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Conversations About Climate Change Adaptation : Usap-usapan tungkol sa pakikibagay sa panahon Benson, George; Haber, Andrea; Lao, Aaron; Krahn, Alix; Marteleira, Michelle; Trujillo, Maria 2015-07-24

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Conversations about ClimateChange AdaptationUsap-usapan tungkol sa pakikibagay sa panahon2 3Conversations about climate change adaptation.Usap-usapan tungkol sa pakikibagay sa panahon.A RESOURCE FOR RESIDENTS OF BALIWAGDAGDAG KAALAMAN SA MGA TAGA-BALIWAGWhat is climate change?Climate change refers to changes in weather (temperatures, precipitation, wind) over a long period. It is caused by greenhouse gases (GHGs) emitted into the atmosphere that absorb and trap heat.Ano ang Climate Change?Ang pagbabago ng klima ay ang pabagu-bagong pagtaas at pagbaba ng temperatura, ulan at hangin na nagaganap sa loob ng mahabang panahon. Ito ay nagmumula sa mga “greenhouse gases” na tumatagos sa ating kalawahan na siyang sumisipsip at kumukulong sa sa init ng ating mundo.Mga BungaInit Tag-tuyotKaramdaman   (heat stroke, dengue)Pagbaha Pagbaba ng mga AniWhat impacts will Baliwag face?HighHeatDrought Illness  (heat stroke, dengue)FloodingLess Agriculture YieldsTyphoons & StormsBagyo at HabagatMitigation is about dealing with the causes of climate change. This means reducing the amount of GHGs emitted into the atmosphere. However, the Philippines is already a very low emitter of GHGs.Mitigasyon:Pagbawas ng Sanhi ng Pagbabago-bago ng Klima: Ito any ang pagbabawas ng “greenhouses gases” sa ating kalawakan na siyang sanhi ng pagbagago-bago ng klima.Adaptation is about coping with the impacts of climate change. This means making adjustments to increase resiliency. The Philippines faces increasingly destructive climate change impacts.Adaptasyon: Pakikibagay sa Pagbabago ng Klima:Ang pakikibagay ay ang ating tugon sa epekto ng pagbabago ng klima. Ito ay ang ating patuloy na pag- hahanda sa mga diinaasahang epekto ng pagbabago ng klima upang tayo ay makagawa ng naaakmang  hakbang upang tayo ay maging matatag.  Ang pakiki-bagay ay maaring magawa sa ating pamayanan at gayun din sa rehiyonal at pambansang antas.Keep your barangay irrigation canals clean so farms have a steady water supply.Makipag-usap sa inyong mga kaibigan at kapamilya kung papaano sila maaring makibagay at tumugon sa hamon ng climate change.Ask your Barangay Hall about creating more shade in your neighbourhood, and other ways to keep people cool.Makipag-ugnayan sa inyong Barangay Hall kung papaano magkakaroon ng maraming lilim sa inyong pamayanan para maging malamig ang kapaligiran.Talk to your Rural Health Unit about how to cope with heat stroke, air pollution, and dengue.Makipag-usap sa inyong Rural Health Unit kung papano labanan ang heat stroke, polusyon ng hangin at dengue.Talk to your friends and family about how they can adapt to climate change!Makipag-usap sa inyong mga kaibigan at kapamilya kung papaano sila maaring makibagay at tumugon sa hamon ng climate change.Keep stormwater drains on your street clean to reduce street flooding.Panatilihing malinis ang mga daluyan ng tubig sa kalsada upang maiwasan ang pagbaha.Know the evacuation plan for your barangay for major storms, including where the nearest evacuation centre is.Alamin ang plano ng inyong barangay kung may bagyo, lalo na ang lokasyon ng pinakamalapit na evacuation centre.Diversify crops on farms by growing vegetables between rice planting and harvest seasons.Paramihin ang iba’t-ibang uri ng nga pananim sa pamamagitan ng pagtatanim ng mga gulay at prutas sa gitna ng panahon ng taniman at anihan.The Philippines is a very minor cause of climate change, but faces major impacts from climate change.  A strong Baliwag must focus on adapting to the impacts of climate change, not on mitigation.Maliit lamang ang kontribusyon ng Pilipinas sa climate change pero ito ay naaapektuhan nang malaki ng pagbabago ng klima. Ang matatag na Baliwag ay kaillangang tumugon sa pakikibagay, hindi sa pagbawas ng sanhi ng climate change. aman. How can Baliwag respond?Papaano Makakatugon ang Baliwag sa Hamon ng Climate Change?7 Ways You Can Adapt to Climate ChangePitong Paraan Para Makibagay sa Pagbabago ng KlimaBaliwag must adapt!Kailangang Makibagay sa Panahon ang Baliwag!4“People say that climate change has affected many. But for us, we must be flexible and try to make a solution to help our Mother Earth.”4 Executive Summary6 Introduction: Conversations  About Adaptation9 Guiding Values10 Methodology: Community  Conversations12 What is Climate Change?14 Profile of Baliwag16  Impacts of Climate Change in Baliwag18 Stories of Climate Change20 Recommendations22 Human Health & Security32 Food Security38  Water Sufficiency42 Infrastructure46 Industry48 Knowledge & Capacity Building52 Next Steps Toward an LCCAP54 Maraming Salamat Po!58 Appendices58 AcronymsBaliwag currently faces various impacts from climate change.HighHeatDrought Illness FloodingLess Agriculture YieldsTyphoons & StormsExecutive SummaryContinue livelihood programs in resettlement areasPlant local, non-invasive tree species on the sidewalks and roads for shadeHost IECs on heat-related health issuesUpgrade and maintain irrigation canalsContinue to implement educational programs for farmersEstablish a food systems plan and goals for creating food securityImprove water infrastructure maintenance through institutional coordinationPursue water conservation measures through jointly-created IECsTrain businesses, especially small and medium enterprises, and provide resources to be climate adaptiveLeverage new and existing corporate social responsibility policies for adaptationBuild staff and community knowledge on climate changeStandardize and increase data collectionjIncrease institutional collaboration with a climate Technical Working GroupContinue to prioritize upgrading stormwater drainage infrastructureIdentify and protect vulnerable infrastructureDecrease heat island effect through shade creation strategiesHuman Health & Security Food SecurityWater SufficiencyInfrastructure Industry Knowledge & Capacity BuildingThese recommended climate adaptations can be taken by all actors in Baliwag, from the municipal staff, to individual businesses. Baliwag is already adapting, and will only continue to become more resilient.“We love our home town here in Baliwag. It is so good to live in one’s own country.”The Philippines is a minor cause of climate change, but faces major impacts. Baliwag must focus on adapting to these impacts.High emissionsLow emissionsHigh risk from climate changeLow risk from climate changeBaliwag should focus on adaptationin response to climate change. This report combines the voices of Baliwag citizens, the strengths of the community, and the authors’ outside perspective to produce locally relevant adaptation recommendations.Summary of Recommendations5In Baliwag, we had conversations with community members from all walks of life. We learned about  the strengths of the community and of the challenges that it faces. Conversations are all about cooperation, building relationships,  and a willingness to explore new ideas. In the spirit of conversation we learned a lot, from the best places to get food, to the on-going impacts of climate change on farmers in Piel and Barangka. Conversations are central to our report; relationship-building and cooperation in conversations are some of our key values. The equal exchange of information in conversations served as a methodology. The conversations we had inform the report’s content. Finally, conversations about climate change, and how to adapt, should be one of the report’s major impacts.What we heard while having these discussions is that people in Baliwag want to have more conversations about climate change. These conversations need to be in both the municipal hall and in our homes. By talking to our loved ones, our friends, and our community about climate change adaptation, we can build a more resilient Baliwag together. Ngayon po pag - usapan natin  ang climate change!Conversations  About Adaptation769Authors’ Introduction We are six master’s students from the School of Community and Regional Planning at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada. We were asked by Baliwag to do community outreach and provide recommendations on climate change adaptation.We faced a number of limitations in writing this report. Our work was constrained to a one-month period. While we did our best to explore best practices in all related fields, as student planners, our own experience is still growing. Finally, as visitors, our knowledge of Baliwag’s context is limited.Toward an LCCAP The purpose of this report is to provide observations and recommendations to the Municipality of Baliwag as they begin to prepare their Local Climate Change Action Plans (LCCAP), as mandated by the Climate Change Act (CCA) of 2009. Our hope is that our research will inform the creation of local climate change plans and ultimately assist with the building of adaptation and resilience in the municipality of Baliwag. Specifically, the CCA mandates that “LGUs shall be the frontline agencies in the formulation, Our approach is informed by four guiding values which help ensure a holistic approach to building resilience in Baliwag.  It is only by bringing everybody into the conversation that we can successfully adapt to climate change together.Guiding ValuesOur approach highlights our interdependence with the natural environment. We normally think about the environment as separate from human society, and as an unlimited resource. In this report, we acknowledge that everything we do depends on the well-being of the environment. Everything in our society—our livelihoods, our food, our economy, our health—is nested within a sustainable and functioning environment. With this in mind, it is crucial to always consider the environment in both policy and our daily lives.By considering gender and social justice, we hope to support the goal of equity in the National Framework Strategy on Climate Change (NFSCC).  The NFSCC states that the NCCAP should create adaptation measures with  “special attention …given to ensure equal and equitable protection of the poor, women, children and other vulnerable and disadvantaged sectors.” Our research includes the voices of these vulnerable groups as they are often the most impacted by climate change.We used a strength-based approach in order to highlight the existing resources and assets of the Baliwag community. In doing so, we will be better able to support and build on existing successes and continue to make meaningful change. Baliwag has many strengths both at a community level and at a municipal level and we want to highlight these! For adaptation to be effective it must be specific to the local context, culture, and available resources. In our research we emphasize solutions and resources that are true to the local culture of Baliwag. Our suggestions also consider the existing resources available to Baliwag, such as available funding and equipment.  Locally Informed Gender &SocialJusticeConscious Strengths- BasedEnvironment Focusedplanning, and implementation of climate change action plans” and that adaptation shall be “one of their regular functions.” The resulting plans should include broad participation—including barangays, NGOs, and the business sector—and cover the full range of possible climate change impacts. The National Climate Change Action Plan (NCCAP) captures these impacts in seven priority areas, which require that Baliwag adopt a climate lens in all of its policies. The recommendations in this report are divided into themes reflecting five of the seven priority areas in the NCCAP. Reflective of community concerns, we have also added a sixth theme: infrastructure.811CommunityConversationsHow We Collected  Local KnowledgeAbove all, we wanted this report to reflect the local knowledge and resiliency of the people of Baliwag. We hosted discussions with the diverse groups listed on the opposite page, to hear people’s thoughts on climate change (refer to Appendix 3 for full list). This was accomplished through the following outreach initiatives:• 9 Focus Groups, directly reaching 95 people• 21 Informational Interviews• Site visits and observations• 35 Municipal Staff SurveysHow We Wrote This Report 1. We learned about how the municipality of Baliwag operated and reviewed all available documents and plans.  2. We conducted outreach in the community to hear people’s thoughts. 3. We explored best practices from outside sources. 4. We combined our research to develop recommendations in each thematic area.Government Officials: Municipal and water district staff are experts on existing services and programs in Baliwag.  They also possess the power to further implement adaptation measures.Business-People: People told us that having good livelihoods was a key concern. We spoke to business leaders who told us how climate change will impact business across a variety of industries.  Barangay Leaders: Barangay leaders understand the impacts that changing weather has on their specific neighbourhood. We heard from leaders from 15 of Baliwag’s 27 vv, ensuring that diverse geographical areas were represented in our report.Youth: The voices of youth are not often heard in policy discussions. We wanted hear their unique perspectives both in how they experience climate change today, and how they see the future.Women: Women are critically attuned to family and community life, but are often unrepresented in policy-making. Keeping with the NCCAP’s goals of gender equity, we asked how climate change specifically affects women, their families, and their community.Civil Society: Civil Society Organizations have connections to the community that city officials may not otherwise have. As a result, they have specialized knowledge with regards to the particular societal groups they work and partner with.Farmers: Farmers have a unique understanding of the ways in which livelihoods are intertwined with changes in weather. In addition to forming a key part of local economic and food systems, farmers will be directly and heavily impacted by climate change.Seniors: Senior’s possess historical memory of long-term changes in weather.  Seniors also play a strong role as respected leaders in their community, and can be catalysts for social change.1012Baliwag Must AdaptThe Philippines is a minor cause of climate change, but faces major impacts from climate change. Baliwag must focus on adapting to these impacts from climate change, not on mitigation. Many people we spoke to were very excited about mitigation measures to reduce emissions and keep the city clean.  Any environmental program that engages the community is great. Our report focuses only on adaptation, which is the only way that Baliwag will be able to cope with drought, typhoons, high heat, and other climate change impacts.  While mitigation is important, adaptation must be the priority for Baliwag in the long term.Climate change is a significant change in the Earth’s weather over a prolonged period of time, including changes in temperature, precipitation, and wind patterns.In the Greenhouse Effect, heat from the sun is trapped in the atmosphere and reflected back to the Earth.  Additional GHGs emissions increase the amount of heat trapped, leading to higher average global temperatures and changing climate conditions.  These changes have been linked to GHG emissions from human activity.Mitigation vs. AdaptationMitigation is about addressing the causes of climate change. This means reducing the amount of GHGs emitted into the atmosphere. However, the Philippines is already a very low emitter of GHGs.Examples of mitigation include:• Reducing car use• Reducing the burning of garbage• Using renewable energyAdaptation is about coping with the impacts of climate change. This means making adjustments to increase resiliency. The Philippines faces increasingly destructive climate change impacts, so adaptation is particularly important.Examples of adaptation include:• Clearing stormwater drains to reduce street flooding• Providing shade in public places to prevent heat stroke• Finding alternate sources of fresh water in case of droughtHow can we  respond?Did you know?This report focuses only on climate change adaptation. This means that several topics that community members were passionate about are not addressed, even though they are related to the environment. Here are three popular topics that might seem related to adaptation, but are not covered in this report:Did you know... that waste segregation is not adaptive? It is good for the environment and keeps your community clean, but it does not help us cope with the impacts of climate change.Did you know... that earthquakes are not related to climate change? It is important to prepare for them, but earthquakes are caused by tectonic plates moving, not by changes in the weather.Did you know... that planting trees is only mitigation if you are planting a large forest? Planting trees to provide shade is good adaptation, but they aren’t enough to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions.More GHGs in the atmosphere amplify the trapping of heatRadiation from sun heats the EarthWhat is  Climate Change?1314 15Profile of BaliwagFarmland• 2,900 ha of farmland• 1,800 farmers• Average land holding of 1.25 ha per farmerIrrigation• All farms have access to the irrigation system• Canals can become clogged with debrisBarangay Hall• 27 barangays• Provides services and information• Barangay Captains, Mother Leaders, and Rural Health Unit (RHU) staff based out of Barangay HallsSM City• Largest shopping mall in Baliwag• 300+ stores• Major employer• Environmentally-focused CSR programsUrban Growth• A first-class highly urban municipality• 143,500 inhabitants• 25,000 households• A major urban and economic centre of northern BulacanInformal Settlements• Common along Angat River• Inter-governmental program relocating some settlers• Two social housing sites in BaliwagMunicipio• Total income:  320m pesos• Received Financial Good Housekeeping award in 2014• Recently created MDRRMOPublic Market• 600 vendors• 1,280 permanent establishments• Located in Barangay PoblacionChurch• Five churches and 24 chapels• Runs community programs, charity initiatives, and other servicesIndustry• Major industries include: furniture, garments, gifts, swine, and chicken production• Traditional buntal hat industry• Home of Baliwag Transit companyAngat River• Part of the Angat River Basin• Provides water for irrigationGround-Water• 21 water pumps throughout Baliwag supply most of drinking water• Subsidence is 2.54 cm per year due to increasing ground-water extraction16 17Unstable  Food SupplyDroughtForest and  Grass FiresHeat-RelatedIllnessesLower  Air QualityDegradation of Roads and BuildingsChange to  Daily LifeWater  ScarcityStress on  AquifersDamage to  Crops and  Lower YieldsHeat• heat exhaustion• heat stroke• hypertension• respiratory  illness from  air pollution• sickness from  temperature changes• cannot do chores or work outside• stress and fatigue• people go to malls instead of market• use of aquifers  for irrigation• reliance on water source at risk of leaching• flooded rice fields• no irrigation water• changing planting and harvest times• lack of local foods• higher food costsProperty  DamageStress  on DRRM  resourcesVector- BourneDiseasesFloodedDrainage  SystemHazards for Informal  Settlements• caused by overland flooding only• buildings collapse from strong winds• water damage due to rain and floods• caused by river  flooding only• dengue• malaria• outbreaks in new areasStorms &  TyphoonsDisruption  of Daily LifeSoil ErosionFlooding• cannot go to work, school or market• blackoutsPrecipitation ChangesImpacts ofClimate Change in BaliwagFrom our conversations with community members, we learned that the people of Baliwag are already feeling the impacts of climate change. This diagram summarizes what we heard, and reflects the diverse challenges presented by climate change. The cascading nature of climate change means that there will be many indirect, far-reaching impacts not included here, such as pressure on the insurance industry, economic instability, and more. Some groups, such as farmers, may feel multiple effects.18 19Stories of Climate ChangeA Farmer“Climate change has affected our life in many ways. In the past, there are not too many health problems, but now people frequently acquire diseases. For example, heat stroke, - it is so common for people to have heat stroke. In the past, there were not so many deaths – very infrequent – but last year alone I know of 30 people who died of heat stroke. Somehow there is a domino effect, when one person dies, another will die.”A Catholic Priest“It was about three years ago that people started thinking about climate change. It’s hard these days, the typhoons are terrible. Many die of heat stroke. During mass, it is very hot, so we have to improve the cooling system of the church. During rainy days we need to be ready to give help to the needy. It is God’s will for us to take care of ourselves, and part of ourselves is the environment. God created us, and He created the environment.” A Municipal Staff“I have noticed how climate change has affected us. We have heavier rains now, so we need better storm drains on the streets. The current drains were built many years ago, we need upgrades to accommodate the heavier rains. The asphalt on the roads is also deforming because of the heat, and from the weight of the trucks on the road. We are starting to use concrete now, although it has a higher rolling friction.”A Public Market Vendor“Now, the rainy season is longer and the sales go down because of the rain. During the typhoons, the sales go down even more. During the dry season, nobody wants to come to the market because of the heat. They prefer going to the malls because they are air-conditioned and covered. Here, it’s too big and costly to cool the public market.   But that’s ok, the malls can provide convenience, but they can’t provide the variety and prices we do.” A Young Mother“I feel irritated by the hot weather.  Before it was okay, we would expect rain in June but now it’s even hotter after the rain.  I have a four year-old with asthma and she gets asthma attacks with the weather changes.  I don’t have air conditioning so the weather changes hurt her.  Because of the heat, I can’t do all of my chores during the day.  It’s too hot on the street to walk to the store or run errands, there is no shade.”21Human Health & Security Food Security Water Sufficiency Infrastructure IndustryKnowledge & Capacity Building RecommendationsThese six themes illustrate the diverse sectors impacted by climate change in Baliwag. They contain a summary of what we heard from the community, the impacts of climate change on the sector, and the existing strengths in Baliwag.  Each sector also has a set of key recommendations for priority implementation, as well as general recommendations. These insights were drawn from conversations with the community and municipal staff, meaning that people are interested in these proposals and feel they can be feasibly implemented. They should be considered the start of an ongoing process of community engagement on this issue.Specific adaptations have been labelled as “People’s Voice” recommendations, as they were consistently popular with community members. These are marked with a speech bubble.People’s Voice!2022 23HealthNumerous health impacts are provoked by climate change and often affect the most vulnerable populations, including seniors, women, and children. The NCCAP is concerned with the impacts of climate change on the health of individuals in the Philippines and states that municipalities should ensure “health and social protection delivery systems are responsive to climate change risks.” It is important to focus on developing stronger health and social programming in order to better adapt to climate change-related illnesses. • There is a high concern in the community about the impacts of climate change on health. • Community members have knowledge about preventative measures for heat-related illnesses such as heat exhaustion and heatstroke. For example, farmers at Piel mentioned the importance of eating healthy in helping to prevent hypertension. • The municipality wants to focus on prevention of diseases rather than treatment. • Climate change can affect livelihoods and cause people to be unemployed, which raises their risk of health issues.• Hotter temperatures increase the likelihood of heat exhaustion and heat stroke, especially among those working outdoors, such as farmers and construction workers. • Elders are more vulnerable to heat-related illnesses.• Stagnant water from increased precipitation can increase the prevalence of diseases carried by mosquitos, such as dengue and malaria.  • Hotter temperatures can intensify air pollution, exacerbating respiratory conditions such as asthma.• Mother Leaders have a strong role in the community.  As providers of social protection services, Mother Leaders are an important community resource and act as a liaison between the municipality and the community. • RHUs conduct preventative educational programs (pap smears, health classes, immunizations), and incorporate information about climate change-related illnesses, such as dengue. • Ongoing outreach programs enrol community members in PhilHealth, which will be key as the prevalence of climate change-related illnesses are projected to increase. Impacts Existing StrengthsWhat We HeardKey Recommendations for HealthRecommendation Justification Implementer Trade-offsPlant local, non-invasive tree species on the sidewalks and roads. Planting more trees in the city would increase shade in the city and would allow pedestrians to walk more comfortably. Engineering Office, MPDOIt is expensive to plant trees, so other types of shade provision could be pursued, such as covered walkways.Continue educating the community on the direct impacts of climate change for health, especially in relation to heat exhaustion. May prevent deaths or illnesses related to climate change. For example, being aware of the signs and symptoms of heat stroke may help prevent a death from this illness. RHUEducation programs require additional time and resources from municipal staff.Provide training for Mother Leaders on climate change related-illnesses. Since Mother Leaders have direct contact with Municipal Nutrition Office (MNO), they would be able to monitor and report incidents of climate change-related illnesses. They could also inform their communities on the prevention and treatment of climate change related-illnesses. MNOEducation programs require additional time and resources from municipal staff and Mother Leaders.  Monitoring programs may require additional support to implement. Create drinking and showering stations at each Barangay Hall and at other public buildings to help prevent heat exhaustion.May prevent deaths or illnesses related to climate change, such as heat strokes, dehydration, and heat exhaustion. RHU, Barangay LeadersCreating drinking stations may be too difficult or resource intensive. Barangay leaders could  boil water to have available for all visitors. Creating showering stations may be more resource intensive. People’s Voice HUMAN HEALTH & SECURITY25Informal SettlementsThe National Climate Change Action Plan states that it is a priority “to reduce risks of...vulnerable groups from climate and disasters”.   A city or municipality’s most vulnerable people can often be found living within informal settlements.  Addressing climate change adaptation in informal settlements means addressing poverty, housing, infrastructure, environmental degradation, and health concerns.  Physically, informal settlements tend to be built in exposed areas, including slopes, low-lying areas and ravines.  Informal settlements are designated as a national priority and require partnerships across municipal, provincial, and national levels of government. Baliwag has strategies in place to address the vulnerabilities of informal settlements, such as initiatives focused on the relocation of those within the community to safer, more secure housing.• Barangay Captains, Mother Leaders and Barangay Health Workers are incredibly involved and engaged in their communities.  They are in an excellent position to assist in supporting the informal settlements within different barangays.   • Individuals and families with a lack of resources are residing on land along the Angat River in Baliwag.  • Informal settlements along the Angat River in municipalities in Bulacan, including Baliwag, have been identified for resettlement to ensure safety.• The land along the riverbanks is subject to easements and is government land.  It is some of the only available land open for informal settlement.• Though many have been relocated, some individuals and families choose to stay in the informal settlement locations.• Staff from the MNO have identified informal settlements as having a high incidence of malnutrition. • Informal settlements in Baliwag are especially vulnerable to flooding from heavy rains due to a lack of proper stormwater drainage. • High precipitation and extreme weather events have contributed to the need to relocate informal settlements. • The relocation of informal settlements has meant that sometimes individuals and families are distanced from work, education, and community, making their transition to a new home difficult.  • Informal settlements are the responsibility of converging levels of government. For example, the National Housing Authority has provided Baliwag with around 1,000 homes for informal settlements. • It is often up to the municipality to provide social programming for these communities.  Employment for this population is a barrier.• To ensure the safety of residents, barangays have ordinances that do not allow informal settlers to live in identified danger zones or vulnerable areas.• Social housing projects in Baliwag, as well as in other places in Bulacan, are helping to reduce the number of people living in informal settlements.Impacts Existing StrengthsWhat We Heard• The social housing sites are: BDO Foundation-Red Cross Village in Barangay Hinukay and Gawad Kalinga in Barangay Piel.  • The Municipal Social Welfare and Development Office (MSWDO) works closely with relocation initiatives.Baliwag also has the following capacity development interventions with the target group of informal settlers, as outlined in the ELA 2014-2016.• Organize a Local Housing Board.• Incorporate Chairmanship in Committee on Infrastructure.• Formulation of a Local Shelter Plan. HUMAN HEALTH & SECURITY2426 27Key Recommendations for Informal SettlementsRecommendation Justification Implementer Trade-offsPartner with social housing organizations to implement livelihood programs in relocation areas. When informal settlers are relocated, they are often distanced from their sources of livelihood.  To assist families in supporting themselves skills training programs, job matching programs, and other employment services may be of great service. PESOJobs must be available for livelihood programs.  Often low barrier jobs exist within an already saturated market, so new employment areas should be pursued where possible.Community-specific asset and vulnerability assessments should be performed and shared.Understanding land use, daily cultural practices and specific vulnerable populations within informal settlements could be very useful.  When vulnerabilities and assets are well understood they can be better addressed and utilized to increase adaptation to climate change. MSWDO, Barangay leaders, Community Groups working with informal settlementsA time intensive initiative.  Social stratification often exists between marginalized groups and those in power.  Trust must be built to learn about the challenges and assets that exist within informal settlement communities. Take a participatory approach to relocation planning.A bottom-up approach to the resettlement process involving the informal settlers will allow for better insight into the relocation process.  Key outcomes would include identifying where and how people want to be moved during the relocation process.Informal settlers, Barangay leadersThis could be a time-intensive initiative that requires the participation of informal settlers and municipal staff involved in resettlement process.Expand educational outreach to children in informal settlements.Existing outreach programs could focus on education to ensure children have access to school or daycare to reduce barriers in relocation.  Outreach efforts can also provide information about small household projects that will create more resilience to climate change. Mother Leaders, MSWDO, MNO, DRRMOOutreach programs already exist in the community, adding on to such programs would require few additional resources. General Recommendations for Informal SettlementsRecommendation Justification Implementer Trade-offsProvision of immediate or short-term infrastructure programs.To ensure the short-term safety of those who continue to reside in informal settlements it may be useful to have programs in place to support improvements in infrastructure.  Engineering OfficeTime involvement depends on the infrastructure that needs to be completed.  If relocation is planned, short-term infrastructure projects may not be the best use of municipal finances.May be seen as encouraging informal settlers not to leave. Planned land for informal settlements. It is likely that informal settlers will continue to need land reside upon.  The land available to informal settlers in Baliwag is also the land most susceptible to climate change.  Designating safer land for informal settlements in the short-term may draw people away from residing along the Angat River. MPDOShort-term planning as opposed to long-term planning.  May be difficult to secure valuable land.  Continue livelihood programs within informal settlements.Informal settlements are often intertwined with other social and economic factors that present challenges to individuals and families.  Livelihood programs can support families in securing land title in the long-term.PESOSupporting residents within the informal settlement may be perceived negatively when relocation is a priority.  May be time-intensive.People’s Voice28 29Disaster Risk Reduction &ManagementBaliwag faces numerous natural hazards risks that are projected to increase with climate change, including river flooding, high winds from tropical storms, and grass fires during drought periods.  Additionally, there are vulnerable populations currently living in areas that are most at risk, such as in informal settlements along rivers that will not be structurally sound during floods or typhoons. Because climate change is projected to increase the frequency and intensity of weather-related natural disasters, knowledge about evacuation and response plans are essential for all community members. Disaster and risk management efforts must incorporate the impacts of climate change into their preparedness and response planning to best support adaptation measures, particularly for weather-related disaster events. Baliwag’s DRRMO plays an important leadership role in local climate change adaptation, and can support infrastructure projects and IECs to improve the municipality’s ability to respond to these impacts.• Baliwag has several evacuation centres across multiple barangays.• Evacuation centres are located close to vulnerable populations, such as informal settlers in Tibag.• The MDRRMO collaborates with adjacent municipalities and the provincial and national governments to improve regional disaster response coordination.• People in Baliwag are concerned about major flooding events in their community.• Heavy rains can cause flash flooding along rivers and creeks in Baliwag, and may affect some barangays more than others.• Streets may become flooded with increasing precipitation, making it difficult for the MDRRMO to service community members during disaster events.• High winds from major storms or typhoons may uproot or knock over trees.• Houses that are not structurally sound or do not have secure roofing may collapse during major storms or typhoons.• Droughts increase the risk of grass fires.• The MDRRMO in Baliwag is recognized as a leader in disaster risk management in Bulacan.• The MDRRMO does extensive outreach in the community to educate the public about how to safely deal with disasters.• Mother leaders and other community groups, such as SAVERS, work closely with the MDRRMO.• MDRRMO is constantly looking to improve its operations. They want to establish an early-warning system in all 27 barangays for natural disasters. Impacts Existing StrengthsWhat We Heard HUMAN HEALTH & SECURITY30 31Key Recommendations for Disaster Risk Reduction & ManagementRecommendation Justification Implementer Trade-offsImplement the early warning system for disaster awareness, as developed by the DRRMO, across all barangays.Climate change-related disasters require quick and effective response from the DRRMO across all barangays.  An early warning system would greatly speed up response and evacuation efforts. Informal settlers would particularly benefit from this initiative since they are the most affected by climate change.MDRRMO, MPDO, Engineering OfficeAlthough it would be a low-cost project, implementing this system, would require time and resources from day-to-day operations and may cut into the operating budget. This should be weighed against potential savings in the future.Expand IECs on disaster preparedness, evacuation, and include climate change adaptation.Educational outreach has been a success for the MDRRMO with Mother Leaders and at schools. These seminars should be expanded across all the 27 barangays.MDRRMO, Barangay leaders, SchoolsIECs take time, planning, and resources to implement. The MDRRMO may not have enough staff available to expand the programming, especially during the rainy season.Pursue partnerships with other municipal MDRRMOs to share resources for response and outreach.The MDRRMO already supports disaster response in other municipalities, and should continue to take on leadership roles in regional adaptation initiatives in order to pool resources and decrease collective regional vulnerability.NDRRMC, PDRRMC, MDRRMO Baliwag, MDRRM teams in other municipalities.There may not be enough staff to manage additional projcts, nor enough interest or funding from provincial or national governments to implement these partnerships. General Recommendations for Disaster Risk Reduction & ManagementRecommendation Justification Implementer Trade-offsPursue funding opportunities with different levels of government, and with foreign sources to help expand climate change adaptation projects. Highlight the exemplary role of the MDRRMO in Baliwag and the region when applying for funding.The MDRRMO can leverage its budget to support climate change adaptation projects, especially where they overlap with DRRM.  Additional equipment and alert systems are a priority.MDRRMO, NDRRMC, PDRRMC, DILG.Using the MDRRMO budget for adaptation measures may not leave enough funding to respond to disasters not related to climate change.Update flood hazard maps annually, for both riverine and overland flooding. The locations, intensity, and frequency of major flood events will increase with climate change.  Adapting to these impacts requires better knowledge of where flood risks are, both on riverbanks and in overland flooding (when stormwater drainage systems are over capacity).MPDO, Engineering Office, MDRRMO.Updating flood hazard maps, especially for overland flooding, can take time and be costly. Evaluate the community’s knowledge of and familiarity with the local DRRM and emergency response plans and actions.It is important that the community is aware of the services available to them in case of a natural disaster, as well as the actions they need to take in order to be safe. Involving the community will generate a fuller picture of the threats baliwag faces.MDRRMO, Barangay Captains, POPCOM.Time-intensive, but a useful way to ensure that DRRM policies act as they are supposed to.People’s Voice32 33Food ProductionAgriculture is an important industry in Baliwag, both for food consumption and for livelihood.  Agricultural production is highly vulnerable to climate change impacts such as flooding, drought, and extreme weather events. These impacts compromise the ability of farmers to manage crops and increases the volatility of agricultural earnings for farmers. The NCCAP states that agriculture is key for food security, but that “a large proportion of damages from disasters...are borne by agriculture every year.” Baliwag should continue pursuing adaptive measures and focusing resources to support farmers.• Despite the increase in heat and unpredictable weather, farmers continue to be resilient. They diversify their crops and continue to work in the heat. • Unpredictable water levels in canals directly affect yields, as fields depend entirely on irrication. Some farmers are now using groundwater instead of irrigation.• Farmers experience health impacts from hotter weather, such as heat exhaustion and heat stroke, which has been deadly in recent years. • Farmers are worried about the volatility of the agriculture sector and their livelihoods. • Rice cultivation depends on an ample and consistent supply of fresh water. Drought reduces the availability of fresh water, putting greater pressures on rice farmers. • Hotter temperatures can cause health problems for farmers, especially heat exhaustion and heat stroke.• Flooding from high precipitation can devastate agricultural crops. For example, nearly all strains of rice will not survive if flooded. • High winds and heavy rains from typhoons and major storms can flood rice fields, and farmers cannot tend to crops during these extreme events. • Baliwag provides nearly 100% of irrigation for farmers and the Water District works hard to ensure continued supply. Farmers are more resilient when they have access to a consistent water supply instead of relying on rainwater. • The Municipal Agriculture Office (MAO) implements successful programs to assist farmers and support local agriculture, such as subsidized seedlings and liquid fertilizers, as well as rice seed distribution.• The MAO hosts educational seminars about planting and harvesting, and has developed good relationships with farmers.Impacts Existing StrengthsWhat We HeardKey Recommendations for Food ProductionRecommendation Justification Implementer Trade-offsMaintain clear canals  for water flow.Water flows more easily in well-maintained canals that are clear of debris. MPDO, Barangay LeadersAdditional staff may need to be hired to clean irrigation canals, requiring significant investment.Upgrade irrigation canals.Upgraded and larger canals will improve the reach and capacity of water servicing for irrigation.BWDThe project would require large upfront investment, potentially compromising other services.Increase access to rice and grain warehousing.Many farmers are forced to sell their rice even when prices are low. Warehousing facilities allow farmers to store their rice during rainy seasons to reduce spoilage.MAO, farming cooperativesWarehouses would require large investments, potentially competing with other services and programs for funding.Promote diversification of agricultural crops, such as rice strains and vegetables.A diverse agricultural industry is more resilient, as some crops are better suited to certain climate conditions than others. Vegetables can be planted between rice seasons to ensure income sources for farmers if rice crops become damaged.  MAOExisting local knowledge may be limited to certain crops and additional training may be required for farmers.Continue to support subsidized seedling distribution to farmers.Providing free or subsidized seedlings helps farmers skip the vulnerable germination period for seedlings and better predict the success of their crop.MAO, IRRI (International Rice Research Institute)MAO may not be able to expand this program without hiring new staff. Work with PESO to diversify livelihood options for farmers transitioning out of agriculture through entrepreneurial and skills-training programs.Some farmers may wish to acquire new employment or develop new skills outside of farming if the agricultural industry becomes too volatile. The municipality can support farmers in diversifying their skill set. PESO, MAOTraining and capacity-building programs would require municipal resources and would need to certify farmers in their skills development.People’s Voice FOOD SECURITY34General Recommendations for Food ProductionRecommendation Justification Implementer Trade-offsImplement new water sourcing for agriculture, such as pumps to tap groundwater as opposed to relying on irrigation canals.The Angat River does not provide sufficient water to meet Baliwag’s irrigation needs. Farmers may need to access other water sources, such as groundwater, for agricultural purposes.BWD, MPDO, Barangay CaptainThe extent of the groundwater supply is unknown. The sustainable rate of extraction has been set at 24 Litres per second (LPS) by the BWD, so water conservation is a crucial part of this strategy.Farmers may require subsidized pumps. Implement educational programs with the region’s farmers to promote knowledge exchanges around CCA.Farmers from across Bulacan and Luzon can benefit from learning about existing adaptation strategies that have been successful. MAO, farming cooperatives, and community organizationsLearning exchanges take time to plan and resources to implement. Farmers would need to travel.Improve and support new agricultural crops technologies.This implies both new methods for planting and harvesting, as well as new strains of seeds (flood resistant seeds), in order to assist in adaptation.MAOTechnological advancements take an uncertain amount of time to develop, and may require lengthy testing periods.Provide information about innovative and low-barrier agricultural and farming insurance products that use weather-based indices, especially among cooperatives.Farmers may require more comprehensive insurance products for increased frequency and intensity of climate-related events. See Philippine Crop Insurance Corp (PCIC) for more details.MAO, farming credit unions, cooperativesInsurance may not be accessible to everyone, particularly those in extreme poverty, as it requires investment.Streamline methods for receiving PAGASA data on the likelihood of droughts and other climatic disruptions to get to farmers and other water users.The MAO is very active in attempting to inform farmers about the weather situation,  and if a more direct connection with PAGSA is made, the speed at which information can be shared is greater. MAO There are no immediate trade-offs.3536 37Food ConsumptionThe NCCAP emphasizes the need to“...ensure availability, stability, accessibility, and affordability of safe and healthy food amidst climate change.”  Climate change can directly compromise the production of food, leading to rising prices and decreased availability.  In Baliwag, the proportion of people living in urban areas is increasing.  If local agricultural production is negatively impacted by climate change, so is the accessibility and affordability of food.  Access to healthy, safe, and affordable food is reliant on regional, national, and global conditions. • The weather impacts individual choices about where to buy food. Large supermarkets offer protection from the rain, and air conditioned stores act as refuge from heat.  • The public market, despite its exposure to weather, offers a variety of foods at competitive prices.  • Farmers are transitioning from the agricultural industry to other sectors, which are perceived as more reliable employment options. • Changes in weather, including hot days and heavier rains, impact crop management and agricultural yields.  • The high cost of agricultural inputs for farmers makes it more difficult to provide communities with safe and affordable food.  • Heat and rain impact the types of food available at supermarkets and local food stalls.   • As outlined in the ELA 2014-2016, Baliwag has the goal to rehabilitate farm to market roads.  This will encourage and facilitate the transport of food from agricultural areas to local markets.  • SM City Baliwag, through their SM Cares program, has a fruit and vegetable garden located on their property.  They donate food grown to charity as well as make the food available for sale to their staff. • The Baliwag Public Market offers a wide variety of affordable, local food choices.Impacts Existing StrengthsWhat We HeardKey Recommendations for Food ConsumptionRecommendation Justification Implementer Trade-offsCreate partnerships between the municipality and barangays to promote urban gardens.Promoting urban gardening on both private and publicly-owned land would encourage awareness of food systems, increase access to food, and promote greater food diversity.Nutrition Office, MAO, Barangay LeadersThis would be time intensive at the barangay level, requires land and seeds and is water dependent. Once initiated it will require little time and resource at the municipal level.Connect local farmers to local businesses, including grocers and restaurants.Supporting farmers in selling their products to local restaurants and grocery stores will shorten the supply chain. This could mean creating a list of farmers and their products so they are easily accessible.  PESO, MAOTime intensive for start-up.  Masterlist would require regular updating.Form a food security sub-committee to the Climate Change Technical Working Group (CCTWG) (to be created; see Knowledge and Capacity Building). A CCTWG sub-committee on food could anticipate and plan for the likely impacts of climate change on food and promote actions to create food security.Farmers, MAO, land-owners, cooperatives, BWDTime intensive. Requires volunteer time from the community and leadership from the municipality.  Establish a food systems plan and establish goals for creating food security in Baliwag.With a sub-committee on food convened, their primary task could be to develop (and integrate into policies) a plan to create food security.Farmers, land-owner cooperatives, MAO, BWDTime intensive. Requires volunteer time from the community and leadership from the municipality. People’s Voice FOOD SECURITY38 39Water SufficiencyBaliwag’s water sources will be stressed due to rising temperatures and the increased risk of droughts. The agricultural sector will be disproportionately impacted by water shortages in irrigation canals. The general population of Baliwag may also face water shortages and vulnerable populations are at risk of dehydration if they do not have access to alternative water supplies for consumption. Acquiring new water sources and conserving the existing water supply reflect the NCCAP goal to radically restructure water management. These measures will ultimately help to ensure the provision of safe, accessible water for generations to come.  • Water supply is increasingly drawn from groundwater sources instead of irrigation canals, as farmers and other users look to set up pumps.• Irrigation canals can be blocked by solid waste and debris, reducing water flow to farms.• The Bulacan Bulk Water Supply Project promised new sources of irrigation water yet has still not arrive, disappointing many people in the municipality.• Many community members feel that Manila continues to get an unfair share of the water from the Angat River.• BWD has noted incidences of septic tanks leaching into the groundwater supply.• Changing patterns of precipitation may mean that water for irrigation and consumption is not consistently available.• The increase of flash floods, typhoons, or major storms can interrupt the supply of water for irrigation and consumption.• Droughts will increase water demand among agricultural and commercial sectors, and put greater strains on the underground water supply.• Hotter temperatures may increase the risk of dehydration and increase water demand.• The MPDO is working on a ten-year solid waste management plan, hoping to curb incidences of waste blocking irrigation canals. • BWD is actively engaged in IECs around water conservation.• BWD is aware of septic materials leaching into the ground-water and is actively working to combat this through a ten-year sanitation plan, supported by USAID.• Baliwag consumers generally have low water consumption rates on a global scale. Impacts Existing StrengthsWhat We HeardKey Recommendations for Water SufficiencyRecommendation Justification Implementer Trade-offsForm a water sub-committee within the Climate Change Technical Working Group (to be created, see Knowledge and Capacity Building) with the Municipality of Baliwag.Coordination on water resources is imperative, particularly between the municipality’s departments, BWD, and other local actors.  A sub-committee would be the ideal place to bring together these interests and set a vision.BWD, MENRO, MAO, Mayor’s OfficeThis initiative can be time consuming, and it might require hiring new staff.Provide additional resources for Barangay Officials to remove debris from irrigation canals, consider employment programs to hire canal maintenance workers.Farmers identified that waste in their irrigation water was causing problems with flow and with the quality of water used for their crops. Cleaner canals would increase water flow.MENRO, PESOProper equipment would be needed, which is expensive, and supervision from PESO and the barangays could be complicated.Pursue rainwater harvesting as a strategy to reduce the use of groundwater and secure additional water supply.Rain-harvested water can serve as a buffer against groundwater sources and act as a backup resource during droughts.BWDRainwater storage equipment can be expensive. Rainwater harvesters that are not properly sealed can lead to the presence of dengue-carrying mosquitos. Jointly develop IEC campaigns for residential users to reduce consumption.A jointly-developed IEC by the Municipality and the BWD could broaden perspectives about water usage and would create more opportunities to distribute informational materials.BWD, PESO, POPCOM, MENROCoordination would take time and involve jointly setting goals and priorities for water use in Baliwag.Develop water stewardship guidelines for businesses and provide them as IEC materials when business licenses are registered.Collaboration between the Municipality and the BWD can mean clearer standards and enhanced enforcement capacity when it comes to conservation and stewardship.BWD, MENRO, Business Licensing OfficeWater stewardship guidelines that feel too punitive may drive away businesses. Guidelines could aim to be inclusive and showcase opportunities for savings amongst businesses.People’s Voice WATER SUFFICIENCY40General Recommendations for Water SufficiencyRecommendation Justification Implementer Trade-offsPursue the development of watershed governance in Bulacan.The Angat River basin continues to be a source of national difficulty due to inequitable divisions of power and resources.  A regionally-focused governance system, with the municipalities collaborating with water districts, could mean fairer distribution of rights and uses.Mayor of Baliwag, BWD, MENROThis initiative would require time and effort from political leaders, who may need to overcome existing tensions.Though there are long-term benefits to this initiative, success may not be felt in the short-term.Form regional partnerships to deal with waste in irrigation canals.Many barangay leaders complain about the waste that moves through the irrigation canals from one barangay to another.  A regional, watershed-based approach to managing the canals will make it easier to prevent large-scale waste blockages.BWD, Barangay CaptainsLong-term partnerships would require time commitments from Barangay Captains, and may draw away from other local projects. Continue to monitor the status of groundwater resources, and determine a sustainable rate of withdrawal.While the water district continues to monitor water withdrawals, it is unclear how long this can last with increased withdrawal rates.BWDThere no short-term trade-offs as this program is currently implemented.4142 43InfrastructureInfrastructure provides important physical services that helps a community to function in everyday life, and includes systems such as roads, buildings, electricity, drainage, and water supply. Infrastructure systems can also be incredibly expensive to build and maintain, but can have a very long lifespan. It is crucial for Baliwag to build or upgrade parts of its infrastructure systems when possible and direct resources to infrastructure projects that can adapt to the impacts of climate change for many years to come. Prioritizing what to build or upgrade  is a difficult task, and Baliwag has the strengths to accomplish it.• Baliwag is prioritizing upgrades to its stormwater drainage system, which is unable to handle increasingly frequent and intense precipitation events, and is often clogged by debris.• Stormwater drainage upgrades are done on a piece-by-piece basis due to limited funding. • Funding is a challenge for major infrastructure projects, as they often require provincial and national resources.• Sidewalks are not accessible to people with disabilities, streets are not shaded enough for pedestrians, and maintenance of roads and repair of holes is inconsistent. • Stormwater management and drainage systems are more frequently overloaded from more intense precipitation. Street flooding can cause damage to roads and buildings, increasing maintenance costs.• Periods of drought will increase reliance on groundwater and can lead to water scarcity, especially in the agricultural sector. • Hotter temperatures will increase the “heat island” effect, as urban infrastructure creates and traps heat.• Building materials and facades will become damaged from heat and the increased intensity of precipitation.ImpactsWhat We Heard• Upgrading the stormwater drainage system is already a top priority for the MPDO, and work on planning, funding, and implementing the project has already started.• The Engineering Office is efficient at implementing and prioritizing projects.• Some adaptation measures have already been implemented in the municipality, such as modifying road surfaces.• Improving water supply sourcing has already begun with the Bulacan Bulk Water Supply Plan, which addresses water shortages from the Angat Dam supply.Existing Strengths• Hotter temperatures will damage asphalt.• Extreme weather events can cause failure or damage to key infrastructure systems, such as electricity.• New infrastructure will be needed for climate-related migrants and informal settlers.• Infrastructure use, such as transportation patterns, will change because of increased heat and precipitation.Key Recommendations for InfrastructureRecommendation Justification Implementer Trade-offsContinue prioritizing and finding funding for upgrading the stormwater drainage system.Upgraded stormwater drainage is required to increase capacity for more intense precipitation.MPDO, Engineering OfficeLengthy and expensive process to retrofit.Provide shade on roads and sidewalks using trees or other coverage methods.Shade will reduce the effect of heat and the heat island effect in urbanized areas on people, and allow people to walk comfortably outside when it is hot.Engineering OfficeMay be difficult to find space. Some options  require more maintenance  (ex. tree leaves clogging drainage).Continue to update a contingency plan to identify vulnerable areas/pinch points/cascade areas.Infrastructure may have new points of failure, and it is important to know where these are in case of emergency.MPDO, MDRRMO, Engineering OfficeAnalysis is time-consuming. Difficult to predict where these pinch points may be.Promote the use of white materials or paint on rooftops of buildings and vehicles (ex. jeepneys, tricycles).White rooftops will reflect light/heat more than other colours and allow for a cooler interior of the building or vehicle.Engineering OfficeDon’t have direct control over materials. Materials may be more expensive than common materials now. Paint requires maintenance.Increase maintenance and cleaning of stormwater drainage systems.Unclogging the drainage systems will allow water to flow and allow faster drainage in extreme weather events.Engineering Office, Barangay CaptainsShould also treat the cause of the clogging, which will lessen the cost of maintenance over time.Consider more dispersed production, treatment, and storage of key services, such as energy storage, backup generators, and water storage.In case of emergency, having dispersed key services will allow for functioning of key activities if infrastructure systems fail.MDRRMO, Engineering OfficeMay be expensive to provide storage. New infrastructure may be required.People’s Voice INFRASTRUCTURE44General Recommendations for InfrastructureRecommendation Justification Implementer Trade-offsEncourage use of building materials and styles (ex. natural cooling with large overhangs, tied-down roofs) that better withstand heat and precipitation.Building materials become less effective more quickly with increased heat and precipitation, so using more resilient techniques will prolong the lifetime of buildings.Engineering OfficeMunicipality has little direct control over this. Municipality can act as leader in implementing its own initiatives.Identify any major infrastructure components at risk in extreme weather events, and plan to move it over time.Some infrastructure may have to be relocated if is built in areas that are particularly vulnerable to climate change impacts.Engineering Office, BWDExpensive to move infrastructure.Collect data on the changing uses of infrastructure due to climate change impacts (ex. changing transportation peak times, peak use of water).Collecting data on changing use of infrastructure will inform new infrastructure investments and operations.BWD, MPDOMay not have baseline data.Will have to prioritize important data to collect.Where permeable surfaces are possible and appropriate, encourage their use.Permeable surfaces increase the ability for the ground to absorb precipitation, decreasing the load on stormwater drainage systems.Engineering Office, MPDOPermeable surfaces often have lower load capacity and may be more expensive.Use natural infrastructure where possible and cost-effective, such as planting bamboo and acacia trees on river banks to prevent soil erosion.Natural infrastructure can be cheaper and more effective than “hard” infrastructure, and also provides ecological services.Engineering OfficeNatural infrastructure may not be sufficient.  Some natural infrastructure may not work for various reasons (ex. mahogany trees are eaten by goats).Consider more dispersed production, treatment, and storage of key services (ex. energy, water, food), such as energy storage, backup generators and water storage.In case of emergency, having dispersed key services will allow for functioning of key activities if infrastructure systems fail.DRRMO, Engineering Office.May be expensive to provide storage. New infrastructure may be required.4546 47IndustryFor Baliwag to be resilient in the face of climate change, a strong business sector is essential. People across Baliwag have said that improving livelihoods and reducing poverty are key issues in their communities. By ensuring that businesses are prepared for the impacts of climate change, citizens of Baliwag will be better able to prosper moving into the future.• The agricultural sector has been harmed by unpredictable weather.  With lower yields, some farmers are shifting out of the agricultural sector and are selling their land for subdivision development. Finding new employment can be particularly difficult for those over 35.• People are discouraged from going to the public market by typhoon rains or high heat, preferring air-conditioned, indoor malls instead. This hurts small market vendors.• Small business operators and self-employed people are vulnerable to sudden changes in prices for crops, or supply chain disruptions by extreme weather.• Individuals working outside may face disruption to their routine due to high heat.• Providing jobs and sustainable livelihoods is a key priority that has positive effects for health, resilience, and social mobility.• The Province may classify the municipality as an industrial development area, which may increase the pressures Baliwag is already facing to industrialize. • Baliwag’s employment is currently about 50% agricultural, but this is decreasing as farmers increasingly sell their land for subdivision development.• Negative impacts from climate change are felt especially by farmers and small vendors in public markets.ImpactsWhat We Heard• Businesses are attracted to Baliwag as an economic centre in Bulacan and people are proud of the city’s commerce.• The MAO provides training to farmers so they can try to sell their food to grocery stores through co-operatives. Currently, farmers’ crops may not meet the quality standards that large grocery store chains employ.• SM City, a major employer in Baliwag, has an interest in promoting sustainability through their corporate social responsibility programs, such as the recycling-focused Trash to Cash program. SM also contributes to disaster response by allowing individuals to leave their vehicles at the mall during floods.Existing Strengths• PESO provides career-readiness training to individuals, including specific training for climate-proof jobs such as call centre positions. Many job postings offered through PESO are not directly impacted by climate change, such as secretarial roles.• A trade fair involving Baliwag’s farmers cooperatives is planned.where farmers can display and sell their agricultural products, is planned.Key Recommendations for IndustryRecommendation Justification Implementer Trade-offsProvide IECs for businesses on climate adaptive practices.Capacity building for small businesses on appropriate insurance products for extreme weather events, business continuity plans, rainwater harvesting and diversifying supply chains. will strengthen resilience in the business sector. Business licensing office, PESO, BDOStaff time will have to be devoted to researching relevant adaptive practices for local businesses.Continue supporting cooperatives for self-employed individuals in PESO’s livelihood programme.Continue to connecting individuals in PESO’s livelihood programs and supporting cooperatives will reduce individual vulnerability to climate change impacts.PESOIt is uncertain to what degree cooperatives will be able to provide successful programs in all cases.Improve access to reliable credit sources to small businesses.Businesses generally require at least 50,000 pesos to buy goods to sell, but it is currently difficult to borrow more than 10,000 pesos. This may involve strengthening credit co-ops, or providing larger loans.PESOThis could be a time-intensive initiative that requires the participation of informal settlers and municipal staff involved in resettlement process.Promote shopping at the public market.Highlight the benefits of buying from local food producers in a promotional campaign to encourage people to support local agriculture.BDO, Tourism OfficeOutreach programs already exist in the community, adding on to such programs would not require many additional resources. People’s Voice INDUSTRY48 49Knowledge & Capacity BuildingKnowledge and capacity building is a broad, cross-cutting theme. Policy makers must have “enough knowledge of the science, issues, and risks” of climate change to act effectively. Capacity refers to the ability of communities and institutions to implement adaptive measures. In an LCCAP, knowledge and capacity building encompasses municipal staff, sectoral leaders, and the general public. It also includes actions like training to IECs. Successful action means linking different actors and ways of knowing, from the young mother whose child is sick from the hotter days, to the meteorologist studying statistical data. • There is much knowledge about climate change in the community, people see that it is happening each day.• A survey of municipal staff showed significant conflation of adaptation with mitigation and with general practices of sustainability.• Climate change has directly challenged the traditional agricultural knowledge of groups such as farmers.• There is high demand for IECs to address climate change, including its impacts and potential adaptation measures.• Diverse sectors, from developers to farmers, rely on municipal information and guidance on topics such as water availability, flood risk, and expected crop yields.• It will become increasingly difficult to predict weather patterns such as El Niño and La Niña, and to anticipate extreme weather events. • Past climatic and weather information will no longer be as useful in helping to plan and predict future trends.• Floods and other weather-related disaster may destroy documents and equipment in Barangay Halls, RHUs, or in other municipal buildings.• Department heads attend seminars or trainings on climate-related topics.• Certain city departments talk to other nearby municipalities about climate change.• Baliwag regularly partners with local schools to educate children about climate change to increase awareness. • At a community-level, there is a general understanding that climate change is happening. Many community members have noticed a change in weather patterns and the effect that this has on their lives. Impacts Existing StrengthsWhat We HeardKey Recommendations for Knowledge and Capacity BuildingRecommendation Justification Implementer Trade-offsRequest local and state universities to collaborate on a monthly or quarterly ‘bulletin’ of summarized climate change research and impacts.Request local and state universities to collaborate on a monthly or quarterly ‘bulletin’ of summarized climate change research and impacts.MENRO, Municipal Administrator, POPCOMTime needs to be spent developing a system to integrate data into departmental decisions.Create a standardized database that is backed-up in the event of major disasters.There are many techniques used by the municipal government to store its data but there is no comprehensive system for archiving. The Municipality could streamline this process and include naming systems, and should aim to digitize and back-up data. Municipal AdministratorTime intensive, but potentially saves time and money later on by protecting important information.Develop a master list of all climate change IECs.A master list of all climate change IECs will create consistent messaging around general education, and around which adaptation practices are most relevant to different actors. This will also prevent duplication of efforts and allow previously developed materials to be used elsewhere.MENRO, Muncipal AdministratorTime consuming for the Municipal Administrator and MENRO.People’s Voice KNOWLEDGE & CAPACITY50General Recommendations for Knowledge and Capacity BuildingRecommendation Justification Implementer Trade-offsCreate a comprehensive information kit for Barangay leaders to discuss climate change with their community.Barangay leaders are often very connected to their community. They can disseminate information among their Barangays residents to reach a wide audience quickly.Barangay leadersIf information materials are provided at regular barangay meetings it will cause minimal disruption to barangay capacity.Collaborate with local universities to help train the municipal staff on climate change knowledge.Collaboration with local universities will allow the municipality to draw on relevant information about climate change from a localized perspective. Mayor’s Office, Municipal Administrator, MENROMinimal time commitment from municipal staff to create, but it is important to target the right staff for these training sessions.Create a catalogue of municipal programs that directly engages  the public and incorporates relevant adaptation information.Climate change requires that all sectors of society collaborate closely in order to increase their adaptive capacity. The municipality can take advantage of existing opportunities to engage with the community and discuss climate change adaptation.All departmentsCoordination takes time, but a complete list of all seminars and outreach programmes can streamline resilience efforts, avoid duplication, and conserve municipal resources.  Facilitate training on climate change topics for municipal employees.It is important for staff to be knowledgeable on climate change science and the differences between mitigation, adaptation, and sustainability.  Training might focus on climate change adaptation in the Philippines.All departments, BWDTraining can be costly, but more knowledgeable staff can improve results both in the  planning and implementation phases of climate change adaptation.Look for opportunities to collaborate with other municipalities on immediate threats or opportunities around climate change adaptation (ex. creating maintenance schedules for irrgiation canals between municipalities).Regional collaboration can create opportunities to share resources and address climate change impacts that affect many municipalities. Sharing resources can have long-term benefits for all municipalities, including cost-savings.Mayor’s Office, MENRO, MPDOThis will be a time intensive undertaking, especially for departmental heads.51Next Steps Toward an LCCAPThe creation of a LCCAP is often a large undertaking for resource-strained LGUs. Though a standalone LCCAP document is desirable, the CCC has also encouraged LGUs to incorporate their LCCAPs into the CDPs and CLUPs in recognition LGUs’ Option 1: A Formal,  Standalone LCCAP Develop a formal document which outlines the climate actions the Municipality of Baliwag intends to take, with specific actions for different actors, coordinated by a single agency, actor, or committee. Trade-offs: A resource intensive process, requiring time spent away from other planning projects and processes. However it is a specific, actionable product that completely fulfills the NCCAP Framework’s mandate to LGUs.Option 2: Integrate the LCCAP into the CLUP/CDP Insert a specific climate section into the CLUP and the CDP, written by the MPDO, and try to approach planning issues in these documents while prioritizing climate change adaptation.Trade-offs: Easier to create than a formal LCCAP. However, climate change impacts will affect many aspects of the municipality (more than just land-use), so a broader perspective on adaptation is desirable.Option 3: Integrate LCCAP actions into all plans Develop a series of climate change adaptation goals for all departments in the municipality. Departments are to formulate all future plans with these adaptation goals in mind. Trade-offs: Easier to do, but monitoring and evaluation becomes splintered across many departments.Option 4: Integrate LCCAP actions into all plans, and then catalogue these actions into an LCCAP Develop a series of climate change adaptation goals for all departments. Catalogue all adaptation-related actions into a single, cross-cutting document, to be submitted to the national government as the LCCAP. Trade-offs: More resource-intensive than simply allowing all actors to develop their own CCA actions, but provides an opportunity to look holistically at adaptation work done throughout Baliwag.limited resources. Integrating a climate change lens into a variety of documents can also foster resilience throughout the municipality’s work. Four potential products of a ‘climate lens’ are outlined below and are possible on their own or in any combination:Turning Goals into Action We recommend that a Climate Change Technical Working Group (CCTWG) be formed with major municipal stakeholders. The Iloilo LCCAP -- one of the first in the Philippines -- used the TWG structure to great effect during their planning process. We recommend that the following actors be included in this group, (other groups can be included in relevant sub-committees): •	 Municipality of Baliwag: MPDO, MENRO, Engineering, PESO, POPCOM, MAO. Treasurer•	 Other institutions: BWD, DILG•	 Civil Society Organizations: cooperatives, church groups, and other CSOsWith a CCTWG in place, a strategic planning approach can be taken to ensure the continued participation of community stakeholders in identifying climate change adaptation measures.  As stated by UN HABITAT in Planning for Climate Change:  A Strategic, Value-Based Approach for Urban Planners, this strategy is a “community-based decision-making process that incorporates local objectives to help determine priorities and...achieve agreed-upon goals.” Monitoring and EvaluationCollecting information on the implementation and performance of a plan is crucial to knowing what progress is being made. It can also allow policy makers to make whatever adjustments are necessary based on feedback.There are two relevant aspects to monitoring the implementation of a strategic plan:•	 Process Monitoring: Have the planned projects and activities been implemented?•	 Outcome Monitoring: What has been the impact of these projects and activities?One type of locally-specific outcome monitoring would be Community-Based Monitoring System (CBMS).  CBMS compiles the community’s local needs to better understand the impacts of municipal projects and activities, and is already in place in other municipalities in Bulacan.  Evaluation refers to critically examining the information gathered during the monitoring stage to assess whether adjustments or changes need to be made to the plan.  For Baliwag, this means asking: has the capacity of the community to adapt to climate change increased?52 5354 55Maraming Salamat Po! Climate change will continue to cause uncertainties in Baliwag and around the world, but resiliency can be woven through the spirit of conversation. From the municipality’s emphasis on community engagement, to the willingness of farmers to carry on in the face of immense challenges, the community has significant adaptive capacity. The conversations we have had in Baliwag serve as a strong foundation upon which to build an inclusive adaptation strategy.The purpose of this report is to highlight the voices and existing strengths of the Baliwag community in order to suggest adaptations to build physical and social resilience. Many of the recommendations in this report came directly from citizens of Baliwag. It is by continuing these conversations that innovative new ideas will emerge.Through investment in priority areas, the mobilization of existing community strengths, and the sharing of knowledge, Baliwag can keep  adapting into the future. The pride that the people of Baliwag feel in their city will continue to shine through in every conversation.“People from Baliwag are good and loving.”56About the AuthorsThis report was written by:George BensonAndrea HaberAlix KrahnAaron LaoMichelle MarteleiraMaria TrujilloThe authors are graduate students from the School of Community and Regional Planning at the University of British Columbia in Canada.  They visited the Philippines as part of the Philippines Planning Studio Course with Professor Leonora Angeles.  Coming from different academic backgrounds, the authors of this report interests’ span social planning, community development, urban design, community resilience building, climate change governance, and international disaster management. AcknowledgementsWe would like to extend our deepest thanks to all of the community members, municipal staff, and everyone else from Baliwag that we had the pleasure of interacting with during our project. Maraming salamat po!In no particular order, we would like to thank: All of the participants in our focus groups, surveys, and interviews. The young mothers of San JoseFarmers of Piel and BarangkaThe Mother Leaders of San Jose, Concepcion,  Poblacion, Bagong Nayon, Calantipay, San Idelfonso, Tarcan, Piel, St Cristo, and Tibag BarangaysSilver Purpose Cooperative The Rotary Club of BaliwagBaliwag Humanitarian AssociationNarciso Juana, President of Senior Citizens FederationSAVERS Volunteer RescueMaricar Caballero, PESORonaldo Rivera, San Jose Barangay CaptainRomero Santos, Municipal EngineerChristopher D Rivera, Municipal AdministratorAvenel “Nel” Colina, Mayor’s Administrative Staff Nemencio M. De Leon, MPDCJosephine L Labasbas, MSWDOJayfie Nasarro, DILGCouncillor Ron CruzRosebel C. Fajardo, MNOJose Carlos Mañaol, PYAP BaliwagJomari L. Saroudo, PYAP BaliwagBrenda C Bernardo, POPCOMArsenia Huertazuela, MAOGrace C. Solaforio, MAO Extension OfficerJosefina S.  Adriano,  Accounting DepartmentGerald Abary, MDRRMOEdgar Luna, MENROTeresita SJ. Fabian, MEEMRosario Bautista, Municipal Tourism OfficerDr Joan Dinlasan, RHU PhysicianMaria Riccel Fajardo, Municipal AssessorLoudres Castro, Local Civil RegistrarLaarnie B. Vera-Lauro, Mall Marketing Manager SM City BaliwagAlvin S. De Galicia, Building Admin Officer, SM City BaliwagRodolfo S. Cruz Jr., OIC Water Resource Division, BWDRoberto D. Estrella OIC , Engineering Dept., BWDWillie Domingo, Municipal PhotographerVictoria E. Signo,  OIC, Sewerage and Sanitation Division, BWDNorman Oliver Ragil, Engineer, BWDAlvin Santos, Rotary Club of BaliwagA special thanks to Mayor Carolina D D L. Dellosa for her support to us in writing and researching this report.This entire experience would not have been possible without the tireless effort and guiding wisdom of Professor Nora Angeles.5759Appendix 1:Acronyms ACRONYMS BWD Baliwag Water District CCA Climate Change Adaptation CCA, 2009 (National) Climate Change Act, 2009 CCC  Climate Change Commission CBMS Community Based Monitoring System CDP   Comprehensive Development Plan CLUP   Comprehensive Land Use Plan CSO Civil Society Organization CSR Corporate Social Responsibility DILG Department of Interior and Local Government DRRM Disaster Risk, Reduction and Management DRRMO Disaster Risk, Reduction, and Management Office(er) ELA  Executive Legislative Agenda EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency GHGs  Greenhouse Gases 5860 61IEC Information and Education Campaign IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change  IRRI International Rice Research Institute LCCAP Local Climate Change Action Plan LGU Local Government Unit MAO Municipal Agriculture Office MENRO Municipal Environment and Natural Resources Office(r) MON Municipal Nutrition Officer MPDO Municipal Planning and Development Office MSWD Municipal Social Welfare Department NCCAP National Climate Change Action Plan NDRRMC National Disaster Risk, Reduction, and Management Council NFSCC  National Framework Strategy on Climate Change NGO  Non-Governmental Organization PAGASA   Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration PDRRMC Provincial Disaster Risk, Reduction, and Management Council PESO Public Employment Services Organization POPCOM Population Commission(er) RA    Republic Act RHU Rural Health Unit SCARP   School of Community and Regional Planning SMEs Small and Medium Enterprises TWG Technical Working Group UBC The University of British Columbia UN United Nations UNEP United Nations Environment Programme UN HABITAT    UN Human Settlements Programme WHO  World Health Organization     63Appendix 2:ResourcesRecommended Resources  Citation Description Planning Processes and Toolkits Adapting to Climate Change: Cities and the Urban Poor, International Housing Coalition (2011). An exploration of climate change adaptations specific to low-income populations in cities.  Provides an overview of vulnerabilities, challenges and opportunities for supporting adaptation within human settlements. Assessing Climate Change Impacts, Vulnerability and Adaptation: The Case of Pantabangan- Carranglan Watershed, World Agroforestry Centre (2010). An expansive coverage of different approaches to climate change adaptation, using the case study of Pantabangan Carranglan Watershed.  Basic Principles of Community-Based Monitoring, United Cities and Local Governments (n.d.) Provides guidelines and toolkits on monitoring using a community-driven approach.  Climate Change Adaptation: Best Practices in the Philippines, Department of Environment and Natural Resources. (2011) An exhaustive list of climate adaptation measures being taken in the Philippines by a wide variety of actors from all different sectors. An excellent compendium to consult in situations where examples are needed.  Guide to Climate Change Adaptation in Cities, The World Bank Group (2011).   A guide directed at the audience of municipal mayors and practitioners in developing countries.  The guide offers practical suggestions on developing a plan for climate change adaptation, impacts and adaptation for informal settlements, the urban poor, and other vulnerable groups, sector specific adaptive responses and financing adaptation in cities.  Participatory Climate Change Assessments, City of Sorsogon. (2010) A strong resource, developed in the Philippines, on how to engage in general climate planning while involving the community. Developed in partnership with UN HABITAT, easy to read, and with many examples.  Planning for Climate Change, UN HABITAT A general overview of planning tools for climate change adaptation. Easy-to-use guide with an asset-based, participatory approach that focuses on creating context-specific 6264 65(2012) climate adaptation policies.  Social Adaptation and Community Engagement Developing a National Informal Settlements Upgrading Strategy for the Philippines, ICF International (2014).  A document initiated by the Philippine Government as a response to rapid urbanization and climate change in the country.  The plan offers strategies with regards to upgrading informal settlements in the country.   Kitchen Table Sustainability: Practical Recipes for Community Engagement with Sustainability. Wendy Sarkissian et al. (2008) An extremely accessible guide to community engagement around sustainability issues, along with climate change.  Food Security City Climate Hazard Taxonomony: C40’s Classification of City-specific hazards, C40 Cities. (n.d.) Short, easy-to-read document detailing major threats to cities and how to conceptualize risk-perception as a city.  Climate Change And Food Security: A Framework Document, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2008). This report covers the effects that global warming and climate change could potentially have on food systems and security. It provides suggestions strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change to support food security.   Food Security and Climate Change, Ma. Gloria SF. Carrillo, Provincial Agriculturist (n.d.) Explanation of climate change’s impacts on food and overview of types of actions that can be taken in pursuit of resilience. Case-studies specific to Bulacan. Forest Ecosystem Valuation Study: Indonesia, UNEP. (2007) Exploration of how forest ecosystems contribute to ecosystem services for different localities. Strong examples and good framing for how to consider measures such as payments for ecosystem services. Water Sufficiency and Ecosystems  Shifting Course: Climate Adaptations for Water Management Institutions, World Wildlife Foundation (2011) Identifies a set of principles for climate-adaptive water institutions. The report includes five case studies from around the world that highlight different institutional responses to climate change and related challenges. Integrating Urban Agriculture and Forestry into Climate Change Action Plans: Lessons from Sri Lanka, RAUF Foundation. (2014)  An excellent case-study of integrating urban agriculture and forestry in Sri Lanka.  Infrastructure  Understanding and addressing risks of flooding in the city: the case of Barangay Potrero, Metro Manila, ACCORD, and Red Cross/Crescent Climate Centre. (2015)  Comprehensive, context-specific case-study of cooperation mechanisms and policy innovations in flood response and preparation in Metro Manila.  Infrastructure, Engineering and Climate Change Adaptation – ensuring services in an uncertain future, Royal Academy of Engineering. (2011)  This report sets out the engineering profession’s views on how to adapt the infrastructure system to the long-term effects of climate change and the short-term shocks of extreme weather.  67Appendix 3:Community Outreach Sector/Demographic Who Why Government Officials ¥ Municipal Staff from Major Departments ¥ Water district staff ¥ Rural Health Unit Workers As city officials, municipal and water district staff are experts on the service and programs that exist with regards to climate change.  As decision makers, they possess the power to further implement adaptation measures. Business People ¥ Market Association ¥ SM Baliwag ¥ Small business owners Business leaders possess the knowledge of how climate change will impact business across a variety of industries and sectors.   Barangay Leaders ¥ 15 leaders out of 27 barangays Barangay leaders have a deep understanding of the specific impacts that climate change may have on individuals and families in their day-to-day lives.  Civil Society Organizations ¥ The Catholic Church ¥ Daycare Teachers ¥ SAVERS ¥ Pag-asa Youth Association of the Philippines ¥ Silver Multi-Purpose Co-op ¥ Rotary Club of Metro-Baliwag ¥ Baliwag Humanitarian Civil Society Organizations have connections to the community that city officials may not otherwise have. As a result, they have specialized knowledge with regards to the particular societal groups they work and partner with. Women ¥ Mother leaders ¥ Young mothers Often underrepresented in policies and projects,  women are critically attuned to family and community life.  We wanted to know how climate change specifically affects women, and the families they are often so vital in ensuring well-being of.   Farmers ¥ Farmers from Barangay Piel and Farmers have a unique understanding of the ways in which Barangka livelihood can be so intertwined with changes in weather.   Seniors & Youth ¥ Senior Citizen’s Federation ¥ High School Students Senior’s possess historical memory necessary to understanding long-term changes in weather and adaptations as well as years of local knowledge.   6669Appendix 4:Adaptation Measures RankingsIn four different focus groups, our team conducted ranking exercises with community members to see what their priorities were for adaptation measures. These exercises evolved over the course of the project, but followed a general format:   1. Introduction of ‘standard’ adaptation measures drawn from secondary literature 2. Soliciting suggestions from community members of what was missing 3. Engaging in ranking exercises through ‘dot-mocracy,’ where each participant was given multiple votes to distribute wherever they felt was most important 4. Discussion after the voting of why decisions were made and what next steps were.   Of the four discussion groups we performed this exercise at, the demographics were as follows:   Women Leaders (July 8th, 2015): 15 women, 1 man. Average Age: 47.5 years old.  Institutional Staff (July 14th, 2015): 11 women, 7 men. Average Age: 42.6 years old. Actors present: Baliwag Water District, DILG, Municipal Departments, including, Assessor, COMELEC, Local Civil Registry, MAO, MEEM, MPDO, MSWD, PNP, POFP, RHN, PESO, POPCOM.  Tibag Barangay Workers (July 15th, 2015): 9 women, 1 man. Average Age: 44.7 years old.  5 Barangay Health Workers, 4 Mother Leaders, 1 LLN.  Multi-stakeholder Meeting (July 20th, 2015): 7 women, 5 men. Average age: 48.5 years old. Organizations covering services in 27 barangays: Baliwag Humanitarians (2,000 members), Day Care Teachers (31 members), PYAYP (50 members), Baliwag Rotary Club (20 members) SAVERS (45 members), Senior’s Federation (500 members), Silver Multipurpose Co-op (1,500 members)  	  	  Rank (#dots) Mother Leaders (16 participants) Institutional Staff (18 participants) Tibag Barangay Workers (10 participants) Multi-stakeholder Community Focus Group (15 participants)  Overall Ranking Overall Ranking Overall Ranking Ranked by Urgency Ranked by Importance Ranked by Ease 1 Family planning (12) Discipline to eco-programs (18) Family planning (12) IEC on CC (11) IEC on CC (10) IEC on CC (14) 2 Energy conservation (10) Education Information Campaign (14) Livelihood programmes for Informal Settlements (9) Clean drainage system (11) IEC on health (9) Tree-planting (10) 3 Improve tree planting (6) Funding Requirements for Adaptation Projects (7) Potential relocation (7) Trees planting (11) Clean drainage system (9) Waste segregation to protect drains (9) 4 Waste segregation (6) New Building Codes (5) Recycling program for livelihood (5) Reduce plastics to clear drains (9) Trees planting (8) Water conservation program (4) 5 Dog control program (4) Build Partnerships / CSR (5) Stronger relationships between barangays (5) Waste segregation to protect drains (8) Reduce plastics to clear drains (7) IEC on health (4) 6 Bicycle riding program (4) Upgrade Storm Water Management (4) No to plasti and styro (5) Early alert systems for disasters (8) Water conservation program (6) Livelihood programs in relocation areas (2) 	  	  6870 717 Prevention of teenage pregnancy (4) Master Drainage Plan (1) More health programs (5) IEC on health (7) Clean drainage system (3) Active transportation (1) 8 Rainwater harvesting- (3) Continuing Support and Training for Farmers (1) Improving accessible sidewalks (3) Water conservation program (4) More support for farmers (3) Reduce plastics to clear drains (1) 9 More secure fresh water (3) New Technology for Farmers (1) Shade on roads (3) More support for farmers (3) Livelihood programs in relocation areas (2) Early alert systems for disasters (0) 10 No plastic and Styrofoam (3) Designate 'flood strip' on Sidewalk (0) Stormwater (2) Livelihood programs in relocation areas (2) Improve farm-to-market roads (1) More support for farmers (0) 11 More health programs (3) Water and Sanitation Safety Plan (0) Improved tree planting (1) Active transportation (2) Early alert systems for disasters (0) Painting rooftops white (0) 12 Shade on roads (1) Banning Plastic to enhance storm-water protection (0) Education (1) Upgrade public market building (1) Cover sidewalks for shade (0) Cover sidewalks for shade (0) 13 Recycling program for livelihood (1)  Stronger communication (1) Painting rooftops white (1) Painting rooftops white (0) Upgrade irrigation system (0) 14 Potential relocation (1)  More secure fresh water (0) Upgrade irrigation system (1) Active transportation (0) Securing fresh water (0)  Improving sidewalks (1)   Cover public spaces (1) Incinerator (0) Improve farm-to-market roads (0)  Stronger relationships between barangays (1)   No smoking campaign (0) No smoking campaign (0) No smoking campaign (0)     Improve farm-to-market roads (0) Cover public spaces (0) Cover public spaces (0)     Securing fresh water (0) Waste segregation to protect drains (0) New insurance (0)     New insurance (0) New insurance (0) Securing fresh water (0)     Securing fresh water (0) Securing fresh water (0) Upgrade public market building (0)     Incinerator (0) Upgrade public market building (0) Incinerator (0)          73Appendix 5:Community Vulnerability MappingBarangay Busog Nayan Barangay Calantipay7274 75Barangay Catulinan Barangay Concepcion Barangay Hinukay Barangay Pagala76 77Barangay Piel Barangay SubicBarangay Santo Cristo Barangay Sulivan78 79Barangay Tangos Barangay TilapayongBarangay Tibag Conversations about ClimateChange AdaptationUsap-usapan tungkol sa pakikibagay sa panahon2 3Conversations about climate change adaptation.Usap-usapan tungkol sa pakikibagay sa panahon.A RESOURCE FOR RESIDENTS OF BALIWAGDAGDAG KAALAMAN SA MGA TAGA-BALIWAGWhat is climate change?Climate change refers to changes in weather (temperatures, precipitation, wind) over a long period. It is caused by greenhouse gases (GHGs) emitted into the atmosphere that absorb and trap heat.Ano ang Climate Change?Ang pagbabago ng klima ay ang pabagu-bagong pagtaas at pagbaba ng temperatura, ulan at hangin na nagaganap sa loob ng mahabang panahon. Ito ay nagmumula sa mga “greenhouse gases” na tumatagos sa ating kalawahan na siyang sumisipsip at kumukulong sa sa init ng ating mundo.Mga BungaInit Tag-tuyotKaramdaman   (heat stroke, dengue)Pagbaha Pagbaba ng mga AniWhat impacts will Baliwag face?HighHeatDrought Illness  (heat stroke, dengue)FloodingLess Agriculture YieldsTyphoons & StormsBagyo at HabagatMitigation is about dealing with the causes of climate change. This means reducing the amount of GHGs emitted into the atmosphere. However, the Philippines is already a very low emitter of GHGs.Mitigasyon:Pagbawas ng Sanhi ng Pagbabago-bago ng Klima: Ito any ang pagbabawas ng “greenhouses gases” sa ating kalawakan na siyang sanhi ng pagbagago-bago ng klima.Adaptation is about coping with the impacts of climate change. This means making adjustments to increase resiliency. The Philippines faces increasingly destructive climate change impacts.Adaptasyon: Pakikibagay sa Pagbabago ng Klima:Ang pakikibagay ay ang ating tugon sa epekto ng pagbabago ng klima. Ito ay ang ating patuloy na pag- hahanda sa mga diinaasahang epekto ng pagbabago ng klima upang tayo ay makagawa ng naaakmang  hakbang upang tayo ay maging matatag.  Ang pakiki-bagay ay maaring magawa sa ating pamayanan at gayun din sa rehiyonal at pambansang antas.Keep your barangay irrigation canals clean so farms have a steady water supply.Makipag-usap sa inyong mga kaibigan at kapamilya kung papaano sila maaring makibagay at tumugon sa hamon ng climate change.Ask your Barangay Hall about creating more shade in your neighbourhood, and other ways to keep people cool.Makipag-ugnayan sa inyong Barangay Hall kung papaano magkakaroon ng maraming lilim sa inyong pamayanan para maging malamig ang kapaligiran.Talk to your Rural Health Unit about how to cope with heat stroke, air pollution, and dengue.Makipag-usap sa inyong Rural Health Unit kung papano labanan ang heat stroke, polusyon ng hangin at dengue.Talk to your friends and family about how they can adapt to climate change!Makipag-usap sa inyong mga kaibigan at kapamilya kung papaano sila maaring makibagay at tumugon sa hamon ng climate change.Keep stormwater drains on your street clean to reduce street flooding.Panatilihing malinis ang mga daluyan ng tubig sa kalsada upang maiwasan ang pagbaha.Know the evacuation plan for your barangay for major storms, including where the nearest evacuation centre is.Alamin ang plano ng inyong barangay kung may bagyo, lalo na ang lokasyon ng pinakamalapit na evacuation centre.Diversify crops on farms by growing vegetables between rice planting and harvest seasons.Paramihin ang iba’t-ibang uri ng nga pananim sa pamamagitan ng pagtatanim ng mga gulay at prutas sa gitna ng panahon ng taniman at anihan.The Philippines is a very minor cause of climate change, but faces major impacts from climate change.  A strong Baliwag must focus on adapting to the impacts of climate change, not on mitigation.Maliit lamang ang kontribusyon ng Pilipinas sa climate change pero ito ay naaapektuhan nang malaki ng pagbabago ng klima. Ang matatag na Baliwag ay kaillangang tumugon sa pakikibagay, hindi sa pagbawas ng sanhi ng climate change. aman. How can Baliwag respond?Papaano Makakatugon ang Baliwag sa Hamon ng Climate Change?7 Ways You Can Adapt to Climate ChangePitong Paraan Para Makibagay sa Pagbabago ng KlimaBaliwag must adapt!Kailangang Makibagay sa Panahon ang Baliwag!4“People say that climate change has affected many. But for us, we must be flexible and try to make a solution to help our Mother Earth.”4 Executive Summary6 Introduction: Conversations  About Adaptation9 Guiding Values10 Methodology: Community  Conversations12 What is Climate Change?14 Profile of Baliwag16  Impacts of Climate Change in Baliwag18 Stories of Climate Change20 Recommendations22 Human Health & Security32 Food Security38  Water Sufficiency42 Infrastructure46 Industry48 Knowledge & Capacity Building52 Next Steps Toward an LCCAP54 Maraming Salamat Po!58 Appendices58 AcronymsBaliwag currently faces various impacts from climate change.HighHeatDrought Illness FloodingLess Agriculture YieldsTyphoons & StormsExecutive SummaryContinue livelihood programs in resettlement areasPlant local, non-invasive tree species on the sidewalks and roads for shadeHost IECs on heat-related health issuesUpgrade and maintain irrigation canalsContinue to implement educational programs for farmersEstablish a food systems plan and goals for creating food securityImprove water infrastructure maintenance through institutional coordinationPursue water conservation measures through jointly-created IECsTrain businesses, especially small and medium enterprises, and provide resources to be climate adaptiveLeverage new and existing corporate social responsibility policies for adaptationBuild staff and community knowledge on climate changeStandardize and increase data collectionjIncrease institutional collaboration with a climate Technical Working GroupContinue to prioritize upgrading stormwater drainage infrastructureIdentify and protect vulnerable infrastructureDecrease heat island effect through shade creation strategiesHuman Health & Security Food SecurityWater SufficiencyInfrastructure Industry Knowledge & Capacity BuildingThese recommended climate adaptations can be taken by all actors in Baliwag, from the municipal staff, to individual businesses. Baliwag is already adapting, and will only continue to become more resilient.“We love our home town here in Baliwag. It is so good to live in one’s own country.”The Philippines is a minor cause of climate change, but faces major impacts. Baliwag must focus on adapting to these impacts.High emissionsLow emissionsHigh risk from climate changeLow risk from climate changeBaliwag should focus on adaptationin response to climate change. This report combines the voices of Baliwag citizens, the strengths of the community, and the authors’ outside perspective to produce locally relevant adaptation recommendations.Summary of Recommendations5In Baliwag, we had conversations with community members from all walks of life. We learned about  the strengths of the community and of the challenges that it faces. Conversations are all about cooperation, building relationships,  and a willingness to explore new ideas. In the spirit of conversation we learned a lot, from the best places to get food, to the on-going impacts of climate change on farmers in Piel and Barangka. Conversations are central to our report; relationship-building and cooperation in conversations are some of our key values. The equal exchange of information in conversations served as a methodology. The conversations we had inform the report’s content. Finally, conversations about climate change, and how to adapt, should be one of the report’s major impacts.What we heard while having these discussions is that people in Baliwag want to have more conversations about climate change. These conversations need to be in both the municipal hall and in our homes. By talking to our loved ones, our friends, and our community about climate change adaptation, we can build a more resilient Baliwag together. Ngayon po pag - usapan natin  ang climate change!Conversations  About Adaptation769Authors’ Introduction We are six master’s students from the School of Community and Regional Planning at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada. We were asked by Baliwag to do community outreach and provide recommendations on climate change adaptation.We faced a number of limitations in writing this report. Our work was constrained to a one-month period. While we did our best to explore best practices in all related fields, as student planners, our own experience is still growing. Finally, as visitors, our knowledge of Baliwag’s context is limited.Toward an LCCAP The purpose of this report is to provide observations and recommendations to the Municipality of Baliwag as they begin to prepare their Local Climate Change Action Plans (LCCAP), as mandated by the Climate Change Act (CCA) of 2009. Our hope is that our research will inform the creation of local climate change plans and ultimately assist with the building of adaptation and resilience in the municipality of Baliwag. Specifically, the CCA mandates that “LGUs shall be the frontline agencies in the formulation, Our approach is informed by four guiding values which help ensure a holistic approach to building resilience in Baliwag.  It is only by bringing everybody into the conversation that we can successfully adapt to climate change together.Guiding ValuesOur approach highlights our interdependence with the natural environment. We normally think about the environment as separate from human society, and as an unlimited resource. In this report, we acknowledge that everything we do depends on the well-being of the environment. Everything in our society—our livelihoods, our food, our economy, our health—is nested within a sustainable and functioning environment. With this in mind, it is crucial to always consider the environment in both policy and our daily lives.By considering gender and social justice, we hope to support the goal of equity in the National Framework Strategy on Climate Change (NFSCC).  The NFSCC states that the NCCAP should create adaptation measures with  “special attention …given to ensure equal and equitable protection of the poor, women, children and other vulnerable and disadvantaged sectors.” Our research includes the voices of these vulnerable groups as they are often the most impacted by climate change.We used a strength-based approach in order to highlight the existing resources and assets of the Baliwag community. In doing so, we will be better able to support and build on existing successes and continue to make meaningful change. Baliwag has many strengths both at a community level and at a municipal level and we want to highlight these! For adaptation to be effective it must be specific to the local context, culture, and available resources. In our research we emphasize solutions and resources that are true to the local culture of Baliwag. Our suggestions also consider the existing resources available to Baliwag, such as available funding and equipment.  Locally Informed Gender &SocialJusticeConscious Strengths- BasedEnvironment Focusedplanning, and implementation of climate change action plans” and that adaptation shall be “one of their regular functions.” The resulting plans should include broad participation—including barangays, NGOs, and the business sector—and cover the full range of possible climate change impacts. The National Climate Change Action Plan (NCCAP) captures these impacts in seven priority areas, which require that Baliwag adopt a climate lens in all of its policies. The recommendations in this report are divided into themes reflecting five of the seven priority areas in the NCCAP. Reflective of community concerns, we have also added a sixth theme: infrastructure.811CommunityConversationsHow We Collected  Local KnowledgeAbove all, we wanted this report to reflect the local knowledge and resiliency of the people of Baliwag. We hosted discussions with the diverse groups listed on the opposite page, to hear people’s thoughts on climate change (refer to Appendix 3 for full list). This was accomplished through the following outreach initiatives:• 9 Focus Groups, directly reaching 95 people• 21 Informational Interviews• Site visits and observations• 35 Municipal Staff SurveysHow We Wrote This Report 1. We learned about how the municipality of Baliwag operated and reviewed all available documents and plans.  2. We conducted outreach in the community to hear people’s thoughts. 3. We explored best practices from outside sources. 4. We combined our research to develop recommendations in each thematic area.Government Officials: Municipal and water district staff are experts on existing services and programs in Baliwag.  They also possess the power to further implement adaptation measures.Business-People: People told us that having good livelihoods was a key concern. We spoke to business leaders who told us how climate change will impact business across a variety of industries.  Barangay Leaders: Barangay leaders understand the impacts that changing weather has on their specific neighbourhood. We heard from leaders from 15 of Baliwag’s 27 vv, ensuring that diverse geographical areas were represented in our report.Youth: The voices of youth are not often heard in policy discussions. We wanted hear their unique perspectives both in how they experience climate change today, and how they see the future.Women: Women are critically attuned to family and community life, but are often unrepresented in policy-making. Keeping with the NCCAP’s goals of gender equity, we asked how climate change specifically affects women, their families, and their community.Civil Society: Civil Society Organizations have connections to the community that city officials may not otherwise have. As a result, they have specialized knowledge with regards to the particular societal groups they work and partner with.Farmers: Farmers have a unique understanding of the ways in which livelihoods are intertwined with changes in weather. In addition to forming a key part of local economic and food systems, farmers will be directly and heavily impacted by climate change.Seniors: Senior’s possess historical memory of long-term changes in weather.  Seniors also play a strong role as respected leaders in their community, and can be catalysts for social change.1012Baliwag Must AdaptThe Philippines is a minor cause of climate change, but faces major impacts from climate change. Baliwag must focus on adapting to these impacts from climate change, not on mitigation. Many people we spoke to were very excited about mitigation measures to reduce emissions and keep the city clean.  Any environmental program that engages the community is great. Our report focuses only on adaptation, which is the only way that Baliwag will be able to cope with drought, typhoons, high heat, and other climate change impacts.  While mitigation is important, adaptation must be the priority for Baliwag in the long term.Climate change is a significant change in the Earth’s weather over a prolonged period of time, including changes in temperature, precipitation, and wind patterns.In the Greenhouse Effect, heat from the sun is trapped in the atmosphere and reflected back to the Earth.  Additional GHGs emissions increase the amount of heat trapped, leading to higher average global temperatures and changing climate conditions.  These changes have been linked to GHG emissions from human activity.Mitigation vs. AdaptationMitigation is about addressing the causes of climate change. This means reducing the amount of GHGs emitted into the atmosphere. However, the Philippines is already a very low emitter of GHGs.Examples of mitigation include:• Reducing car use• Reducing the burning of garbage• Using renewable energyAdaptation is about coping with the impacts of climate change. This means making adjustments to increase resiliency. The Philippines faces increasingly destructive climate change impacts, so adaptation is particularly important.Examples of adaptation include:• Clearing stormwater drains to reduce street flooding• Providing shade in public places to prevent heat stroke• Finding alternate sources of fresh water in case of droughtHow can we  respond?Did you know?This report focuses only on climate change adaptation. This means that several topics that community members were passionate about are not addressed, even though they are related to the environment. Here are three popular topics that might seem related to adaptation, but are not covered in this report:Did you know... that waste segregation is not adaptive? It is good for the environment and keeps your community clean, but it does not help us cope with the impacts of climate change.Did you know... that earthquakes are not related to climate change? It is important to prepare for them, but earthquakes are caused by tectonic plates moving, not by changes in the weather.Did you know... that planting trees is only mitigation if you are planting a large forest? Planting trees to provide shade is good adaptation, but they aren’t enough to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions.More GHGs in the atmosphere amplify the trapping of heatRadiation from sun heats the EarthWhat is  Climate Change?1314 15Profile of BaliwagFarmland• 2,900 ha of farmland• 1,800 farmers• Average land holding of 1.25 ha per farmerIrrigation• All farms have access to the irrigation system• Canals can become clogged with debrisBarangay Hall• 27 barangays• Provides services and information• Barangay Captains, Mother Leaders, and Rural Health Unit (RHU) staff based out of Barangay HallsSM City• Largest shopping mall in Baliwag• 300+ stores• Major employer• Environmentally-focused CSR programsUrban Growth• A first-class highly urban municipality• 143,500 inhabitants• 25,000 households• A major urban and economic centre of northern BulacanInformal Settlements• Common along Angat River• Inter-governmental program relocating some settlers• Two social housing sites in BaliwagMunicipio• Total income:  320m pesos• Received Financial Good Housekeeping award in 2014• Recently created MDRRMOPublic Market• 600 vendors• 1,280 permanent establishments• Located in Barangay PoblacionChurch• Five churches and 24 chapels• Runs community programs, charity initiatives, and other servicesIndustry• Major industries include: furniture, garments, gifts, swine, and chicken production• Traditional buntal hat industry• Home of Baliwag Transit companyAngat River• Part of the Angat River Basin• Provides water for irrigationGround-Water• 21 water pumps throughout Baliwag supply most of drinking water• Subsidence is 2.54 cm per year due to increasing ground-water extraction16 17Unstable  Food SupplyDroughtForest and  Grass FiresHeat-RelatedIllnessesLower  Air QualityDegradation of Roads and BuildingsChange to  Daily LifeWater  ScarcityStress on  AquifersDamage to  Crops and  Lower YieldsHeat• heat exhaustion• heat stroke• hypertension• respiratory  illness from  air pollution• sickness from  temperature changes• cannot do chores or work outside• stress and fatigue• people go to malls instead of market• use of aquifers  for irrigation• reliance on water source at risk of leaching• flooded rice fields• no irrigation water• changing planting and harvest times• lack of local foods• higher food costsProperty  DamageStress  on DRRM  resourcesVector- BourneDiseasesFloodedDrainage  SystemHazards for Informal  Settlements• caused by overland flooding only• buildings collapse from strong winds• water damage due to rain and floods• caused by river  flooding only• dengue• malaria• outbreaks in new areasStorms &  TyphoonsDisruption  of Daily LifeSoil ErosionFlooding• cannot go to work, school or market• blackoutsPrecipitation ChangesImpacts ofClimate Change in BaliwagFrom our conversations with community members, we learned that the people of Baliwag are already feeling the impacts of climate change. This diagram summarizes what we heard, and reflects the diverse challenges presented by climate change. The cascading nature of climate change means that there will be many indirect, far-reaching impacts not included here, such as pressure on the insurance industry, economic instability, and more. Some groups, such as farmers, may feel multiple effects.18 19Stories of Climate ChangeA Farmer“Climate change has affected our life in many ways. In the past, there are not too many health problems, but now people frequently acquire diseases. For example, heat stroke, - it is so common for people to have heat stroke. In the past, there were not so many deaths – very infrequent – but last year alone I know of 30 people who died of heat stroke. Somehow there is a domino effect, when one person dies, another will die.”A Catholic Priest“It was about three years ago that people started thinking about climate change. It’s hard these days, the typhoons are terrible. Many die of heat stroke. During mass, it is very hot, so we have to improve the cooling system of the church. During rainy days we need to be ready to give help to the needy. It is God’s will for us to take care of ourselves, and part of ourselves is the environment. God created us, and He created the environment.” A Municipal Staff“I have noticed how climate change has affected us. We have heavier rains now, so we need better storm drains on the streets. The current drains were built many years ago, we need upgrades to accommodate the heavier rains. The asphalt on the roads is also deforming because of the heat, and from the weight of the trucks on the road. We are starting to use concrete now, although it has a higher rolling friction.”A Public Market Vendor“Now, the rainy season is longer and the sales go down because of the rain. During the typhoons, the sales go down even more. During the dry season, nobody wants to come to the market because of the heat. They prefer going to the malls because they are air-conditioned and covered. Here, it’s too big and costly to cool the public market.   But that’s ok, the malls can provide convenience, but they can’t provide the variety and prices we do.” A Young Mother“I feel irritated by the hot weather.  Before it was okay, we would expect rain in June but now it’s even hotter after the rain.  I have a four year-old with asthma and she gets asthma attacks with the weather changes.  I don’t have air conditioning so the weather changes hurt her.  Because of the heat, I can’t do all of my chores during the day.  It’s too hot on the street to walk to the store or run errands, there is no shade.”21Human Health & Security Food Security Water Sufficiency Infrastructure IndustryKnowledge & Capacity Building RecommendationsThese six themes illustrate the diverse sectors impacted by climate change in Baliwag. They contain a summary of what we heard from the community, the impacts of climate change on the sector, and the existing strengths in Baliwag.  Each sector also has a set of key recommendations for priority implementation, as well as general recommendations. These insights were drawn from conversations with the community and municipal staff, meaning that people are interested in these proposals and feel they can be feasibly implemented. They should be considered the start of an ongoing process of community engagement on this issue.Specific adaptations have been labelled as “People’s Voice” recommendations, as they were consistently popular with community members. These are marked with a speech bubble.People’s Voice!2022 23HealthNumerous health impacts are provoked by climate change and often affect the most vulnerable populations, including seniors, women, and children. The NCCAP is concerned with the impacts of climate change on the health of individuals in the Philippines and states that municipalities should ensure “health and social protection delivery systems are responsive to climate change risks.” It is important to focus on developing stronger health and social programming in order to better adapt to climate change-related illnesses. • There is a high concern in the community about the impacts of climate change on health. • Community members have knowledge about preventative measures for heat-related illnesses such as heat exhaustion and heatstroke. For example, farmers at Piel mentioned the importance of eating healthy in helping to prevent hypertension. • The municipality wants to focus on prevention of diseases rather than treatment. • Climate change can affect livelihoods and cause people to be unemployed, which raises their risk of health issues.• Hotter temperatures increase the likelihood of heat exhaustion and heat stroke, especially among those working outdoors, such as farmers and construction workers. • Elders are more vulnerable to heat-related illnesses.• Stagnant water from increased precipitation can increase the prevalence of diseases carried by mosquitos, such as dengue and malaria.  • Hotter temperatures can intensify air pollution, exacerbating respiratory conditions such as asthma.• Mother Leaders have a strong role in the community.  As providers of social protection services, Mother Leaders are an important community resource and act as a liaison between the municipality and the community. • RHUs conduct preventative educational programs (pap smears, health classes, immunizations), and incorporate information about climate change-related illnesses, such as dengue. • Ongoing outreach programs enrol community members in PhilHealth, which will be key as the prevalence of climate change-related illnesses are projected to increase. Impacts Existing StrengthsWhat We HeardKey Recommendations for HealthRecommendation Justification Implementer Trade-offsPlant local, non-invasive tree species on the sidewalks and roads. Planting more trees in the city would increase shade in the city and would allow pedestrians to walk more comfortably. Engineering Office, MPDOIt is expensive to plant trees, so other types of shade provision could be pursued, such as covered walkways.Continue educating the community on the direct impacts of climate change for health, especially in relation to heat exhaustion. May prevent deaths or illnesses related to climate change. For example, being aware of the signs and symptoms of heat stroke may help prevent a death from this illness. RHUEducation programs require additional time and resources from municipal staff.Provide training for Mother Leaders on climate change related-illnesses. Since Mother Leaders have direct contact with Municipal Nutrition Office (MNO), they would be able to monitor and report incidents of climate change-related illnesses. They could also inform their communities on the prevention and treatment of climate change related-illnesses. MNOEducation programs require additional time and resources from municipal staff and Mother Leaders.  Monitoring programs may require additional support to implement. Create drinking and showering stations at each Barangay Hall and at other public buildings to help prevent heat exhaustion.May prevent deaths or illnesses related to climate change, such as heat strokes, dehydration, and heat exhaustion. RHU, Barangay LeadersCreating drinking stations may be too difficult or resource intensive. Barangay leaders could  boil water to have available for all visitors. Creating showering stations may be more resource intensive. People’s Voice HUMAN HEALTH & SECURITY25Informal SettlementsThe National Climate Change Action Plan states that it is a priority “to reduce risks of...vulnerable groups from climate and disasters”.   A city or municipality’s most vulnerable people can often be found living within informal settlements.  Addressing climate change adaptation in informal settlements means addressing poverty, housing, infrastructure, environmental degradation, and health concerns.  Physically, informal settlements tend to be built in exposed areas, including slopes, low-lying areas and ravines.  Informal settlements are designated as a national priority and require partnerships across municipal, provincial, and national levels of government. Baliwag has strategies in place to address the vulnerabilities of informal settlements, such as initiatives focused on the relocation of those within the community to safer, more secure housing.• Barangay Captains, Mother Leaders and Barangay Health Workers are incredibly involved and engaged in their communities.  They are in an excellent position to assist in supporting the informal settlements within different barangays.   • Individuals and families with a lack of resources are residing on land along the Angat River in Baliwag.  • Informal settlements along the Angat River in municipalities in Bulacan, including Baliwag, have been identified for resettlement to ensure safety.• The land along the riverbanks is subject to easements and is government land.  It is some of the only available land open for informal settlement.• Though many have been relocated, some individuals and families choose to stay in the informal settlement locations.• Staff from the MNO have identified informal settlements as having a high incidence of malnutrition. • Informal settlements in Baliwag are especially vulnerable to flooding from heavy rains due to a lack of proper stormwater drainage. • High precipitation and extreme weather events have contributed to the need to relocate informal settlements. • The relocation of informal settlements has meant that sometimes individuals and families are distanced from work, education, and community, making their transition to a new home difficult.  • Informal settlements are the responsibility of converging levels of government. For example, the National Housing Authority has provided Baliwag with around 1,000 homes for informal settlements. • It is often up to the municipality to provide social programming for these communities.  Employment for this population is a barrier.• To ensure the safety of residents, barangays have ordinances that do not allow informal settlers to live in identified danger zones or vulnerable areas.• Social housing projects in Baliwag, as well as in other places in Bulacan, are helping to reduce the number of people living in informal settlements.Impacts Existing StrengthsWhat We Heard• The social housing sites are: BDO Foundation-Red Cross Village in Barangay Hinukay and Gawad Kalinga in Barangay Piel.  • The Municipal Social Welfare and Development Office (MSWDO) works closely with relocation initiatives.Baliwag also has the following capacity development interventions with the target group of informal settlers, as outlined in the ELA 2014-2016.• Organize a Local Housing Board.• Incorporate Chairmanship in Committee on Infrastructure.• Formulation of a Local Shelter Plan. HUMAN HEALTH & SECURITY2426 27Key Recommendations for Informal SettlementsRecommendation Justification Implementer Trade-offsPartner with social housing organizations to implement livelihood programs in relocation areas. When informal settlers are relocated, they are often distanced from their sources of livelihood.  To assist families in supporting themselves skills training programs, job matching programs, and other employment services may be of great service. PESOJobs must be available for livelihood programs.  Often low barrier jobs exist within an already saturated market, so new employment areas should be pursued where possible.Community-specific asset and vulnerability assessments should be performed and shared.Understanding land use, daily cultural practices and specific vulnerable populations within informal settlements could be very useful.  When vulnerabilities and assets are well understood they can be better addressed and utilized to increase adaptation to climate change. MSWDO, Barangay leaders, Community Groups working with informal settlementsA time intensive initiative.  Social stratification often exists between marginalized groups and those in power.  Trust must be built to learn about the challenges and assets that exist within informal settlement communities. Take a participatory approach to relocation planning.A bottom-up approach to the resettlement process involving the informal settlers will allow for better insight into the relocation process.  Key outcomes would include identifying where and how people want to be moved during the relocation process.Informal settlers, Barangay leadersThis could be a time-intensive initiative that requires the participation of informal settlers and municipal staff involved in resettlement process.Expand educational outreach to children in informal settlements.Existing outreach programs could focus on education to ensure children have access to school or daycare to reduce barriers in relocation.  Outreach efforts can also provide information about small household projects that will create more resilience to climate change. Mother Leaders, MSWDO, MNO, DRRMOOutreach programs already exist in the community, adding on to such programs would require few additional resources. General Recommendations for Informal SettlementsRecommendation Justification Implementer Trade-offsProvision of immediate or short-term infrastructure programs.To ensure the short-term safety of those who continue to reside in informal settlements it may be useful to have programs in place to support improvements in infrastructure.  Engineering OfficeTime involvement depends on the infrastructure that needs to be completed.  If relocation is planned, short-term infrastructure projects may not be the best use of municipal finances.May be seen as encouraging informal settlers not to leave. Planned land for informal settlements. It is likely that informal settlers will continue to need land reside upon.  The land available to informal settlers in Baliwag is also the land most susceptible to climate change.  Designating safer land for informal settlements in the short-term may draw people away from residing along the Angat River. MPDOShort-term planning as opposed to long-term planning.  May be difficult to secure valuable land.  Continue livelihood programs within informal settlements.Informal settlements are often intertwined with other social and economic factors that present challenges to individuals and families.  Livelihood programs can support families in securing land title in the long-term.PESOSupporting residents within the informal settlement may be perceived negatively when relocation is a priority.  May be time-intensive.People’s Voice28 29Disaster Risk Reduction &ManagementBaliwag faces numerous natural hazards risks that are projected to increase with climate change, including river flooding, high winds from tropical storms, and grass fires during drought periods.  Additionally, there are vulnerable populations currently living in areas that are most at risk, such as in informal settlements along rivers that will not be structurally sound during floods or typhoons. Because climate change is projected to increase the frequency and intensity of weather-related natural disasters, knowledge about evacuation and response plans are essential for all community members. Disaster and risk management efforts must incorporate the impacts of climate change into their preparedness and response planning to best support adaptation measures, particularly for weather-related disaster events. Baliwag’s DRRMO plays an important leadership role in local climate change adaptation, and can support infrastructure projects and IECs to improve the municipality’s ability to respond to these impacts.• Baliwag has several evacuation centres across multiple barangays.• Evacuation centres are located close to vulnerable populations, such as informal settlers in Tibag.• The MDRRMO collaborates with adjacent municipalities and the provincial and national governments to improve regional disaster response coordination.• People in Baliwag are concerned about major flooding events in their community.• Heavy rains can cause flash flooding along rivers and creeks in Baliwag, and may affect some barangays more than others.• Streets may become flooded with increasing precipitation, making it difficult for the MDRRMO to service community members during disaster events.• High winds from major storms or typhoons may uproot or knock over trees.• Houses that are not structurally sound or do not have secure roofing may collapse during major storms or typhoons.• Droughts increase the risk of grass fires.• The MDRRMO in Baliwag is recognized as a leader in disaster risk management in Bulacan.• The MDRRMO does extensive outreach in the community to educate the public about how to safely deal with disasters.• Mother leaders and other community groups, such as SAVERS, work closely with the MDRRMO.• MDRRMO is constantly looking to improve its operations. They want to establish an early-warning system in all 27 barangays for natural disasters. Impacts Existing StrengthsWhat We Heard HUMAN HEALTH & SECURITY30 31Key Recommendations for Disaster Risk Reduction & ManagementRecommendation Justification Implementer Trade-offsImplement the early warning system for disaster awareness, as developed by the DRRMO, across all barangays.Climate change-related disasters require quick and effective response from the DRRMO across all barangays.  An early warning system would greatly speed up response and evacuation efforts. Informal settlers would particularly benefit from this initiative since they are the most affected by climate change.MDRRMO, MPDO, Engineering OfficeAlthough it would be a low-cost project, implementing this system, would require time and resources from day-to-day operations and may cut into the operating budget. This should be weighed against potential savings in the future.Expand IECs on disaster preparedness, evacuation, and include climate change adaptation.Educational outreach has been a success for the MDRRMO with Mother Leaders and at schools. These seminars should be expanded across all the 27 barangays.MDRRMO, Barangay leaders, SchoolsIECs take time, planning, and resources to implement. The MDRRMO may not have enough staff available to expand the programming, especially during the rainy season.Pursue partnerships with other municipal MDRRMOs to share resources for response and outreach.The MDRRMO already supports disaster response in other municipalities, and should continue to take on leadership roles in regional adaptation initiatives in order to pool resources and decrease collective regional vulnerability.NDRRMC, PDRRMC, MDRRMO Baliwag, MDRRM teams in other municipalities.There may not be enough staff to manage additional projcts, nor enough interest or funding from provincial or national governments to implement these partnerships. General Recommendations for Disaster Risk Reduction & ManagementRecommendation Justification Implementer Trade-offsPursue funding opportunities with different levels of government, and with foreign sources to help expand climate change adaptation projects. Highlight the exemplary role of the MDRRMO in Baliwag and the region when applying for funding.The MDRRMO can leverage its budget to support climate change adaptation projects, especially where they overlap with DRRM.  Additional equipment and alert systems are a priority.MDRRMO, NDRRMC, PDRRMC, DILG.Using the MDRRMO budget for adaptation measures may not leave enough funding to respond to disasters not related to climate change.Update flood hazard maps annually, for both riverine and overland flooding. The locations, intensity, and frequency of major flood events will increase with climate change.  Adapting to these impacts requires better knowledge of where flood risks are, both on riverbanks and in overland flooding (when stormwater drainage systems are over capacity).MPDO, Engineering Office, MDRRMO.Updating flood hazard maps, especially for overland flooding, can take time and be costly. Evaluate the community’s knowledge of and familiarity with the local DRRM and emergency response plans and actions.It is important that the community is aware of the services available to them in case of a natural disaster, as well as the actions they need to take in order to be safe. Involving the community will generate a fuller picture of the threats baliwag faces.MDRRMO, Barangay Captains, POPCOM.Time-intensive, but a useful way to ensure that DRRM policies act as they are supposed to.People’s Voice32 33Food ProductionAgriculture is an important industry in Baliwag, both for food consumption and for livelihood.  Agricultural production is highly vulnerable to climate change impacts such as flooding, drought, and extreme weather events. These impacts compromise the ability of farmers to manage crops and increases the volatility of agricultural earnings for farmers. The NCCAP states that agriculture is key for food security, but that “a large proportion of damages from disasters...are borne by agriculture every year.” Baliwag should continue pursuing adaptive measures and focusing resources to support farmers.• Despite the increase in heat and unpredictable weather, farmers continue to be resilient. They diversify their crops and continue to work in the heat. • Unpredictable water levels in canals directly affect yields, as fields depend entirely on irrication. Some farmers are now using groundwater instead of irrigation.• Farmers experience health impacts from hotter weather, such as heat exhaustion and heat stroke, which has been deadly in recent years. • Farmers are worried about the volatility of the agriculture sector and their livelihoods. • Rice cultivation depends on an ample and consistent supply of fresh water. Drought reduces the availability of fresh water, putting greater pressures on rice farmers. • Hotter temperatures can cause health problems for farmers, especially heat exhaustion and heat stroke.• Flooding from high precipitation can devastate agricultural crops. For example, nearly all strains of rice will not survive if flooded. • High winds and heavy rains from typhoons and major storms can flood rice fields, and farmers cannot tend to crops during these extreme events. • Baliwag provides nearly 100% of irrigation for farmers and the Water District works hard to ensure continued supply. Farmers are more resilient when they have access to a consistent water supply instead of relying on rainwater. • The Municipal Agriculture Office (MAO) implements successful programs to assist farmers and support local agriculture, such as subsidized seedlings and liquid fertilizers, as well as rice seed distribution.• The MAO hosts educational seminars about planting and harvesting, and has developed good relationships with farmers.Impacts Existing StrengthsWhat We HeardKey Recommendations for Food ProductionRecommendation Justification Implementer Trade-offsMaintain clear canals  for water flow.Water flows more easily in well-maintained canals that are clear of debris. MPDO, Barangay LeadersAdditional staff may need to be hired to clean irrigation canals, requiring significant investment.Upgrade irrigation canals.Upgraded and larger canals will improve the reach and capacity of water servicing for irrigation.BWDThe project would require large upfront investment, potentially compromising other services.Increase access to rice and grain warehousing.Many farmers are forced to sell their rice even when prices are low. Warehousing facilities allow farmers to store their rice during rainy seasons to reduce spoilage.MAO, farming cooperativesWarehouses would require large investments, potentially competing with other services and programs for funding.Promote diversification of agricultural crops, such as rice strains and vegetables.A diverse agricultural industry is more resilient, as some crops are better suited to certain climate conditions than others. Vegetables can be planted between rice seasons to ensure income sources for farmers if rice crops become damaged.  MAOExisting local knowledge may be limited to certain crops and additional training may be required for farmers.Continue to support subsidized seedling distribution to farmers.Providing free or subsidized seedlings helps farmers skip the vulnerable germination period for seedlings and better predict the success of their crop.MAO, IRRI (International Rice Research Institute)MAO may not be able to expand this program without hiring new staff. Work with PESO to diversify livelihood options for farmers transitioning out of agriculture through entrepreneurial and skills-training programs.Some farmers may wish to acquire new employment or develop new skills outside of farming if the agricultural industry becomes too volatile. The municipality can support farmers in diversifying their skill set. PESO, MAOTraining and capacity-building programs would require municipal resources and would need to certify farmers in their skills development.People’s Voice FOOD SECURITY34General Recommendations for Food ProductionRecommendation Justification Implementer Trade-offsImplement new water sourcing for agriculture, such as pumps to tap groundwater as opposed to relying on irrigation canals.The Angat River does not provide sufficient water to meet Baliwag’s irrigation needs. Farmers may need to access other water sources, such as groundwater, for agricultural purposes.BWD, MPDO, Barangay CaptainThe extent of the groundwater supply is unknown. The sustainable rate of extraction has been set at 24 Litres per second (LPS) by the BWD, so water conservation is a crucial part of this strategy.Farmers may require subsidized pumps. Implement educational programs with the region’s farmers to promote knowledge exchanges around CCA.Farmers from across Bulacan and Luzon can benefit from learning about existing adaptation strategies that have been successful. MAO, farming cooperatives, and community organizationsLearning exchanges take time to plan and resources to implement. Farmers would need to travel.Improve and support new agricultural crops technologies.This implies both new methods for planting and harvesting, as well as new strains of seeds (flood resistant seeds), in order to assist in adaptation.MAOTechnological advancements take an uncertain amount of time to develop, and may require lengthy testing periods.Provide information about innovative and low-barrier agricultural and farming insurance products that use weather-based indices, especially among cooperatives.Farmers may require more comprehensive insurance products for increased frequency and intensity of climate-related events. See Philippine Crop Insurance Corp (PCIC) for more details.MAO, farming credit unions, cooperativesInsurance may not be accessible to everyone, particularly those in extreme poverty, as it requires investment.Streamline methods for receiving PAGASA data on the likelihood of droughts and other climatic disruptions to get to farmers and other water users.The MAO is very active in attempting to inform farmers about the weather situation,  and if a more direct connection with PAGSA is made, the speed at which information can be shared is greater. MAO There are no immediate trade-offs.3536 37Food ConsumptionThe NCCAP emphasizes the need to“...ensure availability, stability, accessibility, and affordability of safe and healthy food amidst climate change.”  Climate change can directly compromise the production of food, leading to rising prices and decreased availability.  In Baliwag, the proportion of people living in urban areas is increasing.  If local agricultural production is negatively impacted by climate change, so is the accessibility and affordability of food.  Access to healthy, safe, and affordable food is reliant on regional, national, and global conditions. • The weather impacts individual choices about where to buy food. Large supermarkets offer protection from the rain, and air conditioned stores act as refuge from heat.  • The public market, despite its exposure to weather, offers a variety of foods at competitive prices.  • Farmers are transitioning from the agricultural industry to other sectors, which are perceived as more reliable employment options. • Changes in weather, including hot days and heavier rains, impact crop management and agricultural yields.  • The high cost of agricultural inputs for farmers makes it more difficult to provide communities with safe and affordable food.  • Heat and rain impact the types of food available at supermarkets and local food stalls.   • As outlined in the ELA 2014-2016, Baliwag has the goal to rehabilitate farm to market roads.  This will encourage and facilitate the transport of food from agricultural areas to local markets.  • SM City Baliwag, through their SM Cares program, has a fruit and vegetable garden located on their property.  They donate food grown to charity as well as make the food available for sale to their staff. • The Baliwag Public Market offers a wide variety of affordable, local food choices.Impacts Existing StrengthsWhat We HeardKey Recommendations for Food ConsumptionRecommendation Justification Implementer Trade-offsCreate partnerships between the municipality and barangays to promote urban gardens.Promoting urban gardening on both private and publicly-owned land would encourage awareness of food systems, increase access to food, and promote greater food diversity.Nutrition Office, MAO, Barangay LeadersThis would be time intensive at the barangay level, requires land and seeds and is water dependent. Once initiated it will require little time and resource at the municipal level.Connect local farmers to local businesses, including grocers and restaurants.Supporting farmers in selling their products to local restaurants and grocery stores will shorten the supply chain. This could mean creating a list of farmers and their products so they are easily accessible.  PESO, MAOTime intensive for start-up.  Masterlist would require regular updating.Form a food security sub-committee to the Climate Change Technical Working Group (CCTWG) (to be created; see Knowledge and Capacity Building). A CCTWG sub-committee on food could anticipate and plan for the likely impacts of climate change on food and promote actions to create food security.Farmers, MAO, land-owners, cooperatives, BWDTime intensive. Requires volunteer time from the community and leadership from the municipality.  Establish a food systems plan and establish goals for creating food security in Baliwag.With a sub-committee on food convened, their primary task could be to develop (and integrate into policies) a plan to create food security.Farmers, land-owner cooperatives, MAO, BWDTime intensive. Requires volunteer time from the community and leadership from the municipality. People’s Voice FOOD SECURITY38 39Water SufficiencyBaliwag’s water sources will be stressed due to rising temperatures and the increased risk of droughts. The agricultural sector will be disproportionately impacted by water shortages in irrigation canals. The general population of Baliwag may also face water shortages and vulnerable populations are at risk of dehydration if they do not have access to alternative water supplies for consumption. Acquiring new water sources and conserving the existing water supply reflect the NCCAP goal to radically restructure water management. These measures will ultimately help to ensure the provision of safe, accessible water for generations to come.  • Water supply is increasingly drawn from groundwater sources instead of irrigation canals, as farmers and other users look to set up pumps.• Irrigation canals can be blocked by solid waste and debris, reducing water flow to farms.• The Bulacan Bulk Water Supply Project promised new sources of irrigation water yet has still not arrive, disappointing many people in the municipality.• Many community members feel that Manila continues to get an unfair share of the water from the Angat River.• BWD has noted incidences of septic tanks leaching into the groundwater supply.• Changing patterns of precipitation may mean that water for irrigation and consumption is not consistently available.• The increase of flash floods, typhoons, or major storms can interrupt the supply of water for irrigation and consumption.• Droughts will increase water demand among agricultural and commercial sectors, and put greater strains on the underground water supply.• Hotter temperatures may increase the risk of dehydration and increase water demand.• The MPDO is working on a ten-year solid waste management plan, hoping to curb incidences of waste blocking irrigation canals. • BWD is actively engaged in IECs around water conservation.• BWD is aware of septic materials leaching into the ground-water and is actively working to combat this through a ten-year sanitation plan, supported by USAID.• Baliwag consumers generally have low water consumption rates on a global scale. Impacts Existing StrengthsWhat We HeardKey Recommendations for Water SufficiencyRecommendation Justification Implementer Trade-offsForm a water sub-committee within the Climate Change Technical Working Group (to be created, see Knowledge and Capacity Building) with the Municipality of Baliwag.Coordination on water resources is imperative, particularly between the municipality’s departments, BWD, and other local actors.  A sub-committee would be the ideal place to bring together these interests and set a vision.BWD, MENRO, MAO, Mayor’s OfficeThis initiative can be time consuming, and it might require hiring new staff.Provide additional resources for Barangay Officials to remove debris from irrigation canals, consider employment programs to hire canal maintenance workers.Farmers identified that waste in their irrigation water was causing problems with flow and with the quality of water used for their crops. Cleaner canals would increase water flow.MENRO, PESOProper equipment would be needed, which is expensive, and supervision from PESO and the barangays could be complicated.Pursue rainwater harvesting as a strategy to reduce the use of groundwater and secure additional water supply.Rain-harvested water can serve as a buffer against groundwater sources and act as a backup resource during droughts.BWDRainwater storage equipment can be expensive. Rainwater harvesters that are not properly sealed can lead to the presence of dengue-carrying mosquitos. Jointly develop IEC campaigns for residential users to reduce consumption.A jointly-developed IEC by the Municipality and the BWD could broaden perspectives about water usage and would create more opportunities to distribute informational materials.BWD, PESO, POPCOM, MENROCoordination would take time and involve jointly setting goals and priorities for water use in Baliwag.Develop water stewardship guidelines for businesses and provide them as IEC materials when business licenses are registered.Collaboration between the Municipality and the BWD can mean clearer standards and enhanced enforcement capacity when it comes to conservation and stewardship.BWD, MENRO, Business Licensing OfficeWater stewardship guidelines that feel too punitive may drive away businesses. Guidelines could aim to be inclusive and showcase opportunities for savings amongst businesses.People’s Voice WATER SUFFICIENCY40General Recommendations for Water SufficiencyRecommendation Justification Implementer Trade-offsPursue the development of watershed governance in Bulacan.The Angat River basin continues to be a source of national difficulty due to inequitable divisions of power and resources.  A regionally-focused governance system, with the municipalities collaborating with water districts, could mean fairer distribution of rights and uses.Mayor of Baliwag, BWD, MENROThis initiative would require time and effort from political leaders, who may need to overcome existing tensions.Though there are long-term benefits to this initiative, success may not be felt in the short-term.Form regional partnerships to deal with waste in irrigation canals.Many barangay leaders complain about the waste that moves through the irrigation canals from one barangay to another.  A regional, watershed-based approach to managing the canals will make it easier to prevent large-scale waste blockages.BWD, Barangay CaptainsLong-term partnerships would require time commitments from Barangay Captains, and may draw away from other local projects. Continue to monitor the status of groundwater resources, and determine a sustainable rate of withdrawal.While the water district continues to monitor water withdrawals, it is unclear how long this can last with increased withdrawal rates.BWDThere no short-term trade-offs as this program is currently implemented.4142 43InfrastructureInfrastructure provides important physical services that helps a community to function in everyday life, and includes systems such as roads, buildings, electricity, drainage, and water supply. Infrastructure systems can also be incredibly expensive to build and maintain, but can have a very long lifespan. It is crucial for Baliwag to build or upgrade parts of its infrastructure systems when possible and direct resources to infrastructure projects that can adapt to the impacts of climate change for many years to come. Prioritizing what to build or upgrade  is a difficult task, and Baliwag has the strengths to accomplish it.• Baliwag is prioritizing upgrades to its stormwater drainage system, which is unable to handle increasingly frequent and intense precipitation events, and is often clogged by debris.• Stormwater drainage upgrades are done on a piece-by-piece basis due to limited funding. • Funding is a challenge for major infrastructure projects, as they often require provincial and national resources.• Sidewalks are not accessible to people with disabilities, streets are not shaded enough for pedestrians, and maintenance of roads and repair of holes is inconsistent. • Stormwater management and drainage systems are more frequently overloaded from more intense precipitation. Street flooding can cause damage to roads and buildings, increasing maintenance costs.• Periods of drought will increase reliance on groundwater and can lead to water scarcity, especially in the agricultural sector. • Hotter temperatures will increase the “heat island” effect, as urban infrastructure creates and traps heat.• Building materials and facades will become damaged from heat and the increased intensity of precipitation.ImpactsWhat We Heard• Upgrading the stormwater drainage system is already a top priority for the MPDO, and work on planning, funding, and implementing the project has already started.• The Engineering Office is efficient at implementing and prioritizing projects.• Some adaptation measures have already been implemented in the municipality, such as modifying road surfaces.• Improving water supply sourcing has already begun with the Bulacan Bulk Water Supply Plan, which addresses water shortages from the Angat Dam supply.Existing Strengths• Hotter temperatures will damage asphalt.• Extreme weather events can cause failure or damage to key infrastructure systems, such as electricity.• New infrastructure will be needed for climate-related migrants and informal settlers.• Infrastructure use, such as transportation patterns, will change because of increased heat and precipitation.Key Recommendations for InfrastructureRecommendation Justification Implementer Trade-offsContinue prioritizing and finding funding for upgrading the stormwater drainage system.Upgraded stormwater drainage is required to increase capacity for more intense precipitation.MPDO, Engineering OfficeLengthy and expensive process to retrofit.Provide shade on roads and sidewalks using trees or other coverage methods.Shade will reduce the effect of heat and the heat island effect in urbanized areas on people, and allow people to walk comfortably outside when it is hot.Engineering OfficeMay be difficult to find space. Some options  require more maintenance  (ex. tree leaves clogging drainage).Continue to update a contingency plan to identify vulnerable areas/pinch points/cascade areas.Infrastructure may have new points of failure, and it is important to know where these are in case of emergency.MPDO, MDRRMO, Engineering OfficeAnalysis is time-consuming. Difficult to predict where these pinch points may be.Promote the use of white materials or paint on rooftops of buildings and vehicles (ex. jeepneys, tricycles).White rooftops will reflect light/heat more than other colours and allow for a cooler interior of the building or vehicle.Engineering OfficeDon’t have direct control over materials. Materials may be more expensive than common materials now. Paint requires maintenance.Increase maintenance and cleaning of stormwater drainage systems.Unclogging the drainage systems will allow water to flow and allow faster drainage in extreme weather events.Engineering Office, Barangay CaptainsShould also treat the cause of the clogging, which will lessen the cost of maintenance over time.Consider more dispersed production, treatment, and storage of key services, such as energy storage, backup generators, and water storage.In case of emergency, having dispersed key services will allow for functioning of key activities if infrastructure systems fail.MDRRMO, Engineering OfficeMay be expensive to provide storage. New infrastructure may be required.People’s Voice INFRASTRUCTURE44General Recommendations for InfrastructureRecommendation Justification Implementer Trade-offsEncourage use of building materials and styles (ex. natural cooling with large overhangs, tied-down roofs) that better withstand heat and precipitation.Building materials become less effective more quickly with increased heat and precipitation, so using more resilient techniques will prolong the lifetime of buildings.Engineering OfficeMunicipality has little direct control over this. Municipality can act as leader in implementing its own initiatives.Identify any major infrastructure components at risk in extreme weather events, and plan to move it over time.Some infrastructure may have to be relocated if is built in areas that are particularly vulnerable to climate change impacts.Engineering Office, BWDExpensive to move infrastructure.Collect data on the changing uses of infrastructure due to climate change impacts (ex. changing transportation peak times, peak use of water).Collecting data on changing use of infrastructure will inform new infrastructure investments and operations.BWD, MPDOMay not have baseline data.Will have to prioritize important data to collect.Where permeable surfaces are possible and appropriate, encourage their use.Permeable surfaces increase the ability for the ground to absorb precipitation, decreasing the load on stormwater drainage systems.Engineering Office, MPDOPermeable surfaces often have lower load capacity and may be more expensive.Use natural infrastructure where possible and cost-effective, such as planting bamboo and acacia trees on river banks to prevent soil erosion.Natural infrastructure can be cheaper and more effective than “hard” infrastructure, and also provides ecological services.Engineering OfficeNatural infrastructure may not be sufficient.  Some natural infrastructure may not work for various reasons (ex. mahogany trees are eaten by goats).Consider more dispersed production, treatment, and storage of key services (ex. energy, water, food), such as energy storage, backup generators and water storage.In case of emergency, having dispersed key services will allow for functioning of key activities if infrastructure systems fail.DRRMO, Engineering Office.May be expensive to provide storage. New infrastructure may be required.4546 47IndustryFor Baliwag to be resilient in the face of climate change, a strong business sector is essential. People across Baliwag have said that improving livelihoods and reducing poverty are key issues in their communities. By ensuring that businesses are prepared for the impacts of climate change, citizens of Baliwag will be better able to prosper moving into the future.• The agricultural sector has been harmed by unpredictable weather.  With lower yields, some farmers are shifting out of the agricultural sector and are selling their land for subdivision development. Finding new employment can be particularly difficult for those over 35.• People are discouraged from going to the public market by typhoon rains or high heat, preferring air-conditioned, indoor malls instead. This hurts small market vendors.• Small business operators and self-employed people are vulnerable to sudden changes in prices for crops, or supply chain disruptions by extreme weather.• Individuals working outside may face disruption to their routine due to high heat.• Providing jobs and sustainable livelihoods is a key priority that has positive effects for health, resilience, and social mobility.• The Province may classify the municipality as an industrial development area, which may increase the pressures Baliwag is already facing to industrialize. • Baliwag’s employment is currently about 50% agricultural, but this is decreasing as farmers increasingly sell their land for subdivision development.• Negative impacts from climate change are felt especially by farmers and small vendors in public markets.ImpactsWhat We Heard• Businesses are attracted to Baliwag as an economic centre in Bulacan and people are proud of the city’s commerce.• The MAO provides training to farmers so they can try to sell their food to grocery stores through co-operatives. Currently, farmers’ crops may not meet the quality standards that large grocery store chains employ.• SM City, a major employer in Baliwag, has an interest in promoting sustainability through their corporate social responsibility programs, such as the recycling-focused Trash to Cash program. SM also contributes to disaster response by allowing individuals to leave their vehicles at the mall during floods.Existing Strengths• PESO provides career-readiness training to individuals, including specific training for climate-proof jobs such as call centre positions. Many job postings offered through PESO are not directly impacted by climate change, such as secretarial roles.• A trade fair involving Baliwag’s farmers cooperatives is planned.where farmers can display and sell their agricultural products, is planned.Key Recommendations for IndustryRecommendation Justification Implementer Trade-offsProvide IECs for businesses on climate adaptive practices.Capacity building for small businesses on appropriate insurance products for extreme weather events, business continuity plans, rainwater harvesting and diversifying supply chains. will strengthen resilience in the business sector. Business licensing office, PESO, BDOStaff time will have to be devoted to researching relevant adaptive practices for local businesses.Continue supporting cooperatives for self-employed individuals in PESO’s livelihood programme.Continue to connecting individuals in PESO’s livelihood programs and supporting cooperatives will reduce individual vulnerability to climate change impacts.PESOIt is uncertain to what degree cooperatives will be able to provide successful programs in all cases.Improve access to reliable credit sources to small businesses.Businesses generally require at least 50,000 pesos to buy goods to sell, but it is currently difficult to borrow more than 10,000 pesos. This may involve strengthening credit co-ops, or providing larger loans.PESOThis could be a time-intensive initiative that requires the participation of informal settlers and municipal staff involved in resettlement process.Promote shopping at the public market.Highlight the benefits of buying from local food producers in a promotional campaign to encourage people to support local agriculture.BDO, Tourism OfficeOutreach programs already exist in the community, adding on to such programs would not require many additional resources. People’s Voice INDUSTRY48 49Knowledge & Capacity BuildingKnowledge and capacity building is a broad, cross-cutting theme. Policy makers must have “enough knowledge of the science, issues, and risks” of climate change to act effectively. Capacity refers to the ability of communities and institutions to implement adaptive measures. In an LCCAP, knowledge and capacity building encompasses municipal staff, sectoral leaders, and the general public. It also includes actions like training to IECs. Successful action means linking different actors and ways of knowing, from the young mother whose child is sick from the hotter days, to the meteorologist studying statistical data. • There is much knowledge about climate change in the community, people see that it is happening each day.• A survey of municipal staff showed significant conflation of adaptation with mitigation and with general practices of sustainability.• Climate change has directly challenged the traditional agricultural knowledge of groups such as farmers.• There is high demand for IECs to address climate change, including its impacts and potential adaptation measures.• Diverse sectors, from developers to farmers, rely on municipal information and guidance on topics such as water availability, flood risk, and expected crop yields.• It will become increasingly difficult to predict weather patterns such as El Niño and La Niña, and to anticipate extreme weather events. • Past climatic and weather information will no longer be as useful in helping to plan and predict future trends.• Floods and other weather-related disaster may destroy documents and equipment in Barangay Halls, RHUs, or in other municipal buildings.• Department heads attend seminars or trainings on climate-related topics.• Certain city departments talk to other nearby municipalities about climate change.• Baliwag regularly partners with local schools to educate children about climate change to increase awareness. • At a community-level, there is a general understanding that climate change is happening. Many community members have noticed a change in weather patterns and the effect that this has on their lives. Impacts Existing StrengthsWhat We HeardKey Recommendations for Knowledge and Capacity BuildingRecommendation Justification Implementer Trade-offsRequest local and state universities to collaborate on a monthly or quarterly ‘bulletin’ of summarized climate change research and impacts.Request local and state universities to collaborate on a monthly or quarterly ‘bulletin’ of summarized climate change research and impacts.MENRO, Municipal Administrator, POPCOMTime needs to be spent developing a system to integrate data into departmental decisions.Create a standardized database that is backed-up in the event of major disasters.There are many techniques used by the municipal government to store its data but there is no comprehensive system for archiving. The Municipality could streamline this process and include naming systems, and should aim to digitize and back-up data. Municipal AdministratorTime intensive, but potentially saves time and money later on by protecting important information.Develop a master list of all climate change IECs.A master list of all climate change IECs will create consistent messaging around general education, and around which adaptation practices are most relevant to different actors. This will also prevent duplication of efforts and allow previously developed materials to be used elsewhere.MENRO, Muncipal AdministratorTime consuming for the Municipal Administrator and MENRO.People’s Voice KNOWLEDGE & CAPACITY50General Recommendations for Knowledge and Capacity BuildingRecommendation Justification Implementer Trade-offsCreate a comprehensive information kit for Barangay leaders to discuss climate change with their community.Barangay leaders are often very connected to their community. They can disseminate information among their Barangays residents to reach a wide audience quickly.Barangay leadersIf information materials are provided at regular barangay meetings it will cause minimal disruption to barangay capacity.Collaborate with local universities to help train the municipal staff on climate change knowledge.Collaboration with local universities will allow the municipality to draw on relevant information about climate change from a localized perspective. Mayor’s Office, Municipal Administrator, MENROMinimal time commitment from municipal staff to create, but it is important to target the right staff for these training sessions.Create a catalogue of municipal programs that directly engages  the public and incorporates relevant adaptation information.Climate change requires that all sectors of society collaborate closely in order to increase their adaptive capacity. The municipality can take advantage of existing opportunities to engage with the community and discuss climate change adaptation.All departmentsCoordination takes time, but a complete list of all seminars and outreach programmes can streamline resilience efforts, avoid duplication, and conserve municipal resources.  Facilitate training on climate change topics for municipal employees.It is important for staff to be knowledgeable on climate change science and the differences between mitigation, adaptation, and sustainability.  Training might focus on climate change adaptation in the Philippines.All departments, BWDTraining can be costly, but more knowledgeable staff can improve results both in the  planning and implementation phases of climate change adaptation.Look for opportunities to collaborate with other municipalities on immediate threats or opportunities around climate change adaptation (ex. creating maintenance schedules for irrgiation canals between municipalities).Regional collaboration can create opportunities to share resources and address climate change impacts that affect many municipalities. Sharing resources can have long-term benefits for all municipalities, including cost-savings.Mayor’s Office, MENRO, MPDOThis will be a time intensive undertaking, especially for departmental heads.51Next Steps Toward an LCCAPThe creation of a LCCAP is often a large undertaking for resource-strained LGUs. Though a standalone LCCAP document is desirable, the CCC has also encouraged LGUs to incorporate their LCCAPs into the CDPs and CLUPs in recognition LGUs’ Option 1: A Formal,  Standalone LCCAP Develop a formal document which outlines the climate actions the Municipality of Baliwag intends to take, with specific actions for different actors, coordinated by a single agency, actor, or committee. Trade-offs: A resource intensive process, requiring time spent away from other planning projects and processes. However it is a specific, actionable product that completely fulfills the NCCAP Framework’s mandate to LGUs.Option 2: Integrate the LCCAP into the CLUP/CDP Insert a specific climate section into the CLUP and the CDP, written by the MPDO, and try to approach planning issues in these documents while prioritizing climate change adaptation.Trade-offs: Easier to create than a formal LCCAP. However, climate change impacts will affect many aspects of the municipality (more than just land-use), so a broader perspective on adaptation is desirable.Option 3: Integrate LCCAP actions into all plans Develop a series of climate change adaptation goals for all departments in the municipality. Departments are to formulate all future plans with these adaptation goals in mind. Trade-offs: Easier to do, but monitoring and evaluation becomes splintered across many departments.Option 4: Integrate LCCAP actions into all plans, and then catalogue these actions into an LCCAP Develop a series of climate change adaptation goals for all departments. Catalogue all adaptation-related actions into a single, cross-cutting document, to be submitted to the national government as the LCCAP. Trade-offs: More resource-intensive than simply allowing all actors to develop their own CCA actions, but provides an opportunity to look holistically at adaptation work done throughout Baliwag.limited resources. Integrating a climate change lens into a variety of documents can also foster resilience throughout the municipality’s work. Four potential products of a ‘climate lens’ are outlined below and are possible on their own or in any combination:Turning Goals into Action We recommend that a Climate Change Technical Working Group (CCTWG) be formed with major municipal stakeholders. The Iloilo LCCAP -- one of the first in the Philippines -- used the TWG structure to great effect during their planning process. We recommend that the following actors be included in this group, (other groups can be included in relevant sub-committees): •	 Municipality of Baliwag: MPDO, MENRO, Engineering, PESO, POPCOM, MAO. Treasurer•	 Other institutions: BWD, DILG•	 Civil Society Organizations: cooperatives, church groups, and other CSOsWith a CCTWG in place, a strategic planning approach can be taken to ensure the continued participation of community stakeholders in identifying climate change adaptation measures.  As stated by UN HABITAT in Planning for Climate Change:  A Strategic, Value-Based Approach for Urban Planners, this strategy is a “community-based decision-making process that incorporates local objectives to help determine priorities and...achieve agreed-upon goals.” Monitoring and EvaluationCollecting information on the implementation and performance of a plan is crucial to knowing what progress is being made. It can also allow policy makers to make whatever adjustments are necessary based on feedback.There are two relevant aspects to monitoring the implementation of a strategic plan:•	 Process Monitoring: Have the planned projects and activities been implemented?•	 Outcome Monitoring: What has been the impact of these projects and activities?One type of locally-specific outcome monitoring would be Community-Based Monitoring System (CBMS).  CBMS compiles the community’s local needs to better understand the impacts of municipal projects and activities, and is already in place in other municipalities in Bulacan.  Evaluation refers to critically examining the information gathered during the monitoring stage to assess whether adjustments or changes need to be made to the plan.  For Baliwag, this means asking: has the capacity of the community to adapt to climate change increased?52 5354 55Maraming Salamat Po! Climate change will continue to cause uncertainties in Baliwag and around the world, but resiliency can be woven through the spirit of conversation. From the municipality’s emphasis on community engagement, to the willingness of farmers to carry on in the face of immense challenges, the community has significant adaptive capacity. The conversations we have had in Baliwag serve as a strong foundation upon which to build an inclusive adaptation strategy.The purpose of this report is to highlight the voices and existing strengths of the Baliwag community in order to suggest adaptations to build physical and social resilience. Many of the recommendations in this report came directly from citizens of Baliwag. It is by continuing these conversations that innovative new ideas will emerge.Through investment in priority areas, the mobilization of existing community strengths, and the sharing of knowledge, Baliwag can keep  adapting into the future. The pride that the people of Baliwag feel in their city will continue to shine through in every conversation.“People from Baliwag are good and loving.”56About the AuthorsThis report was written by:George BensonAndrea HaberAlix KrahnAaron LaoMichelle MarteleiraMaria TrujilloThe authors are graduate students from the School of Community and Regional Planning at the University of British Columbia in Canada.  They visited the Philippines as part of the Philippines Planning Studio Course with Professor Leonora Angeles.  Coming from different academic backgrounds, the authors of this report interests’ span social planning, community development, urban design, community resilience building, climate change governance, and international disaster management. AcknowledgementsWe would like to extend our deepest thanks to all of the community members, municipal staff, and everyone else from Baliwag that we had the pleasure of interacting with during our project. Maraming salamat po!In no particular order, we would like to thank: All of the participants in our focus groups, surveys, and interviews. The young mothers of San JoseFarmers of Piel and BarangkaThe Mother Leaders of San Jose, Concepcion,  Poblacion, Bagong Nayon, Calantipay, San Idelfonso, Tarcan, Piel, St Cristo, and Tibag BarangaysSilver Purpose Cooperative The Rotary Club of BaliwagBaliwag Humanitarian AssociationNarciso Juana, President of Senior Citizens FederationSAVERS Volunteer RescueMaricar Caballero, PESORonaldo Rivera, San Jose Barangay CaptainRomero Santos, Municipal EngineerChristopher D Rivera, Municipal AdministratorAvenel “Nel” Colina, Mayor’s Administrative Staff Nemencio M. De Leon, MPDCJosephine L Labasbas, MSWDOJayfie Nasarro, DILGCouncillor Ron CruzRosebel C. Fajardo, MNOJose Carlos Mañaol, PYAP BaliwagJomari L. Saroudo, PYAP BaliwagBrenda C Bernardo, POPCOMArsenia Huertazuela, MAOGrace C. Solaforio, MAO Extension OfficerJosefina S.  Adriano,  Accounting DepartmentGerald Abary, MDRRMOEdgar Luna, MENROTeresita SJ. Fabian, MEEMRosario Bautista, Municipal Tourism OfficerDr Joan Dinlasan, RHU PhysicianMaria Riccel Fajardo, Municipal AssessorLoudres Castro, Local Civil RegistrarLaarnie B. Vera-Lauro, Mall Marketing Manager SM City BaliwagAlvin S. De Galicia, Building Admin Officer, SM City BaliwagRodolfo S. Cruz Jr., OIC Water Resource Division, BWDRoberto D. Estrella OIC , Engineering Dept., BWDWillie Domingo, Municipal PhotographerVictoria E. Signo,  OIC, Sewerage and Sanitation Division, BWDNorman Oliver Ragil, Engineer, BWDAlvin Santos, Rotary Club of BaliwagA special thanks to Mayor Carolina D D L. Dellosa for her support to us in writing and researching this report.This entire experience would not have been possible without the tireless effort and guiding wisdom of Professor Nora Angeles.5759Appendix 1:Acronyms ACRONYMS BWD Baliwag Water District CCA Climate Change Adaptation CCA, 2009 (National) Climate Change Act, 2009 CCC  Climate Change Commission CBMS Community Based Monitoring System CDP   Comprehensive Development Plan CLUP   Comprehensive Land Use Plan CSO Civil Society Organization CSR Corporate Social Responsibility DILG Department of Interior and Local Government DRRM Disaster Risk, Reduction and Management DRRMO Disaster Risk, Reduction, and Management Office(er) ELA  Executive Legislative Agenda EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency GHGs  Greenhouse Gases 5860 61IEC Information and Education Campaign IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change  IRRI International Rice Research Institute LCCAP Local Climate Change Action Plan LGU Local Government Unit MAO Municipal Agriculture Office MENRO Municipal Environment and Natural Resources Office(r) MON Municipal Nutrition Officer MPDO Municipal Planning and Development Office MSWD Municipal Social Welfare Department NCCAP National Climate Change Action Plan NDRRMC National Disaster Risk, Reduction, and Management Council NFSCC  National Framework Strategy on Climate Change NGO  Non-Governmental Organization PAGASA   Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration PDRRMC Provincial Disaster Risk, Reduction, and Management Council PESO Public Employment Services Organization POPCOM Population Commission(er) RA    Republic Act RHU Rural Health Unit SCARP   School of Community and Regional Planning SMEs Small and Medium Enterprises TWG Technical Working Group UBC The University of British Columbia UN United Nations UNEP United Nations Environment Programme UN HABITAT    UN Human Settlements Programme WHO  World Health Organization     63Appendix 2:ResourcesRecommended Resources  Citation Description Planning Processes and Toolkits Adapting to Climate Change: Cities and the Urban Poor, International Housing Coalition (2011). An exploration of climate change adaptations specific to low-income populations in cities.  Provides an overview of vulnerabilities, challenges and opportunities for supporting adaptation within human settlements. Assessing Climate Change Impacts, Vulnerability and Adaptation: The Case of Pantabangan- Carranglan Watershed, World Agroforestry Centre (2010). An expansive coverage of different approaches to climate change adaptation, using the case study of Pantabangan Carranglan Watershed.  Basic Principles of Community-Based Monitoring, United Cities and Local Governments (n.d.) Provides guidelines and toolkits on monitoring using a community-driven approach.  Climate Change Adaptation: Best Practices in the Philippines, Department of Environment and Natural Resources. (2011) An exhaustive list of climate adaptation measures being taken in the Philippines by a wide variety of actors from all different sectors. An excellent compendium to consult in situations where examples are needed.  Guide to Climate Change Adaptation in Cities, The World Bank Group (2011).   A guide directed at the audience of municipal mayors and practitioners in developing countries.  The guide offers practical suggestions on developing a plan for climate change adaptation, impacts and adaptation for informal settlements, the urban poor, and other vulnerable groups, sector specific adaptive responses and financing adaptation in cities.  Participatory Climate Change Assessments, City of Sorsogon. (2010) A strong resource, developed in the Philippines, on how to engage in general climate planning while involving the community. Developed in partnership with UN HABITAT, easy to read, and with many examples.  Planning for Climate Change, UN HABITAT A general overview of planning tools for climate change adaptation. Easy-to-use guide with an asset-based, participatory approach that focuses on creating context-specific 6264 65(2012) climate adaptation policies.  Social Adaptation and Community Engagement Developing a National Informal Settlements Upgrading Strategy for the Philippines, ICF International (2014).  A document initiated by the Philippine Government as a response to rapid urbanization and climate change in the country.  The plan offers strategies with regards to upgrading informal settlements in the country.   Kitchen Table Sustainability: Practical Recipes for Community Engagement with Sustainability. Wendy Sarkissian et al. (2008) An extremely accessible guide to community engagement around sustainability issues, along with climate change.  Food Security City Climate Hazard Taxonomony: C40’s Classification of City-specific hazards, C40 Cities. (n.d.) Short, easy-to-read document detailing major threats to cities and how to conceptualize risk-perception as a city.  Climate Change And Food Security: A Framework Document, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2008). This report covers the effects that global warming and climate change could potentially have on food systems and security. It provides suggestions strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change to support food security.   Food Security and Climate Change, Ma. Gloria SF. Carrillo, Provincial Agriculturist (n.d.) Explanation of climate change’s impacts on food and overview of types of actions that can be taken in pursuit of resilience. Case-studies specific to Bulacan. Forest Ecosystem Valuation Study: Indonesia, UNEP. (2007) Exploration of how forest ecosystems contribute to ecosystem services for different localities. Strong examples and good framing for how to consider measures such as payments for ecosystem services. Water Sufficiency and Ecosystems  Shifting Course: Climate Adaptations for Water Management Institutions, World Wildlife Foundation (2011) Identifies a set of principles for climate-adaptive water institutions. The report includes five case studies from around the world that highlight different institutional responses to climate change and related challenges. Integrating Urban Agriculture and Forestry into Climate Change Action Plans: Lessons from Sri Lanka, RAUF Foundation. (2014)  An excellent case-study of integrating urban agriculture and forestry in Sri Lanka.  Infrastructure  Understanding and addressing risks of flooding in the city: the case of Barangay Potrero, Metro Manila, ACCORD, and Red Cross/Crescent Climate Centre. (2015)  Comprehensive, context-specific case-study of cooperation mechanisms and policy innovations in flood response and preparation in Metro Manila.  Infrastructure, Engineering and Climate Change Adaptation – ensuring services in an uncertain future, Royal Academy of Engineering. (2011)  This report sets out the engineering profession’s views on how to adapt the infrastructure system to the long-term effects of climate change and the short-term shocks of extreme weather.  67Appendix 3:Community Outreach Sector/Demographic Who Why Government Officials ¥ Municipal Staff from Major Departments ¥ Water district staff ¥ Rural Health Unit Workers As city officials, municipal and water district staff are experts on the service and programs that exist with regards to climate change.  As decision makers, they possess the power to further implement adaptation measures. Business People ¥ Market Association ¥ SM Baliwag ¥ Small business owners Business leaders possess the knowledge of how climate change will impact business across a variety of industries and sectors.   Barangay Leaders ¥ 15 leaders out of 27 barangays Barangay leaders have a deep understanding of the specific impacts that climate change may have on individuals and families in their day-to-day lives.  Civil Society Organizations ¥ The Catholic Church ¥ Daycare Teachers ¥ SAVERS ¥ Pag-asa Youth Association of the Philippines ¥ Silver Multi-Purpose Co-op ¥ Rotary Club of Metro-Baliwag ¥ Baliwag Humanitarian Civil Society Organizations have connections to the community that city officials may not otherwise have. As a result, they have specialized knowledge with regards to the particular societal groups they work and partner with. Women ¥ Mother leaders ¥ Young mothers Often underrepresented in policies and projects,  women are critically attuned to family and community life.  We wanted to know how climate change specifically affects women, and the families they are often so vital in ensuring well-being of.   Farmers ¥ Farmers from Barangay Piel and Farmers have a unique understanding of the ways in which Barangka livelihood can be so intertwined with changes in weather.   Seniors & Youth ¥ Senior Citizen’s Federation ¥ High School Students Senior’s possess historical memory necessary to understanding long-term changes in weather and adaptations as well as years of local knowledge.   6669Appendix 4:Adaptation Measures RankingsIn four different focus groups, our team conducted ranking exercises with community members to see what their priorities were for adaptation measures. These exercises evolved over the course of the project, but followed a general format:   1. Introduction of ‘standard’ adaptation measures drawn from secondary literature 2. Soliciting suggestions from community members of what was missing 3. Engaging in ranking exercises through ‘dot-mocracy,’ where each participant was given multiple votes to distribute wherever they felt was most important 4. Discussion after the voting of why decisions were made and what next steps were.   Of the four discussion groups we performed this exercise at, the demographics were as follows:   Women Leaders (July 8th, 2015): 15 women, 1 man. Average Age: 47.5 years old.  Institutional Staff (July 14th, 2015): 11 women, 7 men. Average Age: 42.6 years old. Actors present: Baliwag Water District, DILG, Municipal Departments, including, Assessor, COMELEC, Local Civil Registry, MAO, MEEM, MPDO, MSWD, PNP, POFP, RHN, PESO, POPCOM.  Tibag Barangay Workers (July 15th, 2015): 9 women, 1 man. Average Age: 44.7 years old.  5 Barangay Health Workers, 4 Mother Leaders, 1 LLN.  Multi-stakeholder Meeting (July 20th, 2015): 7 women, 5 men. Average age: 48.5 years old. Organizations covering services in 27 barangays: Baliwag Humanitarians (2,000 members), Day Care Teachers (31 members), PYAYP (50 members), Baliwag Rotary Club (20 members) SAVERS (45 members), Senior’s Federation (500 members), Silver Multipurpose Co-op (1,500 members)  	  	  Rank (#dots) Mother Leaders (16 participants) Institutional Staff (18 participants) Tibag Barangay Workers (10 participants) Multi-stakeholder Community Focus Group (15 participants)  Overall Ranking Overall Ranking Overall Ranking Ranked by Urgency Ranked by Importance Ranked by Ease 1 Family planning (12) Discipline to eco-programs (18) Family planning (12) IEC on CC (11) IEC on CC (10) IEC on CC (14) 2 Energy conservation (10) Education Information Campaign (14) Livelihood programmes for Informal Settlements (9) Clean drainage system (11) IEC on health (9) Tree-planting (10) 3 Improve tree planting (6) Funding Requirements for Adaptation Projects (7) Potential relocation (7) Trees planting (11) Clean drainage system (9) Waste segregation to protect drains (9) 4 Waste segregation (6) New Building Codes (5) Recycling program for livelihood (5) Reduce plastics to clear drains (9) Trees planting (8) Water conservation program (4) 5 Dog control program (4) Build Partnerships / CSR (5) Stronger relationships between barangays (5) Waste segregation to protect drains (8) Reduce plastics to clear drains (7) IEC on health (4) 6 Bicycle riding program (4) Upgrade Storm Water Management (4) No to plasti and styro (5) Early alert systems for disasters (8) Water conservation program (6) Livelihood programs in relocation areas (2) 	  	  6870 717 Prevention of teenage pregnancy (4) Master Drainage Plan (1) More health programs (5) IEC on health (7) Clean drainage system (3) Active transportation (1) 8 Rainwater harvesting- (3) Continuing Support and Training for Farmers (1) Improving accessible sidewalks (3) Water conservation program (4) More support for farmers (3) Reduce plastics to clear drains (1) 9 More secure fresh water (3) New Technology for Farmers (1) Shade on roads (3) More support for farmers (3) Livelihood programs in relocation areas (2) Early alert systems for disasters (0) 10 No plastic and Styrofoam (3) Designate 'flood strip' on Sidewalk (0) Stormwater (2) Livelihood programs in relocation areas (2) Improve farm-to-market roads (1) More support for farmers (0) 11 More health programs (3) Water and Sanitation Safety Plan (0) Improved tree planting (1) Active transportation (2) Early alert systems for disasters (0) Painting rooftops white (0) 12 Shade on roads (1) Banning Plastic to enhance storm-water protection (0) Education (1) Upgrade public market building (1) Cover sidewalks for shade (0) Cover sidewalks for shade (0) 13 Recycling program for livelihood (1)  Stronger communication (1) Painting rooftops white (1) Painting rooftops white (0) Upgrade irrigation system (0) 14 Potential relocation (1)  More secure fresh water (0) Upgrade irrigation system (1) Active transportation (0) Securing fresh water (0)  Improving sidewalks (1)   Cover public spaces (1) Incinerator (0) Improve farm-to-market roads (0)  Stronger relationships between barangays (1)   No smoking campaign (0) No smoking campaign (0) No smoking campaign (0)     Improve farm-to-market roads (0) Cover public spaces (0) Cover public spaces (0)     Securing fresh water (0) Waste segregation to protect drains (0) New insurance (0)     New insurance (0) New insurance (0) Securing fresh water (0)     Securing fresh water (0) Securing fresh water (0) Upgrade public market building (0)     Incinerator (0) Upgrade public market building (0) Incinerator (0)          73Appendix 5:Community Vulnerability MappingBarangay Busog Nayan Barangay Calantipay7274 75Barangay Catulinan Barangay Concepcion Barangay Hinukay Barangay Pagala76 77Barangay Piel Barangay SubicBarangay Santo Cristo Barangay Sulivan78 79Barangay Tangos Barangay TilapayongBarangay Tibag Conversations about ClimateChange AdaptationUsap-usapan tungkol sa pakikibagay sa panahon2Usap-usapan tungkol sa pakikibagay sa panahon.DAGDAG KAALAMAN SA MGA TAGA-BALIWAGAno ang Climate Change?Ang pagbabago ng klima ay ang pabagu-bagong pagtaas at pagbaba ng temperatura, ulan at hangin na nagaganap sa loob ng mahabang panahon. Ito ay nagmumula sa mga “greenhouse gases” na tumatagos sa ating kalawahan na siyang sumisipsip at kumukulong sa sa init ng ating mundo.Mga BungaInit Tag-tuyotKaramdaman   (heat stroke, dengue)Pagbaha Pagbaba ng mga AniBagyo at HabagatMitigasyon:Pagbawas ng Sanhi ng Pagbabago-bago ng Klima: Ito any ang pagbabawas ng “greenhouses gases” sa ating kalawakan na siyang sanhi ng pagbagago-bago ng klima.Adaptasyon: Pakikibagay sa Pagbabago ng Klima:Ang pakikibagay ay ang ating tugon sa epekto ng pagbabago ng klima. Ito ay ang ating patuloy na pag- hahanda sa mga diinaasahang epekto ng pagbabago ng klima upang tayo ay makagawa ng naaakmang  hakbang upang tayo ay maging matatag.  Ang pakiki-bagay ay maaring magawa sa ating pamayanan at gayun din sa rehiyonal at pambansang antas.Makipag-usap sa inyong mga kaibigan at kapamilya kung papaano sila maaring makibagay at tumugon sa hamon ng climate change.Makipag-ugnayan sa inyong Barangay Hall kung papaano magkakaroon ng maraming lilim sa inyong pamayanan para maging malamig ang kapaligiran.Makipag-usap sa inyong Rural Health Unit kung papano labanan ang heat stroke, polusyon ng hangin at dengue.Makipag-usap sa inyong mga kaibigan at kapamilya kung papaano sila maaring makibagay at tumugon sa hamon ng climate change.Panatilihing malinis ang mga daluyan ng tubig sa kalsada upang maiwasan ang pagbaha.Alamin ang plano ng inyong barangay kung may bagyo, lalo na ang lokasyon ng pinakamalapit na evacuation centre.Paramihin ang iba’t-ibang uri ng nga pananim sa pamamagitan ng pagtatanim ng mga gulay at prutas sa gitna ng panahon ng taniman at anihan.Maliit lamang ang kontribusyon ng Pilipinas sa climate change pero ito ay naaapektuhan nang malaki ng pagbabago ng klima. Ang matatag na Baliwag ay kaillangang tumugon sa pakikibagay, hindi sa pagbawas ng sanhi ng climate change. aman. Papaano Makakatugon ang Baliwag sa Hamon ng Climate Change?Pitong Paraan Para Makibagay sa Pagbabago ng KlimaKailangang Makibagay sa Panahon ang Baliwag!3Conversations about climate change adaptation.A RESOURCE FOR RESIDENTS OF BALIWAGWhat is climate change?Climate change refers to changes in weather (temperatures, precipitation, wind) over a long period. It is caused by greenhouse gases (GHGs) emitted into the atmosphere that absorb and trap heat.What impacts will Baliwag face?HighHeatDrought Illness  (heat stroke, dengue)FloodingLess Agriculture YieldsTyphoons & StormsMitigation is about dealing with the causes of climate change. This means reducing the amount of GHGs emitted into the atmosphere. However, the Philippines is already a very low emitter of GHGs.Adaptation is about coping with the impacts of climate change. This means making adjustments to increase resiliency. The Philippines faces increasingly destructive climate change impacts.Keep your barangay irrigation canals clean so farms have a steady water supply.Ask your Barangay Hall about creating more shade in your neighbourhood, and other ways to keep people cool.Talk to your Rural Health Unit about how to cope with heat stroke, air pollution, and dengue.Talk to your friends and family about how they can adapt to climate change!Keep stormwater drains on your street clean to reduce street flooding.Know the evacuation plan for your barangay for major storms, including where the nearest evacuation centre is.Diversify crops on farms by growing vegetables between rice planting and harvest seasons.The Philippines is a very minor cause of climate change, but faces major impacts from climate change.  A strong Baliwag must focus on adapting to the impacts of climate change, not on mitigation.How can Baliwag respond?7 Ways You Can Adapt to Climate ChangeBaliwag must adapt!4Baliwag currently faces various impacts from climate change.HighHeatDrought Illness FloodingLess Agriculture YieldsTyphoons & StormsExecutive SummaryContinue livelihood programs in resettlement areasPlant local, non-invasive tree species on the sidewalks and roads for shadeHost IECs on heat-related health issuesUpgrade and maintain irrigation canalsContinue to implement educational programs for farmersEstablish a food systems plan and goals for creating food securityImprove water infrastructure maintenance through institutional coordinationPursue water conservation measures through jointly-created IECsTrain businesses, especially small and medium enterprises, and provide resources to be climate adaptiveLeverage new and existing corporate social responsibility policies for adaptationBuild staff and community knowledge on climate changeStandardize and increase data collectionjIncrease institutional collaboration with a climate Technical Working GroupContinue to prioritize upgrading stormwater drainage infrastructureIdentify and protect vulnerable infrastructureDecrease heat island effect through shade creation strategiesHuman Health & Security Food SecurityWater SufficiencyInfrastructure Industry Knowledge & Capacity BuildingThese recommended climate adaptations can be taken by all actors in Baliwag, from the municipal staff, to individual businesses. Baliwag is already adapting, and will only continue to become more resilient.“We love our home town here in Baliwag. It is so good to live in one’s own country.”The Philippines is a minor cause of climate change, but faces major impacts. Baliwag must focus on adapting to these impacts.High emissionsLow emissionsHigh risk from climate changeLow risk from climate changeBaliwag should focus on adaptationin response to climate change. This report combines the voices of Baliwag citizens, the strengths of the community, and the authors’ outside perspective to produce locally relevant adaptation recommendations.Summary of Recommendations“People say that climate change has affected many. But for us, we must be flexible and try to make a solution to help our Mother Earth.”4 Executive Summary6 Introduction: Conversations  About Adaptation9 Guiding Values10 Methodology: Community  Conversations12 What is Climate Change?14 Profile of Baliwag16  Impacts of Climate Change in Baliwag18 Stories of Climate Change20 Recommendations22 Human Health & Security32 Food Security38  Water Sufficiency42 Infrastructure46 Industry48 Knowledge & Capacity Building52 Next Steps Toward an LCCAP54 Maraming Salamat Po!58 Appendices58 Acronyms56In Baliwag, we had conversations with community members from all walks of life. We learned about  the strengths of the community and of the challenges that it faces. Conversations are all about cooperation, building relationships,  and a willingness to explore new ideas. In the spirit of conversation we learned a lot, from the best places to get food, to the on-going impacts of climate change on farmers in Piel and Barangka. Conversations are central to our report; relationship-building and cooperation in conversations are some of our key values. The equal exchange of information in conversations served as a methodology. The conversations we had inform the report’s content. Finally, conversations about climate change, and how to adapt, should be one of the report’s major impacts.What we heard while having these discussions is that people in Baliwag want to have more conversations about climate change. These conversations need to be in both the municipal hall and in our homes. By talking to our loved ones, our friends, and our community about climate change adaptation, we can build a more resilient Baliwag together. Ngayon po pag - usapan natin  ang climate change!Conversations  About Adaptation7Authors’ Introduction We are six master’s students from the School of Community and Regional Planning at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada. We were asked by Baliwag to do community outreach and provide recommendations on climate change adaptation.We faced a number of limitations in writing this report. Our work was constrained to a one-month period. While we did our best to explore best practices in all related fields, as student planners, our own experience is still growing. Finally, as visitors, our knowledge of Baliwag’s context is limited.Toward an LCCAP The purpose of this report is to provide observations and recommendations to the Municipality of Baliwag as they begin to prepare their Local Climate Change Action Plans (LCCAP), as mandated by the Climate Change Act (CCA) of 2009. Our hope is that our research will inform the creation of local climate change plans and ultimately assist with the building of adaptation and resilience in the municipality of Baliwag. Specifically, the CCA mandates that “LGUs shall be the frontline agencies in the formulation, planning, and implementation of climate change action plans” and that adaptation shall be “one of their regular functions.” The resulting plans should include broad participation—including barangays, NGOs, and the business sector—and cover the full range of possible climate change impacts. The National Climate Change Action Plan (NCCAP) captures these impacts in seven priority areas, which require that Baliwag adopt a climate lens in all of its policies. The recommendations in this report are divided into themes reflecting five of the seven priority areas in the NCCAP. Reflective of community concerns, we have also added a sixth theme: infrastructure.89Our approach is informed by four guiding values which help ensure a holistic approach to building resilience in Baliwag.  It is only by bringing everybody into the conversation that we can successfully adapt to climate change together.Guiding ValuesOur approach highlights our interdependence with the natural environment. We normally think about the environment as separate from human society, and as an unlimited resource. In this report, we acknowledge that everything we do depends on the well-being of the environment. Everything in our society—our livelihoods, our food, our economy, our health—is nested within a sustainable and functioning environment. With this in mind, it is crucial to always consider the environment in both policy and our daily lives.By considering gender and social justice, we hope to support the goal of equity in the National Framework Strategy on Climate Change (NFSCC).  The NFSCC states that the NCCAP should create adaptation measures with  “special attention …given to ensure equal and equitable protection of the poor, women, children and other vulnerable and disadvantaged sectors.” Our research includes the voices of these vulnerable groups as they are often the most impacted by climate change.We used a strength-based approach in order to highlight the existing resources and assets of the Baliwag community. In doing so, we will be better able to support and build on existing successes and continue to make meaningful change. Baliwag has many strengths both at a community level and at a municipal level and we want to highlight these! For adaptation to be effective it must be specific to the local context, culture, and available resources. In our research we emphasize solutions and resources that are true to the local culture of Baliwag. Our suggestions also consider the existing resources available to Baliwag, such as available funding and equipment.  Locally Informed Gender &SocialJusticeConscious Strengths- BasedEnvironment FocusedHow We Collected  Local KnowledgeAbove all, we wanted this report to reflect the local knowledge and resiliency of the people of Baliwag. We hosted discussions with the diverse groups listed on the opposite page, to hear people’s thoughts on climate change (refer to Appendix 3 for full list). This was accomplished through the following outreach initiatives:• 9 Focus Groups, directly reaching 95 people• 21 Informational Interviews• Site visits and observations• 35 Municipal Staff SurveysHow We Wrote This Report 1. We learned about how the municipality of Baliwag operated and reviewed all available documents and plans.  2. We conducted outreach in the community to hear people’s thoughts. 3. We explored best practices from outside sources. 4. We combined our research to develop recommendations in each thematic area.1011CommunityConversationsGovernment Officials: Municipal and water district staff are experts on existing services and programs in Baliwag.  They also possess the power to further implement adaptation measures.Business-People: People told us that having good livelihoods was a key concern. We spoke to business leaders who told us how climate change will impact business across a variety of industries.  Barangay Leaders: Barangay leaders understand the impacts that changing weather has on their specific neighbourhood. We heard from leaders from 15 of Baliwag’s 27 vv, ensuring that diverse geographical areas were represented in our report.Youth: The voices of youth are not often heard in policy discussions. We wanted hear their unique perspectives both in how they experience climate change today, and how they see the future.Women: Women are critically attuned to family and community life, but are often unrepresented in policy-making. Keeping with the NCCAP’s goals of gender equity, we asked how climate change specifically affects women, their families, and their community.Civil Society: Civil Society Organizations have connections to the community that city officials may not otherwise have. As a result, they have specialized knowledge with regards to the particular societal groups they work and partner with.Farmers: Farmers have a unique understanding of the ways in which livelihoods are intertwined with changes in weather. In addition to forming a key part of local economic and food systems, farmers will be directly and heavily impacted by climate change.Seniors: Senior’s possess historical memory of long-term changes in weather.  Seniors also play a strong role as respected leaders in their community, and can be catalysts for social change.12Climate change is a significant change in the Earth’s weather over a prolonged period of time, including changes in temperature, precipitation, and wind patterns.In the Greenhouse Effect, heat from the sun is trapped in the atmosphere and reflected back to the Earth.  Additional GHGs emissions increase the amount of heat trapped, leading to higher average global temperatures and changing climate conditions.  These changes have been linked to GHG emissions from human activity.More GHGs in the atmosphere amplify the trapping of heatRadiation from sun heats the EarthWhat is  Climate Change?Baliwag Must AdaptThe Philippines is a minor cause of climate change, but faces major impacts from climate change. Baliwag must focus on adapting to these impacts from climate change, not on mitigation. Many people we spoke to were very excited about mitigation measures to reduce emissions and keep the city clean.  Any environmental program that engages the community is great. Our report focuses only on adaptation, which is the only way that Baliwag will be able to cope with drought, typhoons, high heat, and other climate change impacts.  While mitigation is important, adaptation must be the priority for Baliwag in the long term.Mitigation vs. AdaptationMitigation is about addressing the causes of climate change. This means reducing the amount of GHGs emitted into the atmosphere. However, the Philippines is already a very low emitter of GHGs.Examples of mitigation include:• Reducing car use• Reducing the burning of garbage• Using renewable energyAdaptation is about coping with the impacts of climate change. This means making adjustments to increase resiliency. The Philippines faces increasingly destructive climate change impacts, so adaptation is particularly important.Examples of adaptation include:• Clearing stormwater drains to reduce street flooding• Providing shade in public places to prevent heat stroke• Finding alternate sources of fresh water in case of droughtHow can we  respond?Did you know?This report focuses only on climate change adaptation. This means that several topics that community members were passionate about are not addressed, even though they are related to the environment. Here are three popular topics that might seem related to adaptation, but are not covered in this report:Did you know... that waste segregation is not adaptive? It is good for the environment and keeps your community clean, but it does not help us cope with the impacts of climate change.Did you know... that earthquakes are not related to climate change? It is important to prepare for them, but earthquakes are caused by tectonic plates moving, not by changes in the weather.Did you know... that planting trees is only mitigation if you are planting a large forest? Planting trees to provide shade is good adaptation, but they aren’t enough to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions.1314Profile of BaliwagFarmland• 2,900 ha of farmland• 1,800 farmers• Average land holding of 1.25 ha per farmerIrrigation• All farms have access to the irrigation system• Canals can become clogged with debrisBarangay Hall• 27 barangays• Provides services and information• Barangay Captains, Mother Leaders, and Rural Health Unit (RHU) staff based out of Barangay HallsSM City• Largest shopping mall in Baliwag• 300+ stores• Major employer• Environmentally-focused CSR programsUrban Growth• A first-class highly urban municipality• 143,500 inhabitants• 25,000 households• A major urban and economic centre of northern BulacanGround-Water• 21 water pumps throughout Baliwag supply most of drinking water• Subsidence is 2.54 cm per year due to increasing ground-water extraction15Informal Settlements• Common along Angat River• Inter-governmental program relocating some settlers• Two social housing sites in BaliwagMunicipio• Total income:  320m pesos• Received Financial Good Housekeeping award in 2014• Recently created MDRRMOPublic Market• 600 vendors• 1,280 permanent establishments• Located in Barangay PoblacionChurch• Five churches and 24 chapels• Runs community programs, charity initiatives, and other servicesIndustry• Major industries include: furniture, garments, gifts, swine, and chicken production• Traditional buntal hat industry• Home of Baliwag Transit companyAngat River• Part of the Angat River Basin• Provides water for irrigation16Unstable  Food SupplyDroughtForest and  Grass FiresHeat-RelatedIllnessesLower  Air QualityDegradation of Roads and BuildingsChange to  Daily LifeWater  ScarcityStress on  AquifersDamage to  Crops and  Lower YieldsHeat• heat exhaustion• heat stroke• hypertension• respiratory  illness from  air pollution• sickness from  temperature changes• cannot do chores or work outside• stress and fatigue• people go to malls instead of market• use of aquifers  for irrigation• reliance on water source at risk of leaching• flooded rice fields• no irrigation water• changing planting and harvest times• lack of local foods• higher food costsImpacts ofClimate Change in BaliwagFrom our conversations with community members, we learned that the people of Baliwag are already feeling the impacts of climate change. This diagram summarizes what we heard, and reflects the diverse challenges presented by climate change. The cascading nature of climate change means that there will be many indirect, far-reaching impacts not included here, such as pressure on the insurance industry, economic instability, and more. Some groups, such as farmers, may feel multiple effects.17Property  DamageStress  on DRRM  resourcesVector- BourneDiseasesFloodedDrainage  SystemHazards for Informal  Settlements• caused by overland flooding only• buildings collapse from strong winds• water damage due to rain and floods• caused by river  flooding only• dengue• malaria• outbreaks in new areasStorms &  TyphoonsDisruption  of Daily LifeSoil ErosionFlooding• cannot go to work, school or market• blackoutsPrecipitation Changes18Stories of Climate ChangeA Farmer“Climate change has affected our life in many ways. In the past, there are not too many health problems, but now people frequently acquire diseases. For example, heat stroke, - it is so common for people to have heat stroke. In the past, there were not so many deaths – very infrequent – but last year alone I know of 30 people who died of heat stroke. Somehow there is a domino effect, when one person dies, another will die.”A Young Mother“I feel irritated by the hot weather.  Before it was okay, we would expect rain in June but now it’s even hotter after the rain.  I have a four year-old with asthma and she gets asthma attacks with the weather changes.  I don’t have air conditioning so the weather changes hurt her.  Because of the heat, I can’t do all of my chores during the day.  It’s too hot on the street to walk to the store or run errands, there is no shade.”19A Catholic Priest“It was about three years ago that people started thinking about climate change. It’s hard these days, the typhoons are terrible. Many die of heat stroke. During mass, it is very hot, so we have to improve the cooling system of the church. During rainy days we need to be ready to give help to the needy. It is God’s will for us to take care of ourselves, and part of ourselves is the environment. God created us, and He created the environment.” A Municipal Staff“I have noticed how climate change has affected us. We have heavier rains now, so we need better storm drains on the streets. The current drains were built many years ago, we need upgrades to accommodate the heavier rains. The asphalt on the roads is also deforming because of the heat, and from the weight of the trucks on the road. We are starting to use concrete now, although it has a higher rolling friction.”A Public Market Vendor“Now, the rainy season is longer and the sales go down because of the rain. During the typhoons, the sales go down even more. During the dry season, nobody wants to come to the market because of the heat. They prefer going to the malls because they are air-conditioned and covered. Here, it’s too big and costly to cool the public market.   But that’s ok, the malls can provide convenience, but they can’t provide the variety and prices we do.” Human Health & Security Food Security Water Sufficiency Infrastructure2021Infrastructure IndustryKnowledge & Capacity Building RecommendationsThese six themes illustrate the diverse sectors impacted by climate change in Baliwag. They contain a summary of what we heard from the community, the impacts of climate change on the sector, and the existing strengths in Baliwag.  Each sector also has a set of key recommendations for priority implementation, as well as general recommendations. These insights were drawn from conversations with the community and municipal staff, meaning that people are interested in these proposals and feel they can be feasibly implemented. They should be considered the start of an ongoing process of community engagement on this issue.Specific adaptations have been labelled as “People’s Voice” recommendations, as they were consistently popular with community members. These are marked with a speech bubble.People’s Voice!22HealthNumerous health impacts are provoked by climate change and often affect the most vulnerable populations, including seniors, women, and children. The NCCAP is concerned with the impacts of climate change on the health of individuals in the Philippines and states that municipalities should ensure “health and social protection delivery systems are responsive to climate change risks.” It is important to focus on developing stronger health and social programming in order to better adapt to climate change-related illnesses. • There is a high concern in the community about the impacts of climate change on health. • Community members have knowledge about preventative measures for heat-related illnesses such as heat exhaustion and heatstroke. For example, farmers at Piel mentioned the importance of eating healthy in helping to prevent hypertension. • The municipality wants to focus on prevention of diseases rather than treatment. • Climate change can affect livelihoods and cause people to be unemployed, which raises their risk of health issues.• Hotter temperatures increase the likelihood of heat exhaustion and heat stroke, especially among those working outdoors, such as farmers and construction workers. • Elders are more vulnerable to heat-related illnesses.• Stagnant water from increased precipitation can increase the prevalence of diseases carried by mosquitos, such as dengue and malaria.  • Hotter temperatures can intensify air pollution, exacerbating respiratory conditions such as asthma.• Mother Leaders have a strong role in the community.  As providers of social protection services, Mother Leaders are an important community resource and act as a liaison between the municipality and the community. • RHUs conduct preventative educational programs (pap smears, health classes, immunizations), and incorporate information about climate change-related illnesses, such as dengue. • Ongoing outreach programs enrol community members in PhilHealth, which will be key as the prevalence of climate change-related illnesses are projected to increase. Impacts Existing StrengthsWhat We Heard HUMAN HEALTH & SECURITY23Key Recommendations for HealthRecommendation Justification Implementer Trade-offsPlant local, non-invasive tree species on the sidewalks and roads. Planting more trees in the city would increase shade in the city and would allow pedestrians to walk more comfortably. Engineering Office, MPDOIt is expensive to plant trees, so other types of shade provision could be pursued, such as covered walkways.Continue educating the community on the direct impacts of climate change for health, especially in relation to heat exhaustion. May prevent deaths or illnesses related to climate change. For example, being aware of the signs and symptoms of heat stroke may help prevent a death from this illness. RHUEducation programs require additional time and resources from municipal staff.Provide training for Mother Leaders on climate change related-illnesses. Since Mother Leaders have direct contact with Municipal Nutrition Office (MNO), they would be able to monitor and report incidents of climate change-related illnesses. They could also inform their communities on the prevention and treatment of climate change related-illnesses. MNOEducation programs require additional time and resources from municipal staff and Mother Leaders.  Monitoring programs may require additional support to implement. Create drinking and showering stations at each Barangay Hall and at other public buildings to help prevent heat exhaustion.May prevent deaths or illnesses related to climate change, such as heat strokes, dehydration, and heat exhaustion. RHU, Barangay LeadersCreating drinking stations may be too difficult or resource intensive. Barangay leaders could  boil water to have available for all visitors. Creating showering stations may be more resource intensive. People’s VoiceInformal SettlementsThe National Climate Change Action Plan states that it is a priority “to reduce risks of...vulnerable groups from climate and disasters”.   A city or municipality’s most vulnerable people can often be found living within informal settlements.  Addressing climate change adaptation in informal settlements means addressing poverty, housing, infrastructure, environmental degradation, and health concerns.  Physically, informal settlements tend to be built in exposed areas, including slopes, low-lying areas and ravines.  Informal settlements are designated as a national priority and require partnerships across municipal, provincial, and national levels of government. Baliwag has strategies in place to address the vulnerabilities of informal settlements, such as initiatives focused on the relocation of those within the community to safer, more secure housing. HUMAN HEALTH & SECURITY2425• Barangay Captains, Mother Leaders and Barangay Health Workers are incredibly involved and engaged in their communities.  They are in an excellent position to assist in supporting the informal settlements within different barangays.   • Individuals and families with a lack of resources are residing on land along the Angat River in Baliwag.  • Informal settlements along the Angat River in municipalities in Bulacan, including Baliwag, have been identified for resettlement to ensure safety.• The land along the riverbanks is subject to easements and is government land.  It is some of the only available land open for informal settlement.• Though many have been relocated, some individuals and families choose to stay in the informal settlement locations.• Staff from the MNO have identified informal settlements as having a high incidence of malnutrition. • Informal settlements in Baliwag are especially vulnerable to flooding from heavy rains due to a lack of proper stormwater drainage. • High precipitation and extreme weather events have contributed to the need to relocate informal settlements. • The relocation of informal settlements has meant that sometimes individuals and families are distanced from work, education, and community, making their transition to a new home difficult.  • Informal settlements are the responsibility of converging levels of government. For example, the National Housing Authority has provided Baliwag with around 1,000 homes for informal settlements. • It is often up to the municipality to provide social programming for these communities.  Employment for this population is a barrier.• To ensure the safety of residents, barangays have ordinances that do not allow informal settlers to live in identified danger zones or vulnerable areas.• Social housing projects in Baliwag, as well as in other places in Bulacan, are helping to reduce the number of people living in informal settlements.Impacts Existing StrengthsWhat We Heard• The social housing sites are: BDO Foundation-Red Cross Village in Barangay Hinukay and Gawad Kalinga in Barangay Piel.  • The Municipal Social Welfare and Development Office (MSWDO) works closely with relocation initiatives.Baliwag also has the following capacity development interventions with the target group of informal settlers, as outlined in the ELA 2014-2016.• Organize a Local Housing Board.• Incorporate Chairmanship in Committee on Infrastructure.• Formulation of a Local Shelter Plan.26Key Recommendations for Informal SettlementsRecommendation Justification Implementer Trade-offsPartner with social housing organizations to implement livelihood programs in relocation areas. When informal settlers are relocated, they are often distanced from their sources of livelihood.  To assist families in supporting themselves skills training programs, job matching programs, and other employment services may be of great service. PESOJobs must be available for livelihood programs.  Often low barrier jobs exist within an already saturated market, so new employment areas should be pursued where possible.Community-specific asset and vulnerability assessments should be performed and shared.Understanding land use, daily cultural practices and specific vulnerable populations within informal settlements could be very useful.  When vulnerabilities and assets are well understood they can be better addressed and utilized to increase adaptation to climate change. MSWDO, Barangay leaders, Community Groups working with informal settlementsA time intensive initiative.  Social stratification often exists between marginalized groups and those in power.  Trust must be built to learn about the challenges and assets that exist within informal settlement communities. Take a participatory approach to relocation planning.A bottom-up approach to the resettlement process involving the informal settlers will allow for better insight into the relocation process.  Key outcomes would include identifying where and how people want to be moved during the relocation process.Informal settlers, Barangay leadersThis could be a time-intensive initiative that requires the participation of informal settlers and municipal staff involved in resettlement process.Expand educational outreach to children in informal settlements.Existing outreach programs could focus on education to ensure children have access to school or daycare to reduce barriers in relocation.  Outreach efforts can also provide information about small household projects that will create more resilience to climate change. Mother Leaders, MSWDO, MNO, DRRMOOutreach programs already exist in the community, adding on to such programs would require few additional resources. People’s Voice27General Recommendations for Informal SettlementsRecommendation Justification Implementer Trade-offsProvision of immediate or short-term infrastructure programs.To ensure the short-term safety of those who continue to reside in informal settlements it may be useful to have programs in place to support improvements in infrastructure.  Engineering OfficeTime involvement depends on the infrastructure that needs to be completed.  If relocation is planned, short-term infrastructure projects may not be the best use of municipal finances.May be seen as encouraging informal settlers not to leave. Planned land for informal settlements. It is likely that informal settlers will continue to need land reside upon.  The land available to informal settlers in Baliwag is also the land most susceptible to climate change.  Designating safer land for informal settlements in the short-term may draw people away from residing along the Angat River. MPDOShort-term planning as opposed to long-term planning.  May be difficult to secure valuable land.  Continue livelihood programs within informal settlements.Informal settlements are often intertwined with other social and economic factors that present challenges to individuals and families.  Livelihood programs can support families in securing land title in the long-term.PESOSupporting residents within the informal settlement may be perceived negatively when relocation is a priority.  May be time-intensive.28Disaster Risk Reduction &ManagementBaliwag faces numerous natural hazards risks that are projected to increase with climate change, including river flooding, high winds from tropical storms, and grass fires during drought periods.  Additionally, there are vulnerable populations currently living in areas that are most at risk, such as in informal settlements along rivers that will not be structurally sound during floods or typhoons. Because climate change is projected to increase the frequency and intensity of weather-related natural disasters, knowledge about evacuation and response plans are essential for all community members. Disaster and risk management efforts must incorporate the impacts of climate change into their preparedness and response planning to best support adaptation measures, particularly for weather-related disaster events. Baliwag’s DRRMO plays an important leadership role in local climate change adaptation, and can support infrastructure projects and IECs to improve the municipality’s ability to respond to these impacts. HUMAN HEALTH & SECURITY29• Baliwag has several evacuation centres across multiple barangays.• Evacuation centres are located close to vulnerable populations, such as informal settlers in Tibag.• The MDRRMO collaborates with adjacent municipalities and the provincial and national governments to improve regional disaster response coordination.• People in Baliwag are concerned about major flooding events in their community.• Heavy rains can cause flash flooding along rivers and creeks in Baliwag, and may affect some barangays more than others.• Streets may become flooded with increasing precipitation, making it difficult for the MDRRMO to service community members during disaster events.• High winds from major storms or typhoons may uproot or knock over trees.• Houses that are not structurally sound or do not have secure roofing may collapse during major storms or typhoons.• Droughts increase the risk of grass fires.• The MDRRMO in Baliwag is recognized as a leader in disaster risk management in Bulacan.• The MDRRMO does extensive outreach in the community to educate the public about how to safely deal with disasters.• Mother leaders and other community groups, such as SAVERS, work closely with the MDRRMO.• MDRRMO is constantly looking to improve its operations. They want to establish an early-warning system in all 27 barangays for natural disasters. Impacts Existing StrengthsWhat We Heard30Key Recommendations for Disaster Risk Reduction & ManagementRecommendation Justification Implementer Trade-offsImplement the early warning system for disaster awareness, as developed by the DRRMO, across all barangays.Climate change-related disasters require quick and effective response from the DRRMO across all barangays.  An early warning system would greatly speed up response and evacuation efforts. Informal settlers would particularly benefit from this initiative since they are the most affected by climate change.MDRRMO, MPDO, Engineering OfficeAlthough it would be a low-cost project, implementing this system, would require time and resources from day-to-day operations and may cut into the operating budget. This should be weighed against potential savings in the future.Expand IECs on disaster preparedness, evacuation, and include climate change adaptation.Educational outreach has been a success for the MDRRMO with Mother Leaders and at schools. These seminars should be expanded across all the 27 barangays.MDRRMO, Barangay leaders, SchoolsIECs take time, planning, and resources to implement. The MDRRMO may not have enough staff available to expand the programming, especially during the rainy season.Pursue partnerships with other municipal MDRRMOs to share resources for response and outreach.The MDRRMO already supports disaster response in other municipalities, and should continue to take on leadership roles in regional adaptation initiatives in order to pool resources and decrease collective regional vulnerability.NDRRMC, PDRRMC, MDRRMO Baliwag, MDRRM teams in other municipalities.There may not be enough staff to manage additional projcts, nor enough interest or funding from provincial or national governments to implement these partnerships. People’s Voice31General Recommendations for Disaster Risk Reduction & ManagementRecommendation Justification Implementer Trade-offsPursue funding opportunities with different levels of government, and with foreign sources to help expand climate change adaptation projects. Highlight the exemplary role of the MDRRMO in Baliwag and the region when applying for funding.The MDRRMO can leverage its budget to support climate change adaptation projects, especially where they overlap with DRRM.  Additional equipment and alert systems are a priority.MDRRMO, NDRRMC, PDRRMC, DILG.Using the MDRRMO budget for adaptation measures may not leave enough funding to respond to disasters not related to climate change.Update flood hazard maps annually, for both riverine and overland flooding. The locations, intensity, and frequency of major flood events will increase with climate change.  Adapting to these impacts requires better knowledge of where flood risks are, both on riverbanks and in overland flooding (when stormwater drainage systems are over capacity).MPDO, Engineering Office, MDRRMO.Updating flood hazard maps, especially for overland flooding, can take time and be costly. Evaluate the community’s knowledge of and familiarity with the local DRRM and emergency response plans and actions.It is important that the community is aware of the services available to them in case of a natural disaster, as well as the actions they need to take in order to be safe. Involving the community will generate a fuller picture of the threats baliwag faces.MDRRMO, Barangay Captains, POPCOM.Time-intensive, but a useful way to ensure that DRRM policies act as they are supposed to.32Food ProductionAgriculture is an important industry in Baliwag, both for food consumption and for livelihood.  Agricultural production is highly vulnerable to climate change impacts such as flooding, drought, and extreme weather events. These impacts compromise the ability of farmers to manage crops and increases the volatility of agricultural earnings for farmers. The NCCAP states that agriculture is key for food security, but that “a large proportion of damages from disasters...are borne by agriculture every year.” Baliwag should continue pursuing adaptive measures and focusing resources to support farmers.• Despite the increase in heat and unpredictable weather, farmers continue to be resilient. They diversify their crops and continue to work in the heat. • Unpredictable water levels in canals directly affect yields, as fields depend entirely on irrication. Some farmers are now using groundwater instead of irrigation.• Farmers experience health impacts from hotter weather, such as heat exhaustion and heat stroke, which has been deadly in recent years. • Farmers are worried about the volatility of the agriculture sector and their livelihoods. • Rice cultivation depends on an ample and consistent supply of fresh water. Drought reduces the availability of fresh water, putting greater pressures on rice farmers. • Hotter temperatures can cause health problems for farmers, especially heat exhaustion and heat stroke.• Flooding from high precipitation can devastate agricultural crops. For example, nearly all strains of rice will not survive if flooded. • High winds and heavy rains from typhoons and major storms can flood rice fields, and farmers cannot tend to crops during these extreme events. • Baliwag provides nearly 100% of irrigation for farmers and the Water District works hard to ensure continued supply. Farmers are more resilient when they have access to a consistent water supply instead of relying on rainwater. • The Municipal Agriculture Office (MAO) implements successful programs to assist farmers and support local agriculture, such as subsidized seedlings and liquid fertilizers, as well as rice seed distribution.• The MAO hosts educational seminars about planting and harvesting, and has developed good relationships with farmers.Impacts Existing StrengthsWhat We Heard FOOD SECURITY33Key Recommendations for Food ProductionRecommendation Justification Implementer Trade-offsMaintain clear canals  for water flow.Water flows more easily in well-maintained canals that are clear of debris. MPDO, Barangay LeadersAdditional staff may need to be hired to clean irrigation canals, requiring significant investment.Upgrade irrigation canals.Upgraded and larger canals will improve the reach and capacity of water servicing for irrigation.BWDThe project would require large upfront investment, potentially compromising other services.Increase access to rice and grain warehousing.Many farmers are forced to sell their rice even when prices are low. Warehousing facilities allow farmers to store their rice during rainy seasons to reduce spoilage.MAO, farming cooperativesWarehouses would require large investments, potentially competing with other services and programs for funding.Promote diversification of agricultural crops, such as rice strains and vegetables.A diverse agricultural industry is more resilient, as some crops are better suited to certain climate conditions than others. Vegetables can be planted between rice seasons to ensure income sources for farmers if rice crops become damaged.  MAOExisting local knowledge may be limited to certain crops and additional training may be required for farmers.Continue to support subsidized seedling distribution to farmers.Providing free or subsidized seedlings helps farmers skip the vulnerable germination period for seedlings and better predict the success of their crop.MAO, IRRI (International Rice Research Institute)MAO may not be able to expand this program without hiring new staff. Work with PESO to diversify livelihood options for farmers transitioning out of agriculture through entrepreneurial and skills-training programs.Some farmers may wish to acquire new employment or develop new skills outside of farming if the agricultural industry becomes too volatile. The municipality can support farmers in diversifying their skill set. PESO, MAOTraining and capacity-building programs would require municipal resources and would need to certify farmers in their skills development.People’s Voice34General Recommendations for Food ProductionRecommendation Justification Implementer Trade-offsImplement new water sourcing for agriculture, such as pumps to tap groundwater as opposed to relying on irrigation canals.The Angat River does not provide sufficient water to meet Baliwag’s irrigation needs. Farmers may need to access other water sources, such as groundwater, for agricultural purposes.BWD, MPDO, Barangay CaptainThe extent of the groundwater supply is unknown. The sustainable rate of extraction has been set at 24 Litres per second (LPS) by the BWD, so water conservation is a crucial part of this strategy.Farmers may require subsidized pumps. Implement educational programs with the region’s farmers to promote knowledge exchanges around CCA.Farmers from across Bulacan and Luzon can benefit from learning about existing adaptation strategies that have been successful. MAO, farming cooperatives, and community organizationsLearning exchanges take time to plan and resources to implement. Farmers would need to travel.Improve and support new agricultural crops technologies.This implies both new methods for planting and harvesting, as well as new strains of seeds (flood resistant seeds), in order to assist in adaptation.MAOTechnological advancements take an uncertain amount of time to develop, and may require lengthy testing periods.Provide information about innovative and low-barrier agricultural and farming insurance products that use weather-based indices, especially among cooperatives.Farmers may require more comprehensive insurance products for increased frequency and intensity of climate-related events. See Philippine Crop Insurance Corp (PCIC) for more details.MAO, farming credit unions, cooperativesInsurance may not be accessible to everyone, particularly those in extreme poverty, as it requires investment.Streamline methods for receiving PAGASA data on the likelihood of droughts and other climatic disruptions to get to farmers and other water users.The MAO is very active in attempting to inform farmers about the weather situation,  and if a more direct connection with PAGSA is made, the speed at which information can be shared is greater. MAO There are no immediate trade-offs.3536Food ConsumptionThe NCCAP emphasizes the need to“...ensure availability, stability, accessibility, and affordability of safe and healthy food amidst climate change.”  Climate change can directly compromise the production of food, leading to rising prices and decreased availability.  In Baliwag, the proportion of people living in urban areas is increasing.  If local agricultural production is negatively impacted by climate change, so is the accessibility and affordability of food.  Access to healthy, safe, and affordable food is reliant on regional, national, and global conditions. • The weather impacts individual choices about where to buy food. Large supermarkets offer protection from the rain, and air conditioned stores act as refuge from heat.  • The public market, despite its exposure to weather, offers a variety of foods at competitive prices.  • Farmers are transitioning from the agricultural industry to other sectors, which are perceived as more reliable employment options. • Changes in weather, including hot days and heavier rains, impact crop management and agricultural yields.  • The high cost of agricultural inputs for farmers makes it more difficult to provide communities with safe and affordable food.  • Heat and rain impact the types of food available at supermarkets and local food stalls.   • As outlined in the ELA 2014-2016, Baliwag has the goal to rehabilitate farm to market roads.  This will encourage and facilitate the transport of food from agricultural areas to local markets.  • SM City Baliwag, through their SM Cares program, has a fruit and vegetable garden located on their property.  They donate food grown to charity as well as make the food available for sale to their staff. • The Baliwag Public Market offers a wide variety of affordable, local food choices.Impacts Existing StrengthsWhat We Heard FOOD SECURITY37Key Recommendations for Food ConsumptionRecommendation Justification Implementer Trade-offsCreate partnerships between the municipality and barangays to promote urban gardens.Promoting urban gardening on both private and publicly-owned land would encourage awareness of food systems, increase access to food, and promote greater food diversity.Nutrition Office, MAO, Barangay LeadersThis would be time intensive at the barangay level, requires land and seeds and is water dependent. Once initiated it will require little time and resource at the municipal level.Connect local farmers to local businesses, including grocers and restaurants.Supporting farmers in selling their products to local restaurants and grocery stores will shorten the supply chain. This could mean creating a list of farmers and their products so they are easily accessible.  PESO, MAOTime intensive for start-up.  Masterlist would require regular updating.Form a food security sub-committee to the Climate Change Technical Working Group (CCTWG) (to be created; see Knowledge and Capacity Building). A CCTWG sub-committee on food could anticipate and plan for the likely impacts of climate change on food and promote actions to create food security.Farmers, MAO, land-owners, cooperatives, BWDTime intensive. Requires volunteer time from the community and leadership from the municipality.  Establish a food systems plan and establish goals for creating food security in Baliwag.With a sub-committee on food convened, their primary task could be to develop (and integrate into policies) a plan to create food security.Farmers, land-owner cooperatives, MAO, BWDTime intensive. Requires volunteer time from the community and leadership from the municipality. People’s Voice38Water SufficiencyBaliwag’s water sources will be stressed due to rising temperatures and the increased risk of droughts. The agricultural sector will be disproportionately impacted by water shortages in irrigation canals. The general population of Baliwag may also face water shortages and vulnerable populations are at risk of dehydration if they do not have access to alternative water supplies for consumption. Acquiring new water sources and conserving the existing water supply reflect the NCCAP goal to radically restructure water management. These measures will ultimately help to ensure the provision of safe, accessible water for generations to come.  • Water supply is increasingly drawn from groundwater sources instead of irrigation canals, as farmers and other users look to set up pumps.• Irrigation canals can be blocked by solid waste and debris, reducing water flow to farms.• The Bulacan Bulk Water Supply Project promised new sources of irrigation water yet has still not arrive, disappointing many people in the municipality.• Many community members feel that Manila continues to get an unfair share of the water from the Angat River.• BWD has noted incidences of septic tanks leaching into the groundwater supply.• Changing patterns of precipitation may mean that water for irrigation and consumption is not consistently available.• The increase of flash floods, typhoons, or major storms can interrupt the supply of water for irrigation and consumption.• Droughts will increase water demand among agricultural and commercial sectors, and put greater strains on the underground water supply.• Hotter temperatures may increase the risk of dehydration and increase water demand.• The MPDO is working on a ten-year solid waste management plan, hoping to curb incidences of waste blocking irrigation canals. • BWD is actively engaged in IECs around water conservation.• BWD is aware of septic materials leaching into the ground-water and is actively working to combat this through a ten-year sanitation plan, supported by USAID.• Baliwag consumers generally have low water consumption rates on a global scale. Impacts Existing StrengthsWhat We Heard WATER SUFFICIENCY39Key Recommendations for Water SufficiencyRecommendation Justification Implementer Trade-offsForm a water sub-committee within the Climate Change Technical Working Group (to be created, see Knowledge and Capacity Building) with the Municipality of Baliwag.Coordination on water resources is imperative, particularly between the municipality’s departments, BWD, and other local actors.  A sub-committee would be the ideal place to bring together these interests and set a vision.BWD, MENRO, MAO, Mayor’s OfficeThis initiative can be time consuming, and it might require hiring new staff.Provide additional resources for Barangay Officials to remove debris from irrigation canals, consider employment programs to hire canal maintenance workers.Farmers identified that waste in their irrigation water was causing problems with flow and with the quality of water used for their crops. Cleaner canals would increase water flow.MENRO, PESOProper equipment would be needed, which is expensive, and supervision from PESO and the barangays could be complicated.Pursue rainwater harvesting as a strategy to reduce the use of groundwater and secure additional water supply.Rain-harvested water can serve as a buffer against groundwater sources and act as a backup resource during droughts.BWDRainwater storage equipment can be expensive. Rainwater harvesters that are not properly sealed can lead to the presence of dengue-carrying mosquitos. Jointly develop IEC campaigns for residential users to reduce consumption.A jointly-developed IEC by the Municipality and the BWD could broaden perspectives about water usage and would create more opportunities to distribute informational materials.BWD, PESO, POPCOM, MENROCoordination would take time and involve jointly setting goals and priorities for water use in Baliwag.Develop water stewardship guidelines for businesses and provide them as IEC materials when business licenses are registered.Collaboration between the Municipality and the BWD can mean clearer standards and enhanced enforcement capacity when it comes to conservation and stewardship.BWD, MENRO, Business Licensing OfficeWater stewardship guidelines that feel too punitive may drive away businesses. Guidelines could aim to be inclusive and showcase opportunities for savings amongst businesses.People’s Voice40General Recommendations for Water SufficiencyRecommendation Justification Implementer Trade-offsPursue the development of watershed governance in Bulacan.The Angat River basin continues to be a source of national difficulty due to inequitable divisions of power and resources.  A regionally-focused governance system, with the municipalities collaborating with water districts, could mean fairer distribution of rights and uses.Mayor of Baliwag, BWD, MENROThis initiative would require time and effort from political leaders, who may need to overcome existing tensions.Though there are long-term benefits to this initiative, success may not be felt in the short-term.Form regional partnerships to deal with waste in irrigation canals.Many barangay leaders complain about the waste that moves through the irrigation canals from one barangay to another.  A regional, watershed-based approach to managing the canals will make it easier to prevent large-scale waste blockages.BWD, Barangay CaptainsLong-term partnerships would require time commitments from Barangay Captains, and may draw away from other local projects. Continue to monitor the status of groundwater resources, and determine a sustainable rate of withdrawal.While the water district continues to monitor water withdrawals, it is unclear how long this can last with increased withdrawal rates.BWDThere no short-term trade-offs as this program is currently implemented.4142InfrastructureInfrastructure provides important physical services that helps a community to function in everyday life, and includes systems such as roads, buildings, electricity, drainage, and water supply. Infrastructure systems can also be incredibly expensive to build and maintain, but can have a very long lifespan. It is crucial for Baliwag to build or upgrade parts of its infrastructure systems when possible and direct resources to infrastructure projects that can adapt to the impacts of climate change for many years to come. Prioritizing what to build or upgrade  is a difficult task, and Baliwag has the strengths to accomplish it.• Baliwag is prioritizing upgrades to its stormwater drainage system, which is unable to handle increasingly frequent and intense precipitation events, and is often clogged by debris.• Stormwater drainage upgrades are done on a piece-by-piece basis due to limited funding. • Funding is a challenge for major infrastructure projects, as they often require provincial and national resources.• Sidewalks are not accessible to people with disabilities, streets are not shaded enough for pedestrians, and maintenance of roads and repair of holes is inconsistent. • Stormwater management and drainage systems are more frequently overloaded from more intense precipitation. Street flooding can cause damage to roads and buildings, increasing maintenance costs.• Periods of drought will increase reliance on groundwater and can lead to water scarcity, especially in the agricultural sector. • Hotter temperatures will increase the “heat island” effect, as urban infrastructure creates and traps heat.• Building materials and facades will become damaged from heat and the increased intensity of precipitation.ImpactsWhat We Heard• Upgrading the stormwater drainage system is already a top priority for the MPDO, and work on planning, funding, and implementing the project has already started.• The Engineering Office is efficient at implementing and prioritizing projects.• Some adaptation measures have already been implemented in the municipality, such as modifying road surfaces.• Improving water supply sourcing has already begun with the Bulacan Bulk Water Supply Plan, which addresses water shortages from the Angat Dam supply.Existing Strengths• Hotter temperatures will damage asphalt.• Extreme weather events can cause failure or damage to key infrastructure systems, such as electricity.• New infrastructure will be needed for climate-related migrants and informal settlers.• Infrastructure use, such as transportation patterns, will change because of increased heat and precipitation. INFRASTRUCTURE43Key Recommendations for InfrastructureRecommendation Justification Implementer Trade-offsContinue prioritizing and finding funding for upgrading the stormwater drainage system.Upgraded stormwater drainage is required to increase capacity for more intense precipitation.MPDO, Engineering OfficeLengthy and expensive process to retrofit.Provide shade on roads and sidewalks using trees or other coverage methods.Shade will reduce the effect of heat and the heat island effect in urbanized areas on people, and allow people to walk comfortably outside when it is hot.Engineering OfficeMay be difficult to find space. Some options  require more maintenance  (ex. tree leaves clogging drainage).Continue to update a contingency plan to identify vulnerable areas/pinch points/cascade areas.Infrastructure may have new points of failure, and it is important to know where these are in case of emergency.MPDO, MDRRMO, Engineering OfficeAnalysis is time-consuming. Difficult to predict where these pinch points may be.Promote the use of white materials or paint on rooftops of buildings and vehicles (ex. jeepneys, tricycles).White rooftops will reflect light/heat more than other colours and allow for a cooler interior of the building or vehicle.Engineering OfficeDon’t have direct control over materials. Materials may be more expensive than common materials now. Paint requires maintenance.Increase maintenance and cleaning of stormwater drainage systems.Unclogging the drainage systems will allow water to flow and allow faster drainage in extreme weather events.Engineering Office, Barangay CaptainsShould also treat the cause of the clogging, which will lessen the cost of maintenance over time.Consider more dispersed production, treatment, and storage of key services, such as energy storage, backup generators, and water storage.In case of emergency, having dispersed key services will allow for functioning of key activities if infrastructure systems fail.MDRRMO, Engineering OfficeMay be expensive to provide storage. New infrastructure may be required.People’s Voice44General Recommendations for InfrastructureRecommendation Justification Implementer Trade-offsEncourage use of building materials and styles (ex. natural cooling with large overhangs, tied-down roofs) that better withstand heat and precipitation.Building materials become less effective more quickly with increased heat and precipitation, so using more resilient techniques will prolong the lifetime of buildings.Engineering OfficeMunicipality has little direct control over this. Municipality can act as leader in implementing its own initiatives.Identify any major infrastructure components at risk in extreme weather events, and plan to move it over time.Some infrastructure may have to be relocated if is built in areas that are particularly vulnerable to climate change impacts.Engineering Office, BWDExpensive to move infrastructure.Collect data on the changing uses of infrastructure due to climate change impacts (ex. changing transportation peak times, peak use of water).Collecting data on changing use of infrastructure will inform new infrastructure investments and operations.BWD, MPDOMay not have baseline data.Will have to prioritize important data to collect.Where permeable surfaces are possible and appropriate, encourage their use.Permeable surfaces increase the ability for the ground to absorb precipitation, decreasing the load on stormwater drainage systems.Engineering Office, MPDOPermeable surfaces often have lower load capacity and may be more expensive.Use natural infrastructure where possible and cost-effective, such as planting bamboo and acacia trees on river banks to prevent soil erosion.Natural infrastructure can be cheaper and more effective than “hard” infrastructure, and also provides ecological services.Engineering OfficeNatural infrastructure may not be sufficient.  Some natural infrastructure may not work for various reasons (ex. mahogany trees are eaten by goats).Consider more dispersed production, treatment, and storage of key services (ex. energy, water, food), such as energy storage, backup generators and water storage.In case of emergency, having dispersed key services will allow for functioning of key activities if infrastructure systems fail.DRRMO, Engineering Office.May be expensive to provide storage. New infrastructure may be required.4546IndustryFor Baliwag to be resilient in the face of climate change, a strong business sector is essential. People across Baliwag have said that improving livelihoods and reducing poverty are key issues in their communities. By ensuring that businesses are prepared for the impacts of climate change, citizens of Baliwag will be better able to prosper moving into the future.• The agricultural sector has been harmed by unpredictable weather.  With lower yields, some farmers are shifting out of the agricultural sector and are selling their land for subdivision development. Finding new employment can be particularly difficult for those over 35.• People are discouraged from going to the public market by typhoon rains or high heat, preferring air-conditioned, indoor malls instead. This hurts small market vendors.• Small business operators and self-employed people are vulnerable to sudden changes in prices for crops, or supply chain disruptions by extreme weather.• Individuals working outside may face disruption to their routine due to high heat.• Providing jobs and sustainable livelihoods is a key priority that has positive effects for health, resilience, and social mobility.• The Province may classify the municipality as an industrial development area, which may increase the pressures Baliwag is already facing to industrialize. • Baliwag’s employment is currently about 50% agricultural, but this is decreasing as farmers increasingly sell their land for subdivision development.• Negative impacts from climate change are felt especially by farmers and small vendors in public markets.ImpactsWhat We Heard• Businesses are attracted to Baliwag as an economic centre in Bulacan and people are proud of the city’s commerce.• The MAO provides training to farmers so they can try to sell their food to grocery stores through co-operatives. Currently, farmers’ crops may not meet the quality standards that large grocery store chains employ.• SM City, a major employer in Baliwag, has an interest in promoting sustainability through their corporate social responsibility programs, such as the recycling-focused Trash to Cash program. SM also contributes to disaster response by allowing individuals to leave their vehicles at the mall during floods.Existing Strengths• PESO provides career-readiness training to individuals, including specific training for climate-proof jobs such as call centre positions. Many job postings offered through PESO are not directly impacted by climate change, such as secretarial roles.• A trade fair involving Baliwag’s farmers cooperatives is planned.where farmers can display and sell their agricultural products, is planned. INDUSTRY47Key Recommendations for IndustryRecommendation Justification Implementer Trade-offsProvide IECs for businesses on climate adaptive practices.Capacity building for small businesses on appropriate insurance products for extreme weather events, business continuity plans, rainwater harvesting and diversifying supply chains. will strengthen resilience in the business sector. Business licensing office, PESO, BDOStaff time will have to be devoted to researching relevant adaptive practices for local businesses.Continue supporting cooperatives for self-employed individuals in PESO’s livelihood programme.Continue to connecting individuals in PESO’s livelihood programs and supporting cooperatives will reduce individual vulnerability to climate change impacts.PESOIt is uncertain to what degree cooperatives will be able to provide successful programs in all cases.Improve access to reliable credit sources to small businesses.Businesses generally require at least 50,000 pesos to buy goods to sell, but it is currently difficult to borrow more than 10,000 pesos. This may involve strengthening credit co-ops, or providing larger loans.PESOThis could be a time-intensive initiative that requires the participation of informal settlers and municipal staff involved in resettlement process.Promote shopping at the public market.Highlight the benefits of buying from local food producers in a promotional campaign to encourage people to support local agriculture.BDO, Tourism OfficeOutreach programs already exist in the community, adding on to such programs would not require many additional resources. People’s Voice48Knowledge & Capacity BuildingKnowledge and capacity building is a broad, cross-cutting theme. Policy makers must have “enough knowledge of the science, issues, and risks” of climate change to act effectively. Capacity refers to the ability of communities and institutions to implement adaptive measures. In an LCCAP, knowledge and capacity building encompasses municipal staff, sectoral leaders, and the general public. It also includes actions like training to IECs. Successful action means linking different actors and ways of knowing, from the young mother whose child is sick from the hotter days, to the meteorologist studying statistical data. • There is much knowledge about climate change in the community, people see that it is happening each day.• A survey of municipal staff showed significant conflation of adaptation with mitigation and with general practices of sustainability.• Climate change has directly challenged the traditional agricultural knowledge of groups such as farmers.• There is high demand for IECs to address climate change, including its impacts and potential adaptation measures.• Diverse sectors, from developers to farmers, rely on municipal information and guidance on topics such as water availability, flood risk, and expected crop yields.• It will become increasingly difficult to predict weather patterns such as El Niño and La Niña, and to anticipate extreme weather events. • Past climatic and weather information will no longer be as useful in helping to plan and predict future trends.• Floods and other weather-related disaster may destroy documents and equipment in Barangay Halls, RHUs, or in other municipal buildings.• Department heads attend seminars or trainings on climate-related topics.• Certain city departments talk to other nearby municipalities about climate change.• Baliwag regularly partners with local schools to educate children about climate change to increase awareness. • At a community-level, there is a general understanding that climate change is happening. Many community members have noticed a change in weather patterns and the effect that this has on their lives. Impacts Existing StrengthsWhat We Heard KNOWLEDGE & CAPACITY49Key Recommendations for Knowledge and Capacity BuildingRecommendation Justification Implementer Trade-offsRequest local and state universities to collaborate on a monthly or quarterly ‘bulletin’ of summarized climate change research and impacts.Request local and state universities to collaborate on a monthly or quarterly ‘bulletin’ of summarized climate change research and impacts.MENRO, Municipal Administrator, POPCOMTime needs to be spent developing a system to integrate data into departmental decisions.Create a standardized database that is backed-up in the event of major disasters.There are many techniques used by the municipal government to store its data but there is no comprehensive system for archiving. The Municipality could streamline this process and include naming systems, and should aim to digitize and back-up data. Municipal AdministratorTime intensive, but potentially saves time and money later on by protecting important information.Develop a master list of all climate change IECs.A master list of all climate change IECs will create consistent messaging around general education, and around which adaptation practices are most relevant to different actors. This will also prevent duplication of efforts and allow previously developed materials to be used elsewhere.MENRO, Muncipal AdministratorTime consuming for the Municipal Administrator and MENRO.People’s Voice50General Recommendations for Knowledge and Capacity BuildingRecommendation Justification Implementer Trade-offsCreate a comprehensive information kit for Barangay leaders to discuss climate change with their community.Barangay leaders are often very connected to their community. They can disseminate information among their Barangays residents to reach a wide audience quickly.Barangay leadersIf information materials are provided at regular barangay meetings it will cause minimal disruption to barangay capacity.Collaborate with local universities to help train the municipal staff on climate change knowledge.Collaboration with local universities will allow the municipality to draw on relevant information about climate change from a localized perspective. Mayor’s Office, Municipal Administrator, MENROMinimal time commitment from municipal staff to create, but it is important to target the right staff for these training sessions.Create a catalogue of municipal programs that directly engages  the public and incorporates relevant adaptation information.Climate change requires that all sectors of society collaborate closely in order to increase their adaptive capacity. The municipality can take advantage of existing opportunities to engage with the community and discuss climate change adaptation.All departmentsCoordination takes time, but a complete list of all seminars and outreach programmes can streamline resilience efforts, avoid duplication, and conserve municipal resources.  Facilitate training on climate change topics for municipal employees.It is important for staff to be knowledgeable on climate change science and the differences between mitigation, adaptation, and sustainability.  Training might focus on climate change adaptation in the Philippines.All departments, BWDTraining can be costly, but more knowledgeable staff can improve results both in the  planning and implementation phases of climate change adaptation.Look for opportunities to collaborate with other municipalities on immediate threats or opportunities around climate change adaptation (ex. creating maintenance schedules for irrgiation canals between municipalities).Regional collaboration can create opportunities to share resources and address climate change impacts that affect many municipalities. Sharing resources can have long-term benefits for all municipalities, including cost-savings.Mayor’s Office, MENRO, MPDOThis will be a time intensive undertaking, especially for departmental heads.51Next Steps Toward an LCCAPThe creation of a LCCAP is often a large undertaking for resource-strained LGUs. Though a standalone LCCAP document is desirable, the CCC has also encouraged LGUs to incorporate their LCCAPs into the CDPs and CLUPs in recognition LGUs’ Option 1: A Formal,  Standalone LCCAP Develop a formal document which outlines the climate actions the Municipality of Baliwag intends to take, with specific actions for different actors, coordinated by a single agency, actor, or committee. Trade-offs: A resource intensive process, requiring time spent away from other planning projects and processes. However it is a specific, actionable product that completely fulfills the NCCAP Framework’s mandate to LGUs.Option 2: Integrate the LCCAP into the CLUP/CDP Insert a specific climate section into the CLUP and the CDP, written by the MPDO, and try to approach planning issues in these documents while prioritizing climate change adaptation.Trade-offs: Easier to create than a formal LCCAP. However, climate change impacts will affect many aspects of the municipality (more than just land-use), so a broader perspective on adaptation is desirable.Option 3: Integrate LCCAP actions into all plans Develop a series of climate change adaptation goals for all departments in the municipality. Departments are to formulate all future plans with these adaptation goals in mind. Trade-offs: Easier to do, but monitoring and evaluation becomes splintered across many departments.Option 4: Integrate LCCAP actions into all plans, and then catalogue these actions into an LCCAP Develop a series of climate change adaptation goals for all departments. Catalogue all adaptation-related actions into a single, cross-cutting document, to be submitted to the national government as the LCCAP. Trade-offs: More resource-intensive than simply allowing all actors to develop their own CCA actions, but provides an opportunity to look holistically at adaptation work done throughout Baliwag.limited resources. Integrating a climate change lens into a variety of documents can also foster resilience throughout the municipality’s work. Four potential products of a ‘climate lens’ are outlined below and are possible on their own or in any combination:52Turning Goals into Action We recommend that a Climate Change Technical Working Group (CCTWG) be formed with major municipal stakeholders. The Iloilo LCCAP -- one of the first in the Philippines -- used the TWG structure to great effect during their planning process. We recommend that the following actors be included in this group, (other groups can be included in relevant sub-committees): •	 Municipality of Baliwag: MPDO, MENRO, Engineering, PESO, POPCOM, MAO. Treasurer•	 Other institutions: BWD, DILG•	 Civil Society Organizations: cooperatives, church groups, and other CSOsWith a CCTWG in place, a strategic planning approach can be taken to ensure the continued participation of community stakeholders in identifying climate change adaptation measures.  As stated by UN HABITAT in Planning for Climate Change:  A Strategic, Value-Based Approach for Urban Planners, this strategy is a “community-based decision-making process that incorporates local objectives to help determine priorities and...achieve agreed-upon goals.” Monitoring and EvaluationCollecting information on the implementation and performance of a plan is crucial to knowing what progress is being made. It can also allow policy makers to make whatever adjustments are necessary based on feedback.There are two relevant aspects to monitoring the implementation of a strategic plan:•	 Process Monitoring: Have the planned projects and activities been implemented?•	 Outcome Monitoring: What has been the impact of these projects and activities?One type of locally-specific outcome monitoring would be Community-Based Monitoring System (CBMS).  CBMS compiles the community’s local needs to better understand the impacts of municipal projects and activities, and is already in place in other municipalities in Bulacan.  Evaluation refers to critically examining the information gathered during the monitoring stage to assess whether adjustments or changes need to be made to the plan.  For Baliwag, this means asking: has the capacity of the community to adapt to climate change increased?5354Maraming Salamat Po! Climate change will continue to cause uncertainties in Baliwag and around the world, but resiliency can be woven through the spirit of conversation. From the municipality’s emphasis on community engagement, to the willingness of farmers to carry on in the face of immense challenges, the community has significant adaptive capacity. The conversations we have had in Baliwag serve as a strong foundation upon which to build an inclusive adaptation strategy.The purpose of this report is to highlight the voices and existing strengths of the Baliwag community in order to suggest adaptations to build physical and social resilience. Many of the recommendations in this report came directly from citizens of Baliwag. It is by continuing these conversations that innovative new ideas will emerge.Through investment in priority areas, the mobilization of existing community strengths, and the sharing of knowledge, Baliwag can keep  adapting into the future. The pride that the people of Baliwag feel in their city will continue to shine through in every conversation.55“People from Baliwag are good and loving.”56About the AuthorsThis report was written by:George BensonAndrea HaberAlix KrahnAaron LaoMichelle MarteleiraMaria TrujilloThe authors are graduate students from the School of Community and Regional Planning at the University of British Columbia in Canada.  They visited the Philippines as part of the Philippines Planning Studio Course with Professor Leonora Angeles.  Coming from different academic backgrounds, the authors of this report interests’ span social planning, community development, urban design, community resilience building, climate change governance, and international disaster management. AcknowledgementsWe would like to extend our deepest thanks to all of the community members, municipal staff, and everyone else from Baliwag that we had the pleasure of interacting with during our project. Maraming salamat po!In no particular order, we would like to thank: All of the participants in our focus groups, surveys, and interviews. The young mothers of San JoseFarmers of Piel and BarangkaThe Mother Leaders of San Jose, Concepcion,  Poblacion, Bagong Nayon, Calantipay, San Idelfonso, Tarcan, Piel, St Cristo, and Tibag BarangaysSilver Purpose Cooperative The Rotary Club of BaliwagBaliwag Humanitarian AssociationNarciso Juana, President of Senior Citizens FederationSAVERS Volunteer RescueMaricar Caballero, PESORonaldo Rivera, San Jose Barangay CaptainRomero Santos, Municipal EngineerChristopher D Rivera, Municipal AdministratorAvenel “Nel” Colina, Mayor’s Administrative Staff Nemencio M. De Leon, MPDCJosephine L Labasbas, MSWDOJayfie Nasarro, DILGCouncillor Ron CruzRosebel C. Fajardo, MNOJose Carlos Mañaol, PYAP BaliwagJomari L. Saroudo, PYAP BaliwagBrenda C Bernardo, POPCOMArsenia Huertazuela, MAOGrace C. Solaforio, MAO Extension OfficerJosefina S.  Adriano,  Accounting DepartmentGerald Abary, MDRRMOEdgar Luna, MENROTeresita SJ. Fabian, MEEMRosario Bautista, Municipal Tourism OfficerDr Joan Dinlasan, RHU PhysicianMaria Riccel Fajardo, Municipal AssessorLoudres Castro, Local Civil RegistrarLaarnie B. Vera-Lauro, Mall Marketing Manager SM City BaliwagAlvin S. De Galicia, Building Admin Officer, SM City BaliwagRodolfo S. Cruz Jr., OIC Water Resource Division, BWDRoberto D. Estrella OIC , Engineering Dept., BWDWillie Domingo, Municipal PhotographerVictoria E. Signo,  OIC, Sewerage and Sanitation Division, BWDNorman Oliver Ragil, Engineer, BWDAlvin Santos, Rotary Club of BaliwagA special thanks to Mayor Carolina D D L. Dellosa for her support to us in writing and researching this report.This entire experience would not have been possible without the tireless effort and guiding wisdom of Professor Nora Angeles.57Appendix 1:Acronyms5859 ACRONYMS BWD Baliwag Water District CCA Climate Change Adaptation CCA, 2009 (National) Climate Change Act, 2009 CCC  Climate Change Commission CBMS Community Based Monitoring System CDP   Comprehensive Development Plan CLUP   Comprehensive Land Use Plan CSO Civil Society Organization CSR Corporate Social Responsibility DILG Department of Interior and Local Government DRRM Disaster Risk, Reduction and Management DRRMO Disaster Risk, Reduction, and Management Office(er) ELA  Executive Legislative Agenda EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency GHGs  Greenhouse Gases 60IEC Information and Education Campaign IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change  IRRI International Rice Research Institute LCCAP Local Climate Change Action Plan LGU Local Government Unit MAO Municipal Agriculture Office MENRO Municipal Environment and Natural Resources Office(r) MON Municipal Nutrition Officer MPDO Municipal Planning and Development Office MSWD Municipal Social Welfare Department NCCAP National Climate Change Action Plan NDRRMC National Disaster Risk, Reduction, and Management Council NFSCC  National Framework Strategy on Climate Change NGO  Non-Governmental Organization PAGASA   Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration PDRRMC Provincial Disaster Risk, Reduction, and Management Council PESO Public Employment Services Organization 61POPCOM Population Commission(er) RA    Republic Act RHU Rural Health Unit SCARP   School of Community and Regional Planning SMEs Small and Medium Enterprises TWG Technical Working Group UBC The University of British Columbia UN United Nations UNEP United Nations Environment Programme UN HABITAT    UN Human Settlements Programme WHO  World Health Organization     Appendix 2:Resources6263Recommended Resources  Citation Description Planning Processes and Toolkits Adapting to Climate Change: Cities and the Urban Poor, International Housing Coalition (2011). An exploration of climate change adaptations specific to low-income populations in cities.  Provides an overview of vulnerabilities, challenges and opportunities for supporting adaptation within human settlements. Assessing Climate Change Impacts, Vulnerability and Adaptation: The Case of Pantabangan- Carranglan Watershed, World Agroforestry Centre (2010). An expansive coverage of different approaches to climate change adaptation, using the case study of Pantabangan Carranglan Watershed.  Basic Principles of Community-Based Monitoring, United Cities and Local Governments (n.d.) Provides guidelines and toolkits on monitoring using a community-driven approach.  Climate Change Adaptation: Best Practices in the Philippines, Department of Environment and Natural Resources. (2011) An exhaustive list of climate adaptation measures being taken in the Philippines by a wide variety of actors from all different sectors. An excellent compendium to consult in situations where examples are needed.  Guide to Climate Change Adaptation in Cities, The World Bank Group (2011).   A guide directed at the audience of municipal mayors and practitioners in developing countries.  The guide offers practical suggestions on developing a plan for climate change adaptation, impacts and adaptation for informal settlements, the urban poor, and other vulnerable groups, sector specific adaptive responses and financing adaptation in cities.  Participatory Climate Change Assessments, City of Sorsogon. (2010) A strong resource, developed in the Philippines, on how to engage in general climate planning while involving the community. Developed in partnership with UN HABITAT, easy to read, and with many examples.  Planning for Climate Change, UN HABITAT A general overview of planning tools for climate change adaptation. Easy-to-use guide with an asset-based, participatory approach that focuses on creating context-specific 64(2012) climate adaptation policies.  Social Adaptation and Community Engagement Developing a National Informal Settlements Upgrading Strategy for the Philippines, ICF International (2014).  A document initiated by the Philippine Government as a response to rapid urbanization and climate change in the country.  The plan offers strategies with regards to upgrading informal settlements in the country.   Kitchen Table Sustainability: Practical Recipes for Community Engagement with Sustainability. Wendy Sarkissian et al. (2008) An extremely accessible guide to community engagement around sustainability issues, along with climate change.  Food Security City Climate Hazard Taxonomony: C40’s Classification of City-specific hazards, C40 Cities. (n.d.) Short, easy-to-read document detailing major threats to cities and how to conceptualize risk-perception as a city.  Climate Change And Food Security: A Framework Document, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2008). This report covers the effects that global warming and climate change could potentially have on food systems and security. It provides suggestions strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change to support food security.   Food Security and Climate Change, Ma. Gloria SF. Carrillo, Provincial Agriculturist (n.d.) Explanation of climate change’s impacts on food and overview of types of actions that can be taken in pursuit of resilience. Case-studies specific to Bulacan. Forest Ecosystem Valuation Study: Indonesia, UNEP. (2007) Exploration of how forest ecosystems contribute to ecosystem services for different localities. Strong examples and good framing for how to consider measures such as payments for ecosystem services. Water Sufficiency and Ecosystems  65Shifting Course: Climate Adaptations for Water Management Institutions, World Wildlife Foundation (2011) Identifies a set of principles for climate-adaptive water institutions. The report includes five case studies from around the world that highlight different institutional responses to climate change and related challenges. Integrating Urban Agriculture and Forestry into Climate Change Action Plans: Lessons from Sri Lanka, RAUF Foundation. (2014)  An excellent case-study of integrating urban agriculture and forestry in Sri Lanka.  Infrastructure  Understanding and addressing risks of flooding in the city: the case of Barangay Potrero, Metro Manila, ACCORD, and Red Cross/Crescent Climate Centre. (2015)  Comprehensive, context-specific case-study of cooperation mechanisms and policy innovations in flood response and preparation in Metro Manila.  Infrastructure, Engineering and Climate Change Adaptation – ensuring services in an uncertain future, Royal Academy of Engineering. (2011)  This report sets out the engineering profession’s views on how to adapt the infrastructure system to the long-term effects of climate change and the short-term shocks of extreme weather.  Appendix 3:Community Outreach6667 Sector/Demographic Who Why Government Officials ¥ Municipal Staff from Major Departments ¥ Water district staff ¥ Rural Health Unit Workers As city officials, municipal and water district staff are experts on the service and programs that exist with regards to climate change.  As decision makers, they possess the power to further implement adaptation measures. Business People ¥ Market Association ¥ SM Baliwag ¥ Small business owners Business leaders possess the knowledge of how climate change will impact business across a variety of industries and sectors.   Barangay Leaders ¥ 15 leaders out of 27 barangays Barangay leaders have a deep understanding of the specific impacts that climate change may have on individuals and families in their day-to-day lives.  Civil Society Organizations ¥ The Catholic Church ¥ Daycare Teachers ¥ SAVERS ¥ Pag-asa Youth Association of the Philippines ¥ Silver Multi-Purpose Co-op ¥ Rotary Club of Metro-Baliwag ¥ Baliwag Humanitarian Civil Society Organizations have connections to the community that city officials may not otherwise have. As a result, they have specialized knowledge with regards to the particular societal groups they work and partner with. Women ¥ Mother leaders ¥ Young mothers Often underrepresented in policies and projects,  women are critically attuned to family and community life.  We wanted to know how climate change specifically affects women, and the families they are often so vital in ensuring well-being of.   Farmers ¥ Farmers from Barangay Piel and Farmers have a unique understanding of the ways in which Barangka livelihood can be so intertwined with changes in weather.   Seniors & Youth ¥ Senior Citizen’s Federation ¥ High School Students Senior’s possess historical memory necessary to understanding long-term changes in weather and adaptations as well as years of local knowledge.   Appendix 4:Adaptation Measures Rankings6869In four different focus groups, our team conducted ranking exercises with community members to see what their priorities were for adaptation measures. These exercises evolved over the course of the project, but followed a general format:   1. Introduction of ‘standard’ adaptation measures drawn from secondary literature 2. Soliciting suggestions from community members of what was missing 3. Engaging in ranking exercises through ‘dot-mocracy,’ where each participant was given multiple votes to distribute wherever they felt was most important 4. Discussion after the voting of why decisions were made and what next steps were.   Of the four discussion groups we performed this exercise at, the demographics were as follows:   Women Leaders (July 8th, 2015): 15 women, 1 man. Average Age: 47.5 years old.  Institutional Staff (July 14th, 2015): 11 women, 7 men. Average Age: 42.6 years old. Actors present: Baliwag Water District, DILG, Municipal Departments, including, Assessor, COMELEC, Local Civil Registry, MAO, MEEM, MPDO, MSWD, PNP, POFP, RHN, PESO, POPCOM.  Tibag Barangay Workers (July 15th, 2015): 9 women, 1 man. Average Age: 44.7 years old.  5 Barangay Health Workers, 4 Mother Leaders, 1 LLN.  Multi-stakeholder Meeting (July 20th, 2015): 7 women, 5 men. Average age: 48.5 years old. Organizations covering services in 27 barangays: Baliwag Humanitarians (2,000 members), Day Care Teachers (31 members), PYAYP (50 members), Baliwag Rotary Club (20 members) SAVERS (45 members), Senior’s Federation (500 members), Silver Multipurpose Co-op (1,500 members)  	  	  Rank (#dots) Mother Leaders (16 participants) Institutional Staff (18 participants) Tibag Barangay Workers (10 participants) Multi-stakeholder Community Focus Group (15 participants)  Overall Ranking Overall Ranking Overall Ranking Ranked by Urgency Ranked by Importance Ranked by Ease 1 Family planning (12) Discipline to eco-programs (18) Family planning (12) IEC on CC (11) IEC on CC (10) IEC on CC (14) 2 Energy conservation (10) Education Information Campaign (14) Livelihood programmes for Informal Settlements (9) Clean drainage system (11) IEC on health (9) Tree-planting (10) 3 Improve tree planting (6) Funding Requirements for Adaptation Projects (7) Potential relocation (7) Trees planting (11) Clean drainage system (9) Waste segregation to protect drains (9) 4 Waste segregation (6) New Building Codes (5) Recycling program for livelihood (5) Reduce plastics to clear drains (9) Trees planting (8) Water conservation program (4) 5 Dog control program (4) Build Partnerships / CSR (5) Stronger relationships between barangays (5) Waste segregation to protect drains (8) Reduce plastics to clear drains (7) IEC on health (4) 6 Bicycle riding program (4) Upgrade Storm Water Management (4) No to plasti and styro (5) Early alert systems for disasters (8) Water conservation program (6) Livelihood programs in relocation areas (2) 	  	  707 Prevention of teenage pregnancy (4) Master Drainage Plan (1) More health programs (5) IEC on health (7) Clean drainage system (3) Active transportation (1) 8 Rainwater harvesting- (3) Continuing Support and Training for Farmers (1) Improving accessible sidewalks (3) Water conservation program (4) More support for farmers (3) Reduce plastics to clear drains (1) 9 More secure fresh water (3) New Technology for Farmers (1) Shade on roads (3) More support for farmers (3) Livelihood programs in relocation areas (2) Early alert systems for disasters (0) 10 No plastic and Styrofoam (3) Designate 'flood strip' on Sidewalk (0) Stormwater (2) Livelihood programs in relocation areas (2) Improve farm-to-market roads (1) More support for farmers (0) 11 More health programs (3) Water and Sanitation Safety Plan (0) Improved tree planting (1) Active transportation (2) Early alert systems for disasters (0) Painting rooftops white (0) 12 Shade on roads (1) Banning Plastic to enhance storm-water protection (0) Education (1) Upgrade public market building (1) Cover sidewalks for shade (0) Cover sidewalks for shade (0) 13 Recycling program for livelihood (1)  Stronger communication (1) Painting rooftops white (1) Painting rooftops white (0) Upgrade irrigation system (0) 14 Potential relocation (1)  More secure fresh water (0) Upgrade irrigation system (1) Active transportation (0) Securing fresh water (0)  Improving sidewalks (1)   Cover public spaces (1) Incinerator (0) Improve farm-to-market roads (0)  Stronger relationships between barangays (1)   No smoking campaign (0) No smoking campaign (0) No smoking campaign (0)     Improve farm-to-market roads (0) Cover public spaces (0) Cover public spaces (0)     Securing fresh water (0) Waste segregation to protect drains (0) New insurance (0)     New insurance (0) New insurance (0) Securing fresh water (0)     Securing fresh water (0) Securing fresh water (0) Upgrade public market building (0)     Incinerator (0) Upgrade public market building (0) Incinerator (0)          71Appendix 5:Community Vulnerability Mapping7273Barangay Busog Nayan Barangay Calantipay74Barangay Catulinan Barangay Concepcion75Barangay Hinukay Barangay Pagala76Barangay Piel Barangay Santo Cristo77Barangay Subic Barangay Sulivan78Barangay Tangos Barangay Tibag79Barangay Tilapayong

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