the interests of the general economy of the plan and the building envelope.   The amount of glass in the facades has been the subject of fascination for generations, but in the age of Anthropocene, it is now subject of fierce debate in energy efficiency circles. Another Leaky Condo Crisis is on its way, if not already here, where what is leaking is not moisture but energy, in the form of thermal bridging of the building envelope.   In framing this design proposal, a speculation on a Carbon Tax will be applied to Energy Leaking Buildings to offset the significant energy usage buildings, and building industries have on climate. In new construction, for instance, there are kickbacks and incentives in the form of added density to compensate for the extra cost accrued for better than average performing building (Figure 33). Net zero, Passivehaus, and such measures are already being applied at the COV. Maps such as the one in Figure 31, can quickly and easily reveal the intensity of the upcoming building envelope repairs that will take place within our foreseeable future.1800s1900s1910s1920s1930s1940s1950s1960s1970s1980s1990s2010sParks2000sVancouver’s Building Age MapFigure 31. Vancouver Building Age MapSource: Adapted from http://www.aristova.me/projects/vancouver-building-age-map/29priceoncarbonClimate Change Policy Change(Federal, Provincial,+ Municipal)Strata Council$?? ? ?New ConstructionFederal, Provincial & Municipal GovernmentExisting BuildingsIncentive(s)=FSR{ {Passivehaus Net-Zero Demolition Replace Windows?Figure 32. Speculative Scenario Source: AuthorFigure 33. Flow Diagram - Building in the AnthropoceneSource: AuthorWith City of Vancouver’s ambitious and lofty goals to become the Greenest City by 2020, and carbon neutral by 2040, coupled with building industries and heating and cooling of buildings consuming a significant amount of available energy, it is where architects today can positively operate in altering the built environment. This project is a model strategy for an alternative repair method that can potentially be applied to hundreds of similar buildings throughout greater Vancouver and beyond.307. The BuildingMarinaside Resort is located on the planned neighbourhood of Yaletown that developed out of the 1986 Expo and its subsequent economic boost (Figure 36). Designed by James Chang Architect, Rancho Strata Corporation manages the three towers and two podiums, consisting of 375 units. For this thesis, I have chosen to operate on the 1077 Marinaside Crescent Tower (Figure 35).  The tower is 25 storeys and 64.1 meters tall with its typical floor plan of 6 units per typical floor, averaging from 800+ square feet one bedroom units to 1200 square feet three bedroom suites (Figure 34). Comparatively, these units are rather generous in size compared to today’s condominiums. However, these units struggle to be adaptable to the individual’s needs due to the logic that it was built with. Maximization of profit that ultimately dictates how these buildings are produced leave little to no imagination for how one could inhabit and might want to live in such units. In these towers, the dweller no longer expresses their individuality within the architecture.5th Floor6th Floor7th Floor8th Floor9th Floor10th Floor11th Floor17th Floor3rd Floor2nd FloorGround Floor18th Floor5th Floor6th Floor7th Floor8th Floor9th Floor10th Floor11th Floor15th Floor17th Floor12th Floor16th Floor18th Floor19th Floor20th Floor21st Floor22nd Floor23rd Floor25th Floor26th Floor27th Floor15th Floor12th Floor16th FloorParking Level P-1Parking Level P-2LobbyCorridorStorage LockersStorage LockersStorage LockersUnderground ParkingUnderground ParkingMechanical1099 Marina Side1077 Marina SideSection B-BScale 1:50041.5 m31.4 m64.1 m1099 Marina Side193 Aquarius Mews5th Floor6th Floor7th Floor8th Floor9th Floor10th Floor11th Floor15th Floor17th Floor12th Floor16th Floor18th Floor19th Floor20th Floor21st Floor22nd Floor23rd Floor25th Floor26th Floor27th Floor28th Floor29th Floor30th Floor31st Floor32nd Floor33rd Floor35th Floor36th Floor37th Floor38th FloorP-1 Parking LevelGround FloorMeeting RoomLoungeLobbyParty Roomti  ChangeRoomsBicycleStorageT.V.RoomP-1 Parking LevelDistributionRoomElectrical BicycleStorageUnderground Parking BicycleStorageTelephoneRoomElectricalLobbyStorageLockersStorage LockersUnderground ParkingLoungeMechanical3rd Floor2nd Floor5th Floor6th Floor8th Floor9th Floor10th Floor15th Floor16th Floor7th Floor11th Floor12th Floor3rd Floor2nd FloorSection A-AScale 1:50085.1 m36.8 m28 mFigure 34. Section - 1077 Marinaside CrescentSource: Author31LIVINGROOMDININGROOMDENKITCHENF/PBEDROOMBEDROOMBATHBATHBEDROOMBATHSTORAGEBEDROOMBATHBATHBEDROOMDININGROOMKITCHENBALCONYBALCONYLIVINGROOMF/PDENDENKITCHENDININGROOMLIVINGROOMF/PBALCONYBATHBEDROOMDININGROOMLIVINGROOMF/PDENKITCHENDENSTORAGE STORAGEBATHBATHBATHWALK-INCLOSETKITCHENNOOKBEDROOMBEDROOMDININGROOMBATHLIVINGROOMF/P BEDROOMBALCONYBALCONYLIVINGROOMF/PDININGROOMNOOKKITCHENBEDROOMBEDROOMMECH.TEL.ELEC.STAIRMECH.ELEV. 1ELEV. 21077 Marinaside CrescentExisting6th Floor to 23rd FloorScale 1:100Area Floorplate = 648 m² (6975 sf)Core (including services) = 69 m² (742 sf)Key Plan6th Floor to 15th Floor0m 5m 15m 25m10991931077LIVINGROOMDININGROOMDENKITCHENF/PBEDROOMBEDROOMBATHBATHBEDROOMBATHSTORAGEBEDROOMBATHBATHBEDROOMDININGROOMKITCHENBALCONYBALCONYLIVINGROOMF/PDENDENKITCHENDININGROOMLIVINGROOMF/PBALCONYBATHBEDROOMDININGROOMLIVINGROOMF/PDENKITCHENDENSTORAGE STORAGEBATHBATHBATHWALK-INCLOSETKITCHENNOOKBEDROOMBEDROOMDININGROOMBATHLIVINGROOMF/P BEDROOMBALCONYBALCONYLIVINGROOMF/PDININGROOMNOOKKITCHENBEDROOMBEDROOMMECH.TEL.ELEC.STAIRMECH.ELEV. 1ELEV. 21077 Marinaside CrescentExisting6th Floor to 23rd FloorScale 1:100Area Floorplate = 648 m² (6975 sf)Core (including services) = 69 m² (742 sf)Key Plan6th Floor to 15th Floor0m 5m 15m 25m10991931077Figure 35. Typical Floor Plan 1077 Marinaside Crescent - Floor 6 to 23Source: Author32Figure 36. Photo - View from Cambie BridgeSource: Author1077 Marinaside33Typical Window Cross SectionScale: 1:252625Figure 37. Typical SectionSource: AuthorFigure 38. 1077 Marinaside West ElevationSource: Author348. ProgramExisting programs for the podium tower typology mainly consists of dwellings, with fragments of commercial activities at the podium level (Figure 39). The tower portion typically contains various dwelling units, ranging from studios to two or even three-bedroom condominiums. On the podium level, townhouses attempt to bring human-scale to ease the impact of the vertical tower. Various community amenity spaces are provided, most likely in the form of a gym, pool, theatre, library or some other gestural contribution to provide leisure spaces for the residents (Figure 40).  Although there have been individual cases where units in the podium tower have been converted into home offices, artists studios or even an informal narcotics lab, most of this typology remain homes. The existing spatial list from 1077 Marinaside Resorts below begins to illustrate the kinds of activities this typology currently accommodateThis project proposal will adhere to the existing program as an inherited condition that cannot be easily transformed due to many acting forces, including zoning, strata laws, as well as general conventions that influence the field of housing in contemporary architecture. The hope is, over time, through the repair of the building’s skin, new ideas of dwelling could arise, where an alternative and unexpected spatial configurations can derive from specific individual needs and expressions. Typical Existing Spaces:Private1 Bedroom + Balcony  - 750 sf2 Bedroom + Balcony - 1250 sf3 Bedroom + Balcony - 1600 sfPenthouse + Balcony - 1750 sfCommonCirculationParkingLoading/UnloadingCommunity Amenity Spaces (pool, gym, etc.)Green spaceRecycle/GarbageStorageBike RoomMechanical35Figure 39. Proposed Site - Podium ConditionSource: Google StreetviewFigure 40. Typical Condo Amenity Spaces - 980 Cooperage Way, VancouverSource: https://placerealestate.ca/properties/905-980-cooperage-way-vancouver-west-v6b-0c3-r2311197/369. Depreciation ReportIn early January 2019, I attended an open house at a unit that was for sale as a pretend condo buyer at the 193 Aquarius Mews Tower on the same development as my proposed site. Upon this visit, I was able to acquire the depreciation report the strata prepared in 2016, which calls for an extensive building envelope repair in 2040, with a price tag of $11 million (Figure 44). The cost of repair seems to be appropriate, considering the development’s size as well as the number of units, however, what is significant is the rate at which these buildings will need to consider repairing its skin. Built in 2000, the building envelope has a life span of 40 years according to the report. Looking at Vancouver’s Building Age map (Figure 31), hundreds of buildings built in the same period will require similar repairs. Cumulatively, the cost and effect it will have on the built environment can be relatively significant. Through this new lens of energy leaking buildings, it is an opportune time to reconsider how we repair and why we should repair these existing buildings (Figure 44, 45).Figure 41. RDH Depreciation Report 2016 (Cover)Source: RDH Building Science37Figure 42. RDH Depreciation Report 2016 - Repair Cost Distribution ChartSource: RDH Building ScienceFigure 43. RDH Depreciation Report 2016 - Projected TimelineSource: RDH Building Science38Figure 44. Photo - 1077 Marinaside CrescentSource Author39Figure 45.  Thermal Image - 1077 Marinaside CrescentSource Author40The existing development mechanism operates in a way where FSR is used to attract and encourage developers and architects to meet the demands of the city officials. This scheme, also referred to as Community Amenity Contributions1 (CAC), works to offset the added demand on City facilities through the rezoning process (densification). CAC ultimately manifests itself in park space, libraries, childcare facilities, community centers, and other similar and interchangeable amenities. This development process results in an architecture that is compromised and homogeneous, both physically and emotionally (Figure 46). Currently, this type of negotiation process typically only applies to new constructions, thus, eliminating its capacity to serve and operate the existing built fabric.1 Community Amenity Contributions are in-kind or cash contributions provided by property   developers when City Council grants development rights through rezoning (City of Vancouver,   Community Amenity Contributions)10. Opportunities & StrategiesExisting Formula: Carrot and StickFSR!City of VancouverDevelopers& ArchitectsCommunity Amenities Contributions- Park Space- Libraries- Childcare Facilities- Community Centers- Transportation Services- Cultural Facilities- Neighbourhood HousesNOTE:City of Vancouver and Developers & Architects  are interchangeable in this formula. Instead of FSR, Sustainability is the “carrot” in that instance.Figure 46.  Diagram - Existing FormulaSource: AuthorImage: Screen capture from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-PVFBGN_zoMHomogeneous Built FormsonStolen Land41Strata Legislations1 perpetuate a scenario that partially resembles Aesop’s Fable – The Grasshopper and the Ant.2 As discussed earlier, strata’s require ¾ vote to implement any significant repairs to common properties and because of this, many neglect maintenance until a failure occurs – like the grasshopper. Stratas that are proactive and maintain large enough contingency funds generated through high maintenance fees prepare and take proactive measures – like the ant. In this altered analogy, dwellers of existing buildings can be the hardest working, and in preparation for the harshest days ahead, however, the forces of the market economy that dictate much of our decisions could quickly exhaust all the preparation.      This proposal will speculate that property owners and strata of existing buildings will gain access to extra space in the form of FSR from the legislative bodies in return for a new and optimized high-performance building envelope. In Aesop’s Fable, the moral of the story is about the virtues of hard work and planning. In this projected scenario, the same still stands; however, flexibility allows for one to enjoy the moment, like the grasshopper, while proactively planning for the future, like the ant.1 The Strata Property Act, regulations and the strata corporation’s bylaws and rules provide the legal   framework under which all strata corporations and strata owners must operate in British    Columbia. This legal framework is also affected by judicial decisions from court cases and other   legislation. 2 Gregory I. Carlson, Aesop: A Fable Collection (Omaha, Neb. (2500 California Plaza, Omaha   68178): G.I. Carlson, 1994).How the Grasshopper and the Ant Learned from Each Other (Figure  47)Figure 47. Ant and the Grasshopper - Vancouver, 2019Source: AuthorImage: Les fables de la FontaineHigh Performance New ConstructionsExisting BuildingsWaiting for Building Envelope FailuresFSR4211. Design ProposalThe design of the new repair methodology is an addition of 2.5 meters to the existing floor plate in the form of an exoskeleton (Figure 48). This addition is applied to the existing structure, making a thermal bridge free connection that could also allow for the customization of this added space by the individual (Figure 50).  The rationale for the form derived out of the locations at which the structure can land at the ground level. To the south and east, a privately owned public thoroughfare allows for the columns to land while on the west and the north, the podium level can accommodate for well-spaced structures (Figure 49). All of these columns carry down through to the underground parkade, which is most of the underground in this neighbourhood (Figure 52).Figure 48. Isometric View 430m 5m 40m15mFigure 49. Proposed Site Plan44 Analysis - Existing ElevationShadows and sightlines are significant factors in shaping and constructing the built environment. In general, the South and West facade receives the most daylight throughout the year, thus more susceptible to overheating during the summer months. North façade on the other hand, receives no direct daylight but amble ambient lighting. Surrounding buildings, many of them in similar height and density, also affect each other by casting shadows on each other. These neighbouring buildings also affect how residences behave, as lower down units facing adjacent buildings tend to keep their blinds down to create a level of privacy. In carefully studying the existing building envelope of 1077 Marinaside Crescent (Figure 51), it is apparent how much the various facade treatment affects the behaviour of its dwellers. So based on these factors and lessons from the case study and the site conditions, the task was to come up with a simple solution that could alleviate the leaking energy by creating a thermal bridge break in a manner that was logically similar to how these typologies developed – through efficiency, standardization, and repetition. Figure 52 is a proposed elevation, overlaid on top of the existing.Thermal Bridge Connection (typical):rigid insulation steel angle to existing slabpeel and stick waterproof membraneFramed Window Wall (Second Skin):exterior finishlight gauge steel studmineral wood insulationinterior finishNote - finishes and opening dimension can be customizable.Prefabricated Balcony (typical):concrete toppingq deckstructural steel framemineral wool insulationfibrecement boardplywood finishFramed Window Wall (First Skin):new high performance operable window thermal bridge free detail~ 2.5 metersFigure 50. Section Detail45L L B L B LL L B L B LL L B L B LL L B L B LL L B L B LL L B L B LL L B L B LL L B L B LL L B L B LL L B L B LL L B L B LL L B L B LL L B L B LL L B L B LL L B L B LL L B L B LL L B L B LLBBKLLB LLKEntryRRRRoof DeckParkade33.2 26.1 33.4Level 6+12.5mLevel  7+15mLevel 8+17.5mLevel 9+20mLevel 10+22.5mLevel 11+25mLevel 12+27.5mLevel 15+30mLevel 16+32.5mLevel 17+35mLevel 18+37.5mLevel 19+40mLevel 20+42.5mLevel 21+45mLevel 22+47.5mLevel 23+50mLevel 24+52.5mLevel 25+55mPeak of Roof+61.5mLevel 5+10mLevel 4+7.5mLevel 3+7.5mLevel Ground+0mLevel P1-3.5mLevel P2-7m26.2D B LL BR LBR BR D BRD B LL BR LBR BR D BRD B LL BR LBR BR D BRD B LL BR LBR BR D BRD B LL BR LBR BR D BRD B LL BR LBR BR D BRD B LL BR LBR BR D BRD B LL BR LBR BR D BRD B LL BR LBR BR D BRD B LL BR LBR BR D BRD B LL BR LBR BR D BRD B LL BR LBR BR D BRD B LL BR LBR BR D BRD B LL BR LBR BR D BRD B LL BR LBR BR D BRD B LL BR LBR BR D BRB BAL K D BR D BRBRB BAL K D BR D BRBRheight of 1067 Marinaside CrescentParkadeLL B BR D BBRBRDLL B BR D BBRBRDLL B BR D BBRBRDLL B BR D BBRBRDLL B BR D BBRBRDLL B BR D BBRBRDLL B BR D BBRBRDLL B BR D BBRBRDLL B BR D BBRBRDLL B BR D BBRBRDLL B BR D BBRBRDLL B BR D BBRBRDLL B BR D BBRBRDLL B BR D BBRBRDLL B BR D BBRBRDLL B BR D BBRBRDLBA D BBR DBR BRLBA D BBR DBR BRParkadeLLB BR BBRBR B BR L BLLB BR BBRBR B BR L BLLB BR BBRBR B BR L BLLB BR BBRBR B BR L BLLB BR BBRBR B BR L BLLB BR BBRBR B BR L BLLB BR BBRBR B BR L BLLB BR BBRBR B BR L BLLB BR BBRBR B BR L BLLB BR BBRBR B BR L BLLB BR BBRBR B BR L BLLB BR BBRBR B BR L BLLB BR BBRBR B BR L BLLB BR BBRBR B BR L BLLB BR BBRBR B BR L BLLB BR BBRBR B BR L BD KBRBBLBR BRLD KBRB LBR BRLheight of 1099 Marinaside CrescentParkadeCommercial Retail UnitDouble PaneGlassSpandrel #1Spandrel #2Early Morning ShadowLate AfternoonShadowHeight of AdjacentBuildingLBADBRKBLivingDenKitchenBedroomBathroomBalconySummer SolsticeSOUTH EAST NORTH WEST33.1 36.9 33 36.6Level 6+12.5mLevel  7+15mLevel 8+17.5mLevel 9+20mLevel 10+22.5mLevel 11+25mLevel 12+27.5mLevel 15+30mLevel 16+32.5mLevel 17+35mLevel 18+37.5mLevel 19+40mLevel 20+42.5mLevel 21+45mLevel 22+47.5mLevel 23+50m42.5mLevel 25+55mPeak of Roof+61.5m510l 4.v l 37.5mLevel Ground+0mLevel P1-3.5mLevel P2-7mPeak of Exoskeleton+68.0mAdditionFigure 51. Existing Elevation - AnalysisSOUTH EAST NORTH WEST33.1 36.9 33 36.6Level 6+12.5mLevel  7+15mLevel 8+17.5mLevel 9+20mLevel 10+22.5mLevel 11+25mLevel 12+27.5mLevel 15+30mLevel 16+32.5mLevel 17+35mLevel 18+37.5mLevel 19+40mLevel 20+42.5mLevel 21+45mLevel 22+47.5mLevel 23+50mLevel 24+52.5mLevel 25+55mPeak of Roof+61.5mLevel 5+10mLevel 4+7.5mLevel 3+7.5mLevel Ground+0mLevel P1-3.5mLevel P2-7mPeak of Exoskeleton+68.0mAdditionFigure 52. Proposed Elevation 46Figure 53. Proposed Construction Sequence1 23 4 51. Existing window condition2. Replace existing with first skin3. Install prefabricated balcony4. Continue stacking5. Adaptable second skin installedConstruction Sequence (Figure 53)In keeping with the logic of how this typology developed, this proposal will keep within the same method by stacking and repeating the addition as we go up through the building. A prefabricated unit will be brought on site and craned in place, minimizing waste and limiting the disruption.Depending on the individual’s needs, the possibility of a “room” can be adapted over time and be specified to the user, creating a cacophonous façade, revealing a level of individuality to the façade. 47This animation aims to depict the projected future of the proposed model strategy for an alternative repair method, that could potentially apply to hundreds of similar buildings throughout Vancouver and its surrounding regions. In doing so, the idea is to not only provoke but also to evoke latent potential within this a simple addition, when multiplied, has a tremendous effect on the city and its dwellers.Projected Cityscape (Figure 54)Figure 54.  Animation - Repairing CityscapeVideo available at: https://vimeo.com/332333380Password: leakycondo2.048extension existing1234123412341234summerOrientation: WestDate: June 21Time: 1:00pmSolar Angle: 64 °Protection from Solar Heat Gain + Natural Ventilation1) Open Second Skin2) Closed Shade Curtain3) Open First Opening4) OpenThermal CurtainOrientation: EastDate: September 21,March 21Time: 10:30 amSolar Angle: 41 °Adjustable Skins for individualized comfort1) Open | Closed Second Skin2) Open | Closed Shade Curtain3) Open | Closed First Opening4) Open | Closed Thermal Curtainspring | fall16 to 24 °13 to 18 °interiorinteriorenclosedbalconyenclosedbalconyexteriorbalconyexteriorbalcony17 to 20 °18°extension existing1234123412341234ComfortBy adding 2.5 meters to the exterior, it can significantly optimize the building façade by creating a thermal bridge connection, while allowing the dwellers to spill out into this extended space. In the summer, the second skin can be open to allow natural ventilation, while in the winter, the second skin operates another layer to retain the heat within the building (Figure 55). 49extension existing1234123412341234extension existing1234123412341234Orientation: EastDate: December 21Time: 10:30 amSolar Angle: 18°Solar Heat Gain from low angle winter sun1) Closed Second Skin2) Open Shade Curtain3) Closed First Skin4) Open Thermal Curtain Orientation: EastDate: December 21Time: 10:30 amSolar Angle: 18°Thermal bridge free detail and double skin helps retain heat inside1) Closed Second Skin2) Open Shade Curtain3) Closed First Skin4) Open Thermal Curtain winter nightwinter-2 to 3° +4 to 10°-3 to -5° +1 to 4°interiorinteriorenclosedbalconyenclosedbalconyexteriorbalconyexteriorbalcony18°18°Aside from thermal comfort, the comfort to decide how one decides to treat the spaces around the window has great possibilities. Depending on the orientation, proximity and relationship to the neighbouring buildings, various new window types within the 2.5-meter addition could allow dwellers to customize within reason (Figure 56). Over time, the hope is, through the repair of the building’s skin, new ideas of dwelling could arise, where an alternative and unexpected spatial configurations can derive from specific individual needs and expressions.Figure 55. Diagrams - Seasonal conditions by orientation50LIVINGROOMDININGROOMDENKITCHENF/PBEDROOMBEDROOMBATHBATHBEDROOMBATHSTORAGEBEDROOMBATHBATHBEDROOMDININGROOMKITCHENBALCONYBALCONYLIVINGROOMF/PDENDENKITCHENDININGROOMLIVINGROOMF/PBALCONYBATHBEDROOMDININGROOMLIVINGROOMF/PDENKITCHENDENSTORAGE STORAGEBATHBATHBATHWALK-INCLOSETKITCHENNOOKBEDROOMBEDROOMDININGROOMBATHLIVINGROOMF/P BEDROOMBALCONYBALCONYLIVINGROOMF/PDININGROOMNOOKKITCHENBEDROOMBEDROOMMECH.TEL.ELEC.STAIRMECH.ELEV. 1ELEV. 21077 Marinaside CrescentExisting6th Floor to 23rd FloorScale 1:100Area Floorplate = 648 m² (6975 sf)Core (including services) = 69 m² (742 sf)Key Plan6th Floor to 15th Floor0m 5m 15m 25m10991931077Orthographic PlanFigure 56. Plan Variation (See Figures 56 - 76 for details).51Plan Animation - Adaptation Over TimeFigure 57.  Animation - Plan VariationVideo available at: https://vimeo.com/332334277Password: leakycondo2.052Orientation - NorthFigure 58 North - Partial Elevation Collage53Isometric StudiesFigure  59Small Intervention: Powder Room54Figure 60Medium Intervention: Bathing Room55Figure 61Large Intervention: Atelier/Artists Studio56Orientation - EastFigure 62 East - Partial Elevation Collage57Isometric StudiesFigure 63 Small Intervention: Meditation/Personal Room58Figure 64 Medium Intervention: Curtain Room59Figure 65Large Intervention: Wintergarden 60Orientation - SouthFigure 66 South - Partial Elevation Collage61Isometric StudiesFigure 67Small Intervention: Small Home Office62Figure 68Medium Intervention: Window Room as Extension of Living63Figure 69 Large Intervention: Window Room for the Bedridden64Orientation - WestFigure 70 West - Partial Elevation Collage65Isometric StudiesFigure 71Small Intervention: Bay Windows with Balcony Extension66Figure 72 Medium Intervention: Extended Double Glazed 67Figure 73Large Intervention: Possible Amalgamation of Two Units68Photos - Physical Model (1:20)Figure 74. West Facade Figure 75. Southwest Facade 69Figure 76. South Facade Figure 77. North Facade Figure 78. North Facade 70Figure 79. Northwest corner Figure 80. Southwest corner 71Figure 81. Northeast corner Figure 82. Southeast corner 72Photos - Thesis DefenseFigure 82.  Photo - Thesis DefenseFigure 83.  Presentation PanelsBibliographyAlbrice, David. “The Warning Signs of Asset Failure.” RDH Building Science. May 15, 2018. Accessed November 16, 2018. https://www.rdh.com/the-warning-signs-of-asset-failure/.“Architectural History of Indigenous Peoples in Canada.” The Canadian Encyclopedia. Accessed December 02, 2018. https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/architectural-history-early-first-nations.Bachelard, Gaston, and M. Jolas. The Poetics of Space. New York: Penguin Books, 2014Banham, Reyner. “Machines à Habiter.” The Architecture of the Well-tempered Environment. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984, 147-170.Berelowitz, Lance. 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Accessed October 22, 2018. https://vancouversun.com/opinion/columnists/douglas-todd-condos-changed-metro-vancouver-forever-for-better-and-worse.Ueda, Yasunari. “Vol. 0: Windows from the Perspective of Contrastive Etymology | Research.” WINDOW RESEARCH INSTITUTE, 28 Mar. 2018, madoken.jp/en/research/window-terminology-a-la-carte/3144/.Ueda, Yasunari. “Vol. 3: Windows in English | Research.” WINDOW RESEARCH INSTITUTE, 30 Aug. 2018, madoken.jp/en/research/window-terminology-a-la-carte/3263/.US Department of Energy. “Energy Efficiency Trends in Residential and Commercial Buildings - August 2010.” 2010, 4. doi:10.2172/1218835.Vancouver, City Of. “Green Building and Renovating.” City of Vancouver. May 07, 2018. Accessed November 05, 2018. https://vancouver.ca/home-property-development/green-building-and-renovating.aspx.Vancouver, City Of. “Official Development Plan Bylaws.” City of Vancouver. October 10, 2018. 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Rizzoli, 2010.Tokyo Institute of Technology Ttsukamoto Architectural Laboratory, and Atelier Bow-Wow. Pet Architecture Guide Book. World Photo Press, 2005.Tsukamoto, Yoshiharu, and Atelier Bow-Wow. Windowscape. S.n., 2015.Tsukamoto, Yoshiharu, and Fuminori Nosaku. WindowScape 3. Film Art, 2017.The Importance of Slab Edge & Balcony Thermal Bridges. Report. September 24, 2013. Accessed October 20, 2018. https://www.rdh.com/research-forensics/publications/balcony-slab-edge-study-r-values-energy-code-canada/.Todd, Douglas. “Douglas Todd: Condos Changed Metro Vancouver Forever, for Better and Worse.” Editorial. October 18, 2018. Accessed October 22, 2018. https://vancouversun.com/opinion/columnists/douglas-todd-condos-changed-metro-vancouver-forever-for-better-and-worse.Ueda, Yasunari. “Vol. 0: Windows from the Perspective of Contrastive Etymology | Research.” WINDOW RESEARCH INSTITUTE, 28 Mar. 2018, madoken.jp/en/research/window-terminology-a-la-carte/3144/.Ueda, Yasunari. “Vol. 3: Windows in English | Research.” WINDOW RESEARCH INSTITUTE, 30 Aug. 2018, madoken.jp/en/research/window-terminology-a-la-carte/3263/.US Department of Energy. “Energy Efficiency Trends in Residential and Commercial Buildings - August 2010.” 2010, 4. doi:10.2172/1218835.79Vancouver, City Of. “Green Building and Renovating.” City of Vancouver. May 07, 2018. Accessed November 05, 2018. https://vancouver.ca/home-property-development/green-building-and-renovating.aspx.Vancouver, City Of. “Official Development Plan Bylaws.” City of Vancouver. October 10, 2018. Accessed December 02, 2018. https://vancouver.ca/your-government/official-development-plan-bylaws.aspx.“Vancouver Special • Vancouver Heritage Foundation.” Vancouver Heritage Foundation. Accessed September 20, 2018. http://www.vancouverheritagefoundation.org/house-styles/vancouver-special/.“Window | Definition of Window in English by Oxford Dictionaries.” Oxford Dictionaries | English. Accessed December 06, 2018. https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/window.80Appendix 1Winidowscape VancouverGuidebook to Windows of VancouverMethodology | LegendGenta Ishimura GP1Vancouver Special is a term used to refer to houses built in a particular architectural style in the period from roughly 1965 to 1985 in Vancouver and surrounding suburbs. It is characterized by their “box-like” structure, low-pitched roofs, and balconies across the front of the house. Brick or stone finishes on the ground floor are characteristics of the ground level facades, with stucco on the 2nd or 3rd floors. Vancouver SpecialVancouver / 1965 - 1985 /  designed by Unknown / scale 1:500 1 2 3 kmPhotographText on each window example contain these informations:- Typology / Building Name- Address / Location- Architect’s Name- Scale- Orientation of window- Brief explanationKey map to identify location of each example by number1Isometric Sketch (1:50 - 1:30)Map0 1 2 3 km2315567914101112811. Vancouver Special - Front2. Vancouver Special - Back3.  Fredrich Lasserre Building4.  Hugo Eppich House (not on map)5.  18156 Haro St.6.  1835 Barclay7.  Samesun Backpacker’s Hostel8.  Tsui Hang Village - Pick-up Window9.  Concord Pacific Place10.  220 Terminal Avenue - Modular Affordable Housing11. 1033 Marinaside Crescent - Quaywest Tower 112. 4063 W 28 Ave. - Picture Window13. BC Mills Timber & Trading Company (not on map)14. 1450 Chestnut Street - Parkview Towers15. Museum of AnthropologyWindow as ObservatoryLocated in Yaletown area of Vancouver West, Quaywest is a high-rise building that consists of 38 levels with 394 market units. Steps away from the Seawall, the tower is representative of Vancouver tower typology with curtain wall glazing system encapsulating the facade. 1033 Marinaside Crescent - Quaywest Tower 1Vancouver / 2002 /  designed by James Cheng Architects / scale 1:50 / orientation: southThe brick building commissioned by M C Griffith, and designed by Parr & Fee, met the increasing demand for short-term accommodation for the gold rush prospectors. Now a hostel, the large windows which pivot on the centre cre-ates a unique threshold between the inside and the outside. Temporarily housing travellers and backpacker’s over many decades, this window acts as place for social engagement, where one to gaze down to Granville Street to see what the entertainment district has to offer.  1014 - 1018 Granville St. - Glenaird Hotel | Samesun Backpacker’s HostelDowntown Vancouver,  / date: unknown /  designed by Parr & Fee / scale 1:30 / orientation: westIdentified as Mid-Century Builder, this boxy cottage is the vernacular house of the baby boomer’s parents generation. This building typology provided inexpensive housing for returning soldiers after WWII. Omnipresent in many of the surrounding suburbs, the main floor often has a large picture window on the living room side and a smaller window on the bedroom side, looking out on to the front yard and the street.4063 W 28 Ave. - Picture WindowVancouver / 1935 - 1965  /  designed by Unknown / scale 1:50 / orientation: variesWindow RoomVancouver Special is a term used to refer to houses built in a particular architectural style in the period from roughly 1965 to 1985 in Vancouver and surrounding suburbs. It is characterized by their “box-like” structure, low-pitched roofs, and balconies across the front of the house. The back of the house typically has a garage or a car-port with a deck above it. This particular Vancouver Special has gone through series of changes in the backyard, from uncov-ered deck to enclosed deck, to enclosed backyard.350C East 55 - Vancouver Special | BacksideVancouver / 1965-1985  /  designed by unknown / scale 1:50 / orientation: variesLocated in West End area of Downtown Vancouver, Huntington is a high-rise building that offers 137 market units over 22 levels. The variation of both enclosed and open balcony allows for interesting insight into how these spaces are occupied by each individual.1816 Haro St - HuntingtonVancouver / 1976 /  developed by Daon Corporation / scale 1:50 / orientation: eastEnclosed Balcony facing the alley in the West End neighbourhood. Unlike other enclosed balconies, which is often of concrete structure, this one is of wood-frame and one could clearly read that it was once a balcony. Enclosed bal-conies like this one typically becomes an enlarged “den” or “flex space” with home offices and winter gardens taking place in these additional spaces.1835 BarclayVancouver / 1980~90s /  designed by unknown, / scale 1:50 / orientation: north888 Beach was designed by James Cheng Architects and built in 1993 by Park Georgia group and the Chiyoda Corporation of Japan (subsidiary of Mitsubishi). The intention of the “podium” component is to allow for more human scale conditions at the ground level and is widely practiced in Vancouer’s urban design principles. However, many of the windows at the podium level are often screened with bottom-up blinds for privacy.888 Beach Ave - Podium Bay WindowVancouver / 1993 /  designed by James Cheng Architect / scale 1:50 / orientation: northLocated in West Vancouver, this Erickson designed modernist gem was designed for Hugo and Brigette Eppich. Curvelinear elements are repeated throughout the house, including in custom designed furnitures. The image here shows the lower level bedroom, with glass block facade, looking out towards the reflecting pond and guest house beyond. Hugo Eppich HouseVancouver / 1979 /  designed by Arthur Erickson / scale 1:30 / orientation: eastWindow SpaceVancouver Special is a term used to refer to houses built in a particular architectural style in the period from roughly 1965 to 1985 in Vancouver and surrounding suburbs. It is characterized by their “box-like” structure, low-pitched roofs, and balconies across the front of the house. Brick or stone finishes on the ground floor are characteristics of the ground level facades, with stucco on the 2nd or 3rd floors. Vancouver SpecialVancouver / 1965 - 1985 /  designed by Unknown / scale 1:50 / orientation: variesInitiated by Vancouver Affordable Housing Agency, this project is a temporary solution to City of Vancouver’s homeless crisis. Built on city-owned land, these self-contained modular units are meant to house individuals and familes on low to moderate incomes across Vancouver. The double-glazed vinyl framed windows are appropriated in different ways, offering insights into the lives of the residents.220 Terminal Avenue - Vancouver Affordable Housing AgencyVancouver / 2017 /  designed by VAHA / scale 1:50 / orientation: variesBetween 1904 and 1910 the Vancouver based British Columbia Mills, Timber and Trading Company marketed a patented system of prefabricated sectional buildings in western Canada as a way of supplying small inexpensive huts to incoming settlers in newly opened agricultural regions. Such structures were prefabricated with windows al-ready in the prepainted wall panels. With a set of accompanying instructions, the purchaser could erect his dwelling in a minimum amount of time with little assistance or equipment.BC Mills Timber & Trading CompanyVancouver / 1904 - 1910  /  designed by B.C.M.T&T Co. / scale 1:50 / orientation: variesDesigned by Peter Kafka Architect, Parkview Towers was a particularly controversial development at the time due to its scale in relation to its context. The y-shaped 14 storey tower sticks out amongst a sea of single-detached and low rise homes and the building orientation has created over exposure to solar heat gain. Occupants have attempt-ed various methods, including thick curtains and aluminum foil panels to mitigate the solar heat gain.1450 Chestnut Street - Parkview TowersVancouver / 1960  /  designed by Peter Kafka / scale 1:30 / orientation: variesLocatated at the Northern side of UBC campus overlooking the Burrard Inlet and the North Shore mountains, this masterpiece was inspired by post-and-beam local construction tradition of northern Northwest Coast First Nations people. The window not only allows diffused light into the exhibition space but also  as a threshold to the past/pres-ent, nature/culture, and interior/exterior.  Museum of AnthropologyVancouver / 1976 /  designed by Arthur Erickson / scale 1:100 / orientation: northChinese food take out window facing Davie Street. The little sliding window has been added to existing window frame to create this threshold. A custom stainless steel counter has been added on to. Tsui Hang Pickup WindowRestaurant, Vancouver / date: unknown /  uknown / scale 1:50 / orientation: southNamed to honour the first director of UBC’s School of Architecture, who died tragically in 1961, the Frederic Lasserre Building was built for the university’s fine arts, architecture and planning departments. There are two sypes of floor to ceiliing windows here: one is of single pane opaque kind and another of single pane roatating ventilation type. Although highly inefficient, the single pane adds to the character of the studio culture. Frederick Lasserre Building - UBC SALAVancouver / 1962 /  designed by Thompson, Berwick & Pratt  / scale 1:30 / orientation: east & westAppendix 2Windowscape TimelineGlobalCanada1896Gold Rush1847Hudson Bay Company builds first Sawmill in BC in VictoriaEnvelopeEconomicLegislation1904BC Mills Timber & Trading Company1935Picture Window1900Pivot WindowGlenaird HotelUseEraGlassIsometricSketchesSingle Glazed Single GlazedDouglas Fir Douglas FirWood Fire Stove N/AFixed PivotEave overhang1855Invention of Radiator1902First modern electrical air conditioning unit1928The first non-flammable, non-toxic chlorofluorocarbon gas, Freon, in 19281995Germany makes CFC refrigerators illegal2011EPA decides in favor of ozone- and climate-safe refrigerant for US manufacture1888Machine Rolled glass1898Wired Cast glass1923Polished Plate, England, allows for larger panes1950sInvention of Floating Glass by Alastair Pilkington1970sJumbo float glass6m x 3.21m1980sLow-E Glass Film, Insulated Glass Units (IGU)1980sFiberglass Composite Frames introduced1950sMass production of vinyl window frames by BF Goodrich in USA1960sFirst aluminum window frames becomes available to market1990sVinyl window sales grew 125% and are preferred over wood and aluminum in new construction and remodeling2000sTriple pane 2000Dynamic Glass introduced200918m x 3.3m Insulated GlassEave overhangDouble Hung Punched Horizontal Slider Horizontal Slider Horizontal Slider Horizontal Slider Vinyl Slider Vinyl Slider Fixed/Awning Fixed/AwningEave overhang/Curtains/Blinds Eave overhang/Curtains/Blinds Balcony/Curtains/Blinds Curtains/Blinds Curtains/Blinds Curtains/Blinds Curtains/Blinds Curtains/BlindsSliding Sliding Fixed/Sliding Fixed/Sliding Fixed/Sliding Fixed/Sliding Fixed/Awning Fixed/AwningCentral Heating System Baseboard ElectricBaseboard Electric Baseboard Electric Baseboard Electric Baseboard Electric Baseboard Electric Baseboard ElectricAluminum Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum - Vinyl Aluminum - Vinyl Aluminum - Vinyl Aluminum AluminumSingle Glazed Single Glazed Single Glazed Single Glazed Single Glazed Single Glazed Double Glazed Double GlazedFrameHeatingVentilationSolar ShadingTechnologyGlazingFrameHVACType1965 - 1985Vancouver SpecialFront1980s ~ 1990sVancouver Special Back1980s ~ 1990sApartment Enclosed Balcony1975Enclosed Balcony1975Parkview Towers2002Concord Pacific Towers1997Podium Bay Window2010Vancouver Winter Olympic Games2015TRC releases “94 Calls to Action”1914 ~ 1918World War I1939 ~ 1945World War II1862Early European Settler’s arrive in Vancouver1970’s Energy Crisis1991 July 1 Handover of Hong Kong from  Kong from United Kingdom to China1973BC Building Code IntroducedPrior to this, local government adopted building code under local bylaws1985City of Vancouver Council adopts Balcony Enclosure Guidelines2015COV Greenest City Action Plan 2016COV offers FSR for Net-Zero Buildings1941National Building Code Introduced1894American Society of Heating and Ventilation Engineers founded1959ASHRAE Founded1986Expo1992Westbank Projects Corp. founded1987Concord Pacific Founded1997Rennie Marketing Founded1988 ~ 2000Leaky Condo Crisis 2017BC Energy Step Code1608Champlain builds fortress at what is now Quebec City1942 Japanese Canadian Internment 2008Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada Formed1991Berlin Wall comes down1980Terry Fox - Marathon of Hope1990 - 1991Gulf War1975Vietnam War Ends1979Acrid Rain1960Right to vote in federal elections for people of the First Nation

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