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Clarifying the terms of heating values Lee, Jun Sian 2017

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 1  CLARIFYING THE USES OF HEATING VALUES by Jun Sian Lee, edited by Professor Anthony K. Lau ABSTRACT Because heating value of fuels is described in many mass basis and thermodynamic conditions, the heating terms used in peer-reviewed literatures and reports have not been consistent. This short note aims to define and clarify the different uses of four most commonly used heating value terms, which are high heating value (HHV) or gross calorific value (GCV), low heating value (LHV), gross heating value (GHV) and net calorific value or net heating value (NCV or NHV), in the context of biomass fuels. Keywords: Heating values, calorific values, biomass 1. INTRODUCTION Heating value of fuel is defined as the energy released per unit mass of fuel in a complete combustion with oxygen. The need of the terms: high heating value and low heating value comes from the different end states of water [1]. The two end states of water, which we are concerned about, are liquid and vapour states. The water in the final product comes from two sources: the existing moisture in the fuel and the water product of the combustion. Therefore, before the differences between the two states can be explained, the process of complete combustion must be explained.  All biomass fuels, such as wood, straw, charcoal and others, contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, which are described in this chemical formula 𝐢𝐢π‘₯π‘₯𝐻𝐻𝑦𝑦𝑂𝑂𝑧𝑧. In a complete combustion, organic fuels react with oxygen molecules in the atmosphere to form two products: carbon dioxide 𝐢𝐢𝑂𝑂2 and water 𝐻𝐻2𝑂𝑂 and to release heat. This heat released is called heat of combustion [1]. Some of  2  the heat released are used to vaporize the existing moisture in the fuel and the water product. Chemical equation (Eq. 1) below gives the general form of complete combustion reaction of organic fuels. 𝐢𝐢π‘₯π‘₯𝐻𝐻𝑦𝑦𝑂𝑂𝑧𝑧 + οΏ½2π‘₯π‘₯ + 𝑦𝑦2 βˆ’ 𝑧𝑧�𝑂𝑂2 β†’ π‘₯π‘₯ 𝐢𝐢𝑂𝑂2 + 𝑦𝑦2 𝐻𝐻2𝑂𝑂 + β„Žπ‘’π‘’π‘’π‘’π‘’π‘’ (1) Because all combustion reactions occur at temperatures above the boiling temperature of water, both the existing water of the fuel and the water product are in the vapour state after the combustion process. In a bomb calorimeter – a device to measure the heating value of fuels, the water in vapour state (both existing moisture and water product) is cooled and condensed to room temperature [3,4]. As a result, the heat of condensation is recovered. All the heat of combustion are measured by the bomb calorimeter. The total heat of combustion measured by a bomb calorimeter per unit mass is called β€œhigh heating value” (HHV) or β€œgross heating value” (GHV). If one does not have a bomb calorimeter, HHV can also be estimated using the equation below [5]. 𝐻𝐻𝐻𝐻𝐻𝐻 π‘œπ‘œπ‘œπ‘œ 𝐺𝐺𝐢𝐢𝐻𝐻 = 0.3491𝑋𝑋𝐢𝐢 + 1.1783𝑋𝑋𝐻𝐻 + 0.1005𝑋𝑋𝑆𝑆 βˆ’ 0.0151𝑋𝑋𝑁𝑁 βˆ’ 0.1034π‘‹π‘‹π‘‚π‘‚βˆ’ 0.0211π‘‹π‘‹π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘Žπ‘Žβ„Ž  (2) On another hand, if the water in vapour state are not condensed, such as the cases in traditional boilers or in dryers, the heat of condensation is lost as the flue gases, together with the water vapour, flows out to the atmosphere. This heat of combustion, less heat of condensation of water, per unit mass is called β€œlow heating value” (LHV) or β€œnet heating value” (NHV). 3   Heat balance in a complete combustion Heat released from combustion (Heat of Combustion) = heat to vaporize existing water + heat to vaporize water product + heat loss to environment HHV or GHV = Heat of Combustion per unit mass LHV or NHV = (Heat of Combustion - heat to vaporize existing water - heat to vaporize water product) per unit mass 2. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE DIFFERENT TERMS  One may ask, are there any difference between HHV and GHV? And how about LHV and NHV? The short answer is yes, there are differences between the two related terms. The differences come from the mass basis in which the terms are defined. HHV is defined as the heat of combustion per unit oven dry mass, expressed in the unit J/dry g, whereas, GHV is defined as the heat of combustion per unit wet mass, expressed in the unit J/wet g. Oven dry mass refers to the mass of fuel without any moisture (moisture content equals to zero); wet mass refers to the mass of fuel, which contains moisture content above zero.  The same goes for LHV and NHV. LHV is defined in the basis of oven dry mass, whereas NHV is defined in the basis of wet mass. You may ask: what about β€œgross calorific value” (GCV) and β€œnet calorific value” (NCV)? As one may have guessed, gross calorific value is equivalent to high heating value, whereas net calorific value is equivalent to net heating value. However, the terms β€œgross calorific value” and  4  β€œnet calorific value” are more commonly used in European countries, while the terms β€œgross heating value” and β€œlow heating value” are more commonly used in North America. The different terms are summarized in Table 1. Table 1: Summary of the heating value terms [6]. Terms End State of Water Basis Notes High Heating Value (HHV) and Gross Calorific Value (GCV) Liquid Dry Measurable from bomb calorimeter if the sample is oven dried. Gross Heating Value (GHV) Liquid Wet Measureable from bomb calorimeter using sample as is. Low Heating Value (LHV) Vapour Dry Calculated from HHV. Net Heating Value (NHV) and Net Calorific Value (NCV) Vapour Wet Calculated from HHV. The equations to convert from HHV to GCV as well as to convert from HHV to NCV or NHV are given in equations 3, 4 and 5. 3. CONCLUSION As a final note, the terms HHV (dry basis!) and GHV (wet basis!) should only be used in the cases where the existing moisture and water product are condensed, for example, in rating the efficiency of advanced combined cooling, heat and power (CCHP) power plants and in reporting the maximum energy content in a fuel. In other cases, where existing moisture and water product are not condensed and remain in vapor state, for example, in the case of residential heating stoves, traditional boilers and dryers, the terms LHV (dry basis!) and NCV (wet basis!) should be used.  Also, one should always state their mass basis, when a heating value is reported, to avoid any confusion; if one were to express a heating value in wet basis, one must report the moisture content of the sample together with the heating value.  5  Appendix A gives a numerical example to illustrate the differences between HHV/GCV, GHV, LHV and NHV/NCV.  Equations to calculate GHV from HHV or GCV [1] 𝐺𝐺𝐻𝐻𝐻𝐻 = 𝐻𝐻𝐻𝐻𝐻𝐻 οΏ½1 βˆ’ 𝑀𝑀100οΏ½ = 𝐺𝐺𝐢𝐢𝐻𝐻 οΏ½1 βˆ’ 𝑀𝑀100οΏ½ Where 𝑀𝑀 is the moisture content in wet basis.  (3) Equation to calculate NHV or NCV from HHV in MJ/kg Complete equation 𝑁𝑁𝐻𝐻𝐻𝐻 π‘œπ‘œπ‘œπ‘œ 𝑁𝑁𝐢𝐢𝐻𝐻 = [𝐻𝐻𝐻𝐻𝐻𝐻 βˆ’ 0.212𝑋𝑋𝐻𝐻 βˆ’ 0.0008 Γ— (𝑋𝑋𝑂𝑂 + 𝑋𝑋𝑁𝑁)] Γ— 100 βˆ’π‘€π‘€100βˆ’ 0.0245𝑀𝑀   Where 𝑋𝑋𝐻𝐻, 𝑋𝑋𝑂𝑂 and 𝑋𝑋𝑁𝑁 are the hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen contents in dry basis.  (4) Low heating value (LHV) is simply NCV when moisture content 𝑀𝑀 is zero. 𝐿𝐿𝐻𝐻𝐻𝐻 = 𝐻𝐻𝐻𝐻𝐻𝐻 βˆ’ 0.212𝑋𝑋𝐻𝐻 βˆ’ 0.0008 Γ— (𝑋𝑋𝑂𝑂 + 𝑋𝑋𝑁𝑁) (5)  Hence, equation 4 can also be written as: 𝑁𝑁𝐻𝐻𝐻𝐻 π‘œπ‘œπ‘œπ‘œ 𝑁𝑁𝐢𝐢𝐻𝐻 = 𝐿𝐿𝐻𝐻𝐻𝐻 Γ— 100 βˆ’π‘€π‘€100 βˆ’ 0.0245𝑀𝑀 (6)     6  REFERENCES  [1] Briggs D. Chapter 9: Energy. In: Forest products measurements and conversion factors. L. Charbonneau, Seattle, WA: College of Forest Resources, University of Washington; 1994. p. 105-110. [2] Barker MF. Calorific value and constitution. J Phys Chem. 1925 Apr 21;29(11):1345-1363. [3] ASTM International. D5865-12: Standard Test Method for Gross Calorific Value of Coal and Coke. 2012. [4] EN 14918. Solid biofuels - method for the determination of calorific value. 1994. [5] Obernberger I, Thek G. The pellet handbook: the production and thermal utilisation of biomass pellets. London, UK: Earthscan; 2010. [6] Lee JS. Calorific value of wood pellets [dissertation]. Vancouver (BC): University of British Columbia; 2015. [7] Boundy B, Diegel SW, Wright L., David SC. Biomass energy data book. 4th ed. Oak Ridge: Oak Ridge National Laboratory; 2011.  7  APPENDIX A 1 This example is taken from Biomass Energy Data Book 2011 [7]. The high heating values 2 (HHV) and the ultimate analysis of two biomass species: poplar and corn stover were measured. 3 The moisture contents of the samples were 35% wet mass basis. Table 2 lists the measured data.  4 Table 2. Measured moisture, elements, and high heating value of biomass    M (%) Ash (%) C (%) H (%) O (%) N (%) S (%) HHV (MJ/kg) Poplar 35 0.65 51.64 6.26 41.45 0.00 0.00 20.75 Stover 35 11.27 44.80 5.35 39.55 0.38 0.01 17.33 Calculate the HHV/GCV, GHV, LHV, and NHV/NCV.  5 a) Equation 2 is used to estimate high heating value (HHV) or gross calorific value (GCV) from 6 elemental compositions. Recall, HHV and GSV are always in dry basis. 7 𝐻𝐻𝐻𝐻𝐻𝐻 = 0.3491𝑋𝑋𝐢𝐢 + 1.1783𝑋𝑋𝐻𝐻 + 0.1005𝑋𝑋𝑆𝑆 βˆ’ 0.0151𝑋𝑋𝑁𝑁 βˆ’ 0.1034𝑋𝑋𝑂𝑂 βˆ’ 0.0211π‘‹π‘‹π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘Žπ‘Žβ„Ž 8 Substituting from compositions listed in Table 1, 9 For poplar, 10 𝐻𝐻𝐻𝐻𝐻𝐻 = 0.3491(51.65) + 1.1783(6.26) + 0.1005(0.00) βˆ’ 0.0151(0.00) βˆ’ 0.1034(41.45)11 βˆ’ 0.0211(0.65) 12  = 21.11 MJ/kg 13 And for corn stover, 14  8  𝐻𝐻𝐻𝐻𝐻𝐻 = 0.3491(44.80) + 1.1783(5.35) + 0.1005(0.01) βˆ’ 0.0151(0.38) βˆ’ 0.1034(39.55)15 βˆ’ 0.0211(11.27) 16  = 17.61 MJ/kg 17 The calculated HHV for both species are comparable to measured HHV in Table 2.  18 b) Equation 3 is used to calculate gross heating value (GHV) from HHV. 19 𝐺𝐺𝐻𝐻𝐻𝐻 = 𝐻𝐻𝐻𝐻𝐻𝐻 οΏ½1 βˆ’ 𝑀𝑀100οΏ½ 20 For poplar, 21 𝐺𝐺𝐻𝐻𝐻𝐻 [@𝑀𝑀𝐢𝐢 = 35%] = 20.75 οΏ½1 βˆ’ 35100οΏ½ = 13.49 MJ/kg 22 And for corn stover, 23 𝐺𝐺𝐻𝐻𝐻𝐻 [@𝑀𝑀𝐢𝐢 = 35%] = 17.33 οΏ½1 βˆ’ 35100οΏ½ = 11.26 MJ/kg 24 c) Equation 5 is used to calculate low heating value (LHV) from HHV.  25 𝐿𝐿𝐻𝐻𝐻𝐻 = 𝐻𝐻𝐻𝐻𝐻𝐻 βˆ’ 0.212𝑋𝑋𝐻𝐻 βˆ’ 0.0008 Γ— (𝑋𝑋𝑂𝑂 + 𝑋𝑋𝑁𝑁) 26 For poplar, 27 𝐿𝐿𝐻𝐻𝐻𝐻 = 20.75 βˆ’ 0.212(6.26) βˆ’ 0.0008(41.45 + 0.00) = 19.39 MJ/kg 28 And for corn stover, 29 𝐿𝐿𝐻𝐻𝐻𝐻 = 17.33 βˆ’ 0.212(5.35) βˆ’ 0.0008(39.55 + 0.38) = 16.16 MJ/kg 30  9  d) Equation 6 is used to calculate net heating value (NHV) or net calorific value (NCV) 31 from LHV, 32 𝑁𝑁𝐻𝐻𝐻𝐻 π‘œπ‘œπ‘œπ‘œ 𝑁𝑁𝐢𝐢𝐻𝐻 = 𝐿𝐿𝐻𝐻𝐻𝐻 Γ— 100 βˆ’π‘€π‘€100 βˆ’ 0.0245𝑀𝑀   33 for poplar,  34 𝑁𝑁𝐻𝐻𝐻𝐻 [@𝑀𝑀𝐢𝐢 = 35%] = 19.39 Γ— 100 βˆ’ 35100 βˆ’ 0.0245(35) = 11.75 MJ/kg 35 and for corn stover, 36 𝑁𝑁𝐻𝐻𝐻𝐻 [@𝑀𝑀𝐢𝐢 = 35%] = 16.16 Γ— 100 βˆ’ 35100 βˆ’ 0.0245(35) = 9.65 MJ/kg 37  38 

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