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Adult education and training as corporate social responsibility (CSR) : an exploratory study Sarkodie, George Adu 2016

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ADULT EDUCATION AND TRAINING AS CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY (CSR): AN EXPLORATORY STUDY Spring 2016 STUDENT: GEORGE ADU SARKODIE STUDENT ID: 78083145 UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (UBC) DEPT. OF EDUCATIONAL STUDIES EDST 590: GRADUATING PAPER SUPERVISOR: DR. SHAUNA BUTTERWICK   1 | P a g e    Table of Contents Abstract ......................................................................................................................................................... 3 Acknowledgement ........................................................................................................................................ 4 Dedication ..................................................................................................................................................... 5  CHAPTER ONE ......................................................................................................................................... 6 INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND .............................................................................................. 6 1.0 THE BOOSTER! - WHAT PROPELLED THE STUDY? ............................................................. 6 1.1 CSR – THE BIGGER PICTURE .................................................................................................. 10 1.2. RESEARCH PROBLEM STATEMENT AND RELEVANCE OF STUDY ............................. 17 1.3. RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND APPROACH .......................................................................... 20 1.4 METHODOLOGY AND CHALLENGES ................................................................................... 20 1.5. LIMITATION OF RESEARCH .................................................................................................. 21 1.6. SUMMARY OF CHAPTERS ..................................................................................................... 21  CHAPTER 2 .............................................................................................................................................. 22 CSR AS ADULT EDUCATION AND TRAINING - A SCOPING REVIEW ..................................... 22 2.0 INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND TO SCOPING REVIEW ......................................... 22 2.1. CSR AS ADULT EDUCATION/TRAINING FOR COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT............ 25 2.2. CSR AS ADULT EDUCATION/TRAINING FOR HEALTH AND SAFETY ......................... 30 2.3. CSR AS ADULT EDUCATION/TRAINING FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY ............................................................................................................................................................ 32 2.4. CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................................ 34  CHAPTER 3 .............................................................................................................................................. 35 ADULT EDUCATION & TRAINING AS CSR IN CANADIAN MINING CORPORATIONS ......... 35 3.0 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................ 35 3.1 CANADIAN MINING CORPORATIONS (CMCs) .................................................................... 36 3.2.  ANALYZING THE TABULATED CSR PROGRAMS ............................................................ 43 3.3 CSR INITIATIVES – APPROACHES & DIMENSIONS ........................................................... 47 3.4 CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................................. 49  2 | P a g e   CHAPTER 4 .............................................................................................................................................. 50 IMPACT OF CSR, COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT, AND POWER RELATIONS .......................... 50 4.0 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................ 50 4.1. COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT APPROACHES ..................................................................... 51 4.2 CSR AND ITS PUBLIC GOOD TO HOST COMMUNITIES .................................................... 52 4.3. POWER RELATIONS IN CORPORATE COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT ............................ 56 4.4. LEVERAGING CORPORATE-COMMUNITY POWER RELATIONS ................................... 58 4.5.  REFLECTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH ........................ 59 4.6 CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................................. 61  REFERENCE ............................................................................................................................................ 62                   3 | P a g e   Abstract  This paper is an inquiry into a relatively untouched perspective in adult education research – Adult Learning and Education as Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).  Two key developments generated the interest for this exploratory study. First, news that made headlines in my home country, Ghana, after the country discovered Oil and Gas in commercial quantities was that several millions of dollars has been spent on what was described as capacity building. In other words, training had been provided to a section of the populace to equip them to work in this new field of extraction business. The second development came when I realized through my ’Foundations of Adult Learning and Education’ (EDST 503) course, that, many adult education activities go unnoticed in society. For me, these two developments had a meeting point - adult education and training programs provided by corporate organizations as part of their corporate social responsibility can sometimes go unnoticed. And this had to be explored.    This paper mainly focused on  how adult education forms part of the CSR activities of Canadian Mining Corporations. Themes explored in this paper include community development, health and safety, environmental sustainability, corporate-community engagement, and issues of power relations. Considerations for future research was also discussed.        4 | P a g e    Acknowledgement   The contribution of the following people to the success of my studies at the University of British Columbia can never be overlooked.  First, Dr. Shauna Butterwick, who introduced me to adult education in the ’Foundations of Adult Learning and Education’ (EDST 503) where ideas for this paper started to be framed, also became the main supervisor and first reader for this paper. In between these separated times, she tremendously helped me in diverse areas. Shauna, your advice, encouragement, counsel and directions greatly shaped the success of my academic journey at UBC. Secondly, I acknowledge the contributions of Dr. Jude Walker, who not only became the second supervisor, but a central person who provided tools and direction for my success at UBC. When I almost got stuck along the way, Dr. Walker secured an HSS Grant to help me move on with this paper.      Another name at UBC worthy of mentioning is Dr. Carolina Palacios, who always looks for avenues to help. You are wonderful Carolina!  Also, thanks to Dr. Hongxia Shan, Dr.Jennifer Chan and Dave Smulders. You all made UBC a family ... and learning fun.  To all the coursemates and friends I had at UBC, I deeply appreciate all your support.   The Gordon Selman Award that was recevied for this work is not just for me, it’s for us all.   5 | P a g e      Dedication         To Ernestina, my dear wife, and Jacinth, our lovely son.            6 | P a g e                                                                                  CHAPTER ONE  INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND  1.0 THE BOOSTER! - WHAT PROPELLED THE STUDY?   Two interesting cases propelled this exploratory study on how adult education and training forms part of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). The first issue is connected to my studies at UBC. After my first two seminar-classes in Foundations of Adult Education (EDST 503) at UBC, I learnt that many adult education activities go unnoticed in society. With time, this lesson became more real after my colleagues had made presentations for an assignment that required us to explore adult education activities in our communities. The second issue, has to do with a popular news story that made news headlines on Ghana’s Oil industry. After Ghana discovered oil and began extraction, one story that astonished many in the country was the millions of dollars spent in what was referred to as capacity building1  - people who were trained in relation to the oil industry.  As an Adult Learning and Education student, these two separate cases – in tropical Ghana and temperate Canada, had a meeting point: the capacity building which involved huge sums of money was a form of adult learning and education. And in relation to my lesson from EDST 503, the programs involved, might have gone unnoticed by several people in Ghana. This conclusion                                                           1 http://www.modernghana.com/thread/239931/509245/1  7 | P a g e   further raised more questions, including: a) What could be the various forms of capacity building (adult education) programs in the extractive industry that go unnoticed?  b) Have adult education researchers engaged this issue; and if they have, how has it been studied? c) Do some of these cases remain unexplored within a Canadian context? d) What can a review of adult education activities developed in association with CSR tell us about the diverse functions of adult learning and education? The crave to find answers to these questions became the subject of this graduating paper – an exploration of adult learning and training programs that form part of Corporate Social Responsibility. 1.01. Corporate Social Responsibility   CSR is a highly contested phenomenon. This is true for the purposes behind CSR initiatives, its modus operandi, and even the specific programs involved (Amao, 2011). Consequently, a particular organization’s definition of CSR, influences the choice of initiatives, and the approach to implementation. The European Commission defines CSR as a ‘‘concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business operations and in their interactions with their stakeholders on a voluntary basis’’ (cited in Newell & Frynas 2007, pp. 673). Approached differently, Werna, Keivani, and Murphy (2009, p. 13) define CSR as ‘‘the commitment of business to contribute to sustainable development, working with employees, their families, the local community and the society at large to improve their quality of life’’. In the year 1999, the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) defined CSR as ‘‘the continuing commitment by business to behave ethically and contribute to economic development 8 | P a g e   while improving the quality of life of the workforce and their families as well as of the local community and society at large’’ (cited in Werna et al. 2009, p. 11-12).  Canada has a global recognition as one of the leaders in corporate environmental and social responsibility (Visser & Tolhurst, 2010). CSR is defined by Industry Canada as the way firms integrate socio-economic, and environmental concerns into their corporate values, decision-making, culture, strategy, and operations in both transparent and accountable manner, and thereby establish better practices within the firm, create wealth, and improve society (cited in Khan & Lund-Thompsen 2011). Among other things, Canada’s possession of vast natural resources including forest, petroleum, and minerals, in addition to the progressive government legislation and engagement of stakeholder groups, have contributed to its recognition in global CSR issues. Visser and Tilhurst (2010) posit that the founding of Greenpeace in Vancouver in 1970 was the first political jurisdiction in North America that enacted an extended producer-responsibility-law requiring a deposit collection on beverage containers. Canada has since then passed several legislations and codes in favor of CSR.  Information on CSR practices is mostly found on corporate websites, annual reports, and/or promotional materials. The International Labor Organization (ILO), among other bodies, generates instruments that aid in the measurement of best organizational performances.     1.02.  CSR – The History  Moon (2014) asserts that ethical antecedents to CSR are mostly embodied in the ancient Christian, Jewish, Persian, Islamic, Hindu, and Confucian texts. He argues further that, social conventions pointing to the obligation of well-endowed individuals to help less privileged ones in society have influenced the need for CSR. These obligations range from supporting the needy and treating 9 | P a g e   others fairly, to being good stewards of the resources one is endowed with. Werna et al. (2009) posit that CSR dates back 5000 years, although its practice in modern days could be traced to 19th century industrial philanthropists and their introduction of social initiatives. The genesis of CSR is also connected with the provision of housing, welfare, and other benefits to workers to entice and retain them. In a chronological approach to the history of CSR, Weina et al. (2009) discuss what they called Pressure Waves, which I have employed in further elaboration on the history of CSR.  Pressure wave 1 - Limits: This period falls within the 1960s- 70s when there was a call by western governments for corporations to limit their natural resource exploitation and environmental impacts. By this call, business and corporations were required to meet minimum environmental standards. The idea of CSR at this level was to impose limits to save the environment.  Pressure wave 2- Green: Starting from the early 1980s, environmentalists shifted away from arguing for limits on environmental exploitation to promoting the sustainable utilization of natural resources – producing green products. The term ‘sustainable development’ was coined within this period; and notable among global voices was the Brundtland’s Report2 in 1987.   Pressure wave 3 – Global: The period termed ‘global’ commenced in 1999 with the eruption of numerous protests against the negative effects of global capitalism and the international institutions and global corporations involved. The responsibility of corporate organizations in fostering sustainable development was also proposed. Rapid development in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) within this time enabled the subjection of global corporations                                                           2 The Brundtland’s report released in 1987 focused on uniting countries to pursue sustainable development collectively.  10 | P a g e   to intense scrutiny. The continual emphases on human rights, poverty, and climate change issues have with time, seen growth in CSR initiatives among corporate organizations.   Aside from the historical map provided above, there is a more detailed and bigger picture of the concept.  1.1 CSR – THE BIGGER PICTURE  The coverage of CSR is wide and hence its emphasis differs in respect to regional priorities, cultural perspectives, and local or national circumstances. Votaw [(1972, cited in Garriga & Mele, 2004, p. 51-52)] asserts that ‘‘corporate social responsibility means something, but not always the same thing to everyone …’’.  Visser and Tolhurst (2010, p. xxv) argue that CSR must be ‘‘defined by its national and cultural context, if it is to be relevant and effective’’. This helps explain why organizations frame and practice CSR differently. But irrespective of these differences, CSR has a common ground - businesses conducting themselves responsibly, to impact positively on society. Elkington’s (2004) description of CSR as the Triple Bottom Line (TBL) appears to have received international recognition. His proposition elaborates three key elements embedded in CSR - economic prosperity, social equity and environmental quality. Hence the TBL model evaluates CSR performances based on these elements.  1.11. Criticisms  Lots of criticisms have been leveled against CSR. Traditional CSR programs have been criticized for being peripheral and incremental to an organization’s mandate (Visser, 2011). Milton Friedman’s famous argument that ‘‘the business of business is business’’ (quoted in Hamann & Acutt, 2003, p.257) emphasizes the position that, business organizations taking on social responsibilities will only lead to distortions of the market. Milton says this will also interfere in 11 | P a g e   governments fulfilling their responsibilities. According to Moon (2014), CSR is not only criticized for aiding corporations to hide their real intents, or to cynically benefit from their thin marketing gesture, but also that CSR constitutes a key element representing the power of corporate organizations, and their take-over of the political and social spheres of a globalized society.  Corporations are also criticized for perpetuating the ‘corporate citizenship paradox’: the position that large corporations which are responsible for much of the modern world’s social and environmental disruption are at the same time considered to be key allies in fighting these negative impacts (Hamann & Acutt, 2003). Critics argue again that CSR is only a response to societal pressure; it is a way in which corporations ‘clean up their act’ for the purposes of accommodation (ibid).  Aside from these criticisms, CSR has also often been labeled as public relations exercise, a defensive approach, a marketing tool, and a window dressing exercise by corporations. Porter and Kramer’s (2011) argument that companies are widely prospering at the expense of the broader community, may account for the mediocre impact that CSR is making around the world.   1.12. Perspectives and opinions on CSR  Globally, CSR is predominantly seen as a business initiative in the North, with its terms of practices being enforced in the South (Khan & Lund-Thomsen, 2011). This argument is also strengthened by the fact that in the absence of an internationally accepted code of practice, the implementation of CSR is difficult. From a research perspective, Prieto-Carron et al. (2006) posit that in order to assess the impacts of CSR, researchers must move beyond an emphasis on codes to the development of proper methodologies. They further argue that codes only enforce compliance whereas methodologies facilitate the proper assessment of impacts.  However, in raising hopes for CSR, Visser (2011) argues that we have now entered an era of CSR 2.0 or Radical 12 | P a g e   CSR, whereby CSR efforts have become responsive, creative, scalable, and profitable. Similarly, Ball and Olmedo (2011, p. 83) argue that companies want to ‘‘do good and have their profit too’’. Garriga & Mele (2004) outlined four main theoretical positions found in studies on CSR: instrumental, political, integrative, and ethical. Proponents of instrumental theories focus on corporations as instrument for wealth creation, and as such consider CSR as geared towards wealth creation. The political dimension of CSR, emphasizes the power of corporations in a globalized world and how this power is used in the political arena. CSR is hence observed as a form of exerting the power of corporations on wider society. The integrative approach focuses on corporations satisfying social demands, that is, how CSR initiatives are considered to be serving social needs. Research oriented to ethical dimensions of CSR emphasize the ethical responsibilities of corporations to society.       Two views, namely the Philanthropic perspective (voluntary/charity), and the Legal (accountability perspective) have dominated the CSR discourse. Idemudia (2008) among other scholars, has emphasized that corporate organizations either operate within the voluntary or accountability perspectives in initiating CSR activities. Whereas the philanthropic perspective refers to CSR activities carried out on charity basis, the legal perspective refers to situations where corporate organizations carry out CSR activities because it is required by law.   Other concepts that are used interchangeably with CSR include Business-Community Relations (BCR), Corporate Citizenship (CC), Corporate Governance (CG), Social Responsibility (SR), Corporate Philanthropy (CP), Community Investment, and Sustainability (Werna et al. 2009). These perspectives are explained below: 13 | P a g e    Business-Community Relations (BCR): This refers to the ways and approaches through which communities and business interact with one another. Interactions, therefore, range from philanthropy to social investment, with the definition of the community also ranging from a local village of indigenous people through employees to international coalitions of activists.  Corporate Citizenship (CC): This concept borrows from the metaphor of being a ‘good citizen’. McAlister et al. [2005, (cited in Werna et. al. 2009, p.17)] define Corporate Citizenship as ‘‘the extent to which a business adopts a strategic focus for fulfilling the economic, legal, ethical, and philanthropic social responsibilities expected by all stakeholders’’. The notion of citizenship in this concept assumes the development of a relationship that seeks the good of both, that is corporations on one side, and the stakeholders on the other. This concept sees CSR as a form of social contract.  Corporate Governance (CG): Adopting the idea of governance, this concept refers to the policies, procedures, and frameworks through which an organization understands and deals with its risky behaviors. Stemming from a more legal background, CG adopts the implementation of codes and other apparatuses that ensure effective management of organizational behavior and relationships with stakeholders. CSR within this framework can be understood as a management tool.   Social Responsibility (SR): Fenwick (2011) argues that SR is appropriate for describing the socially responsible behavior of medium organizations that do not consider themselves and their operations as bigger multinational corporations.   1.13. Social impact of CSR in the community  14 | P a g e   CSR has become very prominent within the discourse of business and society. It points to a shift from the concentration on business shareholders to community stakeholders. This shift in focus made community engagement a central part of CSR (OECD 2001, p.21). In both research and practice, CSR has been used to address many socio-global issues, including human rights (Amao, 2011; Utting, 2007), sustainable and urban development (Werna et. al, 2009; Hamann & Acutt, 2003), Western imperialism (Khan, & Lund-Thomsen, 2011), and corruption (Adeyeye, 2012). Due to the assumed impact of CSR in the socio-economic development of communities, discussions abound on the relationship between CSR and international development (Adeyeye, 2012; Blowfield, 2005; Hamann & Acutt, 2003). Some proponents of the CSR-development idea have connected the role of CSR to the achievement of the United Nation’s Millennium Development Goals (UNMDGs), (Amponsah-Tawiah & Dartey-Baah, 2012).   Identifying and defining community within CSR can sometimes be challenging. Most often, community is used to refer to the targeted population (or purpose) a CSR program serves. Business in the Community (BITC), - a United Kingdom based business association, categorises CSR practices as serving four different purposes. These are: a) CSR for the community, b) CSR for marketplace, c) CSR for workplace, and d) CSR for environment (Moon, 2014). This categorization helps us understand the focus of an organization’s CSR practice, or the different communities CSR programs serve. However, an initiative employed for one purpose can overlap with another. In such situations, the classification of communities becomes difficult, as communities get blurred. In situations where boundaries in these communities are blurred, there is an overlap among the categories. For instance, one CSR program could exist for both a local community and the workplace.  15 | P a g e   Since Canada is a major global player on CRS (Visser & Tolhurst, 2010), in the next section of the paper, examples of CRS initiatives from ten Canadian corporations are presented to showcase the various forms of CRS initiatives undertaken by corporate organizations.   1.14. Examples of CSR Initiatives - Top 10 Canadian Corporates in 2015  As mentioned earlier, an organization’s approach to any CSR initiative depends on many factors, ranging from the accepted definition, through contextual factors, to stakeholder demands. In Dayal-Gulati and Finn’s (2007) Global Corporate Citizenship, they emphasized that despite the differences in CSR initiatives among organizations, there are two main factors that influence a company’s decision on a CSR program: a) the close link of CSR programs to an organization’s business interest in the local market, and b) the close alignment of CSR program with business competencies.  Sustainalytics3 and Canadian Business4 are two online publications that focus on Canadian business organizations. They listed the top ten socially responsible organizations for the year 2015. I turned to this data to provide information and examples of CSR initiatives found across different Canadian business organizations.  NO COMPANY CATEGORY CSR INITIATIVES 1. PepsiCo Canada Food & Beverage Environmental sustainability: reduced water usage by 40% at manufacturing plants. Uses an                                                           3 http://www.macleans.ca/economy/business/canadas-top-50-most-socially-responsible-companies/ 4 http://www.canadianbusiness.com/lists-and-rankings/2015-top-10-socially-responsible-corporations/    16 | P a g e   all-electric, zero emissions and green powered delivery trucks. Deliver water to communities.  2. Kinross Gold Corp. Mining (materials & metals) Partnered with local co-operatives in literacy and business training. Raised employment levels and reduced poverty in its Tasiast mine in Mauritania (West Africa). 3. L’Oreal Retail & Household goods Reduced its production-related carbon dioxide emissions by 50%. Created 54,000 jobs for underprivileged people. 4. Intel Technology  Invested $220 million in water conservation programs. Launched the ‘She Will Connect’ Literacy program for women in Africa, Latin America, and India.  5. Telus Telecom & Electronics Strict observation of animal rights & ethics in relation to its animal-dominated advertising. 6. Zara Textile, footwear & apparel  Collaborate with Indian farmers on sustainable agricultural training projects. Trains female farmers in India to build and preserve organic cotton seed banks. Partners with Medecin Sans Frontiere (MSF) to promote medical and humanitarian need. 17 | P a g e   7. Vancity Bank Integrates environmental, social and governance factors in its investments. Supported 23 Farmers’ Market in organic food production in 2013. Recycles no less than 70% of office waste. 8. BMW Canada Transportation and Logistics Focuses on environmental sustainability: in South Africa, it uses more than 70 solar collectors; changed settings on employees’ PCs to save about 27,000 megawatts hours a year (about 12,200 tons of Co₂).   9.  Philips  Industrial Joined the Electronic Industries Citizenship Coalition (EICC) to enhance community development. Eliminated the use of ‘conflict minerals’ (minerals from conflict zones).  10. Pacific Rubiales Energy Corp. Energy and utilities Promotes gender equality across its companies and communities. Its campaign ‘Our difference makes us stronger’ educated employees on diversity and inclusion. Promotes human rights.  Table 1:0 Source: Sustainalytics and Canadian Business websites.  1.2. RESEARCH PROBLEM STATEMENT AND RELEVANCE OF STUDY  The fact that education and training that form part of CSR initiatives is relatively unknown in the field of adult education, is not an entirely hidden phenomenon. CSR is well documented in other 18 | P a g e   academic research (Moon, 2014; Werna et al., 2009; Dayal-Gulati & Finn, 2007; Yakovleva, 2005).  Table 1.0, points to how four Canadian organizations engaged in different forms of adult education and training practices. Zara had a training program for farmers in India, while KINROSS engaged in literacy and business training in Mauritania. Intel conducted ICT literacy program in India and Latin America, and Pacific Rubiales organized diversity and inclusion education for employees.  These examples lend credence to the fact that adult learning and education can be a major component of CSR. But one question that remains unanswered is: to what extent has the academic field of Adult Education researched this phenomenon? It is this gap that this study seeks to fill. This inquiry is thus an exploratory study of how adult education and training forms part of organizations’ CSR practice. Focus in this study is put on capacity building initiatives carried out by Canadian Mining Corporations (CMCs) for their host communities. Host communities refer to people directly or indirectly affected (positively or negatively) by the activities of the mining corporations. Host community, as used here, also distinguishes itself from mainstream employees of corporations, except for situations where employees are from the local communities.  Since most CMCs operate both at home and abroad, I will examine CSR initiatives from these different regions.  1.21. Why Canadian Mining Corporations (CMCs)  CMCs present an interesting case for this study for several main reasons. First, mining is really part of the Canadian economy and most CMCs operate abroad. CMCs have lately been criticized 19 | P a g e   by a pressure group called Stop the Institute5 in relation to the forms of abuses in stakeholder communities. Such accusations, definitely challenge the ultimate goal of CSR (including education and training) activities carried out by CMCs’. Secondly, as per the content of most Impact Benefit Agreements (IBA) between mining corporations and their stakeholder communities, corporations are required to employ local community members. However, since mining is a skill-intensive activity, the success of this agreement regarding employment depends on the skill-competence of the local community members – making a focus on education and training in the mining sector a necessity. Thirdly, a focus on mining companies aligns with Yakovleva’s (2005, p.21), assertion that ‘‘for mining companies, local communities are considered as one of the most important stakeholders in the context of CSR, as they are significantly affected by the mining operations in terms of economic and social welfare and via mining impacts on the natural environment’’.  In addition, although mining is a really big part of the Canadian economy, there have been a lot of push backs in the operation of CMCs abroad, due to environmental degradation, abuse of protestors, disregard of indigenous rights, among others (Mining Watch Canada 2015, 2012)  1.22. Relevance of study  This exploratory research is relevant as the general findings will serve two purposes – a) help in filling the gap in literature on how adult learning and education forms part of corporations’ CSR agenda, and b) presentation of data for future research on how and whether CMCs serve the public good of their stakeholder communities through education and training in their CSR initiatives.                                                              5 http://stoptheinstitute.ca/   20 | P a g e   1.3. RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND APPROACH  This research attempts to answer four main questions:  How is adult education and training discussed and conceptualized in the literature on CSR?  What are the assumptions regarding adult education and community engagement in CSR initiatives as explored in previous research?  What role does adult education play in forming part of the overall CSR agenda of mining corporations in Canada?  Given the claims made by Canadian mining corporations, what roles do these CSR initiatives play in serving the public good of its stakeholder communities?  1.4 METHODOLOGY AND CHALLENGES  Findings and data gathering in this research will be done in two forms. First, I will use the method of Scoping Review (Arksey & O’Malley, 2005) – common in the health sciences, to review the literature on the intersection between CSR and adult education, and community engagement within Canada and abroad.  As argued by Arksey & O’Malley (2005, p. 6), the rationale behind using scoping review is to ascertain the ‘‘extent, range and nature of research activity’’ previously engaged on the topic. Through the review, I will examine a general range of literature from books, journal articles, newspaper publications, online business publications, and corporate websites on how education and training forms part of CSR initiatives of several organizations. I will summarize existing findings and identify gaps in the literature.  Secondly, I will focus on data from CMC websites, in order to compile information about adult education and training programs that form part of CSR initiatives. Criteria for the selection of appropriate CMCs will be based on two factors 21 | P a g e   -  a) corporations that mine both metals and minerals, and b) corporations that have adult education and training as part of their bigger CSR initiative for host communities. This approach will enable the acquisition of a wide range of data to enable proper review. 1.5. LIMITATION OF RESEARCH  Since CSR has not gained proper attention in Adult Education, this research is limited in relation to existing studies in the mainstream adult education field. Secondly, resorting to website data of CMCs instead of qualitative data (example, interviews, and focus groups) from community members limits the information that can be obtained– particularly with respect to exploring power relations inherent in the corporate-community-engagement process.       1.6. SUMMARY OF CHAPTERS   This research paper is divided into four main chapters. In this first chapter, I have provided an introduction and a general exposition on CSR – including the definition, history, and perspectives on CSR. This chapter also introduced the research questions, the data gathering methodology, and the challenges. In chapter 2, the results of the scoping review will be shared in order to answer the first two research questions – a) mapping out the various ways in which adult education and training forms part of CSR, and how this is conceptualized in the literature; and b) exploring the assumptions behind adult education and community engagement initiatives, as examined in previous research.  Chapter 3 will focus on data gathered on the adult education and training initiatives in the CSR programs of Canadian Mining Corporations, followed by a brief analysis of these programs. Chapter 4, the final chapter, will discuss how the programs seek the public good of host communities, corporate-community engagement, and power relations. I will also discuss considerations for future research.     22 | P a g e   CHAPTER 2  CSR AS ADULT EDUCATION AND TRAINING - A SCOPING REVIEW   2.0 INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND TO SCOPING REVIEW  Scoping review as a literature review methodology is dominant in the health sciences (Gibson, 2016).  Irrespective of its extensive use, the methodology is without a generally accepted definition (Arksey & O’Malley, 2005). Arksey and O’Malley (2005, p. 21), who are recognized for contributing to the in-depth understanding of the methodology, argue that the scoping review  ‘‘aims to map rapidly the key concepts underpinning a research area and the main sources and types of evidence available’’. Mays et al., (2001; cited in Arksey & O’Malley, 2005) explain that the detailed documentation in scoping review increases the reliability of its findings; and as well proves its methodological rigor.  As a methodology, five main steps guide the use of scoping review. These are a) identifying the research question, b) identifying relevant studies, c) study selection for inclusion, d) charting data, and e) collating, summarizing and reporting the results.  In this chapter, a scoping review was conducted to review the literature on adult education and training programs that form part of CSR initiatives of corporate organizations. Among other things, the aim is to map out the key concepts that underpin why adult learning and training forms part of CSR initiatives. The five scoping review steps are applied to this research process.   23 | P a g e   2.01 Identifying the research questions  The questions that guided the scoping review in this research are: a) what are the various ways in which adult education and training form part of various organizations’ CSR; b) how is adult education and training conceptualized in available literature; and c) what are the assumptions regarding adult education and community engagement initiatives, as explored in previous research? 2.02 Identifying relevant studies  I resorted to ERIC and EBSCO electronic databases for journal articles, books, business research, government documents, conference proceedings, dissertations, and magazine articles. Journal articles were mainly found from Business & Society, Resources Policy, Economy & Society, and Business Ethics. I also used Google search engine to find online data on Corporate Social Responsibility initiatives and CSR reports of corporations. In the search, I used terms and concepts ranging from Corporate Social Responsibility, Corporate Philanthropy, Corporate Governance, Education and Training, Skills Development, Capacity Building and Community Engagement. Dates and study limits were not applied to the search. This was to enable access to a much great volume of data. Assistance in using library-searching tools was sought from experienced librarians at different UBC libraries.  2.03 Study Selection  In this part of the research, I used an inclusion and exclusion criteria (Armstrong et al., 2011) to select appropriate data. First, all the results found from the searches were stored in RefWorks. I then read through the abstracts and briefs in order to eliminate unwanted data (exclusion). Data that focused on the following three areas were eliminated:  a) data on corporate funding for 24 | P a g e   educational programs instead of actual training and capacity building programs; b) data solely on academic programs promoted by corporations in higher educational institutions, and, c) data that focused on corporate training solely designed for employees without the involvement of the wider local community. Data that were included focused on a) corporate training that solely targeted local community stakeholders, and b) corporate training programs for both non-employed and employed local community members.  These parameters were set to enable the acquisition of data that focus on CSR initiatives that targeted community stakeholders. In addition, the inclusion parameters enabled a critical analysis of the role CSR initiatives play in serving the public good of host communities.  An initial search of relevant CSR adult education and training initiatives did not focus on Canadian mining companies; rather, a wider scope of data (Lorenzetti & Powelson, 2015), to help inform the exploration of Canadian mining corporations that was to follow.  2.04 Charting of the study data  This part of the study charts or sorts out the key items found in the primary research, according to their key themes and issues (Arksey & O’Maley, 2005). In this research, I used a word document table as a data charting format to sort the data into themes. I categorized the data under the following headings: corporate organization, content or CSR initiative, targeted population, and intent/purpose of CSR initiative. This approach helped in summarizing the data for easy discussion under three different themes listed in point (e) below.    25 | P a g e   2.05 Collate, summarize and report results  Analysis of findings from the charted data pointed to three main conceptual themes: a) CSR as Adult Education/Training for Health and Safety, b) CSR as Adult Education/Training for Community Development, and c) CSR as Adult Education/Training for Environmental Sustainability. The findings are discussed below.  2.1. CSR AS ADULT EDUCATION/TRAINING FOR COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT  In the area of community development, MarketWire (2009) reports on the Royal Education program established in Angostura community in Colombia – an initiative of Greystar Resources, a gold and silver exploration and development corporation. The training program, conducted in partnership with the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), was aimed at empowering community members to effectively manage revenue for sustainable development. Another case found in my search was Prudential Financial Inc. in El Paso community, Texas, an American Insurance organization which provided human and financial resource training to create skilled mathematics and technology workforce among Latino, Veterans, and Military Spouses (BusinessWire, 2015a). Prudential’s CSR initiative had three objectives – a) strengthen the community, b) open new education and employment doors for residents, and c) develop strong workforce and talents for community growth.  In Education for Change in South Africa’s Industry, Arumugam, Craven, and Statun (2007) elaborated the role of automobile industries like Ford, BMW, and Nissan in providing education and training as part of their CSR. Given the background that blacks make about 75% of the South African population, the aim of the educational project was to provide and/or improve the skill of South African black population to enhance their competitiveness for jobs in the automobile 26 | P a g e   industry. The two training groups that were formed through this initiative were the Manufacturing and Engineering Related Sector’s Education and Training Authority (Merseta) and the Automotive Industry Development Center (AIDC). Merseta’s certificate program - the Automobile Manufacturing Industry Certificate (AMIC) consisted of four levels and each level had three modules. The modules were Basic Education comprising mathematics and literacy skills; Core Competency covering subjects like employer/employee relations, communications, and manufacturing concepts; and Technical Knowledge and Skills relating to automobile manufacture including body construction, vehicle assembly, and warehousing. The program was structured so that learners start at entry level and accumulate credit as each course is completed. Upon completing the four levels, learners (employees) were to receive AMIC certification, which comes with promotion in the organization.  The South African AIDC program which was available for both black employees and nonemployees (community stakeholders) had 8 level year-long programs for ‘learnerships’ (as they were called). Arumugam, Craven & Statun (2007, p. 123) assert that ‘‘level three is equivalent to grade twelve; level six to graduating from one of the country’s technical training institutes; level seven to a university degree; and eight, to a Ph.D.’’. AIDC programs focused on development and basic training, technical training, managerial skills training, shop-floor training and automotive engineering.      Ford Motors initiated a partnership with the Mamelodi College of Education (a technical institute) in South Africa to open a branch of the school on Ford corporation’s site. Learners in this ‘factory-school’ were local people including employees and non-employees. The Ford-Mamelodi school was a continuation of the AMIC level 4 course -  so Ford added level 5 which had the Ford Academy Manufacturing Science (FAMS) curriculum. For learners who had enrolled in the main 27 | P a g e   Mamelodi campus, Ford allowed on-site practical studies with their facilities. Aside from this, Ford offered a 2 year-in-house technician training program for both employees and outsiders. In this latter program, students were paid at the time of their training and weren’t required to work after graduation. CSR initiatives in the Wine industries in South Africa also had similar programs. One CSR initiative was also an outcome of Black Economic Empowerment (BEE) – a strategy introduced by the ANC government to increase the participation of blacks in the pursuit of financial and economic status in the various industries. In Bouwland Wines organization, employees were assisted to pursue training in the Vineyard Academy (private/public) institution (Johnson, Koepke, & Wang, 2007). Courses ranged from Business & Viticulture (grapevine growing), Literacy, and Personal Budgeting. As part of the BEE strategy, financial institutions were also mandated to collaborate with higher institutions of learning to establish undergraduate and postgraduate diploma/degrees in financial services. As an example, First National Bank’s learning programs were equivalent to a degree from a 2-year technical university (Johnson, Koepke & Wang, 2007).  Similarly, Old Mutual Business School collaborated with London Business School and University of Cape Town Graduate of Business to train its black employees.                    Citizens at Work (2004) is a report on CSR initiatives of Indian corporations. Working towards community development, Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited’s (BPCL) initiated a vocational training in bamboo artefact making and sewing. Aside from BPCL, Essel Mining, Industries Limited, and Aditya Birla Group of Industries (ABGI) used education and training in their CSR for community development. Women empowerment initiatives included training in income-generating activities such as tailoring, knitting, doll-making, and blanket weaving. Women were put in Self Help Groups (SHGs) where they could learn from and support each other towards the 28 | P a g e   achievement of the ultimate purpose. In a similar women empowerment CSR program, Indian Aluminum Company Ltd (INDAL) offered training for local women in Adult Literacy skills/ non-formal education and entrepreneurial training (Citizens at Work, 2004). The skills training programs included tailoring, tie and dye, candle making, and making rexine articles handicrafts.  In all, over 700 women were trained in the production of artifacts for marketing. Regarding the impact of these Indian initiatives, it was recorded that the literacy program empowered the women to stand up for their rights. Also, the women were able to explore opportunities through the acquisition of these skills, thus increasing their choices (Sen, 1999; Nussbaum, 2011).  Still in India, Larsen and Toubro Limited’s CSR programs included the Village Improvement Know-how and Skills (VIKAS) training for youth (Citizens at Work, 2004). The initiative, lasting 2 months, was focused on bamboo and soft toy making. Similarly, Tata Motors focused on developing the capacity of local teachers to enable their provision of quality educational services to the community. The content of the program included ‘‘motivation, orientation on syllabus change, training to use educational aid, and skill development’’ (Citizens at Work, 2004, p. 105-106).  2.11. Conceptualization  In the corporate discourse of education/training and community development, empowerment is the main theme used by corporations. It is assumed that by providing education and training to either employed or unemployed community stakeholders, the capabilities of individuals are enhanced; thereby increasing their choices (Sen, 1999; Unterhalter, 2009; Nussbaum, 2011). This increase in the choice of individual community members ultimately affects the entire community.   29 | P a g e   2.12. Gaps in the literature on community development  Whereas some corporations partner with existing community groups, many others do not. In addition, the duration of the training programs varies greatly from one corporation to the other. Also, programs are often designed with the interest of the corporate organization in mind – as seen in the South African examples. Ford Motor’s partnership with Mamelodi College of Education was a good step in sustaining Ford’s training program given that Mamelodi’s reputation as an academic institution could positively influence the reputation of Ford’s training programs. The financial institutions which partnered with existing institutions of higher learning could also benefit in resource sharing between these institutions. All of these engagements enforce the success of the programs. These approaches are different from corporate organizations that carried out their education and training programs without partnering with local educational institutions.    The cases of certain Indian corporations present an interesting issue on the sustainability of the training programs. ABGI achieved its educational purposes by placing women in Self Help Groups (SHGs). This was not the case of other industrial groups like Tata Motors and Larson & Loura Ltd. Achieving women’s empowerment and community development can be highly sustained through community-groupings like the SHGs. Due to communal solidarity, SHGs have the tendency of longer term engagement; even after the activities of corporations’ end.  Furthermore, CSR initiatives are highly context-specific (Visser & Tolhurst, 2010) as is evident in the kind of initiatives in the women empowerment programs by the Indian corporates. Indigenous materials were used by local and SHGs in doll-making, blanket weaving, tailoring, knitting.     30 | P a g e   2.2. CSR AS ADULT EDUCATION/TRAINING FOR HEALTH AND SAFETY  Education and training programs that form part of CSR initiatives towards health and safety take different forms. These programs are either carried out in partnership with community organizations or executed alone. De Beers Consolidated Diamond Mines in South Africa, collaborated with the Soul City Institute for Health and Development Communications to educate five mining communities across three provinces (Rispel, Peltzer, Nkomo, & Molomo, 2010). Through television and radio drama edutainment, the objective of these programs was to improve knowledge on HIV in contributing to positive behavior changes. Similarly, BusinessWire (2015b) reports on safety education organized by BestBuy and the Academy of Model Aeronautics (AMA) for customers who purchased drones.  In the case of South Africa’s BEE agenda, the Automobile Manufacturing Industry Certificate (AMIC) program which consisted of four levels did include health and safety education. The Bouwland Wines training program in their ‘Vineyard Academy’ in South Africa included health and safety education, specifically on HIV/AIDs. The same was the case for Essel Mining and Industries’ CSR initiative in India. In Aditya Birla Group of Industries initiative, local employees received seminar-styled training in nutrition, health and stress disorder management. The Indian Aluminum Company Limited (INDAL) offered training in First Aid and treatment of common disease to the local community women.  In Sustainable Foundations for HIV/AIDS Care: Treatment and Delivery in South Africa, Chan, Gupta, Palamountain and Saha (2007) discuss the CSR initiative of Abbott Laboratories, dubbed the Abbott Access. Through the medical education program, the staff of Abbott Laboratories conducted informal education for health care providers, focusing on HIV/AIDS transmission and 31 | P a g e   the efficacy of Abbott’s antiretroviral drugs. The results of this education was the increased acceptance of HIV/AIDs drugs by patients and ‘‘enhanced clinical knowledge of providers - whose medical training, in many case, included little or no discussions on diseases’’ (Chan et al., 2007, p. 184).     Bayer Corporation, also a pharmaceutical company in the United States, partnered with the National Medical Association in the CSR program dubbed ‘Take it to Heart’. Six African American communities received education on hypertension and cholesterol after a free health screening program. The objective of the program was to ‘’increase awareness of the prevalence of hypertension and the risks of coronary heart disease in the African American communities’’ (Keys, 1997, p. 650). The initiative was carried out in churches, shopping malls, and community centers with a high number of the population targeted. In Senegal, one of Tech Resources’ CSR initiative is the Zinc and Health educational program. In partnership with Zinc Alliance for Child Health (ZACH) and UNICEF, training is offered to DS-DOMS6, a local group trained by the Senegalese Health ministry to treat malaria. With Tech Resources’ initiative, learners received training to treat diarrhea with zinc and ORS (Oral Rehydration Salt).     2.21. Conceptualization Although health-and-safety is not completely conceptualized in the literature, the idea behind its implementation across corporations positions it within public health. For example, in the case of De Beers and the AMIC programs, the HIV/AIDs situation in South African had negatively affected the workforce, hence the need to build capacity to ameliorate the problem (Rispel et al., 2010). Similarly, Abbott Laboratories’ (a pharmaceutical industry) motivation for health and                                                           6 DS-DOMs is the name given to the local people who are trained by Senegal’s Ministry of Health to treat malaria.  32 | P a g e   safety training programs is to improve drug knowledge for acceptance and proper usage in communities. The same public health goal influenced Tech Resources’ initiative in Senegal to treat diarrhea and ORS. 2.22. Gaps in the literature on health and safety  Tech Resources, De Beer, and Best Buy carried out their health and safety programs as full CSR initiatives. On the contrary, the programs of AMIC and INDAL were smaller initiatives within a bigger CSR program. Also, while Tech Resources and De Beers partnered with other organizations, Abbott Laboratories carried out their own training programs. Gaps exist in the conceptualization of training programs for health and safety.  2.3. CSR AS ADULT EDUCATION/TRAINING FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY  Even though Weina et al. (2009, p.52) argue that the term sustainability has become ‘‘ubiquitous in both public and private policy discourse’’, it is often used by most corporate organizations to refer to the equitable use of natural resources to meet both the needs of the present and future generations (McMichael, 2008). In CSR, different organizations adopt different approaches in their environmental education with stakeholders.  In describing the CSR-related environmental interventions within cities, Weina et al. (2009) visit the cases of Societe national d’assurances (SNA) in Lebanon. SNA is a Lebanese insurance company with branches in Tunisia, Jordan, and Egypt. After the 25 years of civil war in Lebanon, SNA engaged in several CSR programs which included environmental education. The objective of this education was to create awareness and encourage citizens on environmental conservation. SNA did this through a free distribution of garbage bags to the public to help achieve a cleaner Lebanon.  33 | P a g e   Again, Weina et al. (2009) report on the ‘Go Green’ partnership in Lebanon, pioneered by the restaurant chain called Schtroumpf. The partnership included the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), and national groups. With these stronger actors, the environmental education had these objectives:  a) enhancing environmental awareness among the youth, b) encouraging youth to create many environmental projects, c) identify problems, opportunities, and areas of stakeholder cooperation. Some of the specific programs under Schtroumpf ‘s Go Green’s initiative were:   Go Green University Awareness Campaign:  this campaign promoted environmentally sustainable education through posters, bill-boards, placemats, flyers, and presentations. About 18 university campuses were visited in a distribution of about 80,000 flyers.  Go Green Media Awareness Campaign:  this educational campaign involved T.V and press interviews, article publications in newspaper and magazines.   Go Green Environmental Contest: With a focus on the youth, this contest encouraged university students to initiate projects towards environmental sustainability which were to be supported financially for enactment.      Go Green Workshop: These workshop included academic institutions and public sectors working to find solutions to environmental issues.   The impact of all these programs under the Go Green initiative was to increase environmental sustainability while rebuilding the environmental consciousness of Lebanese after the civil war.  In the case from Latin America, the corporate environmental responsibility of Accion Empresaria (Business Action) in Chile was to promote environmental sustainability among companies 34 | P a g e   operating in Chile. Activities included workshops, seminars, newsletter publications, case studies, and practical guides to responsibly dealing with the environment (Gibbons, Lau, McAuliffe &Watson, 2007).      2.31. Conceptualization Most corporations conceptualize their environmental education as sustainability, corporate environmental citizenship, and sustainable development (Rondinella & Berry, 2000). 2.32. Gaps in the literature on environmental education  Though environmental sustainability is the agenda of most corporations, the educational approaches are different. For instance, SNA’s environmental education was mingled with many other CSR initiatives which limited corporations’ concentration. In addition, whereas some corporations partnered with local and international actors, others single-handedly, carried their initiatives. The approach with Go Green indicates that partnership with bigger organizations in carrying out environmental education gives the agenda a bigger coverage and greater impact.  2.4. CONCLUSION  In this chapter, I have introduced the scoping review methodology, the various steps in conducting scoping review, and how it has been used in this research. Three conceptual themes, relating to how adult learning and education form part of CSR initiatives have been discussed, namely, community development, health and safety, and environmental sustainability. Guided by scoping review methodology, the various conceptualizations and gaps in the literature on these themes have also been discussed.     The next chapter focuses on the case of Canadian mining corporations and how adult education and training forms part of their CSR activities.   35 | P a g e   CHAPTER 3   ADULT EDUCATION & TRAINING AS CSR IN CANADIAN MINING CORPORATIONS   3.0 INTRODUCTION   The mining sector is often considered as one of the most important sectors of the global economy because it is the economic anchor of many national economies (Yakovleva, 2005). Extractive industries contribute significantly to the success of many economies - the local, national and global. Canada is considered a strong place for global mining expertise and finance, making the Toronto Stock Exchange (TSX) an important world centre for mineral exploration and mining corporations. The dominant position of the extractive industry in the global economy suggests that attention should be given to its CRS initiatives.  The discourse on CSR in the mining industry is complex for several reasons. First, most mining companies originate from the developed countries in Western Europe, North America, and Australia and engage in extraction in developing countries. Most of these developing countries have less developed institutions to drive CSR significantly (ibid). In addition, CSR practices have become essential to the public image of the mining industry because ‘‘public opinion of the mining sector is generally negative’’ as the environmental and socio-economic effects of mining are viewed as amongst the worst in global industrial cases (ibid, p. 19).  36 | P a g e   3.1 CANADIAN MINING CORPORATIONS (CMCs)  Like most Western mining companies, Canadian Mining Companies operate both at home and abroad. Mining activities of CMCs can be found in Latin American countries like Peru, Mexico, Chile, Panama, and many more. In Africa, operations can be found in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Mauritania, Zambia, South Africa, and other countries. Mining activities of CMCs are also in Asia and Australasia. Metals and minerals extracted include gold, silver, zinc, copper, palladium, and platinum, among others.  As is the case with many Western mining corporations, CMCs do not have a good record of respectful relations with their host communities. For instance, local farmers in the Chirano area of Ghana’s Western region have had several agitations with Kinross over the delay in payment of compensation for using farm lands for mining (Mining Watch Canada, 2012). In the Porgera Joint Venture in Papua New Guinea’s Enga province, Barrick Gold had issues with rape cases between Barrick’s employers and local community women. Also, the Annual Report of Mining Watch Canada (2015) indicates instances of mine waste spill that impacted ecosystems, water bodies, and livelihoods in Brazil, Mexico, US, and Canada.  Even though these serious cases of misconduct and pollution exist, mining companies continuously declare their commitment to seeking the good of their host communities, especially through their CSR programs (Yakovleva, 2005). It is against this background that the CSR activities of mining corporations are worth exploring.  Narrowing the focus of my exploration to adult learning and education initiatives within CSR can contribute to the wider discourse, practice, and process of social justice and community development. 37 | P a g e   In this chapter, the adult education and training programs that form part of the CSR of ten (10) Canadian Mining Corporations are compiled. This data presents the detailed the different forms of adult education and training programs that form part of these companies’ CSR initiatives. The second part of the chapter analyzes these training programs and shows how they form part of CMCs’ broader CSR agenda. 3.11. CSR (ALE) activities of 10 Canadian Mining Corporations    No  Corporate Organization   Minerals extracted   Education & training programs (CSR)       1       BARRICK GOLD       Gold, Silver, Copper.  Case 1: Dominican Republic (Pueblo Viejo mines) a) Maths & ‘Levelling’ program b) Adult Literacy Program : graduated 400 students from 16 communities.  c) ‘School that Transforms’ program (teacher empowerment program for 8 communities) d) The Professional Development for Educators (trained 1000 teachers from 10 communities on environmental issues, reading, writing, maths and conflict management. e) Digital Literacy programs for 50 teachers from 5 communities. 38 | P a g e   Local Partnership with (Inst of Technical & Vocational Training - INFOTEP) to implement the DUAL PROGRAM that trained youth 18-23 in Mechanics, with apprenticeship placements in the Pueblo Viejo mines. http://barrickbeyondborders.com/blog/2015/11/mining-and-education-sharing-intangible-benefits/       2    FIRST QUANTUM MINERALS LTD.     Gold, copper, zinc, nickel, platinum, palladium.    Case 1: Panama 1.Night school/on-the-job training    2. Chicheme indigenous adult literacy classes  3. Training in sewing & bedlinen for women   Case 2: Zambia 1. Construction skills training for recruits  2. 2-year entry level training for local graduates 3.  Conservation & Farming techniques courses for Solwezi central prison inmates & village folks 4. Malaria protection/household financial management training for couples.  Case 3: Moghrein mines - Mauritania 1. Teacher coaching training  http://s1.q4cdn.com/857957299/files/doc_presentations/2014/2014_FQM-Sustainability-Report_English-Online.pdf  39 | P a g e   (2014 Sustainability report).    3    GOLD CORP LTD    Gold Case 1: Canada  Aboriginal Mining and Skilled Trades Entry Project (AMSTEP).  Gold Corp partnered with AMSTEP & the Oshki-Pimache-O-Win Educational and Traditional Institute (OSHKI). It’s a 5-month with 800 hours training. Areas of Training: Economic sustainability, job creation, entrepreneurship, and environmental stewardship.    Case 2: Red Lake-Stope School, Canada 1. Training in stope method of underground mining. Learners obtain the Ontario Common Core Certificate for Underground mining. http://www.goldcorp.com/English/Responsible-Mining/Partnerships-and-Programs/Sustainable-Community-Investments/Education/default.aspx      4     GOLDEN STAR RESOUCES LTD.     Gold   Case 1: Bogoso-Ghana          (GSSTEP Life Enhancement Initiative Training) 1. Training in Cell phone repairs  2. Training in Commercial cookery  3. Training in Carpentry  All these are a 6 – month program by Gold Star in partnership with Growth Integrated Development Program (GIDP), an NGO.   40 | P a g e    http://www.mixbook.com/flash/mixbook_albums.swf?b=8592588&mode=production&pid=8592588&autoplay=true   (Community Development Booklet)    5    IAM GOLD        Gold Case 1: Essakane - Burkina Faso The ‘MBA’ - Mind, Body, Achievement Training program  1. Basic Literacy & Technical Skills development (for entry level position) 2. Leadership & Development training (Supervisory, Leadership, Development Program – SLDP) 3. Health and safety training  4. Driving  5. Fire fighting  6. Computer skills.          6      KINROSS         Gold Case 1: Mauritania  1. On-site student apprenticeship programs                  2. Organizational skills 3. Book-keeping                       For local Cooperatives 4. Literacy and numeracy https://www.youtube.com/embed/wrefWwz-S28    Case 2: Russia Program: Certified Workplace Training  1. Mining equipment mechanics 2. Safety 41 | P a g e   3. Working heights https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G7vfw5_LKt8     7   TAHOE RESOURCES    Gold, Silver Case 1: La Area Mine, Peru. 1. Partners: The Peruvian Technical Institutions - SENICO, TECUP and SENATI  2. Internship opportunities for the community’s college students.    http://www.tahoeresources.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/TahoeNLQ12016.pdf      8       TECK RESOURCES      Gold Coal Zinc Copper Oil     Case1: Senegal  Program: Saving Lives Children Partners: UNICEF, Government of Canada, and Micronutrient Initiative. Through Teck Resources’ Zinc Alliance for Child Health (ZACH) program, DS-DOMs (local community group) were trained to treat diarrhea in children.  http://www.teck.com/news/stories/2015/saving-the-lives-of-children-in-senegal     42 | P a g e   Case 2. Canada – Elk Valley Mine Program: College of the Rockies (COTR) Mining Apprenticeship Program (MAP).  Structure: 3- 4years program, of 6-10 weeks of classes; plus, 1year onsite training in mining.   http://www.teck.com/news/stories/2015/developing-a-highly-skilled-workforce   Case 3. Chile  Program: Training programs in social, political and economic empowerment for indigenous women. Partners: UN Women. http://www.teck.com/news/stories/2016/teck-partners-with-un-women-to-empower-indigenous-women-in-chile      9     TERANGA     Gold    Case: Senegal  Partners: Dakar University, Kedougu Technical College, Dakar Jeanne d’Are School, and Dakar East Science Institute.  Program: On-site training programs for students in Teranga’s site departments of Environment, Occupational health & safety, Power, and Exploration.     43 | P a g e   http://s1.q4cdn.com/851853033/files/doc_downloads/2015/02710-Exodus-Teranga-LowRes.pdf   10   YAMANA GOLD    Gold Case: Fazendo – Brazil 1. Youth Training program in furniture manufacturing from recycled wood and plastic bottles.  2. Training in food handling and furniture production skills for Taltal prison inmates. Case: Ahue – Chile  3. Training in business management and best practices in apiculture and organic production for local beekeepers.   http://s2.q4cdn.com/271094385/files/doc_downloads/CSR/2014/2014-Yamana-CSR-en-15-07-15-final-for-website.pdf  Table. 2.0: Table of 10 Canadian mining corporations and their education/training CSRs.   3.2.  ANALYZING THE TABULATED CSR PROGRAMS  Table 2.0 presents interesting characteristics of how adult education and training form part of mining corporations’ CSR initiatives. The discussion in this section of the chapter is categorized into two foci: a) the nature of CSR programs and concepts behind these initiatives, and b) the approach through which these CSR programs were carried out. 3.21 Conceptual framework and nature of CSR programs   In both Canada and abroad, CMCs use different kinds of training programs in their CSR activities. From table 2.0, four general conceptual frameworks could be deduced from the CSR programs. 44 | P a g e   These concepts are community empowerment, human capital development, health and safety, and environmental sustainability. These concepts also inform the broader CSR agenda and vision of  CMCs. 3.211. Community Empowerment  Teck Resources’ partnered with UN Women to provide training to encourage social, political, and economic participation of Chilean indigenous women in local mining activities. The objective was towards indigenous women’s empowerment. In Mauritania, KINROSS’ CSR initiative in book- keeping, literacy, and numeracy for the local cooperative in the Tasiast mine had the same empowerment objective. Golden Star Corporation’s program for the local community of Bogoso in Ghana, comprised training in commercial cookery, cell phone repair, and carpentry. This initiative was dubbed ‘Life Enhancement Initiative’, and was published in the organization’s Community Development Handbook. This clearly places the initiative under community empowerment. Both First Quantum and Barrick Gold had community empowerment initiatives in Panama and Peru respectively. Their activities included adult digital literacy, night school for indigenous women, and capacity building programs for teachers. Yamana Gold trained local youth in Brazils’ Fazenda mine area in furniture manufacturing from recycled wood and plastic bottles; an initiative that included the Taltal prison inmates.  Generally, the concept of community empowerment involves programs that focus on poverty alleviation, improvement in livelihood, and increased participation of deprived and disadvantaged groups in community development.   45 | P a g e   3.212. Human Capital Development  Grounded in development economics, the concept of human capital generally relates to the knowledge, capabilities and skills linked to labor performance and a given economic value (Amidon, 2004). Within the field of mining and CSR, human capital implies the desire/demand of mining corporations to train more human resource for mining related labor. In a neoliberal market economy, local communities seek the employment of their citizens through negotiations processes, resulting in an Impact Benefit Agreement (IBA), often signed prior the commencement of mining activities.  IBA often commits mining companies to train and employ host community members.  In table 2.0, an onsite training for students in exploration and occupational health/security was part of Teranga Gold’s initiative in Senegal. A similar internship program was offered for college students in Tahoe Resources’ site in Peru. In Panama’s Pueblo Viejo mines, youth training in mechanics with an on-site apprenticeship placement was initiated by Barrick Gold. In the Elk-Valley in Canada, Teck Resources had a 3-4 year Mining Apprenticeship Training (AMP) in their College of Rockies (COR) for the host community. A similar program in Canada is Gold Corp’s Red-Lake Stope school, that emphasizes training in the Stope method of underground mining. KINROSS’ Russian mine had certificate programs in workplace training in mining equipment mechanics, safety, and heights. Similarly, IAMGOLD’s workplace ‘MBA’ program included leadership development training, computer, and technical skills.               All these programs were aimed at the development of knowledge, capabilities, and skills to enhance performance in mine-related labour. Teck Resources’ officials argue that the COR MAP 46 | P a g e   apprenticeship program ‘‘is important because Canada’s labour market already suffers from an acute shortage of skilled workers’’7.  3.213. Health and Safety  Health and safety form a greater part of the CSR initiatives of CMCs. The objectives of these initiatives are either for community health promotion or workers’ health and safety. Teck Resources’ initiative in Senegal involved a partnership with UNICEF, Government of Canada, and Micronutrient Initiative to train DS-DOMs, a community group, to treat diarrhea in children. In Zambia, First Quantum conducted training in malaria protection for local families., Also, Teranga’s onsite training for local students included occupational health and safety. Aside these initiatives, KINROSS’ training for employees focused on safety and working on high-rise sites. Similarly, IAMGOLD’s Essakane mine training in Burkina Faso included firefighting and safety.  3.214. Environmental sustainability  Mining operations are directly in contact with the earth resources which are also directly connected to the livelihood of the host communities (Yakovleva, 2005). The sustainability of the earth’s flora and fauna, soil, water bodies and other natural resources of host communities are thus essential for the sustainability of mining operations. Though there is an abundance of data on the negative environmental impact of mining activities on natural resources (Viveros, 2016), there is evidence from table 2.0 indicating how education and training activities promote environmental sustainability. In Yamana Gold’s CSR in Ahue, Chile, training for the host community focused on best practices in apiculture and organic production. This is to ensure that bee-making is done in a                                                           7 http://www.teck.com/news/stories/2015/developing-a-highly-skilled-workforce  47 | P a g e   sustainable manner.  In Canada, Gold Corp’s Aboriginal Mining and Skilled Trades Entry Project (AMSTEP) included environmental stewardship courses. In Zambia, First Quantum conducted training for the Solwezi central prison inmates on conservation and farming techniques. Barrick Gold’s Professional Development for Educators in the Dominican Republic which trained 1000 teachers from 10 communities also included environmental issues. These training initiatives focus on the sustainable use of natural resources, so as to impact communities.     3.3 CSR INITIATIVES – APPROACHES & DIMENSIONS  Yakovleva (2005) outlines three different dimensions of approach to community engagement among mining corporations:  a) company-led, b) philanthropic corporate foundations, and c) partnerships. The company-led dimension involves the situation where companies initiate and carry out community development programs through in-house corporate programs. With the philanthropic dimension (which involves corporate foundations), community development programs are outsourced through the establishment of corporate foundations to deliver these initiatives. Under partnership, corporate organizations address community development initiatives through partnerships with the state and civil society organizations.      In my review of the summarized data in table 2.0, including the information from the websites listed in that table (website of CMCs), three components were identified in the process of carrying out CSR initiatives. These are a) developing partnerships, b) setting of time limits for CSR initiatives, and c) responding to specific community demands. I discuss these dimensions below. 3.31 Developing Partnerships  Moon (2014), and Hamann and Acutt (2003) argue that in encouraging CSR, many governments create partnerships with various industries. The partnership is also used in CSR to foster 48 | P a g e   international development. Weina et al. (2009, p. 20) argue that many multinational development agencies like the World Bank, IMF, OECD, and systems in the United Nations ‘‘have sought partnership with the private sector to support local communities’’. Data from table 2.0 also illustrates that partnerships are created beyond national boundaries. Local civil society groups (NGOs), cooperatives, academic institutions, and para-governmental bodies like the UN and its subsidiaries like UNICEF are involved in CSR programs through partnerships.   3.32 Duration of Training  Most training programs discussed under the conceptual framework of human capital are structured within specific time frames and there is great variation. Whereas IAM Gold’s ‘MBA’ and SLDP-9-module programs in health, safety, firefighting and computer skills was planned for a 3-year duration, Teck Resources’ Elk-Valley Mining Apprenticeship Training (AMP) lasted between 3-4 years, consisting of 6-10 weeks of classes; plus, 1year onsite training. The life Enhancement Initiative Training of Gold Star in Ghana was scheduled within 6 months.  Other programs do not seem to have specific time frames. The issue of duration also informs who were the targeted learners in any particular program. Most of the training initiatives for educated populations were often time-bound; a situation contrary to foundational literacy initiatives for the less educated. Thus, the category of targeted learners in any particular programs influenced the duration of training programs.   3.33 Demand in Local Community   The actual CSRs being offered by these mining corporations reflects the demand in individual local communities - economic status, culture, and socio-political factors (Visser & Tolhurst, 2010). For example, deficiency of zinc among Senegalese children informed Teck Resources training of 49 | P a g e   the    DS-DOM. Youth unemployment in Ghana was a factor for Golden Star Resource’s livelihood empowerment initiative for youth. Literacy, socio-political participation, mining skills training (example, stope method of underground mining) for indigenous peoples were informed by the perceived marginalization and unemployment in indigenous communities (Smith, 1999).    3.4 CONCLUSION  In this chapter, I focused on ten Canadian mining corporations - Barrick Gold, First Quantum Resources Ltd, Gold Corp, Golden Star Resources, IAM Gold, KINROSS, Tahoe Resources, Teck Resources, Teranga Ltd., and Yamana Gold, and explored their CSR activities. The adult education and training activities that form part of the CSR agenda was tabulated. In analyzing their CSR programs, four main conceptual frameworks were deduced, namely, community empowerment, human capital development, health and safety, and environmental sustainability. These conceptual frameworks also inform the broader CSR agenda of CMCs. Again, three dimensions of CSR initiatives - partnerships, duration of training, and demand in the community have been addressed.  The final chapter discusses the social good of CSR initiatives, processes of community engagement, and issues of power relations.    50 | P a g e                                                   CHAPTER 4  IMPACT OF CSR, COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT, AND POWER RELATIONS  4.0 INTRODUCTION    Community development, as an impact of CSR, is ‘‘becoming increasingly important for mining companies that operate in both developed and developing countries’’ (Yakovleva, 2005.pg 203). In the discussion of scoping review methodology in Chapter 2, community development was identified as one of the ways corporate organizations conceptualize their social responsibility.  Mining companies, which generate large profits, can assist with local community development. Through CRS initiatives, mining companies are expected to reduce their negative impacts on the communities they operate. However, the challenge is that corporations are subject to different legislative obligations depending on the countries they operate in. In developed countries where institutions are well developed, these legislative obligations are binding. However, in less developed countries with weak government institutions, there are none, or weak CSR legislative obligations. This difference in the existence of legislation across societies, influences the impact of CSR initiatives. Community development involves the transferring of company resources towards the production of social good and social services (Husted, 2003). However, in arriving at these positive outcomes 51 | P a g e   for communities, mining corporations go through different approaches of community engagement, which often involve diverse forms of power relations.  This final chapter discusses three key elements identified in education and training programs that form part of the CSR initiatives of CMCs. The first element is how CMCs frame their community engagement approaches, often referred to as stakeholder engagement. The second element is the impact of the CSR initiatives on the social good of host communities; while the third element is corporate-community power relations.  The last part of the paper will be the conclusion of the whole research.       4.1. COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT APPROACHES   The three approaches to community engagement outlined by Yakovleva (2005) among mining corporations is useful to consider in my analysis of these CSR activities. As stated in the previous chapter, these approaches are company-led, philanthropic corporate foundations, and partnership. Reviewing table 2.0, just a handful of the ten CMCs stated their community engagement approaches in categorical terms. For instance, KINROSS states ‘active dialogue and community consultation’, IAM GOLD refers to the partnership model, while Tahoe Resources deploys the terms ‘dialogue (communication) and reporting back to communities’.  While some corporations did not specifically state that they used specific models, in my analysis, I looked for specific use of wordings and phrases to determine their community engagement approaches. This discourse speaks to their areas of focus and the values they adhere to. For example, Barrick Gold deploys the concept of dialogue, transparency, gender-sensitivity, culturally-appropriate and human-right-based values. First Quantum argues that its CSR approach can be distilled down to a single word – respect. For most of the ten CMCs, transparency, mutual 52 | P a g e   respect, and recognition of human rights are described to be the central values of their CSR initiatives. In most of the corporations, special departments are allocated to specifically focus on community engagement. Such departments are responsible for developing relationships, and dealing with all stakeholders involved in community engagement. Stakeholders are mainly international organizations, local governments, and civil society groups. Aside from these procedures, corporate organizations also use community gatherings such as durbars, and festival occasions, as ways to connect with host communities. For host communities, the most important aspect of corporate-community engagement is the impact of CSR initiatives on their social good.  4.2 CSR AND ITS PUBLIC GOOD TO HOST COMMUNITIES  The idea that CSR contributes to social development has been discussed beyond the borders of mining corporations. As discussed in Chapter 1, the ‘S’ in CSR implies the social impact of businesses to society. In the field of international development, the private sector, with its large multinational companies are seen as potential and important partners in rural and urban development (Hamann & Acutt, 2003). For global organizations like the UN, OECD, and IMF, CSR is regarded as critical to supporting development since international multinationals have caused great economic and environmental harm to poorer communities (OECD, 2001). The fact that the ‘‘turnover of the top five corporations is more than double the gross domestic product of the world’s poorest nations’’ (Utting, 2000, cited in Haman & Acutt, 2003, p. 256), lends credence to the argument that CSR must play a key role in development if corporations will commit themselves. 53 | P a g e   However, whether businesses have positive social impact on society remains to be seen (Lund-Thomsen, 2011). A 2014 report on CSR indicated that 40% of companies surveyed failed to capture their overall impacts on communities (Moon, 2014). Two reasons could account for this lack of documentation. First, the act of measuring the impacts of CSR is a daunting task. Secondly, development is itself difficult to define (Weina et al. 2009). Even though development (public good) is often discussed in relation to improvement in infrastructure, education, health, culture, and employment, the reality is that development initiatives are often context-dependent, hence complicating its measurement across different locales and societies.  From my perspective, development or public good is an initiative that is people-centered. People centeredness here refers to attempts to improve the livelihood of local communities, increase choices, develop capabilities, and create opportunities (Sen, 1999; Nussbaum, 2011). It is from this view that I consider the question of CSR and the public good of such initiatives. Does the education and training programs of these CSR initiatives increase capabilities and improve the lives of the local community recipients?  4.21. The impact of the CSR Initiatives of the ten (10) CMCs.  Although it is sometimes argued that measuring the impact of CSR initiatives is difficult (Moon 2014), some examples of the impact published on the websites of some of the CMCs did support this argument. Also, a good number of the CMCs did articulate the goals and intentions behind their initiatives, a process that enables assessment of impact. Some of the impacts found on corporate websites are listed below:  54 | P a g e   ‘‘Nicholas Kwafie is a 26-year old resident of Mpohor (one of our catchment communities). Nicholas graduated from GSSTEP in 2012 after completing training in mobile phone repairs. He has since been hired at a local mobile phone outlet’’  (Golden Star Corp’s GSSTEP CSR program in Mpohor, Ghana.)  ‘‘When Barrick began to operate the Pueblo Viejo mine in the Dominican Republic in 2008, its first action was to hire local staff. But when we conducted a survey in our host communities, we found that, not only were the number of people with mining-related skills low, there was also a high rate of illiteracy. Pueblo Viejo recognized that adult literacy education could improve the lives of local residents. So in 2008 and 2009 we partnered on a program with the Maria Liberadora Training Centre for Organized Women, an organization based in Cotuí that specializes in adult literacy classes. In its first year, the program graduated more than 400 students from 16 local communities. Nearly two-thirds, 255 of the students, continued their studies to achieve their professional development goals, and 55 began careers in their chosen fields’’.                                                             (Barrick Gold, Pueblo Viejo, Dominican Republic)  ‘‘Emmanuel Sarfo is a 28-year old resident of Benso, one of our Wassa mine stakeholder communities. Emmanuel graduated from GSSTEP in 2012 after completing training in mobile phone repairs. Since graduating, he has started a small business using the skills he acquired …’’          (Golden Star Corp’s GSSTEP CSR program in Wassa, Ghana)   55 | P a g e   ‘‘According to the 2010 census, the North-Western Province, where the company’s mining operations are located, has an overall literacy rate of 63%. A government study from the previous year found that the region’s adult literacy rate (i.e., for ages 15+) was just over 50%, while the figure for Solwezi, the provincial capital and a hub for both the Kansanshi and Trident developments, was still lower at 43%’’ (2014 CSR Report, First Quantum Minerals - Zambia)   ‘‘The COTR has 11 apprentices due to complete the MAP in 2015, and following graduation and the successful passing of provincial and interprovincial Red Seal exams, we will offer jobs to a high percentage of the graduating class’’ (Teck Resources’ COTR & MAP Program at Elk Valley, Canada)  In chapter 3, four different conceptual frameworks – community empowerment, human capital development, environmental sustainability, and health & safety, were used to discuss data shown in table 2. Even though some corporations did not report on the impact of their activities, assessing the purpose behind CSR programs can at least suggest what were the intended outcomes. For instance, Yamana Gold’s training in food handling and furniture production skills for Taltal prison inmates was intended to help in the reintegration of inmates into society. Similar to this was First Quantum Resources’ training for the Solwezi central prison inmates on conservation and farming techniques. Barrick Gold reports that, first, its’ Teachers that Transform and Digital Literacy initiatives for teachers, enhanced teachers’ skills, communications strategies, and computer skills. Secondly, their vocational training carried out in partnership with the Institute of Technical and Vocational Training (INFOTEP) trained 1,000 people; providing them opportunities ‘to start their 56 | P a g e   own business’. Teck Resources training of DS-DOM in Senegal on diarrhea treatment, and First Quantum’s training in malaria prevention in Zambia were aimed at promoting good health for host communities. All these examples show the diverse ways that these CSR education and training initiatives positively impact the socio-economic and health lives of the host communities.   The consideration of such positive impact is, however, incomplete without exploring the power relations of corporate-community engagement. This exploration of power relation complicates claims about excellent CSR performances by corporations.   Some critical questions to be posed include:  a) who has a greater influence on the decision-making table, regarding content and structure of adult education and training programs? b) do the impact of these capacity building programs maintain or alter the status quo of corporate-community power relations? c) do these training programs aid communities to address the injustices, defend their rights, oppose violation, and help deal with the negative effects of mining? and d) do host communities only require education and training that give jobs, improve health, and foster environmental sustainability? Finding concrete answers to these questions is fit for future research as it requires deep analysis of issues on power relations in corporate-community engagement.      4.3. POWER RELATIONS IN CORPORATE COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT  Within the CSR and development discourse, Prieto-Carron et al. (2006, p. 984) have argued that power and participation are two pertinent issues that require further exploration; - ‘‘who has the power to make decisions, what power structures are implicit in CSR, and who has a voice in the debate are all questions’’ to be answered. These authors posit that the missing voices in such power issues are often groups like farmers, children, home-based workers and women in poor communities in developing countries. Similarly, Utting (2007, pg. 706) asserts that, when 57 | P a g e   considering the case of CSR and empowerment, it is important to examine the counter-side of the power equation. Therefore, it makes much sense to examine how corporate organizations wield their power in their engagement with host communities. Corporate power is often exhibited in different ways at the local community level. In the following discussion, I consider corporate-community power relations of CMCs. As mentioned earlier, this research is limited to gathering data from the websites of CMCs and does not include the voices of host communities. To explore this question of corporate-community power relations, I examine the reported negative practices of mining companies and the shortcomings of their CSR programs as found on the website of MiningWatch Canada8 (NGO), a watchdog of Canada’s mining industry.  In Ghana, CMCs (KINROSS and Rapadre Capital Corporation) have been accused of non-compliance with payment of compensations to local farmers, human right abuse during employees’ demonstration, and robbing rural populations of their livelihood as mining concessions are taken in forest reserves. Again, KINROSS has been linked with bribery, corruption and other financial malpractices in Ghana and Mauritania. In Tanzania and Papua New Guinea, Barrick Gold’s security workers have been accused of beating and raping local women. Aura Minerals operations in Honduras is blamed for health problems with children, and death threats against local environmental committees have been received. Tahoe Resources has had accusations of industrial contamination in its Guatemala’s Escobal mine. At home in Kamloops, BC - Canada, AJAX Mine’s open pit mining has raised eyebrows on dust, noise, ground tremors, air blast, water contamination and other related negative impacts of the mining operation.                                                             8 http://miningwatch.ca/  58 | P a g e   These negative impacts consequently inform my analysis of power imbalance between corporations and communities. Considering these power differentials, what could be an appropriate approach to negotiate the power dynamics within CSR initiatives in adult education and training programs? How can these education and training programs best position community members in hosting mining activities?        4.4. LEVERAGING CORPORATE-COMMUNITY POWER RELATIONS             In analyzing issues of power and rights within CSR, Hamann and Acutt (2003, p. 260) emphasized that ‘‘the CSR agenda can, and should, be used by civil society groups to increase their own bargaining power’’. The idea of critical cooperation as outlined by Covey & Brown (cited in Hamann & Acutt, 2003), could be an appropriate approach to leveraging power relations between CMCs and their local communities.   4.41. Critical Cooperation for education and training programs in CSR  Partnership is frequently mentioned within the CSR discourse of CMCs as an approach to implementing CSR initiatives. From a civil society perspective, partnership can be beneficial as businesses have the resources and capabilities needed to compliment community development (Hamann & Acutt, 2003). In a partnership process, critical cooperation implies that ‘‘the possibilities of productive engagement between civil society and business are greatly expanded as we learn more about how to manage not just cooperation or conflict, but cooperation and conflict in the same relationship’’ (ibid, p. 262). It is this approach to managing conflict that makes critical cooperation appropriate for leveraging interest between CMCs and local communities. The present CSR education and training programs which focus mainly on employable skills, health and safety, environmental sustainability, and community empowerment appear to address only 59 | P a g e   socio-economic challenges. Challenges with human rights, social justice, and related power imbalances facing communities are not dealt with through these training programs. In order to use adult education and training program to foster local community development, I suggest two key steps to be taken. First, governments in countries where CMCs operate without any CSR legislative frameworks should establish laws that regulate CSR. In situations where governments are reluctant, civil society organizations should push for the establishment of such legal frameworks as this would hold corporations accountable. Secondly, governments in less developed countries where CMCs operate should introduce community based education and training on human rights, and other context-specific issues that address the existing injustices faced by local communities. In this way, communities are empowered to demand what is due them on one side, where as CMCs that breach the legal frameworks could also be held accountable. It is for this reason that critical cooperation in negotiation is suggested. Critical cooperation deals with both cooperation and conflict in a given relationship.  4.5.  REFLECTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH  My decision to write a graduating paper on CSR within the field of Adult education came with mixed feelings. On one hand, I was determined to follow my passion of engaging this exploratory study. However, as the initial search for literature on the topic became very challenging, I almost reconsidered my decision.                                                                                         Gaining access to existing corporate organization’s training program as a case study became the major challenge. At the beginning of the research when I hadn’t decided on exploring CMCs, I contacted BC Hydro to study their Aboriginal Education and Employment Strategy (AESS) program. I couldn’t get access. Later, when I decided on CMCs, I tried to find access to the CRS-training program of New Gold Mines in Kamloops-BC, but that also failed. As a result of this 60 | P a g e   challenge and many other unsuccessful stories with gaining access to existing programs, I was compelled to use information on the websites of corporate organizations.  An important event that motivated me in the process was an opportunity to do a Graduate Students’ presentation on this topic at the Department of Educational Studies. The presentation was helpful in two main ways. First, the platform encouraged me to pursue my agenda, as CSR was identified as a less researched area within adult education. Secondly, the comments I received helped me to reshape and refocus my ideas properly.  In addition to this renewed motivation, obtaining the UBC HSS Grant to support this research became the icing on the cake!     For future research, I would suggest a focus on some of the key conceptual frameworks I have enumerated and discussed in this paper. For instance, through the scoping review, I identified that education and training programs are often conceptualized under community development, health and safety, and environmental sustainability. Also, in the analysis of the ten CMCs, I indicated that education and training is conceptualized under community empowerment, human capital development, health and safety, and environmental sustainability. Future adult education research on these themes would expand the knowledge of how education and training forms part of CSR.  In addition, the issue of corporate-community power imbalance also needs further exploration. The field of adult education is known for its great strides in engaging research for social justice. I will greatly recommend that any future researcher should endeavor to include the voices of local community members through interviews and other qualitative research methodologies.  61 | P a g e       4.6 CONCLUSION  This chapter has been a discussion of three main issues: the CSR initiatives of the ten CMCs, the process of corporate-community engagement as articulated on their websites, and the power relations of these corporate-community engagements. CSR initiatives, and for that matter the education and training initiatives of CMCs appear to have numerous positive impacts on the host communities. The impacts range from employment, health and safety promotion, environmental sustainability, and human resource/capital development. However, it has been noted that, there are several negative impacts mining activities pose to host communities. Suggestions have been made for governments in resource-extracted countries to enactment legislations that regulate CSR. In situations where governments are reluctant, suggestion has been made for civil society organizations to push for the implementation of such legislations to hold CMCs accountable. In addition, governments in less developed countries where CMCs operate advised to introduce community based education and training on human rights, and other context-specific issues to address the existing injustices faced by local communities. In this way, communities would be empowered to demand what is due them, especially when CMCs breach the legal frameworks that regulates their operation.  It is for this reason that critical cooperation in negotiation is suggested. Lastly, reflections and recommendations for future research in the area of CSR and adult education have been provided.   62 | P a g e   REFERENCE  1. Adeyeye, A. O. (2012). Corporate Social Responsibility of Multinational Corporations in Developing Countries: Perspectives on Corruption, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge  2. Ajith, K. 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