UBC Graduate Research

The Craigslist Cabin : An Architectural Palimpsest Saucier, Erin 2019-04-25

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THE CRAIGSLIST CABIN: An Architectural PalimpsestErin SaucierUBC SALA Graduate ProjectAppendix Eii iiiiv vAbstractDuring my childhood, my family and I went to neighbourhood houses slated for demolition to salvage hardwood flooring, baseboards, and lumber, and haul them back to our house. Today my parents use Craigslist to acquire their used building materials. Call them hoarders, or call them environmentalists either way, they inspired this project. Over the years our family has collected hundreds of used building materials, diverting them from landfills or incineration.  In terms of architectural sustainability, building reuse, material reuse, and waste reduction my belief,  which is exhibited in this thesis, is that a building should simply be a temporary resting place for materials, before they move onto their next use. vi viiTable of ContentsAbstract vChapter 1: Introduction 5Chapter 2: Material Reuse - [Field of Inquiry] 92.1. Material Reuse 92.1.1. The Death and Utility of Buildngs 92.1.2. Material Reuse: Definition 92.2. Reuse: Past, Present, Future 112.2.1. History of Reuse 112.2.2. The Material Graveyard: Landfills 112.2.3. The Present of Reuse - Current Initiatives 122.2.4. Current bylaws and fees for Vancouver Landfills 132.2.5. Future of Reuse - Desirability of Reuse 132.3. Reduce/ Reuse/ Recycle: A Hierarchy 142.4. Construction Industry 152.4.1. Design and Construction Process 172.4.2. Wood Frame Construction 17Wood: Potential for Reuse 17Infrastructure to Promote Reuse 192.5. Building + Material Lifecycle 192.5.1. Life Cycle Assesment 192.5.2. Deconstruction 21Chaper 3: Material Based Design - [Project Approach] 423.1. Paving the way for Material-Based Design: Post-Modernism & Deconstructivism 423.1.1. Post-Modernism 423.1.2. Deconstructivism 423.1.3. Movement Towards Material Based Design (Post-Post-Modernism) 433.2. Definition of Material-Based Design 433.2.1. Materiality 453.2.2. Material Research 473.3. Material Integrity + Expression 493.3.1. Material’s Inherent Potential 493.4. Environment, Culture and Society: Shaping Craft + Materials  503.4.1. Cultural Material Associations 513.4.2. Material and Craft – a Symbiotic Relationship 513.4.3. From Craft to Architecture 523.4.4. Vernacular Design 53Chapter 4: Predents - [Project Approach + Field of Inquiry] 574.1 Ricola Storage Center 574.2 Meme Experimental House 594.3 Hub 67 614.4 Repurposed Cabin 63Chapter 5: Log Cabin - [Program] 675.1. Material Use 675.1.1. Wood – A Plentiful Resource 67Old Growth Forests 67Species Available & Their Properties 695.1.2. The Log as an Incremental Module 69The Log Wall: A Typology 69Lincoln Logs: An Architectural Toy 715.2. History 715.2.1. Early Cabin History in North America 715.2.2. Early Pioneer and Settler Homes 73Government & Homesteader Acts 735.2.3. History in Western Canada 74From Craft to Crude – An un-refinement of building skills 74Log Cabins – Temporary Structures 74The Log Cabin – An Enduring Nostalgia 75“You’re Really Living When you Have TWO Homes”   75Chapter 6: White Lake - [Site + Site Analysis] 756.1 General 816.2 Climate 816.3. Settler History 816.4. Saucier History 896.5. Program - Occupant Use 89Chapter 7. The Craislist Cabin [Design] 1057.1 Iteration 1 1057.2 Iteration 2 1097.3 Iteration 3 1137.4 Proposed Design 117Chapter 8: References 134viii ixList of Figures1. Figure 1: Vancouver residential demolition 82. Figure 2: Arch of Constantine 103. Figure 3: Linear vs. cyclical design approach 164. Figure 4: Traditional Japanese wood joint. 185. Figure 5: Reused Material - design process 206. Figure 6: Storage of used materials at White Lake 227. Figure 7: Catalogue of used materials at White Lake 248. Figure 8: Catalogue of used materials at White Lake 269. Figure 9: Catalogue of used materials at White Lake 2810. Figure 10: Catalogue of used materials at White Lake 3011. Figure 11: Catalogue of used materials at White Lake 3212. Figure 12: Catalogue of used materials at White Lake 3413. Figure 13: Catalogue of used materials at White Lake 3614. Figure 14: Catalogue of used materials at White Lake 3815. Figure 15: Intrinsic material properties 4416. Figure 16: Extrinsic material properties 4617. Figure 17: Image showing mechanical Intrinsic properties of wood grain 4818. Figure 18: Ricola Storage Center 5619. Figure 19: Ricola Storage Center 5620. Figure 20: Ricola Storage Center 5721. Figure 21: Meme experimental House 5822. Figure 22: Meme experimental House 5823. Figure 23: Meme experimental House 5924. Figure 24: Hub 67 6025. Figure 25: Hub 67 6026. Figure 26: Hub 67 6127. Figure 27: Repurposed Cabin 6228. Figure 28: Repurposed Cabin 6229. Figure 29: Repurposed Cabin 6330. Figure 30: Exploded axon - typical log cabin 6631. Figure 31: Log Cabin notch details 6832. Figure 32: Lincoln Log deconstruction 7033. Figure 33: English settler earthen dug-outs 7234. Figure 34: German settler log cabin 7235. Figure 35: Annual White lake temperature 8036. Figure 36: Annual White lake rainfall 8037. Figure 37: Annual White lake snowfall 8138. Figure 38: White Lake Koski wood barn 8239. Figure 39: White Lake Osma homestead 8240. Figure 40: White Lake - typical location of building in relation to the lake 8441. Figure 41: White Lake - Context maps 8642. (opposite page) Figure 42: White Lake - Site Plan 8643. Figure 43: White Lake - 1976 8844. Figure 44: White Lake - 1976 8845. Figure 45: White Lake current cabin occupant use 9046. Figure 46: White Lake current cabin occupant use 9147. Figure 47: White Lake 2018 9248. Figure 48: Material Studies : The Log Wall 9649. Figure 49: Material Studies : The Log Wall Thickened 9850. Figure 50: Material Studies : Roof and Stucture Explorations 9951. Figure 51: Material Studies : Tongue and Grooce Paneling Datum 10052. Figure 52: Axonometic - Existing site 10253. Figure 53: Exploded Axonometric - ITERATION 1 10454. Figure 54: Plan - ITERATION 1 10555. Figure 55: Section - ITERATION 1 10556. Figure 56: Axonometic - ITERATION 1 10657. Figure 57: Exploded Axonometic - ITERATION 2 10958. Figure 58: Axonometic - ITERATION 2 11059. Figure 59: Exploded Axonometric - ITERATION 3 11260. Figure 60: Plan - ITERATION 3 11361. Figure 61: Section - ITERATION 3 11362. Figure 62: Axonometic - ITERATION 3 11463. Figure 63: Example of Collected Materials 11664. Figure 64: Site Plan 11865. Figure 65: First Floor Plan 12066. Figure 66: Second Floor Plan 12267. Figure 67: Ground Floor Plan 12268. Figure 68: Material Map 12469. Figure 69: Exploded Axonometric 12670. Figure 70: 1/32”=1’-0” Model 12871. Figure 71: 1/8”=1’-0” Model 12972. Figure 72: 1/8”=1’-0” Model 12973. Figure 73: 1/32”=1’-0” Model - Existing Site 13074. Figure 74: 1/32”=1’-0” Model - Proposed Site 13012 301Introduction4 5Chapter 1: Introduction“The house that my parents bought when I was 3 years old is almost like a sibling to me.  Even though my father works full time as an accountant, every spare hour he has is spent on our house.  When we bought it, it was a rundown arts and crafts style house built by the owner’s father in 1915.  There were broken windows, cat urine stained carpets, and heaps of garbage in the back yard.  My siblings and I have participated every step of the way; the process has been long and tedious and is still ongoing.  I remember nights when I was 8 years old: my father would scout out heritage homes in our neighborhood which were scheduled for demolition, consult with the owner, and then my family would gut the house of its original hardwood flooring, door jambs, win-dows, baseboards, moldings, etc…  All of these building materials have been reused or repurposed in our home and have been saved from a lifetime of rotting in a landfill.  Although my personal manifesto has been inherently passed onto me from my par-ents, it is something that I cherish and look forward to building towards in the future.  I look forward to the construction of my new family cabin, my father and I am working on plans to use every piece of wood from our existing log cabin (built in the 1970’s) to construct our new cabin.  From the metal sheet roofing, to the windows, we aim to cre-ate a beautiful house for our family to share by using everything that already exists on the site, while improving the energy efficiency of the new cabin.”- Erin Saucier (2009)The above is an excerpt from a piece I wrote in my undergraduate degree in 2009. I’ve had this dream for a decade now, yet the seed was planted long before that.  I’ve been imagining a construction industry with no demolition waste decaying in landfills and a culture that values the lifetime of a building and its individual components.  I’ve been influenced by the highly personal relationship I have with my family home – a relation-ship based on connections to individual materials. This thesis explores that dream by drawing a link between three unique components: Material Reuse, Material Based Design, and Log Cabins.6 702Material Reuse - [Field of Inquiry]8 9Figure 1: Vancouver residential deolitionSourced from: Vancouver SunChapter 2: Material Reuse - [Field of Inquiry]2.1. Material Reuse2.1.1. The Death and Utility of BuildngsWhat prompts the end of life of a building?  Why are some destroyed, and some treated as artifacts?  In Material Architecture, John Fernandez writes that there “is an aspect to histori-cal preservation that speaks to the value of the building, not as functional architecture but as unique historical artifacts with a value that extends well beyond any reasonable use of their spatial volumes or building systems.”1  A study conducted by Daniel Abrahamson concludes the key criteria that determine a building’s death are “causes outside of the physical condition of the building itself.”2  Therefore, if constructed values of obsolescence are the greatest influ-ence of the lifetime of a building, can functionality or materiality still play a role in determining a building’s end of life?  Perhaps this suggests a surface understanding of buildings—their assemblies, structure, and materials—by owners.  If consumers do not understand the func-tional and material driven value of buildings, then do they understand the material consumption required to construct them?  Socially driven concepts of obsolescence drive the need for a shift towards redefining a building’s utility and worth.  Material reuse is at the core of this shift, as it re-examines the value of the individual parts that make up the whole and opens up the discourse of building value and lifetime.2.1.2. Material Reuse: DefinitionReuse comes in three main forms in the architecture and construction industry: adaptive reuse, building relocation, and material or component reuse.  Adaptive reuse is identifying an existing building that either is of heritage value, or its core/shell is of architectural or structural value.3  This type of reuse extends the life of a particular building, usually by a change of program and a deep retrofit. Building relocation is the movement of most or all of an existing building to a new location.4  This type of reuse pertains to industrial buildings, warehouses, and temporary buildings. Lastly, and most significant to this project, is material reuse. Structural, non-structur-al, and decorative elements are extracted from a building in order to preserve historical com-ponents for economic savings.5  Material reuse is receiving increased recognition as it reduces extraction of raw material resources, greenhouse gas emissions, and ultimately, society’s im-pact on the environment.6  Unfortunately material reuse occurs a small fraction of the time, with demolition being the default procedure for a building’s end of life.  The main barriers preventing material reuse are unfamiliarly and inertia.  A strong commitment from the client, along with ma-terial reclamation knowledge and expertise from the design and construction team, is crucial.7 1 Ferdinand, John. Material Architecture. Taylor & Francis Group, Abingdon, 2017.2 Abramson, D.M. (2005) Discourses of Obsolescence. A talk delivered as part of the seminar: The Culture and Politics of the Built Environ-ment in North America, delivered at the Charles Warren Center for Studies in American History, Harvard University on February 14, 2005 as part of the tenure of Mr. Abramson as a Warren Center Fellow.3 Gorgolewski, Mark. “Designing with Reused Building Components: Some Challenges.”Building Research & Information, vol. 36, no. 2, 2008, pp. 175-188.4 Gorgolewski, Mark. “Designing with Reused Building Components: Some Challenges.”Building Research & Information, vol. 36, no. 2, 2008, pp. 175-188.5 Gorgolewski, Mark. “Designing with Reused Building Components: Some Challenges.”Building Research & Information, vol. 36, no. 2, 2008, pp. 175-188.6 Addis, William, and Taylor & Francis eBooks A-Z. Building with Reclaimed Components and Materials: A Design Handbook for Reuse and Recycling. Earthscan, London;Sterling, VA;, 2006;2012;.7 Addis, William, and Taylor & Francis eBooks A-Z. Building with Reclaimed Components and Materials: A Design Handbook for Reuse and Recycling. Earthscan, London;Sterling, VA;, 2006;2012;.10 11Figure 2: Arch of ConstantineThe Arch of Constantine of ancient Rome is full of reused pieces from earlier monuments. The reused decorations include reliefs of Marcus Aureliusbon the attic, reliefs of Trajan in the passageway of the arch, roundels of Hadrian on the face of the arch, and the columns, capitals, and architraves.Sourced from: Grove Art Online. . Oxford University Press,. Date of access 5 Dec. 2018, http://www.oxfordartonline.com.ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/groveart/view/10.1093/oao/9781884446054.001.001/oao-9781884446054-e-8000015117An annual average of 900 homes are demolished8 and 241,000 tonnes of construction waste is generated in the metro Vancouver area alone.9  It is estimated that construction and demolition waste account for 22% of the global waste stream10 and the building industry alone accounts for up to 40% of the total energy consumption.11  These statistics provide evidence for the importance of moving from a demolition based construction industry to a deconstruction based industry.2.2. Reuse: Past, Present, Future2.2.1. History of ReuseBuilding material reclamation and reuse is not a new concept. Until the 19th century it was practiced throughout the world for economic means.  Stone, iron and steel have experienced centuries of reuse.  In ancient Egypt, Greece, and Rome, the large well-carved stones were reused from building to building as structures were destroyed by earthquakes or war.12  Iron was widely used in ancient Rome, yet it is not discoverable in ruins because of its constant rec-lamation and reuse within the building industry and transition into weapons and other goods.13  Since the 1900s steel was manufactured using a portion of scrap steel to reduce costs.  But consumers did not appreciate this process, and underestimated the quality of steel due to its recycled content. Despite the rich history of material reuse throughout architectural history, we eventually moved away from a tradition of material reuse.14  The Industrial Revolution provid-ed the ability to mass produce, which was furthered by North America’s post-war consumer lifestyle.   Material reuse has historically depended on the economy, labour, technology and style.  Today material reuse is still heavily practiced in developing countries where economy and resources do not allow for constant novelty.15 Current studies are beginning to show the importance of revisiting the process of material re-use.  Data has shown that the potential energy saved from reusing materials is about 20-40%.16 Additionally, case studies have shown that when reused materials are utilized in a single-family building, the embodied energy can decrease by as much as 50%.2.2.2. The Material Graveyard: LandfillsThe final resting place for Metro Vancouver’s solid waste is either at the City of Vancouver 8 City of Vancouver, 2018. “Demolition Permit with Recycling Requirements”  Retrieved from: https://vancouver.ca/home-property-develop-ment/demolition-permit-with-recycling-requirements.aspx9 Budge, Graeme. 100-Mile Home : Deconstruction and Material Reuse as Source and Sink of Single-Family Home Building Materials. , 2013.10 Gorgolewski, Mark. “Designing with Reused Building Components: Some Challenges.”Building Research & Information, vol. 36, no. 2, 2008, pp. 175-188.11 Pal, Sudip K., et al. “A Life Cycle Approach to Optimizing Carbon Footprint and Costs of a Residential Building.” Building and Environ-ment, vol. 123, 2017, pp. 146-162.12 Addis, William, and Taylor & Francis eBooks A-Z. Building with Reclaimed Components and Materials: A Design Handbook for Reuse and Recycling. Earthscan, London;Sterling, VA;, 2006;2012;.13 Addis, William, and Taylor & Francis eBooks A-Z. Building with Reclaimed Components and Materials: A Design Handbook for Reuse and Recycling. Earthscan, London;Sterling, VA;, 2006;2012;.14 Gorgolewski, Mark. “Designing with Reused Building Components: Some Challenges.”Building Research & Information, vol. 36, no. 2, 2008, pp. 175-188.15 Addis, William, and Taylor & Francis eBooks A-Z. Building with Reclaimed Components and Materials: A Design Handbook for Reuse and Recycling. Earthscan, London;Sterling, VA;, 2006;2012;.16 Thormark, C. “Conservation of Energy and Natural Resources by Recycling Building Waste.”Resources, Conservation & Recycling, vol. 33, no. 2, 2001, pp. 113-130.12 13Landfill, Cache Creek landfill, a Waste to Energy Facility in South Burnaby, one of Metro Van-couver’s six transfer stations, or a privately owned solid waste facility that recycles construction waste.17  Alternatively, there are also privately owned companies that sell reused or reclaimed construction and demolition waste, and overstock of construction supplies. Both the City of Vancouver Landfill and the Cache Creek Landfill accept residential and commercial waste from the Metro Vancouver Area. The City of Vancouver Landfill accepts demolition and construction waste that is in accordance with Materials Specifications. They also accept and recycle (with specific fines attached to particular materials): “clean wood wastes (includes solid wood, ply-wood, particle board, and oriented strand board that is unpainted, unstained & untreated- can have nails & metal fasteners attached), mattresses and box springs, as well as gypsum drywall that contains no asbestos, wire, concrete, electrical outlets, or mixed with other garbage”.18 These antiquated resources do not work to promote a wasteless construction industry, but maintain the status quo by not questioning the future of building materials. 2.2.3. The Present of Reuse - Current InitiativesWe will look at some systems in place in The City of Vancouver, which promotes the reuse of materials.  Vancouver has pursued several initiatives to encourage deconstruction and material reuse in order to archive their “2020 Greenest City Action Plan”.  Vancouver has targeted single family homes as the largest source of wood waste generated, having lower diversion rates than larger commercial and multi-unit residential buildings.19  One of their initiatives includes the Advanced Deconstruction Permit.  The permit is voluntary and requires the homeowner to divert no less than 75% of all building material (excluding hazardous materials) from the land-fill.  The advanced permit speeds up the permitting process in an attempt to incentivize the process of deconstruction to contractors and homeowners, who normally lean on demolition for its swift pace. Two pilot deconstruction projects undertaken by the city reached 93% diversion rates, proving that this goal is achievable.  In the first two years of implementation in 2012 and 2013, the city issued 12 deconstruction permits which reported diversion rates ranging from 86%–91%, with an average of 200 tonnes diverted per house.20 Additionally, a new Vancouver company called Unbuilders was started earlier this year. Found-ed by Adam Corneil and Tony Pantages, their concept is to “replace demotion machines with humans and creates employment for skilled tradespeople who use reverse engineering to unbuild a house”.21  They state that Vancouver discards 22,000 tonnes of wood in its annual demolition waste – a resource they regard as particularly salvageable.  Their aim is to decon-struct to allow these used materials to re-enter the supply chain.  Since starting their business, Unbuilders has saved over 100,000 board feet of lumber and 250 tonnes of garbage from being thrown in landfills. Once materials are deconstructed and salvaged, there are donated to Re-use charities such as Habitat for Humanity (later explored in this Chapter).2217 City of Vancouver, 2012. “City of Vancouver: Rates and disposal information”. Retrieved from http://vancouver.ca/engsvcs/solidwaste/land-fill/rates.htm 18 City of Vancouver, 2012. “City of Vancouver: Rates and disposal information”. Retrieved from http://vancouver.ca/engsvcs/solidwaste/land-fill/rates.htm 19 City of Vancouver, 2012. “City of Vancouver: Rates and disposal information”. Retrieved from http://vancouver.ca/engsvcs/solidwaste/land-fill/rates.htm20 City of Vancouver, 2012. “City of Vancouver: Rates and disposal information”. Retrieved from http://vancouver.ca/engsvcs/solidwaste/land-fill/rates.htm21 Daily Hive, 2018.  “Unbuilders”.  Retrieved from: http://dailyhive.com/vancouver/vancouver-based-unbuilders-homes-demolished-201822 Daily Hive, 2018.  “Unbuilders”.  Retrieved from: http://dailyhive.com/vancouver/vancouver-based-unbuilders-homes-demolished-20182.2.4. Current bylaws and fees for Vancouver LandfillsAccording to the waste management section of The City of Vancouver’s 2020 Greenest City Action Plan, 80% of construction waste is to be deferred from the landfill in either a recycling or reuse manner.23  Additionally, Metro Vancouver has implemented a disposal ban on clean wood waste.  The goal of targeting single family homes aligns with the clean wood waste ban, as wood is the dominant building material in single family homes. Wood waste makes up 10% of overall construction and demolition waste generated in Vancouver in 2015 (including com-mercial and domestic).24  The disposal ban means that wood is required to be recycled. Other-wise, a 50% surcharge is applied to all loads of regular garbage containing clean wood when the quantity of clean wood exceeds 10% of the garbage load.The Advanced Deconstruction Permit, Unbuilders, and Landfill fees are small steps in the right direction.  Significantly larger steps need to be taken to initiate a cultural shift towards respect-ing the current material resource that sits dormant in our building stock.  The future of our environment demands such a drastic shift. 2.2.5. Future of Reuse - Desirability of ReuseIn 100-Mile Home: Deconstruction and Material Reuse as Source and Sink of Single-Family Home Building Materials, Graeme Budge puts forward three direct actions that must be im-plemented by municipalities in order to increase material reuse. He suggests: Demonstration, Communication, and Rewarding.  Budge describes the process as: “…civic demonstration of materials reuse in new community and institutional buildings; quanti-fying and communicating success and engaging this knowledge within the community; offering tax credits to those practicing materials reuse, and implementing extended producer fees on new materials in order to highlight the financial benefit of salvaged materials.”25 Currently the four material reuse center in Metro Vancouver sell only 3% of the waste gener-ated by residential construction and demolition– showing potential to expand the market of used building materials.26  If the actions put forward by Budge are implemented, an increase in material reuse would decrease waste and relieve current pressures on landfills. Budge goes on to suggest a deconstruction hub paired with an online materials inventory to accompany the implementation of material reuse system.27 In addition to the systems already in place in Metro Vancouver, there are other measures in place to continue to promote and develop deconstruction.  Vancouver has highlighted two key strategies to drive material reuse: 1.  Training programs to build contractor capacity to provide deconstruction services 23 Budge, Graeme. 100-Mile Home : Deconstruction and Material Reuse as Source and Sink of Single-Family Home Building Materials. , 2013.24 City of Vancouver, 2018. “Demolition Permit with Recycling Requirements”  Retrieved from: https://vancouver.ca/home-property-develop-ment/demolition-permit-with-recycling-requirements.aspx25 Budge, Graeme. 100-Mile Home: Deconstruction and Material Reuse as Source and Sink of Single-Family Home Building Materials. , 2013.26 Budge, Graeme. 100-Mile Home: Deconstruction and Material Reuse as Source and Sink of Single-Family Home Building Materials. , 2013.27 Budge, Graeme. 100-Mile Home: Deconstruction and Material Reuse as Source and Sink of Single-Family Home Building Materials. , 2013.14 152.  Market development for used materials The City of Vancouver website states that: “Deconstruction is an emerging area where more capacity needs to be built within the ranks of demolition contractors. Training workers in specific deconstruction techniques is available in the Cascadia region (BC, Washington, Oregon). More work in this area is required in order to realize the potential waste reduction opportunity. Also, further refinement of specific decon-struction techniques is warranted to confirm whether a hybrid deconstruction approach makes the most economic sense, where a building is partially deconstructed manually, and partially by machine.”28As deconstruction becomes more prevalent in the building industry, we will learn from the pro-cess of deconstruction and this will further inform the notion of design for deconstruction (DfD). Building materials come in standard sizes, and perhaps these sizes will be reconsidered in terms of re-usability.  The concept of material reuse and DfD would bring into question the “op-timum size” of modules and materials used in the construction industry.29 Lastly, the way of looking at waste needs a new lens.  An early mentality regarding the waste problem was to find new uses for waste or treat waste as the ever-mounting enemy.  A different way of approaching waste is to understand its lifecycle and question the need to produce it in the first place.30  If reducing is not an option, a closed loop reuse system is the next alternative; a cyclical flow of materials that sequences through uses in different buildings.31 2.3. Reduce/ Reuse/ Recycle: A Hierarchy“The greenest building is the one that is already built.”Carl ElefanteThe Reduce, Reuse, Recycle slogan organizes its calls to action in order of environmental im-pact.  Cities such as Vancouver boast about their amount of recycling, when recycling should be a last resort, right before the landfill.  According to the Reduce, Reuse, Recycle motto we should first attempt to reduce our consumption. If reducing is not possible, we should look to reuse products, and lastly resort to recycling products when they come to the end of their life. The core of architecture is one of making, and therefore contends with the base of the pyramid: Reduce. As Carl Elefante puts it, the existing building stock can and should be reused. Recycling can be split into three different categories: Secondary waste, Post industrial waste, and Post-consumer waste.  Secondary waste are the waste products from the source of ex-traction of a material, like the small branches of trees left over during logging.32  Post-industrial waste is leftover from manufacturing procedures, for example sawdust.33  Post consumer waste 28 City of Vancouver, 2018. “Demolition Permit with Recycling Requirements”  Retrieved from: https://vancouver.ca/home-property-develop-ment/demolition-permit-with-recycling-requirements.aspx29 Thormark, C. “Conservation of Energy and Natural Resources by Recycling Building Waste.”Resources, Conservation & Recycling, vol. 33, no. 2, 2001, pp. 113-130.30 Addis, William, and Taylor & Francis eBooks A-Z. Building with Reclaimed Components and Materials: A Design Handbook for Reuse and Recycling. Earthscan, London;Sterling, VA;, 2006;2012;.31 Addis, William, and Taylor & Francis eBooks A-Z. Building with Reclaimed Components and Materials: A Design Handbook for Reuse and Recycling. Earthscan, London;Sterling, VA;, 2006;2012;.32 Thormark, C. “Conservation of Energy and Natural Resources by Recycling Building Waste.”Resources, Conservation & Recycling, vol. 33, no. 2, 2001, pp. 113-130.33 Thormark, C. “Conservation of Energy and Natural Resources by Recycling Building Waste.”Resources, Conservation & Recycling, vol. 33, no. 2, 2001, pp. 113-130.is what is recycled after consumers no longer need a product, such as incinerating wood waste for energy.34  Out of the three, William Addis concludes in Building with Reclaimed Com-ponents and Materials: A Design Handbook for Reuse and Recycling that: “it is more environmentally beneficial to use post-industrial waste as the material has not pro-gressed as far along the cradle-to-grave life cycle as post-consumer waste. Similarly, it is bet-ter from an environmental point of view to reuse components or equipment rather than to use recycled materials that have already progressed further along the material life cycle.”35Implementing material reuse over material recycling has greater positive impacts for the envi-ronment, yet can provide challenges for the design process. Recycling used materials allows the material to be fed back into the manufacturing process either as the same material or a different material.36  Either way, they are produced as new consumer goods. New materials with recycled content still have a nominal dimension and meet manufacturing standards, while used materials might have impurities and imperfections.2.4. Construction IndustryThe construction industry in North America today is geared towards the practice of demolition.  The fast paced, budget-oriented nature of the construction industry, especially in single fam-ily homes, has cemented demolition as a favourable option.  Deconstruction and DfD can be misunderstood as costlier upfront, yet cost savings from reuse and environmental impact can outweigh the initial savings from demolition.37  If deconstruction is adopted on a large scale, the standardization and development of infrastructure would enable a larger cost savings for homeowners and contractors. The processing costs of preparing used building materials for resale could be expedited with training and knowledge.  Also, the implementation of decon-struction hubs would provide the infrastructure to compete with the convenience of the landfill.34 Thormark, C. “Conservation of Energy and Natural Resources by Recycling Building Waste.”Resources, Conservation & Recycling, vol. 33, no. 2, 2001, pp. 113-130.35 Addis, William, and Taylor & Francis eBooks A-Z. Building with Reclaimed Components and Materials: A Design Handbook for Reuse and Recycling. Earthscan, London;Sterling, VA;, 2006;2012;.36 Gorgolewski, Mark. “Designing with Reused Building Components: Some Challenges.”Building Research & Information, vol. 36, no. 2, 2008, pp. 175-188.37 Gorgolewski, Mark. “Designing with Reused Building Components: Some Challenges.”Building Research & Information, vol. 36, no. 2, 2008, pp. 175-188.“The greenest building is the one that is already built.”- Carl Elefante16 17ExtractionManufactureProductExtractionManufactureProductUse DemolitionRecyclingDismantlingReuseUseDemolitionWasteLandfilla. linear b. cyclicalFigure 3: Linear vs. cyclical design approachGraphic inspired from “Building with Reclaimed Components and Materials”Addis, William, and Taylor & Francis eBooks A-Z. Building with Reclaimed Components and Materi-als: A Design Handbook for Reuse and Recycling. Earthscan, London;Sterling, VA;, 2006;2012;.2.4.1. Design and Construction ProcessThe current building timeline is linear. The process includes: design, construction, use, dem-olition.38  The linear nature of the process is economical and efficient, not environmental.  Ap-proaching design with the intent of material reuse is represented as a more cyclical process.  The cyclical nature hinges on the reuse step, the process includes: design (or DfD), construc-tion, use, deconstruction/dismantling, component reuse and material recycling – cycling back to design.39  When approaching design with the intent to reuse materials, the design process is no longer standard or conventional.  The typical design process changes to one that is much more material driven.  According to Addis in Building with Reclaimed Components and Ma-terials: A Design Handbook for Reuse and Recycling, the design process when using reused materials is as follows: outline design, identify potential material needs, identify likely sources, revise design, purchase or secure materials (optional: find alternatives, refurbish materials, and store materials), detail design, then finally construction.40  In addition to shifts in the design and construction processes, Addis recommends a strong commitment and understanding from the client and entire project team as to what the cost and time investment will be.2.4.2. Wood Frame ConstructionWood frame construction is prevalent in North America, and specifically British Columbia, Can-ada, as lumber is a plentiful local resource.  Cities such as Vancouver grew as logging towns, exporting BC’s timber globally.  The unique history of lumber in BC combined with the intrinsic qualities of wood that allows for reuse and positions it well as our main material for this thesis (Further information on history of wood construction in Chapter 5: Log Cabin).  Of the 241,000 tonnes of construction waste generated in Metro Vancouver, a large percentage is wood waste: “The three major components of this are wood waste (50%), mineral aggregates (concrete; 30%), and metals (5%).”41   Wood is a natural material which requires simple processing and minimal energy inputs to convert it from a raw material to a building product.  Other than some impregnated solutions invented to prevent rot or fasteners secured into lumber, after wood’s useful life in a building it can deteriorate and simply return to the natural environment.42  Be-cause wood is a plant-based material it stores carbon until it rots or is burned.  In the Ecology of Building Materials, Berge explains that: “One kilogram of dry timber contains about 50 per cent carbon, which in turn binds 1.8 kg of carbon dioxide). In an average-sized timber dwelling, which contains about 20 tons of timber, there are 36 tons of carbon dioxide effectively bound in. The products must be durable and preferably recyclable.”Wood: Potential for ReuseIn British Columbia spruce, pine, or fir is commonly used for dimensional lumber for residential framing.  The inherent qualities of these species allow them to be reused over several genera-38 Addis, William, and Taylor & Francis eBooks A-Z. Building with Reclaimed Components and Materials: A Design Handbook for Reuse and Recycling. Earthscan, London;Sterling, VA;, 2006;2012;.39 Addis, William, and Taylor & Francis eBooks A-Z. Building with Reclaimed Components and Materials: A Design Handbook for Reuse and Recycling. Earthscan, London;Sterling, VA;, 2006;2012;.40 Addis, William, and Taylor & Francis eBooks A-Z. Building with Reclaimed Components and Materials: A Design Handbook for Reuse and Recycling. Earthscan, London;Sterling, VA;, 2006;2012;.41 https://vancouver.ca/home-property-development/demolition-permit-with-recycling-requirements.aspx42 Berge, Bjø, Filip Henley, and Taylor & Francis eBooks A-Z. The Ecology of Building Materials. Routledge, New York;Florence;, 2001;2007;, doi:10.4324/9780080504988.18 19Figure 4: Traditional Japanese wood joint.Photo by Blaine Brownell sourced from: https://www.architectmagazine.com/technology/the-histo-ry-of-wood-and-craft-in-japanese-design_otions; used in a sheltered application outside.  Spruce can last up to 120 years,  pine 75 years and fir 50 years.43  The natural qualities of wood make it easily recyclable or reusable.  The reuse of wooden log structures is ever-present in Scandinavian design.  In addition, traditional Japanese construction employed techniques of wood construction that could be easily assem-bled and dismantled without any waste.44  Wooden construction in North America today is reli-ant on nails and screws, which can be removed with trained labourers, yet the recent addition glue and surface treatments added to timber has diminished its reusability.45 Infrastructure to Promote ReuseIn Metro Vancouver, Habitat for Humanity’s ReStore is the leading retailer for salvaged mate-rials.  ReStores are building supply stores run by Habitat for Humanity that accept and resell quality new and used building materials. ReStore intercepts building materials that were land-fill bound and sells them to generate revenue to support Habitat for Humanity homebuilding projects. Common items that are gathered and sold by ReStore are: lumber, drywall, windows, doors, trim, siding, flooring, plumbing and electrical fixtures, cabinets and furniture, and other items including simple objects such as nails and screws. Retailers are encouraged to donate returned products, or discontinued samples that would have ended up in a landfill. “In 2010, ReStores across Canada diverted 20,000 tonnes of material from landfills”.462.5. Building + Material Lifecycle“When one considers the compounding effects of the long life of buildings (and infrastructure) and their large and material intensive bulk, it is not surprising that construction has resulted in sprawling landscapes of assembled mineral resources. The extraordinary efforts of previous societies to mine and process the mineral wealth of the world have left us with a huge bounty of material embodied within the structure, skin and internals of our buildings.”47- John Ferdinand in Material Architecture2.5.1. Life Cycle AssesmentIn the past few years, the sustainability conversation has come to include the energy use and life cycle of buildings.  Energy use is prioritised by certification systems such as LEED and Passive House, creating buildings that demand less from conventionally supplied energy.  Some certification systems such as LEED and Cradle-to-Cradle also introduce the notion of the lifecycle of a building.  The lifetime of a building isn’t simply the time that humans occupy it, it also includes the extraction of raw materials, their processing, transportation, the erection of the building, its operation and maintenance, and finally its demolition (or deconstruction).48  Unfortunately it is seldom that a single owner sees a building from construction to demolition, 43 Berge, Bjø, Filip Henley, and Taylor & Francis eBooks A-Z. The Ecology of Building Materials. Routledge, New York;Florence;, 2001;2007;, doi:10.4324/9780080504988.44 Berge, Bjø, Filip Henley, and Taylor & Francis eBooks A-Z. The Ecology of Building Materials. Routledge, New York;Florence;, 2001;2007;, doi:10.4324/9780080504988.45 Berge, Bjø, Filip Henley, and Taylor & Francis eBooks A-Z. The Ecology of Building Materials. Routledge, New York;Florence;, 2001;2007;, doi:10.4324/9780080504988.46 Habitat For humanity, 2011. “About ReStore”. Retrieved from http://www.habitat.ca/en/community/restores 47 Ferdinand, John. Material Architecture. Taylor & Francis Group, Abingdon, 2017.48 Thormark, Catarina, et al. “A Low Energy Building in a Life cycle—its Embodied Energy, Energy Need for Operation and Recycling Poten-tial.” Building and Environment, vol. 37, no. 4, 2002, pp. 429-435.20 21Outline DesignIdentify likely componenet/ mate-rial needsIdentify likely sourcesRevise DesignSeek/ purchase goodsFind alternatives if necessaryRefurbish if necessaryStorage if neces-saryDetailed DesignConstructionFigure 5: Reused Material - design processGraphic inspired from “Building with Reclaimed Components and Materials”Addis, William, and Taylor & Francis eBooks A-Z. Building with Reclaimed Components and Materi-als: A Design Handbook for Reuse and Recycling. Earthscan, London;Sterling, VA;, 2006;2012;.therefore their interest in the building lifecycle dwindles as profit proves to have greater weight.  This can deter closed-loop thinking about building design and operation.492.5.2. DeconstructionDeconstruction is defined by Greer in Building the Deconstruction Industry as the “reverse construction of a building - an environmentally and economically conscious alternative to dem-olition”.50  Deconstruction is the means to realizing material reuse.  According to Ferdinand in Material Architecture, Deconstruction is “a broad effort to bring into being a culture and indus-try of reclamation of the valuable materials and components that reside in the existing building stock.”51  Therefore, the practice of deconstruction and the value and use of reused materi-als are inherently linked.  Deconstruction doesn’t have limitations in terms of scale; it can be applied to a small hut or civil infrastructure. Significant benefits of deconstruction are energy savings and landfill diversion.52  Hudge argues in 100-Mile Home : Deconstruction and Material Reuse as Source and Sink of Single-Family Home Building Materials, that these benefits can come at an economically viable price when all aspects of the equation are considered.  He writes that:  “…the net cost of deconstruction [can be expressed] in an easily understood equation: (De-construction + Disposal + Processing) – (Contract Price + Salvage Value) = Net Deconstruc-tion Costs. On a basic level, this equation demonstrates that decreased spending on disposal and the revenue from salvaged materials has the potential to make a deconstruction project more cost-effective than demolition.”53 The net cost of deconstruction has been found to be from 10% to 50% less than demolition, based on the revenue of salvaged materials.54  Additionally, the process of deconstruction can create a job market for skilled labourers and specialized training and education.552.6. Material Reuse – The ProjectThe following figures are an except from the catalogue of used building materials that my par-ents have collected over the years.  These used materials are quantified and modeled, pre-pared for their next life in this project. 49 Addis, William, and Taylor & Francis eBooks A-Z. Building with Reclaimed Components and Materials: A Design Handbook for Reuse and Recycling. Earthscan, London;Sterling, VA;, 2006;2012;.50 Greer, Diane. (2004). Building the Deconstruction Industry. BioCycle, 45(11), 36-42.51 Ferdinand, John. Material Architecture. Taylor & Francis Group, Abingdon, 2017.52 Budge, Graeme. 100-Mile Home : Deconstruction and Material Reuse as Source and Sink of Single-Family Home Building Materials. , 2013.53 Budge, Graeme. 100-Mile Home : Deconstruction and Material Reuse as Source and Sink of Single-Family Home Building Materials. , 2013.54 Guy, B., & McLendon, S. (2003). Building Deconstruction: Reuse and Recycling of Building Materials. Center for Construction and Envi-ronment at the University of Florida. Gainesville, FL.55 Budge, Graeme. 100-Mile Home : Deconstruction and Material Reuse as Source and Sink of Single-Family Home Building Materials. , 2013.22 23Figure 6: Storage of used materials at White LakeOwn Graphic24 25Figure 7: Catalogue of used materials at White LakeOwn GraphicWP-1WD-6WD-7WP-2SN-126 27Figure 8: Catalogue of used materials at White LakeOwn GraphicWD-8WP-3cWD-9aWP-3bWP-3dWP-3eWD-9bWP-3a28 29Figure 9: Catalogue of used materials at White LakeOwn GraphicWF-2WD-4aWD-5WF-1aWF-1bWF-1cWF-1dWF-1eWF-1fWD-18WD-20WF-1aWD-19WD-3aWD-3bWD-4bWF-3aWP-530 31Figure 10: Catalogue of used materials at White LakeOwn GraphicWP-4SN-2SN-8WF-3aWD-11MT-2MT-1WD-10WD-1032 33Figure 11: Catalogue of used materials at White LakeOwn GraphicWF-9WF-8WD-17WD-14SN-3WF-5fWF-5eWF-4cWF-5bWF-4bWF-4aWF-7WF-6WD-15WD-13SN-5WF-5dWF-5aWF-5cWF-4dWD-21SN-3WD-1234 35Figure 12: Catalogue of used materials at White LakeOwn GraphicWD-11WP-7aWP-7bWP-6SN-7SN-636 37MT-1SN-2SN-5SN-8MT-2SN-3SN-6WD-2SN-1SN-4SN-7WD-3Figure 13: Catalogue of used materials at White LakeOwn GraphicWD-4WD-7WD-9bWD-13WD-5WD-8WD-11WD-14WD-6WD-9aWD-12WD-1538 39WD-17WD-20WF-2WF-4WD-18WD-21WF-3aWF-5WD-19WF-1WF-3bWF-6Figure 14: Catalogue of used materials at White LakeOwn GraphicWF-7WP-1WP-3eWP-6WF-8WP-2WP-4WP-7aWF-9WP-3WP-5WP-7b40 4103Material Based Design - [Project Approach]42 43Chaper 3: Material Based Design - [Project Approach]3.1. Paving the way for Material-Based Design: Post-Modernism & DeconstructivismDespite the similar diction of Deconstruction and Deconstructivism, the former is the practice of dismantling a building, as described in Chapter 2: Material Reuse, and the latter is a re-action to the Modernist design movement.  Yet, Deconstructivism is explored in this Chapter because of its role in architectural history, bridging the gap between Modernism and Material Based Design.  The components which make up Material Based Design are unpacked to bet-ter understand the design approach I intend to undertake in the design portion of this thesis.3.1.1. Post-ModernismPost-Modernism is a direct reaction to Modernism and Structuralism. The architectural move-ment of Post-Modernism is commonly known for its aesthetic reintroduction of surface applica-tion after the stripping of ornamentation during the Modernism movement. Yet, the architectural movement was in fact responding to the social utopian ideals of Modernism and philosophical beliefs of thinkers such as Martin Heidegger. Instead of resorting to one International Style for a technology-driven, modern world, Post-Modernists reject the idea of a universal, perfect style. They embraced all the colours, materials, and forms that the modernists had deemed impure.3.1.2. DeconstructivismDeconstructivism under the umbrella of Post-Modernism, yet explores specific ideas of disrupt-ing the structure of a building. Deconstruction, or poststructuralism, is a philosophical move-ment developed from Jaques Derrida’s reaction to Ferdinand de Saussure’s Structuralism.  Der-rida’s argument questions Saussure’s theory and begins to propose that meaning in language is based solely on the relationship, and by questioning this relationship we create uncertainty and indeterminacy.  In Deconstruction the signifier does not refer to a definite signified but produces other signifiers instead.56  Speaking architecturally: Johnson and Wrigley write in De-constructivist Architecture that “Deconstruction itself, however, is often misunderstood as the taking apart of construction”.57  Wrigley emphasises that Deconstructivism is “an architecture of disruption, dislocation, deflection, deviation, and distortion, rather than one of demolition, dis-mantling, decay, decomposition, or disintegration. It displaces structure instead of destroying it”.58  Similar to the way Derrida questioned the core structure of language by interrogating the relationship between signifier and signified, Deconstructivist architecture questions the core of architecture: structure. The disruption is from within – an interrogation of the structure. This interrogation started in Russia’s 1920’s Constructivism and was pursued further by Deconstruc-56 Guillemette, Lucie and Josiane Cossette “Deconstruction and Differance.” Signosemio – Theoretical Semiotics on the Web, April 2006. http://www.signosemio.com/derrida/deconstruction-and-differance.asp.  Accessed February 24 2018.57 Johnson, Philip, Mark Wigley, and Museum of Modern Art, New York. Deconstructivist Architecture. Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1988.58 Johnson, Philip, Mark Wigley, and Museum of Modern Art, New York. Deconstructivist Architecture. Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1988.tivists after experiencing the International Style of Modernism.  Therefore, it is said by Wrigley that: “[deconstructivist] projects employ the aesthetic of high modernism but marry it with the radical geometry of the [Russian] pre-revolutionary work.”59  Derrida’s theory turned into a spa-tial experiment when his text Speech and Phenomena was translated from French to English is 1973. He captured the interest of Architects such as Rem Koolhaas, Zaha Hadid, Bernard Tshumi, Peter Eisenman, and Frank Gehry. 3.1.3. Movement Towards Material Based Design (Post-Post-Modernism)Adolf Loos writes in Regarding Economy that the “old love of ornament should be replaced by a love of material”.  Although known as a pioneer in the Modernist movement, Loos describes a reaction that was repeated 50 years later when Material Based Design responded to Post-Mod-ernism.  He was proposing a celebration of inherent qualities of materials, a philosophy that has faded and emerged throughout the last century as design movements came and went.   Material Based Design (or Post-Post-Modernism) is the ultimate embodiment of a celebration of materials; an expression of materiality that hasn’t been present since pre-modernism.  Material Based Design is as much a response to ornamentation as it is to formalism.  Deconstructivists ranked materiality as subservient to the formal expression of the building, allowing the structure to act as the ornament and serve all aesthetic needs.  An example of this is Peter Eisenman’s Cardboard Architecture.  Eisenman explains the explorations in cardboard architecture with: “cardboard is connotative of less mass, less texture, less color, and ultimate-ly less concern for these. It is closest to the abstract idea of plan.”60  Put simply, the idea is to make a building seem like a model, or a representation of form.  This approach to architecture clearly does not prioritize materiality or matter. In the 1990’s Peter Zumphor was one of the forefathers of the Material Based Design61 and he defended his case for materiality in several successful projects such as Shelters for Roman archaeological site, and Saint Benedict Chapel.  Following Zumphor’s lead, a stronger relation-ship with materiality was forged within the architectural community.  Architects like Herzog and de Meuron and Kengo Kuma emerged, also designing with form subservient to material.  3.2. Definition of Material-Based DesignFollowing suit of the architectural movements before it, Material Based Design is a reaction to its predecessors: Post-Modernism and, more specifically, Deconstruction.  Material Based De-sign combats the philosophies of the previous movements, which prioritized formal ornamen-tation and formal direction based on structural interrogation and disruption.  In Matter: Material Processes in Architectural Production, Borden and Meredith describe Material Based Design’s reactionary philosophy as: “If materiality was at one point the enemy of the formal, humanist project, it is not any more. It is probably closer to an avantgarde trajectory, that is to say, materiality is now used to find new methods of non-composition through rethinking the part to whole relations of “tasteful” compo-59 Johnson, Philip, Mark Wigley, and Museum of Modern Art, New York. Deconstructivist Architecture. Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1988.60 Peter Eisenman’s Cardboard Architecture.  Arch League November 17 2014. https://archleague.org/article/200-years-peter-eisenman/. Accessed April 12 2018.61 Borden, Gail P., and Michael Meredith. Matter: Material Processes in Architectural Production. Routledge, New York, 2012.44 45mechanicalphysicalthermalopticaldeteriorativeductilityelastic moduliyeild strengthtensile strengthcompressive strengthtoughnessdensitythermal conductivitythermal diffusivitymelting temperaturemaximum service temperaturelinear theral expan-sion coefficientradiation transmissioncolourcorrosionmechanical wearintrinsic propertiesFigure 15: Intrinsic material propertiesGraphic inspired from “Material Architecture” Fernandez, John. Material Architecture. Taylor & Francis Group, Abingdon, 2017.sition. Materiality provides ways to destroy the objectness of architecture.”62In this thesis, my definition of Material Based Design is: a method of approaching design in which one allows the material’s inherent physical properties, including emotive and sensory qualities, to guide the design of a building.  The formal nature of the building is derived from the study and understanding of the material, opposed to form dictating the choice and appli-cation of materials.  This redirection of design drastically jumps in scale from the macro to the micro, allowing small matter such as material to inform the massing.3.2.1. MaterialityMateriality in architecture is the use and exploration of materials in built form.  Materials are the components that, once assembled, make up the buildings we reside in.  Materiality is often loosely and inaccurately described as the “soft facts”, opposed to the “hard facts” of a mate-rial.  A quick, untrained reader of Material Based Design might suppose the ephemeral quality of successfully designed buildings are attributed to material selection based on aesthetics and haptic qualities.  This is not the case.  Material Based Design of successfully designed build-ings emanates an emotive response because of it’s layered approach to materiality.  Material-ity also involves the deep scientific and rigorous testing of natural and engineered materials.  Material data collected by Material Engineers is vast and comprehensive.  Although incredibly helpful, the contemporary emerging architect may not be able to interpret this data in order to take advantage of this beneficial resource.  Therefore, the emotive qualities of the material identified by the designer are often driving material choices.  In Material Architecture, Fernan-dez writes about the definition of the term materiality and how it has shaped material use and discussion:“A keystone of this self-compromised discourse is the use of the word “materiality”; a term that has gained a stubborn foothold in schools of architecture and come to encapsulate all too well the many indistinct notions of the physical “character” of a design proposal. Not surprisingly absent from inclusion in the Oxford English Dictionary, the word has persisted and spread like a mild cold, not enough to cause fatal illness, but enough to muddle the mind.”63Sensory and emotional inspiration is derived from materials, which then gets translated into built form.  This process of approaching materiality is overlooking the years of data collected 62 Borden, Gail P., and Michael Meredith. Matter: Material Processes in Architectural Production. Routledge, New York, 2012.63 Fernandez, John. Material Architecture. Taylor & Francis Group, Abingdon, 2017.“If materiality was at one point the enemy of the formal, humanist project, it is not any more. It is probably closer to an avantgarde trajectory, that is to say, materiality is now used to find new methods of non-composition through rethinking the part to whole relations of “tasteful” compo-sition. Materiality provides ways to destroy the objectness of architecture.”- Gail P. Borden 46 47extrinsic propertiescapital cost - constructionlife cycle costenergy consumptionmaterial use (MFA)pollution and green-house gasesecologytoxicity - IAQpoverty alleviationsafetyhealthsocial equityhistorical resonancetheoretical ramifica-tionscharactereconomicenvironmentalsocietalculturalFigure 16: Extrinsic material propertiesGraphic inspired from “Material Architecture” Fernandez, John. Material Architecture. Taylor & Francis Group, Abingdon, 2017.by Material Scientists and Material Engineers that can provide information on inherent proper-ties of materials.  Dependence on the emotional approach to material selection is worrying for Taylor and Francis, who write that: “…a significant swath of contemporary designers are not able to discuss a material in terms that extend beyond the general and immediately senso-ry-oriented. The haptic and visual aspects of materials clearly dominate discussions of mate-riality and while these discussions may be rich, useful and inspirational, they are limited in the coverage of the topic in light of its potential.”64 For the purpose of this thesis, my definition of Materiality will include the “soft” and “hard” facts. The current ubiquitous nature of the term Materiality has eroded the scientific pillars on which Materiality once stood.  I argue that the physical properties of materials define their sensory and emotive read.  I am emphasising the importance of Material Research during design to enhance innovation and exploration throughout the process. 3.2.2. Material ResearchMaterial Research combined with haptic and emotive responses to materials make up the core of Material Based Design.  The branch of Material Engineering is a field of its own based solely on studying properties of existing materials, and Material Scientists further this research by learning from these properties to develop new materials.  For the purpose of my thesis I define Material Research as the Study of Material Properties.  I will borrow from Callister’s definition of Material Properties as: “[…] the attributes by which a substance is defined. These attributes are the useful conven-tions of scientific disciplines, intent on analyzing behavior, formulating theories and synthesiz-ing models that correlate the atomic and molecular composition of materials with the properties that are exhibited. While properties define the behavior of the material, molecular and atomic arrangements determine these properties.”65 In Material Architecture, Fernandez split Material Research into two broard categories: intrin-sic and extrinsic.  The intrinsic properties of a material are of the object or thing itself, and are independent of all other things, including its context.  Taylor and Francis have five subcatego-ries: mechanical, physical, thermal, optical, and deteriorative.  These subcategories are further 64 Fernandez, John. Material Architecture. Taylor & Francis Group, Abingdon, 2017.65 Callister, W.D. Materials science and engineering an introduction. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 2003“When you are designing in brick, you must ask brick what it wants or what it can do. Brick will say, I like an arch.  You say, but arches are difficult to make, they cost more money.  I think you could use concrete across your opening equally well. But the brick says, I know you’re right, but if you ask me what I like, I like an arch.”- Louis Kahn48 49a.b.c.Figure 17: Image showing mechanical Intrinsic properties of wood graina. plain sawn b.flat sawn c. rift sawnOwn graphicsplit into recordable individual properties.  Under mechanical, they have highlighted: ductility, elastic moduli, yield strength, tensile strength, compressive strength, and toughness.66  The extrinsic properties are comprised of the opposite characteristics, they look to the material in relation to external forces. For extrinsic properties, they propose four subcategories: economic, environmental, societal, and cultural.  Being an architect means being the conductor of all the parts – the connection between the idea and the materials.67  Having this immense responsibility requires a deeper understanding than simply the sensory qualities one attaches to materials.  A scientific understanding of what kind of manipulation each material can support before breaking is required.  In Material De-sign: Informing Architecture by Materiality Erwin Viray writes in his forward that a knowledge in: “what they can hide, what they can emit, what they can keep, what they can stimulate, and in the final instance what they can create and what they can destroy” is necessary for the archi-tect.  The abilities Viray writes about are only possible to tease of out a material with rigorous scientific testing.  One can speculate or hypothesise, yet the “hard” facts that are produced from Material Research are unforgiving and unwavering.3.3. Material Integrity + ExpressionIn Material Integrity and Expression, I discuss the importance of allowing a material to live up to its best traits and not forcing it to be something it isn’t.  Listening to what the material wants to be is an important concept in Material Based Design.  A study into Material Research as previ-ously mentioned will reveal what properties the material holds that allow it to physically achieve certain architectural and structural feats. Technology has expanded the limits of our standard paint box of materials, creating endless malleable options for how materials are manipulated to suit our imaginations.68  Yet, this results in architects forcing materials to sometimes reach physical limits that they are not intrinsically made for.  In Material Based Design, designers lis-ten to the material to aid in important early decisions in terms of form, structure and materiality. 3.3.1. Material’s Inherent Potential“When you are designing in brick, you must ask brick what it wants or what it can do. Brick will say, I like an arch.  You say, but arches are difficult to make, they cost more money.  I think you could use concrete across your opening equally well. But the brick says, I know you’re right, but if you ask me what I like, I like an arch.”69- Louis I. Kahn Following the “hard fact” argument set up in previous sections on Materiality and Material Research, I must reassert the importance of the complementary duality of both hard and soft material observations. Armed with the Material Research emphasised in the earlier section, I am now going to address getting to know your material personally and listening to its strengths and challenges.  In Material Integrity, I discuss the importance of allowing a material to live up to its best traits and not forcing it to be something it isn’t.  The Louis Kahn quote speaks direct-ly to this concept – celebrating the expression and personality of the material.  Half a century 66 Fernandez, John. Material Architecture. Taylor & Francis Group, Abingdon, 2017.67 Schröpfer, Thomas, and James Carpenter. Material Design: Informing Architecture by Materiality. Birkhäuser, Basel, 2011.68 Borden, Gail P., and Michael Meredith. Matter: Material Processes in Architectural Production. Routledge, New York, 2012.69 Kahn, Louis. Space and Inspirations, in Louis I. Kahn, Writings, Lectures, Interviews. Alessandra Latour, ed. Rizzoli, New York, 1991.50 51ahead of the Material Based Design movement, Kahn went beyond a material approach, and developed a material obsession with brick.  In addition to the intrinsic properties he studied on the material, he also exploited its extrinsic social properties and explored the value of humble-ness placed upon brick when used in public buildings.  Kahn’s designs embodied the hard and soft duality the designer must explore when working with materials.  In Material Architec-ture, Fernandez emphasizes the importance of both aspects of material research: “Obsession without knowledge makes unimportant, misguided and sometimes dangerous buildings. I strongly believe that a simple allure of contemporary materials is not only superfi-cial at best but, in light of the enormous material expenditure of construction, critically irrespon-sible at worst. Equally, I hold to the ideal that technical knowledge of contemporary materials without a foundation of values to guide a passionate viewpoint for design is no better. Materi-als, in and of themselves - however novel - will never make us better designers.”A scientific listing of properties alone will not bring about Material Based Design.  As Fernan-dez writes in Material Architecture, “the hint of the full range of creative possibilities in any design situation cannot reasonably be perceived through a mere listing of the mechanical and physical properties alone.”70  It requires the emotional interpretation that the architect has of the material characteristics and the articulation of that concept into and assembly of materials – built form.  Studying the delicate balance between hard and soft material observations is the process of understanding a material’s potential and is the backbone of Material Based Design. 3.4. Environment, Culture and Society: Shaping Craft + Materi-als In this section I discuss the fundamental links between material and craft, craft and architec-ture.  The role that environment, culture, and society play in altering extrinsic values of materi-als over time changed at an exponential pace in the last century.  The quote below from Bor-den in Matter: Material Processes in Architectural Production exemplifies the subverting of the historical material to craft to architecture relationship:“Over and above our fundamental socio-ecological shift, new fabrication and construction technologies have severed the equally illusory tie between the “natural,” so-called inherent properties, and architectural applications. In other words, compressive strengths, bendability, tensile limits and other “innate” physical properties no longer define our relationship to a dwin-dling material palette. The mediation of fabrication technologies has multiplied and fragmented what had seemed to be stable application-traditions: when tree trunks cease to be automatical-ly understood as cylindrical fibrous bundles and can instead be conceived as stacks of veneer sheets laminated without consideration of wood grain, or sawdust molded and pressed togeth-er with chemicals to achieve dimensional stability, we find that our nostalgic default material understanding has been fundamentally destabilized.”71 What should also be noted is the temporal and transient nature of extrinsic values and fabri-cation and processing technology.  New materials have been created, yet wood, stone, and ceramics have endured thousands of years.  Materials and their extrinsic properties are the constant and the way we use and shape them is the variable. 70 Fernandez, John. Material Architecture. Taylor & Francis Group, Abingdon, 2017.71 Borden, Gail P., and Michael Meredith. Matter: Material Processes in Architectural Production. Routledge, New York, 2012.3.4.1. Cultural Material AssociationsMaterial Based Design also includes understanding any personal or cultural associations tied to a particular material.  It often includes awareness of those connections, followed by a questioning and sometimes a rejection. To remove a material from its architectural or non-ar-chitectural association and study its inherent properties is to reconsider its perceived cultural value.  Cultural associations of material values adapt with environmental, historical, and social influences.  Arguably, materials cannot be studied in isolation, because cultural bias will always influence experimentation.  The best approach to strip away cultural connotation would be to begin with a scientific approach, as seen in such material catalogues as Materiology: The Creatives Guide to Materials and Technologies or Harvard GSD’s Material Collection Database.  Both take an approach that explores the physical properties of the material separate from its architectural associations, allowing the user to use the library or catalogue with as little past architectural connotations as possible. Fabrication processes have a significant role on the cultural associations placed on materials.  The book: Materiology: The Creatives Guide to Materials and Technologies highlights conven-tional fabrication processes for common resources such as wood, concrete, and metal.  Use is heavily tied to fabrication process as the process shapes the second form of the raw resource.  Therefore, historical and conventional fabrication processes should be understood, but not emphasised when approaching material-based design.3.4.2. Material and Craft – a Symbiotic RelationshipCraft differs from fabrication processes in several ways.  Craft originates from years of cultural, environmental, and social influences.  Fabrication processes are affected by industrial stan-dards shaped by efficiency, and ultimately financial and capitalistic agendas.  Craft is strongly tied to the haptic qualities of the material, and what its material properties guide it towards.  Conversely, finely tuned industrial methods govern fabrication processes.  Craft differs from industrial fabrication in its distancing from the maker and the hand.  In Material Matters Katie Lloyd Thomas writes that “Within this type of practice the commercial manufacturer develops the process to ensure cost effectiveness, and the quality and similarity of the reproduced arti-cles. The article itself loses its status and a distance is created between the manufacturer and “By dramatically altering the processes by which materials are worked, the material itself changes its characteristics, not simply in its appearance and function, but also in its cultural meaning and significance.  Much material innovation emerges not in the making of new materi-als but in transforming the way in which we handle them.”- Thomas Schröpfer52 53their product.”72  I argue that craft is of the vernacular.  Its process and product are formed by local environment and culture, tying the product and process to the place.  The same definition is applied on a large scale to buildings: vernacular building design is formed by and for the local. The personal connection of material and craft is symbiotic.  Material would not be as useful to humans without the development of craft to alter materials from their raw state.  Thomas Schropfer writes in Material Design - Informing Architecture by Materiality: “The perceived value of a material is not always inherent in itself, but in the care, difficulty, and craft of its treatment within a culture.”  Wood as a material exemplifies this statement.  Wood is a natural material with physical properties that derive strength in one direction and not in another, shrink-age in cold weather and expansion in warm weather, and bending or tension depending on orientation.  These characteristics inform the way the maker approaches the craft.  The maker chooses the tree(s) to turn into the object based on its physical traits and the maker’s level of expertise. The process includes a mental tug-of-war, with craft informing material selection and material informing craft.  Eventually as the maker forms the wood into a useful product, he increases the wood’s value to himself and other people by means of craft.Within the context of this thesis, working with used building materials should not be seen as a process but a craft.  The unique nature of used material’s characteristic flaws and impurities categorize their treatment and assembly as craft.  The outcome of their assembly into a new building should be of the vernacular; the stories and properties of materials should inform the architecture.3.4.3. From Craft to ArchitectureThe relationship between craft and architecture has been severed by advances in technol-ogy.  I argue that the Industrial Revolution spurred the separation and eventual divorce be-tween craft and architecture.  Before the Industrial Revolution, the choice of material and rate of extraction were constrained by expense, distance of transport, and skill of local craftsmen.  Vernacular design based on culture and environment determined the resource needs.  In turn, the available resources shaped the vernacular design.  Craftsmanship adds value to a mate-rial and makes it useful architecturally, and this irreplaceable symbiotic relationship tied the two together for centuries.  The scale and speed at which materials could be manufactured and processed after the Industrial Revolution forged a new relationship between materials and architecture and a disengagement with craft.  Following this, the Modern era brought about increasing efficiency in material processing technology, driving architecture further from its de-pendency on craft and personal relationship with materials.  Architectural options were endless as the selection of materials and efficacy of fabrication increased.  The change in how mate-rials were handled, from craftsmen to machines, altered their material properties, social and economic values, and emotive qualities.  Therefore, creating a brand-new material by process of processing.  In Material Design: Informing Architecture by Materiality, Schröpfer describes the effect of advances in fabrication and processing technology as altering the material to a point of material creation: “By dramatically altering the processes by which materials are worked, the material itself 72 Lloyd Thomas, Katie, et al. Material Matters: Architecture and Material Practice. Routledge, London;New York;, 2007.changes its characteristics, not simply in its appearance and function, but also in its cultural meaning and significance.  Much material innovation emerges not in the making of new materi-als but in transforming the way in which we handle them.”733.4.4. Vernacular DesignVernacular design is born from a basic need for shelter combined with resources available nat-urally to a particular climate and geography.  The term is tossed around loosely in architecture theory as a notion to strive for when the foreign is designing for the local.  But its relationship to material and basic shelter are more relevant for this thesis.  Vernacular design is heavily tied to materials and basic shelter; the main example explored by this thesis is the Log Cabin.  In Chapter 5: Log Cabin – Program, research exposes the reliance on the typology of cabin in the harsh climate experienced by settlers.  I also explore the relationship between wood, the log, and the log cabin – a relationship based on the intrinsic qualities of certain species of wood. Vernacular design is in fact, an architecturally glamorized term to describe the creation of shel-ters for survival.7473 Schröpfer, Thomas, and James Carpenter. Material Design: Informing Architecture by Materiality. Birkhäuser, Basel, 2011.74 Fernandez, John. Material Architecture. Taylor & Francis Group, Abingdon, 2017.54 5504Precedents - [Project Approach + Field of Inquiry]56 57Figure 18: Ricola Storage CenterFigure 19: Ricola Storage CenterSourced from: https://www.archdaily.com/634724/ricola-krauterzentrum-herzog-and-de-meuronSourced from: https://www.archdaily.com/634724/ricola-krauterzentrum-herzog-and-de-meuronChapter 4: Predents - [Project Approach + Field of Inquiry]4.1 Ricola Storage CenterOne of the Material Based Design precedents I am studying is Herzog and De Meuron’s Ricola storage center in Switzerland. The function of the building as a herb processing and storage facility is suitably matched with the construction material choice: earth. The earth is locally sourced from which the herbs grow, additionally, earth’s intrinsic properties of climate and hu-midity control contribute to the success of the material-based design.Figure 20: Ricola Storage CenterSourced from: https://www.archdaily.com/634724/ricola-krauterzentrum-herzog-and-de-meuron58 59Figure 21: Meme experimental HouseFigure 22: Meme experimental HouseSourced from: https://www.archdaily.com/322830/meme-experimental-house-kengo-kuma-associatesSourced from: https://www.archdaily.com/322830/meme-experimental-house-kengo-kuma-associates4.2 Meme Experimental HouseA second precedent I will highlight is Kengo Kuma’s Meme experimental house. A double skin membrane is composed of a polyester tarp on the outside and a Fiber glass cloth membrane on the inside. The idea is not to create the thickest, most solid insulation possible, but rather to use the material properties to perform in the desired way allowing light to create a diffuse day-lit glow.Figure 23: Meme experimental HouseSourced from: https://www.archdaily.com/322830/meme-experimental-house-kengo-kuma-associates60 61Figure 24: Hub 67Figure 25: Hub 67Sourced from: https://inhabitat.com/hub-67-lyn-atelier-builds-a-colorful-community-center-from-recycled-materials-from-the-london-olympics/hub-67-lyn-atelier-8/Sourced from: https://inhabitat.com/hub-67-lyn-atelier-builds-a-colorful-community-center-from-recycled-materials-from-the-london-olympics/hub-67-lyn-atelier-8/4.3 Hub 67LYN Atelier designed the community center HUB 67 in London out of 80% re-used materials sourced on site from London’s 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. It is designed to last 5 years, after which it is meant to be deconstructed and the materials are to be re-used else-where.Figure 26: Hub 67Sourced from: https://inhabitat.com/hub-67-lyn-atelier-builds-a-colorful-community-center-from-recycled-materials-from-the-london-olympics/hub-67-lyn-atelier-8/62 63Figure 27: Repurposed CabinFigure 28: Repurposed CabinSourced from: https://mymodernmet.com/nick-olson-lilah-horwitz-glass-cabin/Sourced from: https://mymodernmet.com/nick-olson-lilah-horwitz-glass-cabin/Figure 29: Repurposed CabinSourced from: https://mymodernmet.com/nick-olson-lilah-horwitz-glass-cabin/4.4 Repurposed CabinLocated in West Virgina, this micro cabin cost its designer/owners $500.  The cabin’s materials were salvaged from a nearby barn, featuring a large wall of repurposed windows.  The pur-posed of the window wall was to position the users amongst nature and take advantage of the view. 64 6505Log Cabin - [Program]66 67Figure 30: Exploded axon - typical log cabinOwn graphicChapter 5: Log Cabin - [Program]5.1. Material Use“To choose to live in a cabin is to give up all ties to the consumer society, since any self-re-specting cabin has neither water nor electricity and its furniture is limited to a table, a chair, a stove, a kettle, a Lilliputian-sized burner.  But the interior may be basic, the exterior demon-strates an unheard-of variety of materials.  The favorite is wood: logs, branches, storage pal-lets, builders’ timber, railway sleepers, flotsam and jetsam.  Then there is corrugated iron for the roof or for the whole construction, with empty petrol-cans to block up the holes.  Or card-board, corrugate paper, tarpaulin, oilcloth, plastic, bits of cars, buses or trams, salvaged doors and windows, earth, clay, mud, cob, palm, fern, broom, gorse, ivy, cane, bamboo, wire mesh, and the lids of metal boilers.”75 - Marie-France BoyerTheoretical cabin research describes the making of a log cabin as a collection of found mate-rials; a practice of bricolage.  Fortunately for the pioneers in Canada, and particularly British Columbia, the most convenient found materials came from the plentiful forest surrounding their homesteads.  Wood as a material, and the inherent properties of the tree species available, contributed to creating the Log Cabin as a Typology in Canada.  5.1.1. Wood – A Plentiful ResourceThe early economy and growth of Vancouver and New Westminster depended on the timber industry to create what we recognize today as the Lower Mainland.  The exporting of BC’s timber worldwide continues to fuel our economy in today’s market.  BC Mill Timber and Trading Company had a large role in shaping the timber industry.  Started in 1889 by the pioneer and lumberjack John Hendry, BC Mill Timber and Trading was the largest lumber manufacturer in BC with mills in New Westminster, Hastings (Vancouver) and North Vancouver.  Despite the fact that BC is still the largest producer of softwood in North America, the logging and lumber industry has changed dramatically since the days of BC Mill Timber and Trading Company.  Although old-growth/first-growth forests are now treated as protected parks, they once were the backdrop to BC’s landscape, ripe for the picking.  The lumber industry today survives off second growth forests and emphasises the importance of sustainable forest management and resource extraction.Old Growth ForestsOld-growth forests spur a dichotomy of progress and conservation.  The sad truth that less than 10% of BC’s forested areas are old-growth becomes clouded by the very purpose of architecture: to continue to build.  Most of what is experienced in British Columbia’s landscape today is second growth, yet when the log cabin typology was migrating West and acclimatizing to British Columbia, Old Growth was plentiful.  Despite the over-logging of BC’s old-growth for-ests, it did give birth to the log cabin.  The unique characteristics of old-growth wood informed 75 Boyer, Marie-France. Cabin Fever: Sheds and Shelters, Huts and Hideaways. Thames and Hudson, London, 1993.68 69a. b.c.e. f.g. h.d.Figure 31: Log Cabin notch detailsa. saddle notch b. square notch c. half dovetail notch d. dovetail notch e. V notch f. diamond notch g. lock notch h. tooth notchOwn graphicthe construction techniques used by the early pioneers.  Tall and straight trunks from old-growth trees provided the ideal building materials for the pioneers.  Once the tree was stripped or hewn, the archetypical log dimension was 12-14” square or diameter.76  These dimensions and characteristics were easy to come by in old-growth forests, but this type of log is rarer to locate in a second-growth forest.  The width of the log combined with the skill of craftsman con-tributed to the airtightness and thermal mass, and therefore the energy efficiency of the cabin.Species Available & Their PropertiesSoftwoods such as pine, spruce and western red cedar were used by pioneers to construct early log cabins.  According to Daniel Beard in Shelters, Shaks, and Shanties, cabins built with harder woods such as yellow pine will seldom be made as tight as one built with first-growth spruce trees.77  Choosing pine could result in cracks between logs, which would require mud-ding to prevent breezes.   At Pioneer Log Homes in British Columbia they exclusively use western red cedar to build log homes because of natural properties including oils and resins which repel insects and prevent decay.  Additionally, the western red cedar grows very tall with a straight grain, contains less moisture when cut, and takes less time to completely dry out than other species.5.1.2. The Log as an Incremental ModuleThe process of selecting and preparing the logs became more refined as the community grew and skills developed.  Trees were selected for log cabins based on straightness and smooth-ness of their trunks, as well as a generally uniform diameter.  The builder would select trees from the same species for at least the four walls of the cabin frame.  Log cabins were 12’-15’ long, measured by the handle of the axe.78  Bark was sometimes stripped from the log to prevent what Daniel Beard describes in the log cabin field guide Shelters, Shacks, and Shan-ties as: “inviting fibrous and threadlike cousins of the toadstool to grow on the damp wood and work their way into its substance.”79  He explains that: “The bark also shelters all sorts of boring insects and the boring insects make holes through the logs which admit the rain and in the end cause decay, so that the first thing to remember is to peel the logs of which you pro-pose to build the cabin.”80  The builder would lay out the logs and notch the ends to secure a connection without the aid of fasteners.  Different notch techniques immigrated along with the pioneers from the European version of the log cabin. Common notching types include Saddle notch, Square notch, Diamond notch, V-notch, dovetail, half dovetail, Double notch, and Tooth notch.81  Selection of notch type was based on cultural traditions, species of wood available, skill of the builder, and, most importantly, time. Next, a foundation of fieldstones or earth provid-ed the base for the first four logs.  Walls were built up by stacking the logs on top of each other, creating a structural connection through the corner notches.  Jennifer Vollard explains in Cabin Fever that: “Each log was held in place by its own weight, reinforced by the weight of the log above and supported by the log below.”82The Log Wall: A Typology76 Beard, Daniel C. Shelters, Shacks, and Shanties. C.Scribner’s sons, New York, 1914.77 Beard, Daniel C. Shelters, Shacks, and Shanties. C.Scribner’s sons, New York, 1914.78 Volland, Jennifer M, Bruce Grenville, Stephanie Rebick. Cabin Fever.Vancouver Art Gallery, Vancouver, Canada, 2018.79 Beard, Daniel C. Shelters, Shacks, and Shanties. C.Scribner’s sons, New York, 1914.80 Beard, Daniel C. Shelters, Shacks, and Shanties. C.Scribner’s sons, New York, 1914.81 Hoagland, Alison K. The Log Cabin: An American Icon. University of Virginia Press, Charlottesville, 2018.82 Volland, Jennifer M, Bruce Grenville, Stephanie Rebick. Cabin Fever.Vancouver Art Gallery, Vancouver, Canada, 2018.70 71a. b. c. d. e. f. g.Figure 32: Lincoln Log deconstructiona. 2 notch log b. roof rafter c. roof gable d. flat 2 notch log e. 1 notch log f. 3 notch logg. chimneyOwn graphicWalls making up log cabins were primarily exterior walls, as space was limited and privacy was not a priority.  The exterior walls of a log cabin were meant to be structural and to improve living conditions and environmental comfort for its occupants.  The typology of the log wall was of utmost importance to the pioneers; it provided basic shelter, made use of a plentiful resource, and allowed for development of skill and cultural expression.  Cabin builders could either main-tain the round profile of the log or hew the logs to a square or rectangular profile; either way, both were considered “log cabins”.  Some argue a hewn log is timber, and only considered a log when used in a horizontal, notched construction.83  As mentioned previously, bark was often stripped to preserve the logs, yet it was sometimes left on in a very expedient structure. The straightness of the tree trunk selected and the skill of the craftsman determined the need for chinking between the logs.  Chinking is the process of filling the spaces between the logs to create a degree of air-tightness and weather proofing for the cabin.  It included the use of pieces of wood or stones wedges into the gaps between then logs, then caulked with moss, wet clay, or even animal hair.  Chinking was required mostly when using whole round logs to fit between the imperfectly straight logs.  But, if a craftsman wasn’t apt at hewing, chinking was necessary to fill the gaps.Lincoln Logs: An Architectural ToyThe caricaturing of the (American) log cabin by toys such as Lincoln Logs emphasized its cre-ation as a typology.  Created in 1917 by John Lloyd Wright, the son of Frank Lloyd Wright, the children’s toy embodied the aesthetic of the pioneer log cabins and accentuated the modu-larity of the log.  Jennifer Vollard writes in Cabin Fever that “toys invariably reveal assumptions made by adults about the culture in which they live of the values they think desirable”.84  The political push at the time for a simpler life and his father’s use of interlocking wood in his recon-struction of Tokyo’s Imperial Hotel highly influenced the generating of Lincoln Logs. This roman-ized version of the cabin typology revered the pioneer settlement and log cabins as an icon for America’s democratizing liberation.  America was deep into WWI when the toy was created, and Wright was embodying a simpler time that spoke to his country’s unique heritage.  Political influences and agendas aside, Lincoln Logs are still popular with children today, and the toy generates up to $1 million in sales annually.  The logs are ¾” in diameter and 1 ½” – 7 ½” long, and were scaled to represent the dimensions of logs in a real life cabin.  The toy was originally made out of western red cedar. The manufacturer briefly attempted to make sets out of plas-tic, yet the backlash forced them to return to wood.  Lincoln Logs are made to resemble whole round logs and use the double-notch to secure a connection at the ends. Beginner sets come with the pieces to construct a basic log cabin, allowing for children to learn the basic structural concepts and efficiency of a log cabin design.  Similar to a real log cabin, the double-notched ends that interlocked these children’s creations allow for a sturdier structure than regular build-ing blocks.  The toy’s marketing in 1923 read: “Lincoln Logs: Interesting Play Things Typified ‘The Spirit of America’”.855.2. History5.2.1. Early Cabin History in North America“The log cabin is something special, it exists in other places in the world, but nowhere else but 83 Volland, Jennifer M, Bruce Grenville, Stephanie Rebick. Cabin Fever.Vancouver Art Gallery, Vancouver, Canada, 2018.84 Volland, Jennifer M, Bruce Grenville, Stephanie Rebick. Cabin Fever.Vancouver Art Gallery, Vancouver, Canada, 2018.85 Hoagland, Alison K. The Log Cabin: An American Icon. University of Virginia Press, Charlottesville, 2018.72 73Figure 33: English settler earthen dug-outsFigure 34: German settler log cabinSourced from: Belonsky, Andrew. The Log Cabin: An Illustrated History. The Countryman Press, a division of W.W. Norton & Company, New York, NY, 2018.Sourced from: Belonsky, Andrew. The Log Cabin: An Illustrated History. The Countryman Press, a division of W.W. Norton & Company, New York, NY, 2018.America is it as elemental, as much a cultural force.”86 History paints a picture of the English having a drastic influence over the development of cabin typology in North America during early migration from England to the East Coast of Canada and America.  Yet, this is not the case: the architectural typology of the log cabin that originat-ed in Northern Europe migrated with early Finnish, Swedish, and German immigrants.  In 1638, early Swedish and Finnish immigrants were deployed to colonize present day New Jersey.  The Swedes and Finns adapted their native vernacular to the “New World” and utilized the sur-rounded spruce, pine, and oak to recreate the log cabins they were accustomed to building at home in Northern Europe.87  These structures were built hastily and did not employ the craft that the Scandinavians were known for.  Despite their rugged appearance, these log cabins were considered an extreme advancement in environmental comfort compared to the earthen dug outs the English were residing in.88  Few Englishmen learned from the Swedes and Finns, and instead resided in houses made from clapboard siding.  They associated the typology of the cabin with poverty, lower class, and the Swedes and Finns who they overtook in 1655.  As Andrew Belonsky puts in The Log Cain: An Illustrator History: “Custom, it seems, trumped com-fort.”89  Later, in 1710, a large immigration of Germans arrived in America and reintroduced the typology of the cabin.  The Germans were accustomed to living in a similar wooded landscape and resorted to the familiar method of modest building.  In 1717 another flood of immigrants poured into America: the Scots-Irish. Unlike the English, they were happy to embrace the log cabin, and their vast numbers and hunger for cheap land helped spread the typology.  The first generation of immigrant cabins were distinct to each culture.  As time passed, the following generations lived in cabins that amalgamated cultural features and looked more to function and personal skill to determine the cabin’s aesthetic and form.  Eventually as the homestead laws drove settlers West, a unique “American character” emerged in the blended aesthetic of the immigrant’s cabins, creating the recognized American log cabin.5.2.2. Early Pioneer and Settler HomesGovernment & Homesteader ActsBy the mid 1800s the American government intervened with the unofficial claims to land and developed bills such as Indiana’s “Log cabin bill”, which allowed settlers to take up to 320 acres on credit per the condition they “cultivate” it and “raise a log-cabin thereon.”90  The Homestead Act of 1862 dramatically shaped the landscape and spread the cabin typology further West.  The Act prioritized fostering of the pioneer mentality and disregarded the Indige-nous peoples who had lived on the lands for thousands of years. The act stated that: “Any person that headed a household or was at least 21 years of age – including newly arrived immigrants, single women and formal slaves – to claim a 160-acre parcel of land.  Upon paying a filing fee of $18, homesteaders were required to live, build a home or cabin, and farm and improve the land for five years to be eligible for legal possession.”9186 Belonsky, Andrew. The Log Cabin: An Illustrated History. The Countryman Press, a division of W.W. Norton & Company, New York, NY, 2018.87 Belonsky, Andrew. The Log Cabin: An Illustrated History. The Countryman Press, a division of W.W. Norton & Company, New York, NY, 2018.88 Belonsky, Andrew. The Log Cabin: An Illustrated History. The Countryman Press, a division of W.W. Norton & Company, New York, NY, 2018.89 Belonsky, Andrew. The Log Cabin: An Illustrated History. The Countryman Press, a division of W.W. Norton & Company, New York, NY, 2018.90 Horace Greenly, in Robert C. Williams, Horace Greenly: Champion of American Freedom. New York: New York University Press, 2006.)91 Volland, Jennifer M, Bruce Grenville, Stephanie Rebick. Cabin Fever.Vancouver Art Gallery, Vancouver, Canada, 2018.74 75Similarly, in Canada, the Dominion Lands Act of 1872 was modeled off the American Home-stead Act. The Canadian government entered into treaties with Indigenous peoples in Western Canada to populate the land with settlers, ultimately creating irreversible effects on the Indige-nous communities. These homestead cabins were built quickly and cheaply; they were thought of as temporary structures until the family had more time and money.  The Homestead Act specified: “A minimum of ten by twelve feet and one glass window; most were a single room that served as the kitchen, dining, living, sleeping and working quarters.”92 5.2.3. History in Western CanadaIn Canada, the geography of settlement was the same as in America – initial settlements along the East coast gave way to eventual movement West with the promise of more land. Horizontal log construction was common in Quebec from  the 1750s to the late 1800s. Eventually set-tlements developed in Red River, Manitoba, as early as 1813 and employed the construction techniques seen in early Quebec log houses.  The French Canadian builders who worked for the Hudson’s Bay Company spread West with the fur trade and brought their building tech-niques. Known as the Red River or Hudson’s Bay style, the log cabins had hewn logs without notched corners.93  This allowed for quick and unskilled construction that accommodated future expansion.  As the pioneers moved to the great plains of Saskatchewan and Alberta, the natural resources did not lend themselves to log cabins, and sod houses were more appropri-ate.  Regardless, the pioneers adhered to their known methods and relentlessly built log cabins throughout the prairies. From Craft to Crude – An un-refinement of building skillsThe craft that was imported with Swedish, Finnish, and German immigrants to the East coast diminished as the pioneers moved West.  The existing settlements in the East provided a com-munity to help build a log cabin and allowed for family support.  Log cabin techniques were developed, and craftsmen’s skills were honed.  Migrating West meant pioneers were claiming large parcels of land and managing with solely their nuclear family to depend on.  Structures had to be erected quickly to provide shelter from the elements and often needed to be fabri-cated and assembled by the man of the family and his eldest children.  These pioneers viewed their initial log cabins as temporary and envisioned a more permanent house being built when money and time permitted.  Log Cabins – Temporary Structures“The log cabin was by-and-large an interstitial abode meant to be abandoned when better accommodation could be afforded.  The structure would then be dismantled for firewood, con-verted into a barn or corncrib, or simply left to rot.”94 The cabin as a typology was seen by its occupants as something to be replaced, not some-thing to be protected and treasured.  Nostalgia and cabin romanticism has prolonged the log 92 Volland, Jennifer M, Bruce Grenville, Stephanie Rebick. Cabin Fever.Vancouver Art Gallery, Vancouver, Canada, 2018.93 Hoagland, Alison K. The Log Cabin: An American Icon. University of Virginia Press, Charlottesville, 2018.94 Hoagland, Alison K. The Log Cabin: An American Icon. University of Virginia Press, Charlottesville, 2018.cabin’s lifetime, in a way not originally intended by the pioneers. Log cabins were, as Dwight described in 1798 “universally intended to be a temporary habitation, a mere retreat from the weather, till the proprietor shall be able to build a better.”95  In addition to some log cabins being converted into barns, others were deconstructed and the timber members moved with them as they explored West.96  Sill others were added onto, enhancing comfort with a wood-en plank floor or augmenting the footprint with renovations.  Compared to stone construction, wood naturally lends itself to a temporary nature, with the inevitable rot always silently threat-ening.  As settlements became towns, log cabins were replaced by brick buildings; the log cabins served their purpose as a temporary architectural stepping stone. The Log Cabin – An Enduring NostalgiaAs more settlers arrived in the West, lumber mills became established, and the lands became deforested. The concept of a log cabin no longer made economic sense; using whole logs to construct a basic shelter became cost prohibitive and inefficient.  With the introduction of fasteners such as nails, the technology of balloon-framed wood houses spread throughout North America.  These boxed houses were constructed from milled lumber, planks surrounding framing replaced the function of the whole logs.  Although log cabins proved to be inefficient and too demanding on resources as technology provided more functional and economic alternatives, the typology persisted.  In post-war North America, middle-class families began to have an unprecedented quality of life that allowed for a second home.  From 1950 onwards, cabins began reappearing along lake shores all over Canada and the US.  Although technology in the construction industry had advanced so that the vernacular typology of the log cabin was no longer necessary, it was in fact desired.  Qual-itative adjectives such as cozy, rustic, and natural were sought when acquiring a cabin in the woods for your family to enjoy on vacations.  In Chapter 6: White Lake – Site and Site Analysis, site photos of the existing Saucier cabin show that the typical log cabin typology was pursued, even in 1976.  “You’re Really Living When you Have TWO Homes”  The luxury of a second home calls to question points raised in Chapter 2: Material Reuse.  If the first step of sustainable design is to Reduce, then a second home  achieves the exact opposite.  Many cabins built today are a manifestation of excess and middle-class wealth.  This positions the log cabin as the perfect typology to spatialize this thesis’s field of inquiry and project approach.  The proposed exploration of material reuse exposes conventions of today’s construction industry and culture.  This thesis takes a typology that has morphed into a modern-day indulgence and questions the disposable approach society has bestowed upon materials.Chapter 6: White Lake - [Site + Site Analysis]95 Hoagland, Alison K. The Log Cabin: An American Icon. University of Virginia Press, Charlottesville, 2018.96 Hoagland, Alison K. The Log Cabin: An American Icon. University of Virginia Press, Charlottesville, 2018.76 7706White Lake - [Site + Site Analysis]78 791  White Lake Location + Size Location: British Columbia, Canada Nearest City: Salmon Arm Coordinates: 50°53′20″N 119°15′51″W Access Via: Trans Canada Hwy + White Lake Rd. Size 660 acres Dimensions: 4km long x 1km wide Elevation: 1542 ft. Population Data Established: 1965 Population: 656 Private dwellings: 321 Avg. Household Size: 2.5 Population density/square km: 37  Avg. Total Income: $36,609 Climate + Biodiversity: Bio geoclimatic Ecosystem Classification (BEC) Zone: Interior Cedar – Hemlock (ICH) + Englemann Spruce – Subalpine Fir (ESSF)  2 Common Tree Species: Western Red Cedar Spruce Western Hemlock  Douglas-fir  Paper Birch Black Cottonwood Rare and Fragile Plants: Loesel’s liparis (Liparis loeselii)   Giant helleborine (Epipactis gigantea)   Yellow lady’s slipper (Cypripedium parviflorum)   Mountain lady’s slipper(Cypripedium montanum)    Endangered Species: Western Painted Turtle (Chrysemys picta bellii) Community / Culture + Government: Governing Body: BC Parks + Columbia-Shuswap Regional District Primary Language: English Secondary Language: German Indigenous Peoples: Secwepemec First Nations peoples (Shuswap First Nation) Little Shuswap, Adams Lake and Neskonlith bands Archeological Sites:  2 - EfQt5, EfQt6 Amenities: Community Hall, Fire Hall, Marina, campgrounds, and community based park Popular Recreation: Fishing Rainbow Trout and Ice Fishing  80 81FEBMARAPRMAYJUNJULAUGSEPOCTNOVDECJANMONTHmin. max. avg.-20-100102030TEMPERATURE-11 -7 -9 -16 -10 -12 -9 -2 -5 -4 4 1 7 16 12 8 15 12 19 24 22 16 26 22 9 17 14 1 7 4 -4 -1 -2 -10 -6 -8FEBMARAPRMAYJUNJULAUGSEPOCTNOVDEC2 days0 days1 days3 days4 days8 days8 days8 days12 days18 days18 days10 daysJANMONTHrainfall days25mm50mm75mm100mm125mm150mmRAINFALL99mm 136.7mm 121.8mm 148.5mm 26.6mm 48.3mm 15.9mm 7.6mm 9.3mm 38.6mm 81.4mm 81.4mmFigure 35: Annual White lake temperatureFigure 36: Annual White lake rainfallOwn graphicOwn graphic6.1 GeneralNestled between two arms of the Shuswap Lake, White lake is known for Rainbow Trout Fish-ing and Ice Fishing in the winter.  One of the top three fishing lakes in BC, many attribute the success of its fishing to the lake shoal shores which makes up over 100 acres of shoal. Shoal is prime breeding ground for aquatic bugs, which is the main source of food for trout.6.2 ClimateWeather data is recorded from the closest location of historically recorded data, which is Sorrento, BC.  Sorrento, BC is only 16km from White lake, but is located on the Shuswap lakes that foster a slightly different climate than the Project Location. Sorrento, BC, also sits at 1299 ft elevation, which is 243 ft below the elevation of White Lake. Although recorded highs in July are 24° and in August are 26°, these are not reflective of the temperatures experienced at White Lake. White Lake is elevated above the Shuswap lakes within a carved-out valley.  This valley tends to trap the heat and therefore temperatures up to 31° can be experienced in July and August.  The particular project location has remained relatively wooded, which provides enough shade to temper the high temperatures experienced during the summer.  A drastic change is felt compared to neighbouring land, where the sites trees have been clear-cut.  The surrounding yard has one large tree providing shade, therefore from 11am-2pm the current cabin gets warm without direct shade overheard. The surrounding shield of trees block out the majority of morning and afternoon sun to prevent overheating during those times.  6.3. Settler HistoryFEBMARAPRMAYJUNJULAUGSEPOCTNOVDEC13 days10 days7 days27 days27 days24 days20 days0 days0 days0 days0 days1 daysJANMONTHsnowfall days15cm30cm45cm60cm75cm100cmSNOWFALL72.7cm 90.8cm 86.4cm 88.6cm 1.3cm 0cm 0cm 0cm 0cm 22.4cm 40.8cm 43.4cmFigure 37: Annual White lake snowfallOwn graphic82 83Figure 38: White Lake Koski wood barnFigure 39: White Lake Osma homesteadSourced from: White Lake Pioneers: Milk Pails and Winding TrailsSourced from: White Lake Pioneers: Milk Pails and Winding TrailsThis section contains research sourced from a local assemblage of White Lake family histories.  All information is sourced from: “White Lake Pioneers: Milk Pails and Winding Trails”In 1910 a group of young Finnish miners who had been making their home in Washington de-cided to try farming in British Columbia.  Making inquiries in the land office in Kamloops, they were told of the land available in the White Lake area.  At first sight, they fell in love with the area that reminded them so much of their homeland.  Following this, the Finnish miners sent for their families to come join them in Canada.  Each family took a quarter section of land and set about developing it.  The first European families to settle the White Lake area were the Berg-stroms, Rivers, Harjus, Makis, Karlsons, Hills, Kuoppalas, Koskis, Nayki, and Wests.  The Finnish men were initially disappointed to discover they couldn’t file for a homestead, as the White Lake timber berth was held by a large timber company.  Despite this, the settlers squatted on the land and illegally built temporary cabins for their families.  Eventually, each settler was given the ability to stake out 40 acres under squatter’s rights.  According to “White Lake Pioneers: Milk Pails and Winding Trails” a forest fire roared through the area after the Finnish acquired the land and destroyed some of the best timber in the area, which forced the timber company to let the timber berth lapse.  Legally, it wasn’t until 1917 that White Lake was open to homesteads.  The Finnish settlers brought with them expert woodsmen skills, quickly clearing farmland from the dense bush and building log houses and surrounding outbuildings.  Trees were felled and hewn by axe and used to build the log houses featuring dovetails corner details, also done by axe.  Often all the lumber for the cabins was from on the homestead – the rafters, joists, and shakes all came off each family’s stand of timber.  The first evening for most settlers in the area was spent under a lean-to made of boards propped against the house of a neighbor, before eventually making their own humble log house.  The architectural settlement was a slow pro-cess, beginning with a log cabin of one to three rooms; and often adding a lean-to, log barns, and sometimes even a chicken house.  As the years went on and the settlement developed, the two-room log cabins gave way to larger homes and barns.  When families had enough money, they would either add on to the existing building; or tear down the original and build anew. Some men in the settlement were particularly skilled with dovetail joints and would be asked to help on a neighbour’s house.  As money increased, interior detailing on larger hous-es would sometimes be finished by Finnish craftsmen living as far away as Eagle Bay Valley.  Additionally, some cabins had summer kitchens that were set apart from the main house, and used for activities such as canning, cooking, and washing. It is reported that some of these original log cabins are still in the area, yet they have been re-clad with modern siding – main-taining the original logs yet covering them in contemporary siding.  Large log houses cost around $100.00 to contract, including splitting of the shakes for the roof.  Logs for larger hous-es were skidded from surrounding area via wooden flumes and axe-hewn.  One settler, Ernest Koski built an earlier house at Engineer point.  Once he secured land at White Lake,  Koski disassembled the house, put it on a hand-built raft and floated it across the Shuswap Lake.  Once on land, a truck transported it the rest of the way to their farm.  The wood construction of the log cabins made them prone to fire, and unfortunately several families lost their homes due to devastating fires. The families financially survived off farming in the summer months and the young farm men returned to work in the various British Columbia mines during the winter months. This left the women alone to tend to the houses and land.  Children attended the log schoolhouse in Carlin until a schoolhouse was built in White Lake in 1915.  The schoolhouse stood on the grounds now used as the White Lake Ball Park.  The settler families depended on each other in the 84 85a.b.c.d.e.Figure 40: White Lake - typical location of building in relation to the lakea. log cabin b. outdoor kitchen c. clearing d. sauna e. lakeOwn graphicwinter months for companionship and support, often wading knee deep in the snow to visit a neighbour.  The closest store was 7km away in Balmoral, right off the TransCanada Highway.  The original operator of the Balmoral store, W.W.Greer was helpful to the early pioneers and ensured they received provisions weekly, regardless of the weather conditions.  There was also a store 13 km away in Blind Bay.  Both the Blind Bay and Balmoral stores would trade groceries for farm produce the settlers grew on their homesteads.  The pioneers would regularly walk to either of these stores when supplies were needed. White Lake gets its name from the white, silty material lining the bottom of the lake.  During settler years the lake bottom was mostly white. Today, only the shallow periphery remains white, where invasive lake weed is unable to grow.  The pioneers built their log houses surrounding the lake, providing them access to water and fish. The lake also helped keep their Finnish tradi-tion of sauna and bathing alive.  In addition to the log house, each family built their own sauna house.  The sauna building was built from axe-hewn logs from surrounding trees cleared for their homesteads. These buildings also featured the elaborate dovetail corner joints executed by axe as well. The sauna buildings featured the fireplace on the exterior, with a portal for rocks to be placed inside over the fireplace.  Water from the lake would be thrown on the hot rocks to produce steam, and the Finnish pioneers would sit or lay in the sauna for an hour before run-ning into White Lake for a cold plunge.  The sauna process was a Saturday night ritual for the Finnish pioneers. The early Finnish settlers were described as efficient famers and skilled woodsmen who con-tributed to the development of the White Lake area.  Although White Lake is no longer a Finnish settlement, many descendants still live there, and roads such as Nayki Road are named after some of the earliest European families to settle the area. 86 87Notch HillBlind BayShuswap LakeShuswap LakeWhite LakeScotch CreekSorrentoBalmoralEagle BayTrans Canada White Lake 0m 1500m 3000m0km 100km 300kmFigure 41: White Lake - Context maps(opposite page) Figure 42: White Lake - Site PlanOwn graphicOwn graphic0m 150m 300m1575ft1640ft1640ft1700ft1840ft1900ft1970ft2040ft2170ft2230ft2300ft2370ft88 89Figure 43: White Lake - 1976Figure 44: White Lake - 1976Sourced from parent’s photo albumSourced from parent’s photo album6.4. Saucier HistoryThe Saucier property at White lake has been in the family since 1971 when my Nana Joan Saucier and Poppa Bert Saucier bought the 11-acre lot.  My father Alan Saucier started build-ing the existing log cabin in 1976.  He camped out on the property for several years as he built The Log Cabin from felled fir trees.  The fir trees were from Eagle Bay area, located between Shuswap lake and White Lake, 10km from the site.  The process was long, as my father worked on the cabin in between working full time.  As the years progressed a trailer was purchased in 1978 for my father to sleep in instead of a tent.  The cabin roof went on in 1981, and it was habitable in 1982.  Eventually, in 1986 a canopy was needed to provide shelter for the trailer.  The canopy grew in mass and concept and transformed into The Structure.  The Structure is a 3-storey building intended to replace the Log Cabin.  On the first floor there is an open living/ dining area, 2nd floor contains 3 bedrooms and 2 bathrooms, and 3rd floor contains an open sleeping loft area.  Never complete, The Structure now houses a large colony of bats, chip-munk families and decades of collected building materials.  Smaller projects took precedence, and therefore the Structure has remained untouched since 2000.  In 2000, we started building a treehouse near the lake.  Although it started as a project for my siblings and I, my father took over and began creating a luxury tree house with a king size bed for my parents to sleep in.  The Tree House has had several additions over the years, coming to completion in 2016.  In 2003, we converted the wood shed behind the cabin into a sleeping room for my Nana to stay in.  Initially, the physical separation was to contain her snoring, yet it became a nice sanctuary over the years for visiting couples.  The Sleeping Room is a single-story building with a bed-room, washroom, outdoor shower, and tool storage.  A wood shed was needed to replace the one that turned into the Sleeping Room, and my father started building the Wood Shed adja-cent to the Sleeping Room in 2016.  Construction is ongoing; the slightly subterranean ground floor stores wood, and the 2nd floor is a small sleeping area with a washroom.  The smaller buildings such as the Sleeping Room, Tree House, and Wood Shed are meant to simply sleep guests.  The main cabin building would require a programmatic overhaul instead of the typical cabin program.  It would mostly serve as a gathering and cooking space with a small portion for sleeping.6.5. Program - Occupant UseThe primary occupants are my mother and father, who spend 80% of weekends at the cabin from May – October and live there full-time during July and August.  Secondary occupants include myself, my siblings, and our partners.  Tertiary occupants include visiting relatives and friends.  Winter use has historically been restricted due to excessively high heating costs and length of time required to heat the building.  I observed and recorded my findings of a typical day for the primary occupants: my parents. I observed during spring/summer, on May, June, and July weekends and my graphs show the average use.  It is to be noted the extended periods of absence from the cabin are because of the warm weather.  The graphic shows a typical summer day, each greyed out person is representational of 15 minutes of time spent in that location. As the grey darkens, it shows an extended period of time spent in that location.90 91KITCHENLIVING ROOMDINING ROOM/PORCHDRESSINGWASHROOMW/C15 minutes30 minutes45 minutes60 minutes75 minutesFigure 45: White Lake current cabin occupant useOwn graphic1:002:003:004:005:006:007:008:009:0010:0011:0012:001:002:003:004:005:006:007:008:009:0010:0011:0012:0012:001:002:003:004:005:006:007:008:009:0010:0011:0012:001:002:003:004:005:006:007:008:009:0010:0011:0012:0012:00TIME OF DAYTIME OF DAYuser1user 2OCCUPANTkitch-enlivingdining/ porchdress-ingwash-roomw/cZONEuser 1 user 2 both usersFigure 46: White Lake current cabin occupant useOwn graphic92 93Figure 47: White Lake 2018Own graphic94 9507“The Craigslist Cabin” Design96 97MATERIAL STUDIESThe Log Wall Logs cut into 18” segmentsV notch remains for stacking18”10”typ.Existing cabinLog construc-tionEast and West Log Walls reused for Material StudyTHE LOG WALL- Insulating if North facing- Small openings to prevent heat loss- 18” log cuts provide mass to prevent  heat loss- Creates an architectural “spine”- Required chinking in between cracks at connection points - Synthetic Mortar- Will require bracing - (metal rods punctured through?)18” log cuts stacked with cuts ends facing exterier and interior.Synthetic Mortar required for chinking between logs.W-20/W-21/W-22/W-23/W-24/W-25 windows used in North facing wall because of small size.  Window case-ment is pine.  Window is fixed.1/4” = 1’-0”Log Wall - View from Interior (South)1/8” = 1’-0”Existing Cabin3” = 1’-0”Cut log1/4” = 1’-0”Log Wall - View from Exterior (North)Figure 48: Material Studies : The Log WallOwn Graphic98 99MATERIAL STUDIESThe Log WallThickened1/4” = 1’-0”Log Wall Thickened with FunctionsElongating portions of the log wall allows for private spaces such as washrooms, or storage spaces such as pantries or closets.2’ deep recess into log wall provides a kitchen counter and kitchen stor-age.Banquette seating for dining area recessed 18” into log wall.Log wall is made of mostly 3’ long log cuts which are cut down as programs niche into wall.  Additionally some portions elongate to extend the depth of the wall and house private/storage functions.Figure 49: Material Studies : The Log Wall ThickenedOwn GraphicMATERIAL STUDIESRoof and structure explorations3/16” = 1’-0”Possible structural and roof assemblyMaterials Reused:WF-1dWF-1fWF-4cWD-3aWD-20WD-4aWD-12WD-18WD-10Plank and beam framing:Advantages: - exposed structure (celebrates used materials)- can qualify as heavy timber con-structionDisadvantages: - requires comprehensive detailing , quality materials and high level of craftsmanship- no concealed spaces for wiring or ductsNotes: - Thermal insulations must be applied over the roof deckRoof Beams parallel with slope Instead of larger beams spaced 4’-8’ O.C. we are using several manufactured I Beams spaced 2’ O.C.This structural framework will require lateral bracing with diago-nal members or shear walls28’13’19’6’40’Figure 50: Material Studies : Roof and Stucture ExplorationsOwn Graphic100 101WP-1Tongue and Groove Interior/ Exterior PanelingSpecies: CedarReuse 126 out of 160WP-6Tongue and Groove Interior/ Exterior PanelingSpecies: CedarReuse 158 out of 195MATERIAL STUDIESTongue and Groove Panel-ing Datum Explorations1/4” = 1’-0”Building Datums per Paneling 1” = 1’-0”Reused Material Post and beam construc-tion allowing for a 2nd floor.Datum of 2nd floor determined by WP-1 band on exterior. 7’3’Ground floor sunk into ground the distance of WP-6 interior cladding.Windows and shear walls to fill open datum.Exterior Paneling 2nd Floor DatumInterior Paneling 1st Floor DatumFigure 51: Material Studies : Tongue and Grooce Paneling DatumOwn Graphic102 103Figure 52: Axonometic - Existing siteOwn GraphicOuthouseOpen Field.Future garden siteSleeping House.Program: Sleeping/ Bath-ing/ StorageYardGuest House.Program: Sleeping/ Bath-ing/ StorageOriginal Cabin - To be replaced.Program: Cooking/ Eating/ Living/ Sleeping/ Bathing/ Storage104 105Steel roofingMT-1 + MT-2REUSEDPlywood deckingWF-10REUSEDRigid InsulationSN-1 + SN-2 + SN-4 + SN-5 + SN-6 + SN+7REUSEDRoof StuctureHeavy TimberWD-10 + WD-12 + WD-18 + WD-13 + WF-6“I” JoistsWF-1LumberREUSEDStructural CoreCut LogsWD-1REUSEDCladdingCedar SidingWP-3a/b/cREUSEDWindowsW-3 + W-4 + W-5 + W-6 + W-7 + W-8 + W-9 + W-14 + W-14  + W-15 + W-16REUSEDStud Wall2x4 studsWD-321x-8 wood sidingWD-35Batt Insulation + Rigid InsulationSN-1 + SN-3REUSEDFoundationPoured concrete foundationNEWStructural Wood ColumnsWD-4REUSEDITERATION 1Figure 53: Exploded Axonometric - ITERATION 1Own GraphicFigure 54: Plan - ITERATION 1Figure 55: Section - ITERATION 1Own GraphicOwn GraphicChapter 7. Craislist Cabin Design7.1 Iteration 1106 107Figure 56: Axonometic - ITERATION 1Own GraphicOuthouseOpen Field.Future garden siteSleeping House.Program: Sleeping/ Bath-ing/ StorageYard ITERATION 1Dining/ Living/ Cooking/ Sleeping/ BathingGuest House.Program: Sleeping/ Bath-ing/ Storage108 109Iteration 2: Steel sheath that wraps around wooden interior.Adding a loft second floor to increase square footage to help acheive passive house.RoofREUSEDMetal Sheet RoofingMT-1 from Existing CabinCreating metal sheath that turns it’s back to the neighbors and folds to create a soffit.Bearing WallsNEWStud walls for lateral support on either end.Required: 2x6 wooden studs3/4” plywoodStructureREUSEDAddition of materials inspired Wooden Truss exploration:WD-22WD-23WD-24Required: 2x4 wooden studs for truss members ITERATION 27.2 Iteration 2Figure 57: Exploded Axonometic - ITERATION 2Own Graphic110 111Figure 58: Axonometic - ITERATION 2Own GraphicOuthouseOpen Field.Future garden siteSleeping House.Program: Sleeping/ Bath-ing/ StorageYardITERATION 2Dining/ Living/ Cooking/ Sleeping/ BathingGuest House.Program: Sleeping/ Bath-ing/ Storage112 113Steel roofingMT-1 + MT-2Plywood deckingWF-10Rigid InsulationSN-1 + SN-2 + SN-4 + SN-5 + SN-6 + SN+7REUSEDExterior deckWP-3 + WP-4REUSEDPlywood exterior clad-dingWF-10REUSEDWoodstorage under exterior deckHeavy timber post and beam framingWD-1REUSEDExisting FireplaceREUSEDHeavy timber post and beam framingWD-23 + WD-24 + WD-25REUSEDHeavy timber post and beam framingWD-20 + WD-17 + WD-3aREUSEDFoundation NEWHeavy timber post and beam framingWD-23REUSEDInterior wallsWood studs 2x4 + 2x6WD-32 + WD-34REUSEDITERATION 3Stud Wall2x4 studsWD-321x-8 iinterior wood sidingWD-35Batt Insulation + Rigid InsulationSN-1 + SN-3REUSEDWindowsW-3 + W-4 + W-5 + W-6 + W-7 + W-8 + W-9 + W-14 + W-14  + W-15 + W-16REUSEDFigure 59: Exploded Axonometric - ITERATION 3Own GraphicFigure 60: Plan - ITERATION 3Figure 61: Section - ITERATION 3Own GraphicOwn Graphic7.3 Iteration 3114 115Figure 62: Axonometic - ITERATION 3Own GraphicOuthouseOpen Field.Future garden siteSleeping House.Program: Sleeping/ Bath-ing/ StorageYard ITERATION 3Dining/ Living/ Cooking/ Sleeping/ BathingGuest House.Program: Sleeping/ Bath-ing/ Storage116 117WP-2WP-7WF-4WF-9WD-11WD-13WT-3WF-3WD-7WD-9WF-8MT-1WD-14WT-2WD-10WD-8WF-7WF-2SN-2WP-4WT-1SN-3WP-5WD-6WD-12SN-1WD-15WF-1WD-5WF-6WP-3MT-2SN-5WD-1WD-25Figure 63: Example of Collected MaterialsOwn Graphic7.4 Proposed DesignThis thesis is one of sourcing, collecting, curating, and then assembling inputs while maintain-ing a narrative and evidence of palimpsest.  When I refer to inputs I mean building materials, the bits and pieces that once assembled form buildings.  Yet the particular materials I am refer-encing are not bought at home depot, they are acquired through salvage, scavenge, bargain-ing, and deconstruction.  These reused materials are at the heart of this project.  The proposal is to stitch together the used materials to quilt a new home for them, one that celebrates their storied past.  The proposed project is the replacement of my family cabin. The cabin acts as a prototype, at-tempting to use and celebrate used building materials, in not what I consider their final resting place, but simply a stop along the way. The cabin is located on White Lake, which is a small fishing lake surrounded by the Shuwap Lakes in the interior of BC.The Saucier property at White lake has been in the family since 1971 when my Nana Joan Saucier and Poppa Bert Saucier bought the 11-acre lot. My father Alan Saucier started build-ing the existing log cabin in 1976. He camped out on the property for several years as he built The Log Cabin from felled fir trees. He enlisted the help of family, friends, boy-scout troups, and several girlfriends before my mom came on the scene. As the years progressed a trailer was purchased in 1978 for my father to sleep in instead of a tent and an outhouse was con-structed. The cabin roof went on in 1981, and it was habitable in 1982. Eventually, in 1986 a canopy was needed to provide shelter for the trailer. The canopy grew in mass and concept and transformed into The Structure. Never complete, The Structure now houses a large colony of bats, chipmunk families and decades of collected used building materials. Smaller projects took precedence, and therefore the Structure has remained untouched since 2000. In 2000, we started building a treehouse near the lake. Although it started as a project for my siblings and I, my father took over and began creating a luxury tree house with a king size bed for my parents to sleep in. The Tree House has had several additions over the years, coming to completion in 2016. In 2003, we converted the wood shed behind the cabin into a sleeping room for my Nana to stay in. The Sleeping Room is a single-story building with a bedroom, washroom, outdoor shower, and tool storage, and the eventual plans to add a second floor for additional sleeping space. A wood shed was needed to replace the one that turned into the Sleeping Room, and my father started building the Guest House adjacent to the Sleeping Room in 2016. Construction is ongoing; the slightly subterranean ground floor stores wood, and the 2nd floor is a sleeping area with a washroom. The smaller buildings such as the Sleeping Room, Tree House, and Guest House are meant to simply sleep guests. As you can see the property is a collection of programmatic spaces that are constructed  to meet immediate needs of our family as it grows.  The proposed project is to replace the original cabin as the foundation is sinking, it is poorly insulated, and is infested with mice.I started my iterative journey the first week of this semester.  Iteration 1 was a design that was semi subterranean, located on the gradual sloping clearing on the yard.  The design employed a thickened log mass that was programmed for more private functions with public functions opening up to the southern facade. A week after this design my dad came home with 20 4x10 beams at 20’ long.  As I discarded my initial iteration and embarked on a design that incor-porated my new found spans, I realised this project wasn’t static.  The inputs would vary as my dad continued to source materials.  My 3rd iteration was in response to a detailed client interview in which we outlined some non negotiable requirements.  The non-negotiable require-ments include: flexibility to seat 2 to 20 people for dinner, the need for a service basement and 118 119Figure 64: Site PlanOwn Graphiccompartmentalization to keep a core warm throughout the winter, keeping the family built stone fireplace, and absolutely no cutting down trees.  These early iterations were achieving 75-90% reused material, the materials which were yet to be sourced were predominantly for foundations and insulating. These iterations were finished products, they begged to be photographed, airbrushed, and grace the homepage of cabin porn.com.  The more i talked with my family, i realised this isn’t what our family needed and wasn’t what this project is about.  The project is born out of material collection, and terminating the material sourcing in the cumulation of this cabin wasn’t the answer.  The proposed cabin requires the ability to grow, with material stock, with seasons, with nature, and with family. The proposed design was initially formed  by a study of site constraints.  I worked with my fa-ther to map out existing power lines, plumbing, septic field and trees.  Guiding forces such as my families non-negotiable requirements also influenced the current siting and massing. The need for a service basement, prompted me to take a parasitic approach to existing buildings instead of pouring a new foundation, and the  “kill no trees” commitment influenced me to nav-igate through an existing narrow clearing. Additionally, I took advantage of the steep incline of the site to employ a single story living space that could assist with potential aging in place for my parents.  Finally, the proposed building enjoys a parasitic view.  My neighbors to the west subdivided their lot in the last 5 years and the new owners bought the narrow strip of land and clear cut as much as the agricultural land reserve allowed. Therefore, without clear cutting, or breaking any ALR water adjacency bylaws, the building’s orientation capitalizes on our neigh-bors clearing and allows us to enjoy sunsets over the lake.  An image that continually appeared to me was the memory of used wood piled neatly under a blue tarp, and that is how i envision the aesthetic concept of the massing, the roof which wraps down to envelope the exterior walls is the blue construction tarp, simply keeping the used ma-terials dry until they find their next home. Except these aren’t just used building materials, they are a collection of memories.  Each piece has a story, and as I sat and interviewed my parents about where the used materials were sourced from, i began to map out their narrative.  Joists that were sourced from an I-beam manufacturer which closed down in Salmon arm, beams that were bought from an old architect in North Vancouver who was tearing down his house, hardwood flooring that was scavenged when our neighborhood gym decided to replace it with rubber flooring, the proposed building is a layering of memories on top of memories, stitching together a nostalgia of our lives.  This drawing curates the collection by highlighting this narra-tive.  The location, means of acquiring, quantity and description is noted in addition to position-ing their narrative along the drive to my cabin, to stitch together the story of past, present, and future. The bar shaped cabin physically divides program (the wood), yet visually unifies it under one roof (the tarp).  The kitchen/ dining function is placed on top of the existing sleeping room. This positions it as the main core of the cabin.  The ground floor programs of the existing building as previously mentioned includes a bedroom, washroom, storage area, and outdoor show-er.  This parasitic move allowed me to utilize existing plumbing, electrical, and avoid creating another building footprint.  I benefit from the existing storage area by morphing it into a service “basement”.  And the ground floor bedroom allows the cabin to be inhabited in the off season, employing the idea of a warm core with surrounding seasonal programs.The bedroom and living room on the first floor are therefore seasonal, as heating large square footage for weekend trips in the fall is not sustainable or cost effective.  These 2 programs instead act as nodes along the promenade through the linear cabin. 120 1211/4” = 1’-0”UPUPDNFigure 65: First Floor PlanOwn GraphicThe bedroom is the most southern program, first approached by pulling up a car adjacent to the bar shaped building. The bedroom is pulled away from the Eastern facade for shad-ing in summer, yet will benefit from a lower south eastern morning light in the off season.  A large southern Window wall is also pulled away from the facade with an overhang to prevent overheating in the summer.  A frame around the window wall provides an area to stack wood, this wall acts as a register of season, with wood piling high in the summer months providing shading mass and a privacy barrier, and the wood depleting going into fall, allowing southern thermal gain, and exposing the private program of the bedroom when the occupancy  drops down to only my parents. The bedroom has an internal connection to a second floor which is programed  for storage and potential growth.  With growth of the family, the 2nd floor acts as a sleeping area for the next generation. A bridge directs people towards the main program - kitchen, living, dining.  Upon entry, a interior vestibule houses a powder room, outdoor clothing storage and seating to de-boot.  The vestibule ceiling height is 9 feet as there is a loft above.  The loft above can be used for a living area in the off season when heating the living program is not sustainable, or can used for additional sleeping. The loft connects through an exterior bridge to the 2nd floor of the bed-room program, creating a continuous upper floor - with the vision of family growth in the next generation.  Entering the main space, the room opens up to the 25’ double story ceilings with exposed roof trusses. Continuous with the rest of the building, storage and circulation is slid to the side jowls of the bar, allowing more flexibility in the interior. This also allows for built in seating accompanied with deep window openings created by the wall assembly. Descending to the ground floor gives access to the existing sleeping room and full washroom.  Garage doors allow for a small dining table to expand to the open air porch which is clad in mosquito netting. The porch creates an outdoor living space which increases the cabin area significantly in the summer months.  The roof and mosquito netting make the porch resistant to the elements, yet the skylights and open framing allows for light and connection to the trees and views. The porch leads down to a grand staircase connecting the elevated floor area to the lawn.  The most northern program is the living area. This is positioned on top of the existing fireplace, to create an outdoor fireplace under the elevated building and it is paired with a new wood burning stove in the living area to recognize the palimpsest of the original fireplace. The liv-ing area also makes use of a garage door to capitalize on the outdoor seasonal porch.  The east/west jowls in the living area contains carved out seating nooks paired with windows.  The eastern built in seating is wide and long enough to line up two single mattresses, and the open space is large enough to have both pull out couches pulled out into beds.  The northern facade is a similar window wall that is employed on the southern end of the building.  Yet this window wall frames the view through the neighbors clear cut out to the lake. Overall, the plan which is statically showing sleeping for 2, accommodates growth and could a sleep up to 12 people. The framework of the building also allows for infill.  The elevated build-ing provides growth opportunities on the ground plane.  If the seasonal porch isn’t meeting the need, that space could also be infilled, or an arm could be added to create a connected 2nd floor on the guest house.  The proposed design is cannibalistic towards the surrounding buildings on site.  The structure has sat dormant for decades, the lack of sun from the tree coverage and topographic incline combined with its isolation from the rest of the buildings and distance from the lake has per-122 123DNDNUP1/8” = 1’-0”2nd Floor PlanGround Floor PlanDNDNUP1/8” = 1’-0”2nd Floor PlanGround Floor PlanFigure 66: Second Floor Plan Figure 67: Ground Floor PlanOwn Graphic Own Graphichaps contributed to its neglect.  I began to view the structure as more than just a shelter for the used building materials inside of it. I started to see value in its rough cut 2x4s and 2x6s, its 2x10 long roof members and its metal roofing stock.  The proposed design assumes a decon-struction of not just the existing cabin, but also the structure.  Even with the added building stock, there is still material that needs to be sourced.  Half way through this project i gave up the notion of designing a building with everything we already had collected, where is the fun in that?  If this project can make use of what we already have but also outline some craigslist shopping items, then the narrative is ongoing.  Who knows where we will get the additional rigid insulation that is needed for some areas of walls, or the additional sheets of OSB needed for the roof, but I’m sure there will be a story. To quote Carl Elefante: “The greenest building is the one that is already built.”  This project is an experimentation in material reuse, and although highly personal and domestic, it opens up the conversation of how materials and therefore entire buildings can be crowdsourced from platforms like craigslist or an even larger, more global network while pulling from existing stock instead of manufacturing anew. And on a more micro, familial scale, this project is about find-ing a new home for the materials that my family and I have collected together, emphasising the palimpseste instead of erasing their storied past.124 125WP-4Quantity: 195Source: CraigslistLocation: LangleyUsedWD-26Quantity: 9Source: Friend’s millLocation: TappenBen Pachman’s mill closing saleWD-25Quantity: 63Source: Friend’s millLocation: TappenBen Pachman’s mill closing saleWD-35Quantity: 110Source: Friend’s millLocation: TappenBen Pachman’s mill closing saleWD-34Quantity: 35Source: Friend’s millLocation: TappenBen Pachman’s mill closing saleWD-31Quantity: 18Source: Friend’s millLocation: TappenBen Pachman’s mill closing saleWD-30Quantity: 7Source: Friend’s millLocation: TappenBen Pachman’s mill closing saleWD-33Quantity: 12Source: Friend’s millLocation: TappenBen Pachman’s mill closing saleWD-32Quantity: 64Source: Friend’s millLocation: TappenBen Pachman’s mill closing saleWF-8Quantity: 1Source: Friend’s millLocation: TappenBen Pachman’s mill closing saleWF-7Quantity: 1Source: Friend’s millLocation: TappenBen Pachman’s mill closing saleWD-27Quantity: 13Source: Friend’s millLocation: TappenBen Pachman’s mill closing saleWD-29Quantity: 3Source: Friend’s millLocation: TappenBen Pachman’s mill closing saleWD-12Quantity: 3Source: Friend’s millLocation: TappenBen Pachman’s mill closing saleWD-21Quantity: 1Source: Friend’s millLocation: TappenBen Pachman’s mill clos-ing saleWF-4cQuantity: 4Source: Closing out saleLocation: Salmon ArmI Beam factory closingFree and bought I beamsWF-5fQuantity: 2Source: Closing out saleLocation: Salmon ArmI Beam factory closingFree and bought I beamsMT-2Quantity: 108Source: NoLocation: ArmstrongWF-1fQuantity: 30Source: Closing out saleLocation: Salmon ArmI Beam factory closingFree and bought I beamsWF-5eQuantity: 2WF-1eQuantity: 3WF-5dQuantity: 7WF-1dQuantity: 11WF-1cQuantity: 15WF-1bQuantity: 9WF-1aQuantity: 2WF-5cQuantity: 1WF-5bQuantity: 1WF-5aQuantity: 1WF-4dQuantity: 1WF-4bQuantity: 2WF-4aQuantity: 1MT-2Quantity: 111Location: FaulklandUsedWD-8Quantity: 30Source: Craigslist - FreeLocation: North VancouverPrevious Use: Supports for a deckWP-3aQuantity: 15Source: CraigslistLocation: DeltaPrevious Use: Cedar SidingWD-9a/bQuantity: 1Source: CraigslistLocation: VancouverPrevious Use: Stored by a contractorWF-2Quantity: 1Source: CraigslistLocation: VancouverPrevious Use: Stored by a contractorWD-17Quantity: 3Source: CraigslistLocation: West Vancou-verPrevious Use: Used in an Architect’s HouseWP-3dQuantity: 80Source: CraigslistLocation: DeltaPrevious Use: Cedar SidingWP-3cQuantity: 60Source: CraigslistLocation: DeltaPrevious Use: Cedar SidingWP-7bQuantity: 200Source: Anytime FitnessLocation: BurnabyPrevious Use: Gym FlooringWP-7aQuantity: 155Source: Anytime FitnessLocation: BurnabyPrevious Use: Gym FlooringWD-15Quantity: 2Source: Craigslist-freeLocation: BurnabyUsedWD-14Quantity: 1Source: Craigslist-freeLocation: BurnabyUsedWD-13Quantity: 4Source: Craigslist-freeLocation: BurnabyUsedWF-3aQuantity: 4Source: Craigslist-freeLocation: BurnabyPrevious Use: Supports for deckWF-3bQuantity: 4Source: Craigslist-freeLocation: BurnabyPrevious Use: Supports for deckWF-9Quantity: 4Source: CraigslistLocation: Lynn ValleyUsedWD-11Quantity: 28Source: Craigslist-freeLocation: BurnabyUsedWD-20Quantity: 9Source: CraigslistLocation: Maple RidgePrevious Use: Old farm houseWD-20Quantity: 9Source: CraigslistLocation: Maple RidgePrevious Use: Old farm houseWD-19Quantity: 2Source: Craig-slistLocation: Maple RidgePrevious Use: Old WD-18Quantity: 1Source: CraigslistLocation: Maple RidgePrevious Use: Old farm houseWD-5Quantity: 3Source: CraigslistLocation: Maple RidgePrevious Use: Old farm WF-6Quantity: 4Source: CraigslistLocation: SurreyUsedWD-23Quantity: 10Source: CraigslistLocation: SurreyUsed WD-24Quantity: 4Source: CraigslistLocation: SurreyUsedWD-22Quantity: 4Source: CraigslistLocation: SurreyUsedWP-3eQuantity: 17Source: CraigslistLocation: DeltaPrevious Use: Cedar SidingWP-3bQuantity: 25Source: CraigslistLocation: DeltaPrevious Use: Cedar SidingWD-7Quantity: 32Source: Craigslist - FreeLocation: KamloopsPrevious Use: Stair RailingWD-3bQuantity: 3Source: Family TreesLocation: SavonaPrevious Use: Trees on site, milled for lumberWD-1Quantity: 118Source: Felled treesLocation: Eagle BayPrevious Use: Used for WD-1Quantity: 118Source: Felled treesLocation: Eagle BayPrevious Use: Used for WF-10Quantity: 88Source: CraigslistLocation: KamloopsUsedWD-3aQuantity: 3Source: Family TreesLocation: SavonaPrevious Use: Trees on site, milled for lumberWD-6Quantity: 16Source: CraigslistLocation: White RockUsedWP-2Quantity: 90Source: CraigslistLocation: Maple RidgePrevious Use: Cut off of longer piecesSN-2Quantity: 8Source: CraigslistLocation: South SurreyUsedSN-5Quantity: 62Source: CraigslistLocation: AbbotsfordSchool closed down - insulation in roof of schoolWP-6Quantity: 160Source: CraigslistLocation: Maple RidgePrevious Use: Cut off of longer piecesSN-1Quantity: 62Source: CraigslistLocation: VariousUsedSN-8Quantity: 4Source: CraigslistLocation: VariousUsedWD-1Quantity: 9Source: CraigslistLocation: VariousUsedWP-4Quantity: 42Source: CraigslistLocation: VariousUsedSN-7Quantity: 6Source: CraigslistLocation: VariousUsedNOTEDQuantity: 1 of eachSource: CraigslistLocation: VariousUsedW-9W-8W-7W-6W-5W-4W-3W-2W-1W-10W-18W-19W-20W-21W-22W-23W-24W-25W-26W-27W-28W-29W-11W-12W-13W-14W-15W-16W-17SN-6Quantity: 6Source: CraigslistLocation: VariousUsedSN-3Quantity: 6Source: CraigslistLocation: VariousUsedSN-4Quantity: 5Source: CraigslistLocation: VariousUsedWHITE LAKESALMON ARMKAMLOOPSSAVONAARMSTRONGFAULKLANDMERRITTHOPEABBOTSFORDCHILLIWACKMAPLE RIDGELANGLEYWHITE ROCKSURREYDELTARICHMONDBURNABYNORTHVANCOUVERVANCOUVERFigure 68: Material Map - displays the narrative of each used building materialOwn Graphic126 127WP-3cWF-9NEWWF-9WD-32LG-1LG-1WD-26WD-29TYPICAL ROOF TRUSSWD-35WD-20WD-30WD-30WD-32WD-22WF-10WF-1fWF-1fMT-1MT-1MT-1MT-1MT-2WF-10SN-8SN-1NEWWD-4aWD-23LG-1NEWNEWSN-5WD-34WD-3aWD-20LG-1WD-32W-7W-8NEWWD-35WD-35WD-35WF-10WF-10WF-1dNEWWP-4WF-4cWD-23W-16W-6W-15W-3W-121-13W-14W-39W-35W-37W-18WD-12WF-10WD-1bWD-27WD-26NEWNEWMT-1MT-1WD-32WD-32WF-10WD-32WD-7WD-35T-1WP-4MT-1NEWNEWW-19W-26W-40W-2W-10W-31W-27W-29W-5WD-7WP-2WD-35NEWWD-35WP-2WF-10Figure 69: Exploded Axonometric - shows where each material finds a new home in the proposed cabinOwn Graphic128 129Figure 70: 1/32”=1’-0” Model Figure 72: 1/8”=1’-0” ModelFigure 71: 1/8”=1’-0” ModelOwn Graphic Own GraphicOwn Graphic130 131Figure 73: 1/32”=1’-0” Model - Existing Site Figure 74: 1/32”=1’-0” Model - Proposed SiteOwn Graphic Own Graphic132 13308References134 135Chapter 8: ReferencesAbramson, D.M. (2005) Discourses of Obsolescence. A talk delivered as part of the seminar: The Culture and Politics of the Built Environment in North America, delivered at the Charles Warren Center for Studies in American History, Harvard University on February 14, 2005 as part of the tenure of Mr. Abramson as a Warren Center Fellow.Addis, William, and Taylor & Francis eBooks A-Z. Building with Reclaimed Components and Materials: A Design Handbook for Reuse and Recycling. Earthscan, London;Sterling, VA;, 2006;2012;.Beard, Daniel C. Shelters, Shacks, and Shanties. C.Scribner’s sons, New York, 1914.Belonsky, Andrew. The Log Cabin: An Illustrated History. The Countryman Press, a division of W.W. Norton & Company, New York, NY, 2018.Berge, Bjø, Filip Henley, and Taylor & Francis eBooks A-Z. The Ecology of Building Materials. Routledge, New York;Florence;, 2001;2007;, doi:10.4324/9780080504988.Borden, Gail P., and Michael Meredith. Matter: Material Processes in Architectural Production. Routledge, New York, 2012.Boyer, Marie-France. Cabin Fever: Sheds and Shelters, Huts and Hideaways. Thames and Hudson, London, 1993.Budge, Graeme. 100-Mile Home : Deconstruction and Material Reuse as Source and Sink of Single-Family Home Building Materials. , 2013.Callister, W.D. Materials science and engineering an introduction. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 2003City of Vancouver, 2018. “Demolition Permit with Recycling Requirements”  Retrieved from: https://vancouver.ca/home-property-development/demolition-permit-with-recycling-require-ments.aspxDaily Hive, 2018.  “Unbuilders”.  Retrieved from: http://dailyhive.com/vancouver/vancou-ver-based-unbuilders-homes-demolished-2018Ferdinand, John. Material Architecture. Taylor & Francis Group, Abingdon, 2017.Gorgolewski, Mark. “Designing with Reused Building Components: Some Challenges.”Building Research & Information, vol. 36, no. 2, 2008, pp. 175-188.Greer, Diane. (2004). Building the Deconstruction Industry. BioCycle, 45(11), 36-42.Guillemette, Lucie and Josiane Cossette “Deconstruction and Differance.” Signosemio – The-oretical Semiotics on the Web, April 2006. http://www.signosemio.com/derrida/deconstruc-tion-and-differance.asp.  Accessed February 24 2018.Guy, B., & McLendon, S. (2003). Building Deconstruction: Reuse and Recycling of Building Materials. Center for Construction and Environment at the University of Florida. Gainesville, FL..Habitat For humanity, 2011. “About ReStore”. Retrieved from http://www.habitat.ca/en/commu-nity/restores  Hoagland, Alison K. The Log Cabin: An American Icon. University of Virginia Press, Charlottes-ville, 2018.Horace Greenly, in Robert C. Williams, Horace Greenly: Champion of American Freedom. New York: New York University Press, 2006.)Johnson, Philip, Mark Wigley, and Museum of Modern Art, New York. Deconstructivist Architec-ture. Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1988.Kahn, Louis. Space and Inspirations, in Louis I. Kahn, Writings, Lectures, Interviews. Alessan-dra Latour, ed. Rizzoli, New York, 1991. Know BC, 2018. “BC Mills Timber Trading Co”.  Retrieved from: http://www.knowbc.com.ez-proxy.library.ubc.ca/ebc/Books/Encyclopedia-of-BC/B/BC-Mills-Timber-Trading-CoLloyd Thomas, Katie, et al. Material Matters: Architecture and Material Practice. Routledge, London;New York;, 2007.Log Homes Canada, 2018.  “History of Log Construction”.  Retrieved from: https://www.logho-mescanada.com/overview-and-history-of-log-construction/Pal, Sudip K., et al. “A Life Cycle Approach to Optimizing Carbon Footprint and Costs of a Res-idential Building.” Building and Environment, vol. 123, 2017, pp. 146-162.Peter Eisenman’s Cardboard Architecture.  Arch League November 17 2014. https://archleague.org/article/200-years-peter-eisenman/. Accessed April 12 2018.Schröpfer, Thomas, and James Carpenter. Material Design: Informing Architecture by Materiali-ty. Birkhäuser, Basel, 2011.Thormark, C. “Conservation of Energy and Natural Resources by Recycling Building Waste.”Resources, Conservation & Recycling, vol. 33, no. 2, 2001, pp. 113-130.Thormark, Catarina, et al. “A Low Energy Building in a Life cycle—its Embodied Energy, Energy Need for Operation and Recycling Potential.” Building and Environment, vol. 37, no. 4, 2002, pp. 429-435.136 137Reading Room AuthorizationThis form provides the Architecture Reading Room with permission to make the graduation project report available for reference and study, and also stipulates the conditions for copying the report for scholarly purposes.Erin Saucier:   The University of British ColumbiaApril 2019

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