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Conscientizing prevention and awareness : an ecological model for halting violence against women and… Legacy, Marc Jun 30, 2008

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CONSCIENTIZING PREVENTION AND AWARENESS - AN ECOLOGICAL MODEL FOR HALTING VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN AND FAMILY VIOLENCE by MARC LEGACY BA, The University of British Columbia, 2002 Diploma, The University of British Columbia, 2003 A GRADUATING PAPER SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF EDUCATION in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Departemnt of Educational Studies) (Adult Education) THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June, 2008 ©Marc Legacy; 2008 - 1 -Table of Contents Chapter 1 - Introduction 1.1 Beginning with location 1 1.2 Background to Family Violence 2 1.3 Defining Violence 4 1.4 Problem Statement 5 1.5 The Need for Education 6 1.6 Prevention and Awareness 7 1.7 Theoretical Scope 8 Nested Ecological Theory 9 Ecological model 10 Diagram: The Ecological Mode 11 1.8 Methodology 11 Data generation 12 Figures: On-line Search Results 12 Data analysis 12 1.9 Organization of Paper 13 Chapter 2 - Theoretical Perspectives and the Ecological Model 2.1 Theoretical Dimensions of Family Violence 14 Table 1: Impact of Family Violence 16 Table 2: Mapping the Landscape 18 2.2 Multidimensional Theories 18 2.3 An Ecological Model of Violence 19 Table 3: Contributing Factors 20 2.4 Chapter Summary 22 Chapter 3 - Programs of Prevention and Awareness 3.1 Prevention and Awareness 3.2 An Ecological Model for Prevention of Violence 3.3 Programs of Prevention Prevention and Technology Table 4: Links to Electronic Publication 3.4 Chapter Summary Chapter 4 - Reconceptualizing Anti-Violence Education 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 References Figures Tables Multidimensional Curricular Umbrella Conceptualizing Education A Multidimensional Curricular Approach Chapter Summary On-line Search Results Table 1: Impact of Family Violence Table 2: Mapping the Landscape Table 3: Contributing Factors Table 4: Links to Electronic Publication Diagram Diagram: The Ecological Mode - 11 -24 27 29 33 34 35 36 38 41 43 46 12 16 18 20 34 11 - 111 -Abstract As a pressing social problem, education is often cited as an accompaniment to halting violence against women and family violence. As an accompaniment, education is thought to support intervention at the individual-relationship levels of interaction, and, to supplement programs of prevention and awareness at the community-societal levels of interaction. The purpose of this enquiry is to examine multidimensional approaches for preventing violence against women and family violence at the community-societal levels of interaction. As effective as multidimensional approaches are to halting violence against women and family violence, efforts were strengthened when a multidimensional approach coincided with a multi pronged attack from a variety of organizations ranging from international agencies such as the World Health Organization, national agencies such the Department of Justice and Health Canada, along with Provincial and local service providers as well, all under a multidimensional curricular umbrella to halt violence. Nevertheless, this enquiry concludes by finding a fairly consistent message of conscientization from all service providers that violence against women and family violence are intolerable. - 1 -Chapter 1 - Introduction 1.1 Beginning with location This paper will explore education as an accompanying strategy for addressing the problem of violence against women and family violence. My acquaintance with violence against women and family violence began when I was engaged as a research assistant in a legal research project in the Faculty of Law at the University of British Columbia. As I began to better acquaint myself with ' QuickLaw', a legal data base containing, among other legal information, Supreme Court of Canada (SCC) decisions, I began to see more and more judicial decisions citing education either as an alternative to legislation and sentencing or as an accompanying remedy to social intervention. In R. v. Butler (1992), for example, the SCC concluded that "serious social problems such as violence against women require multi-pronged approaches by government; education and legislation are not alternatives but complements in addressing such problems". In R. v. Lavallee (1990), the SCC once again suggested the need for adult education when it concluded that a battering relationship was subject to a large group of myths and stereotypes beyond the average range and experience of the average Juror. What sparked my interest in violence against women and family violence was that on one hand, family violence was frequently cited by the courts as a pressing and substantial social problem in need of more effective educational strategies, but, on the other hand there was no sense of just how education ought to operate within existing legislative framework. Furthermore, as an adult educator, I began to wonder about the kinds of anti-violence educational efforts that currently existed and whether conscientizing principles of adult - 2 -education could be the foundation for effective educational practice in preventing family violence. In other words, as I became better acquainted with the literature about family violence, I began to wonder how adult education could better support existing educational strategies. Accordingly, the purpose of this inquiry is to collect publicly available educational material from a variety of publicly accessible sources; next, to reveal the educational content; and then, finally, to consider the implications for strengthening educational initiatives aimed at preventing family violence. On a personal note: as I began to question whether or not the criminal justice system was the most effective method for halting family violence (R. v. Lavallee) and violence against women (R. v. Butler) , my interest in violence against women and family violence evolved to the point where I have invested a great deal of sincere personal interest in learning more about halting family and violence against women. As a result, my interest in violence against women and family violence has grown and developed into the crux of my academic pursuits and research interests, forming the foundation for broader academic pursuits in social justice issues. 1.2 Background to Family Violence Throughout the 1800s into the 1900s, the family was generally considered to be a private institution beyond the scope of state intervention. Consequently, violence that occurred behind the privileged veil of private family matters was not publicly recognized as a social concern until fairly recently (Kurst-Swanger and Petcosky, 2003). Despite efforts to contest conventional wisdom, at a time where legal intervention was unpredictable, prosecutions rare, and victims reluctant to report to the police (Kindschi Gosselin, 2000), it - 3 -was largely held that it was legally permissible for husbands to use 'moderate' force to control and dominate their wives (Alaggia and Vine, 2006). As a result, much of the violence that occurred behind the closed doors of the family was not recognized by the law (Kindschi Gosselin, 2000). However, on the heels of first wave feminism through the 1900s and reemerging in the 1960s throughout the 1970s, persistent efforts of activists and grass-root movements of second wave feminism successfully pierced the culture of silence by addressing, among other social and political deficiencies, the lack of effective response to family violence, prevention and awareness. As a result, at the grass-roots level, the ' battered women's movement' came together to protect and support victims and survivors of family violence, as well as to inform, challenge and transform public attitudes about wife beating (Kindschi Gosselin, 2000). In Canada, even though violence against women within the family was brought to public attention in the late 1960s, Ann Duffy and Julie Momirov (1997) reported that many Canadians remained insufficiently informed about the extent of family violence. Moreover, the Department of Justice (Justice Canada, 2005a) confirmed that it was difficult to know the full extent of family violence, largely because many instances of family violence remain unreported or undetected; particularly those that are not detected by mandatory screening and reporting mechanisms, or, those that do not result in the physical manifestation of violence that prompt a criminal justice response. In Canada for example, family violence that results in spousal assault is measured in terms of violations ofthe Criminal Code and includes physical or sexual assault along with threats of violence (Johnson, 2006). On the other hand, although there is growing agreement and recognition they are just as harmful in controlling or intimidating partners, psychological or emotional abuse, financial abuse or economic exploitation, insults, humiliation and constant put-downs are not considered crimes in as much as they are not specifically defined by the statutes, and are therefore not accurately measured in crime statistics and surveys (Johnson, 2006). 1.3 Defining Violence - 4 -What defines family violence as criminal behavior worthy of state intervention sometimes differs from what constitutes family violence in need of social intervention (WHO, 2002b). Over time,jamily violence has undergone various name changes, these include wife beating, spousal abuse, and domestic violence. At some points in this history, the term violence was used to refer only to the physical manifestation of violence or the threat of physical violence. At other times,jamily violence was defined to include sexual assault, marital rape, psychological and emotional abuse. Ramona Alaggia and Cathy Vine confirm that "family violence is known by many names, indeed [they conclude] naming and defining violence (or abuse) is a fundamental challenge" (2006, p. 2). Denise Kindschi Gosselin cites family violence as "any spousal altercation or interfamilial conflicts of sufficient nature to justify law enforcement intervention" (2000, p.7). More recently, attempts to name family violence includes references to ' intimate partner violence' (lPV) which is often described as "violence that occurs in a variety of intimate relationships; married, cohabiting, gay and straight" (Dutton, 2006, p. 3). Regardless of how violence is defined, a common thread throughout the various definitions includes emotional and familial bonds between the victim and the perpetrator of violence (Dutton, 2006). For the purpose of this enquiry,jamily violence will be interpreted according to the (all encompassing) definition adopted by Justice Canada (2005a), which includes physical - 5 -abuse, sexual abuse and exploitation, neglect, emotional abuse, economic or financial abuse, and spiritual abuse. A similar view is thatfamily violence includes "any behaviour within an intimate relationship that causes physical, psychological or sexual harm to those in the relationship (WHO, 2002b, p. 89). And, since women remain at greater risk for violence from their male intimate partners in their homes (Johnson, 2006), the focus of this enquiry will be violence against women: Violence against women shall be understood to encompass, but not be limited to physical, sexual and psychological violence occurring in the family . .. marital rape ... and violence related to exploitation; physical, sexual and psychological violence ... [along with] intimidation [in the home, in the community and] at work (Johnson, 2006, p. 9). 1.4 Problem Statement "Fear, confusion and despair; a hopelessness that characterizes victims caught in a web of domestic violence. Consider this; The person you love is your tormentor. You walk through the door of your home wondering what is going to happen to you today. Will it be a good day or will it be a bad day. The unpredictability heightens your fear. Domestic violence is a reality" (Kindschi Gosselin, 2000. p. 3). The aim of this inquiry is to consider the extent of publicly available educational material intended to raise awareness of and prevent violence against women and family violence at the community-societal levels of interaction. Guiding this enquiry are the following questions: 1. How is education positioned in the discourse about violence against women and families? 2. What are the different theoretical understandings of violence and violence prevention? 3. Based on a survey of publicly available educational materials in Canada and BC, what kinds of programs are offered by various levels of government and by community based agencies and what are the educational goals of these programs? 4. How can the role of adult education in anti-violence programs be reconceptualized so as to strengthen the effectiveness of anti-violence programs? - 6 -1.5 The need for education There is widespread agreement that, although it will not halt family violence on its own, a comprehensive set of well-designed educational interventions can support existing programs of prevention (Mears, 2003). For example, among others, the World Health Organization (WHO) submits that a significant goal of education is to prevent violence before it happens (Duffy and Momirov, 1997). Typically, however, responses to family violence have included intervention by the police and the courts where batterers were either sentenced accordingly or required to undertake therapeutic rehabilitation or behavioral counseling. In other non judicial contexts, intervention was the result of mandatory screening and reporting where batterers were persuaded to seek remedial family counseling, individual or group therapy. For example, in some areas, medical personnel, hospital staff, social services and educational institutions are required to report to the police or to their governing bodies all suspicions of violence. While the need for greater ' education' is frequently cited in the language of prevention and frequently cited in the language of policy, in partnership with social and political interventions, there is growing consensus that multiple educational strategies are necessary. These multiple strategies must work alongside multi-sectoral approaches to halt family violence across different levels of individual, social, political and legal interaction. In other words, multi-faceted public education is more likely to enhance existing programs of - 7 -prevention and awareness if educational strategies interact with individuals across different levels of interaction. For example, education in the form of training, is often directed towards front line law enforcement officers, the judiciary and medical personnel (Miller and Mullins, 2002). Education aimed at survivors sometimes entails, for example, safety planning, literacy skills and job training, while in other cases education is cited in the form of community-based programs of prevention and awareness (Barnett, Miller-Perrin and Perrin, 2005). 1.6 Prevention and Awareness Justice Canada envisions the goal of education in the following manner; "to change attitudes, which contribute to the continued existence of family violence, in order to help victims identify abusive behaviour, to inform them of assistance available, and to encourage individual community action" (2003 , p. 96). The WHO defines prevention as the "means to stop acts of interpersonal violence from occurring by intervening to eliminate or reduce the underlying risk factors and shore up protective factors , or to reduce the recurrence of further violence and its ill effects" (2004a, p. 7). Across a wide array of prevention and awareness strategies and across different levels of interpersonal interaction, the WHO provides a framework for classifying education and prevention at three stages of intervention: Primary prevention Includes any programmes, interventions or strategies aimed at stopping violent events from taking place, and is thus related to the time before violence actually occurs. Secondary prevention Includes any strategies aimed at minimizing the harm that occurs once a violent event is taking place and immediate post-violence intervention aimed at preventing re-victimization. Tertiary Prevention Includes all efforts aimed at treating and rehabilitating victims and perpetrators and facilitating their re-adaptation to society (WHO, 2004, p.7). In addition to classifying them according to this three-stage framework, the WHO defines programs to be "as a series of interventions, interrelated preventive activities, or projects, usually with a formal set of goals and procedures designed to have the desired outcome of reducing the level or consequences of violence" and as "planned activities to - 8 -bring about specified changes in a target group or population" (WHO, 2004a, pp. 7-8). For the purposes of this enquiry, I will employ the WHO's concept of prevention and education and I will focus particularly on programs of primary prevention and their educational initiatives across the ' societal-community ' levels of interaction. 1. 7 Theoretical Scope While Alaggia and Vine (2006) suggest that critical feminist theories have been helpful in understanding family violence, they nevertheless conclude that no one theory, alone, can fully explain the complexity of family violence. Family violence occurs within a social framework and as a result many contributing factors must be considered along with the origin and acceptance of violence (Duffy and Momirov, 1997). Moreover, perceptions of violence are often deeply entrenched in gender based norms and cultural acceptance that operate at various levels of interaction (WHO, 2004a). Additionally, Daniel Mears and - 9 -Christy Visher (2005) argue that the lack of well developed theoretical typologies for understanding family violence contributes to faulty assumptions about the origin and persistence of family violence. Joseph Michalski (2003) concludes that, while research on family violence has produced a large body of conflicting empirical findings, research on family violence has not yet advanced to the same extent in developing comprehensive set of theoretically-based forms of intervention. Nested Ecological Theory. Donald Dutton (2006) suggests that one theory-the nested ecological theory-considers the interaction of individual factors within broader cultural values and belief systems and provides comprehensive theoretical grounds for multi-level intervention. For example, the nested ecological theory examines links between the individual's behaviour, community influences, socio-economic factors, family and neighborhood relationships (Mears, 2003). Unlike many other theories of family violence which focus on singular explanations, the nested ecological theory examines the manifestation of violence at four levels of interaction: social, community, family, and, individual (WHO, 2002b). In a similar fashion, Dutton (2006) concludes that nested ecological theories considers violence to be the product of complex interactions between individual characteristics nested within broader cultural, social and political variables. In the end, the nested ecological theory appears to be in agreement with the SCC (1990, 1992), the WHO (2002b), Justice Canada (2003), Michalski (2004) and Dutton (2006) who among others, all concur, in one form or another, that "more widespread and lasting solutions require a concentrated effort to address the structural conditions that perpetuate violence at the interpersonal and social levels (Michalski, 2004, p. 670). - 10 -Ecological model. Conceptualizing violence as the interplay of factors across levels of interaction may shed light on interrelated ' nested' root causes of violence. For example, an individual with a predisposition to violence may operate within cultural or societal relationships that tolerates family violence. Accordingly, the ecological model provides a conceptual scheme for illustrating factors across different levels of interaction at the individual, relationship, community and societal levels (WHO, 2004a). The ecological model has been adopted by the WHO (2002b) as their fundamental model for conceptualizing violence and for conceptualizing multi-faceted and multi-sectoral strategies of prevention and awareness. Interestingly enough, the ecological model is the preferred model adopted by Health Canada (1994a) for understanding how violence operates on individuals and families within the broader cultural and societal context. Justice Canada also prefers an ecological approach by suggesting that "prevention efforts are multi-dimensional in nature involving many players and systems influencing behaviour at many levels [of interaction] over time" (2003 , p. 82). Finally, as a multi-dimensional, multi-pronged and multi-sectoral conceptual scheme, the ecological model can illustrate where a variety of educational strategies of prevention and awareness operate across the nested levels of interaction; 1. Individual approaches concern themselves with changing beliefs and behaviours of individuals. 2. Relationship approaches aim to influence the types of relationships that individuals have with the people with whom they are most regularly in contact, and focus on families and negative peer influences. 3. Community approaches are geared towards stimulating community action and providing care and support for victims, and, 4. Societal strategies focus on cultural, social and economic factors related to violence, and include changes in legislation, policies and the larger social and cultural awareness to prevent violence (WHO, 2004a, p. 13). Diagram: The Ecological Model' 1.8 Methodology - 11 -In order to sample existing anti-violence educational programs, publicly available material--educational program brochures, information booklets, pamphlets, fact sheets, and on-line information sources- were collected from sources that operate at the community-societal levels of interaction. In terms of educational content, the material conveyed a message of prevention and awareness applicable to the community-societal levels of interaction. For example, along with a similar fact sheet, a brochure entitled ' Is someone you know being abused?' attempts to raise awareness at the community level with the message that "everyone has a role to play in preventing violence against women. You can reach out to organizations in your community that support women at risk of abuse and those who can help I Center for Disease Control - http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/dvp/Social-Ecological-Model_DVP.htm - 12 -abusers" (Ministry of Community Services, 2006e). The brochure also attempts to prevent violence at the societal level with publicly available information defining violence in general terms and by describing warning signs of abuse in the home, workplace, at schools and in community (Ministry of Community Services, 2006e). Data generation. In order to determine the extent of publicly available information, a variety of approaches were used to collect data including web-browser searches for on-line information, attendance at local town hall meetings to collect publicly accessible documents, and visits to pick up material from local publicly accessible out-patient clinics. On-line searches were conducted using the Canadian version of the popular Google search engine. The following key words were entered in various combinations with each other; abuse; adult education; awareness; domestic violence; family violence; intimate partner violence; prevention; spousal abuse; and, wife beating. The partial results of the on-line searches revealed the following hits with varying degrees of relevance; Figures: On-line Search Results Family violence Domestic violence Spousal abuse Wife Beating Intimate partner violence 2, 010.000 1, 680.000 388.000 256.000 108.000 Data allalysis. For the purposes of this enquiry, I have selected for analysis, international efforts to halt family violence by the WHO, national programs at the federal level in Canada, and provincial programs developed and delivered in British Columbia, with particular attention given to programs in the lower mainland of British Columbia. I will focus on examining those that could be located in the ' community-societal ' levels of the ' ecological model ', noting what understandings of violence and learning are implicit and - 13 -explicit in the materials. In particular, I will analyze the content to see (a) if and how current educational interventions reflect the' nested ecological theory' of violence and (b) if and how they address primary prevention. 1.9 Organization of Paper The overarching concerns throughout this enquiry are essentially what kind of publicly available programs of family violence prevention operate in Canada, and, can conscientizing principles of adult education contribute to strengthening programs of primary prevention aimed at halting family violence. In order to address these concerns, in chapter one, I have provided a brief discussion of the different concepts of education, listed the research questions and described the methodological approach. I have offered a brief overview of different approaches to understanding family violence, noting the tensions that exist in conceptualizing family violence and have argued that along with the ' ecological model ', the ' nested ecological theory' is an appropriate manner to consider effective programs of primary prevention. What follows in Chapter two is a more extensive review of the major theories that explain the dynamics of violence across different levels of analysis and interaction. Chapter three presents the results of my data collection and an initial curricular analysis. Chapter four focuses more specifically on how education is conceptualized in programs of prevention and awareness, then concludes by revisiting the overall questions of this enquiry and discuss future implications for research and practice. - 14 -Chapter 2 - Theoretical Perspectives and the Ecological Model 2.1 Theoretical Dimensions of Family Violence Noted throughout the literature are assertions that no one theory sufficiently addresses the origin, causes and persistence of family violence. Instead, among others, the WHO (2002b) argues that violence against women and family violence results from the complex interaction of individual, social, cultural and environmental factors ; Michalski argues that "the key to understanding domestic violence involves recognizing those structural factors [across social conditions] that are more conducive to violence" (2004a, p. 661). Justice Canada agrees; they conclude that violence against women and family violence "is a serious and complex issue with multiple dimensions and causes" (2003 , p. 1). And, while Ola Barnett, Cindy Miller-Perrin and Robin Perrin, argue that "just as no single measure of violence against women and family violence is a true reflection of all violence between family members, [they too are in accord and conclude that] no one theory can fully explain what causes family violence" (2005, p.33). Many theorists, Alaggia and Vine (2006) among others, champion feminist theories that analyze how social and political institutions operate to perpetuate violence and the oppression of women. For example, feminist theories highlight social, political and economic inequalities held by society in relation to the disempowerment and subordination of women vis a vie patriarchal institutions such as male privilege and dominance (DeKeseredy and MacLeod, 1997). Generally, feminist theories "explain family violence in terms of how society is socially structured by gender and more specifically by male domination" (Kurst-Swanger and Petcosky, 2003 , p. 35). Consequently, Alaggia and Vine - 15 -(2006) conclude that patriarchal structures create and reproduce gender based inequality and exploitation that are conducive to many forms of oppression such as violence against women and family violence. Patriarchal terrorism is a concept sometimes used to describe patriarchal traditions of employing physical violence in addition to economic subordination and other forms of control to marginalize women (Tutty and Goard, 2002). Leslie Tutty and Carolyn Goard (2002) argue that theories for explaining violence against women and family violence generally fall into three categories: individual theories that focus on personal characteristics that influence behaviour; social-psychological theories examine psychological characteristics in combination with social variables; and sociocultural theories conclude that violence against women and family violence can be understood to be the result of socially structured beliefs. Much of the literature employs various models to plot theories according to common themes. For example, Karel Kurst-Swanger and Jacqueline Petcosky employ four theoretical models to categorize similar theories together; "the psychiatric/medical model views family violence as the result of the psychopathology of the individual; the sociopsychological model explains family violence in terms of patterns of interaction between individuals and family members; the sociocultural model views family violence in terms of socially structured variables, and finally ; the multi dimensional model explains family violence in terms of ' all ' variables that could affect the situation" (2003 , pp. 34-35). Conversely, Kurst-Swanger and Petcosky (2003) argue that research and theories on violence against women and family violence have advanced to the point where current 'multi-dimensional ' analysis examines violence against women and family violence in a fluid bidirectional manner, across three conceptual levels of analysis: the micro, meso and macro - 16 -levels. Briefly, analysis at the micro level examines the immediate context in which violence occurs by focusing on the individual and their relationships to one and other in a familial setting; analysis at the meso level, sometimes known as the exosystem, examines violence within the broader interlinked social networks and cultural structures at, for example, the workplace; while, analysis at the macro level examines the larger social and political institutions that influence the micro and meso levels of interplay in as much as, cultural forces for example, cultivate and promote violence (Dutton, 2006). What follows below is a table demonstrating how multi-dimensional factors operate across different levels of interaction and analysis; Table 1: Impact of Family Violence Level of Level of Interaction 2 Analysis Micro Level Immediate context Meso Level Formal and informal social ( exosystem) structures Macro Level Cultural values and belief systems 2 Adapted from Dutton, 2006, pp. 19-20. 3 Adapted from Health Canada, 1994a. Type of impact 3 emotional pain and fear, physical injury, misuse of prescription drugs, drug and alcohol abuse, depression, sleep loss absenteeism, poor job performance, difficulty concentrating, exhaustion, safety concerns, increased work related injuries, work related alcohol or drug abuse increased police and judicial intervention, family breakdown, dysfunctional families, adults and children, greater involvement from welfare and social services, continued cycle of violence - 17 -Beyond the micro, meso and macro levels, further analysis sometimes requires an examination of familial influence in relation to the individual' s development within the larger social structures at the ontogenic level (Loue, 2001). For example, analysis at the ontogenic level would examine the individual development of the abuser, then question why some individuals are more prone to violence than others who are in similar or comparable circumstances (Dutton, 2006). The following scenario provides a glimpse into the complexity of assessing factors and evaluating violence across different levels of interaction; An assessment by a man against his wife would include an examination of the man' s attitudes and beliefs regarding the relations between men and women generally and the and the acceptability of violence (macrosystem); the extent of the man' s isolation and stress (exosystem); and the extent and nature of the couple' s communication and conflict (microsystem); and the extent of the man' s verbal skills, his ability to express affect, his ability to empathize, and his assumption of responsibility for his actions and habits (ontogenic level) (Dutton, cited in Loue, 2001 , p. 23) Finally, before proceeding with multidimensional theories - strategies within a comprehensive and integrated framework - it will be helpful to view a sampling of various ' unidimensional ' theories and models that have emerged over time to analyze, organize, explain and understand the origin and persistence of violence against women and family violence (Hawke, 2000). - 18 -Table 2: Mapping the Landscape 4 Level of Theoretical Theoretical Analysis Model Perspective Psychobiological Perspective Psychiatric/ Psychodynamic Perspective Micro Level psychopathological Routine Activities Theory Victim Theory Cycle of Violence Theory Exchange Theory Interactionist Theory Power Theory Resource Theory Meso Level Socio-psychological Social Conflict Theory Social Disorganization Theory Social Learning Theory Sociobiological Theory Stress and Strain Theory Traumatic Bonding Theory Colonization Theory Cultural Approval of Violence Theory Culture of Violence Theory Macro Level Socio-cultural Environmental Stress and Strain Theory General System Theory Patriarchal-Feminist Theory Subculture of Violence Perspective 2.2 Multidimensional Theories Multidimensional theories, in particular the nested ecological theory, attempt to explain violence against women and family violence in terms ofthe interplay between the individual and their relationships to one another across different levels of interaction (WHO, 4 This table is an adapted synthesis of theoretical perspectives and models, namely; Alaggia and Vine, 2006, pp. 4-5. Barnett, Miller-Perrin and Perrin, 2005. Dutton, 2006, pp. 22-23 . Kurst- Swanger and Petcosky, 2003 , pp. 34-35. Loue, 200 I, pp. 21-35. - 19 -2002b). In other words, a multidimensional approach considers a variety of factors (risk factors) that operate on individuals across different levels of interaction. For example, family relations, social relations, peer pressure throughout society at schools and in the workplace including formal and informal social networks nested within the community along with factors resulting from the economy, political and socio-cultural environment nested within the broader societal level (Kindschi Gosselin, 2000). Further compounding a multidimensional approach is that "when abuse occurs, there is usually a power imbalance between the partners in the relationships, [ moreover] that power imbalance is perpetuated by societal and individual messages undermining the potential for women to gain control of their situation and for men to be held accountable for their actions within their relationship" (Attorney General, 2004, p. 3). To illustrate the interplay between an individual and factors for violence across different levels of interaction, Barnett, Miller-Perrin and Perrin offer the following scenario to demonstrate violence from a multidimensional perspective; Suppose that a very hostile man (psychological trait) who was abused as a child (learning), who is currently unhappily married (interpersonal interaction), who has inherited a genetic predisposition for antisocial personality disorder (psychopathology), and who has just lost his job (stress and stain) uses male privilege (patriarchy) as a justification for assaulting his wife. Clearly [they conclude] no singular etiological framework fully explains the violence (Barnett, Miller-Perrin and Perrin, 2005, p. 40). 2.3 An Ecological Model of Violence The ecological model is based on evidence that no single factor can explain why some people or groups are at a higher risk of interpersonal violence while others are more protected from it. Instead, the model views interpersonal violence as the outcome of interaction among many factors at four levels; the individual, the relationship, the community and the societal. In this model, the interaction between factors at different at different levels is just as important as the influence of factors within a single level (WHO, 2004b, P 4). - 20-In a similar fashion to the WHO cited above, Health Canada (1994b) also employs an ecological approach for identifying contributing and risk factors that lead to violence across similar levels of interaction. While subtle differences exist between the WHO and Health Canada, the table below synthesizes such commonality between the WHO and Health Canada that the two approaches can be considered to be more alike in a common approach and may thus operate simultaneously as a singular and comprehensive ecological model. Table 3: Contributing Factors 5 W orId Health Health Canada Organization Contributing Factors Level of Interaction Level of interaction - rapid social change - economic inequality - gender inequality - policies that engender inequality Societal - poverty Culture / Society - weak economic safety nets - poor rule of law - cultural norms that support violence - attitudes about family roles - acceptance of force to solve problems - poverty - high crime levels - high rates of transient mobility Community - high unemployment Community - illicit drug trade - weak institutional policies - inadequate victim services - inadequate social support services - inflexible attitudes towards women 5 This table is an adapted synthesis of theoretical perspectives and models, namely; WHO, 2004b, p. 4. Health Canada, 1994b, p. 3. - 21 -- inflexible family values - poor parenting practices - higher patterns of marital discord Relationship - high rates of violent parental conflict Family - lower socioeconomic - tolerance for violence - lack of resources - cycle and history of child abuse Individual - psychological/personality disorder Individual - alcohol/substance abuse - history of violent behaviour - learned helplessness Unlike unidimensional approaches such as individual-based theories, the nested ecological model attempts to better understand factors conducive to violence against women and family violence across different levels of interaction, and while no one individual-based theoretical concept has been entirely successful on its own, the nested ecological model provides a flexible framework across four levels of interaction to fully explore all possibilities that are conducive to violence. For example, while violence is strongly linked to biological or other individual factors such as a predisposition to aggression, more often than not, these factors interact with additional factors at other levels of interaction that, when combined under the right circumstances, lead to violence (WHO, 2002b). What follows below is a multidimensional framework for conceptualizing violence against women and family violence across different levels of interaction where both risk factors and interpersonal interaction operate and influence each other beginning with individuals and their personal relationships to one an other thought to the larger community and societal levels (WHO, 2004a, p.ll); 1. At the individual level, personal history and biological factors influence how individuals behave and increase their likelihood of becoming a victim or a perpetrator of violence. 2. Personal relationships such as family, friends, intimate partners and peers may influence the risks of becoming a victim or perpetrator of violence. For example, having violent friends may influence whether a young person engages in or becomes a victim of violence. 3. Community contexts in which social relationships occur, such as schools, neighbourhoods and workplaces, also influence violence. Risk factors here may include the level of unemployment, population density, mobility, and the existence of a local drug or gun trade. 4. Societal factors influence whether violence is encouraged or inhibited. These include economic and social policies that maintain socioeconomic inequalities between people, the availability of weapons, and social and cultural norms such as those around male dominance over women, parental dominance over children, and cultural norms that endorse violence as a normal method to resolve conflicts. 2.4 Chapter Summary - 22-With a better understanding of how risk factors operate on individuals across different levels of analysis and interaction, it is now possible to understand why multidimensional theories provide greater clarity into the origin and persistence of family violence. While unidimensional theories are helpful in understanding specific theoretical perspectives, multidimensional perspectives provide broad based conceptualization of factors across different levels of interaction. Accordingly, since violence against women and violence against women and family violence includes multiple factors of fear and oppression for example, is now possible to better understand why the WHO and Health Canada prefer a multidimensional approach to understanding family violence. In the chapter that follows I will discuss violence across a continuum, including common and generally accepted definitions of violence, then present and analyze various program of prevention and awareness that are more conducive to a multidimensional approach to halting family violence. - 23 -Chapter 3 - Programs of Prevention and Awareness A woman who denied that she had been battered, explained that her husband got his way by holding a gun to her head. Because she had not been actually hit for a number of years, she did not see herself as having been battered (Tutty and Goard, 2002, p. 17). 3.1 Prevention and Awareness - 24-Violence against women and family violence, such as in the anecdote cited above, not only affects self esteem, but also fosters an accompanying sense of isolation that increases risk of depression, anxiety, suicide, physical injury, emotional and psychological harm-to name only a few of the many negative consequences that result from living with violence, or living under the constant threat of violence. Competing ideas about how best to respond to family violence raise such questions as "Should prevention focus on protecting victims and punishing offenders?", or, "Should prevention provide treatment to victims and abusers?", or, "Should prevention include a combination of responses to halt and prevent violence against women and family violence?" (Barnett, Miller-Perrin, and Perrin, 2005). Responses to violence against women and family violence include preventative measures in the form of educational initiatives at the community-societal level attempts to raise public awareness, and aims at personal empowerment and social transformation (Duffy and Momirov, 1997). Unlike intervention, which generally occurs after a violent occurrence-prompting a criminal justice response, for example-prevention is generally said to include "social support and educational programs designed to prevent violence from occurring in the first place" (Barnett, Miller-Perrin and Perrin, 2005, p. 17). Accordingly, much like the ecological model of violence, multi-prong and multi-sectoral programs of prevention and awareness - 25 -must also interact across a similar levels of interaction. Elsewhere, this approach is considered to be interdisciplinary and interprofessional. For example, Mary Ann Forgey and Lisa Coiarossi argue that an interdisciplinary approach "is often considered to be knowledge of two or more disciplines ' theories, research and practices ... across disciplines, while, an interprofessional approach "is often considered the actual collaborative practice involving persons from different disciplines or professions (2003 , p.463). Throughout the literature nevertheless, there is a general agreement that the complexity of violence against women and family violence requires greater (multi-pronged and multi-sectoral, and, interdisciplinary and interprofessional) multidimensional initiatives for prevention and awareness across different levels of interaction. Interestingly enough, in a related approach to halting and preventing family violence, batter intervention programs at the individual-relationship levels ofthe ecological model often incorporate a multidimensional approach. For example, a cognitive-behavioral approach includes group treatment programs that focus on problem solving skills development, along with psycho educational classes that focus on modifying behaviour that will ameliorate interpersonal relations (Buttell and Carney, 2004). From a multidimensional perspective prevention aimed at individuals might further include anger management or anger coping mechanisms while at the same time attempting to transform the larger community-societal perception (acceptance) of violence. Nevertheless, a constant thread throughout the literature is that effective prevention efforts are essentially considered to be multidimensional involving many players across different levels of interaction within a multi sectoral approach (Justice Canada, 2003). To this - 26-end, 'prevention' is one form or another is frequently conceptualized in a fairly consistent manner; Prevention can be conceptualized as a continuum: preventing abuse from happening in the first place; intervening in a crisis to prevent continuance of abuse; and treatment or rehabilitation to prevent recurrence of abusive behaviour. Broad-based strategies that target the general public (such as public education and social marketing to change individual and collective tolerance for abusive behaviour) and strategies that focus on high-risk groups are components of a holistic prevention strategy (Justice Canada, 2003 , p.81). Regardless of how prevention is conceptualized, there is further agreement that prevention aims to stop violence from occurring by raising awareness, minimizing harm, healing and rehabilitating victims and perpetrators (WHO, 2004a). Primary prevention of this sort - before violence occurs - begins with efforts to prevent violence at the individual-relationship levels of interaction and continues through to the community-societal levels with efforts targeted toward the general public (Kurst-Swanger and Petcosky, 2003). Recall, briefly, from previous chapters that beyond programs of primary prevention, "secondary prevention includes any strategies aimed at minimizing the harm that occurs once a violent event is taking place along with immediate post-violence intervention aimed at preventing re-victimization", while longer term "tertiary prevention includes all efforts aimed at treating and rehabilitating victims and perpetrators and facilitating their re-adaptation to society" (WHO, 2004a, p. 7). Another way to conceptualize a multidimensional approach is to consider prevention across different models; information model, therapeutic model, skill building model and social support model (Kurst-Swanger and Petcosky, 2003). According to Kurst-Swanger and Petcosky (2003), prevention often incorporate elements from different models in a - 27-collaborative attempt to present a comprehensive approach to preventing violence (Kurst-Swanger and Petcosky, 2003). What follows is their conception of prevention (Kurst-Swanger and Petcosky, 2003 , pp. 257-258); Information Model Provides general community and specific at risk populations with information regarding abuse. The information model supposes that knowledge will ultimately result in a change in behaviour. Media campaigns and school based educational programs that explore the dynamics of violence are typical examples .. . . Information given to consumers might include definitions and ways to identify abusive behaviours and where to get additional information or assistance. Therapeutic Model Incorporates secondary and tertiary prevention strategies that are therapeutic in nature and that intended to prevent future abusive acts by offenders and to provide assistance to those individuals at high risk of victimization. Skill Building Model May be implemented as primary, secondary or tertiary prevention programming. The skill building model incorporates strategies that aim to develop specific skills, often assisting individuals in developing appropriate communication and coping skills to deal with a wide range of interpersonal and daily living issues. Social Supp011 Model Acknowledges that many families lack the basic necessities of social support, a lack that ultimately interferes with their ability to function in healthy ways. Prevention is achieved by assisting families in garnering the necessary resources to be successful. 3.2 An Ecological Model for Prevention of Violence Few countries have any systematic knowledge of how many prevention programmes operate in their different regions, what types of interpersonal violence and risk factors are addressed, which target populations these programmes serve, what intervention strategies they employ and how the programmes attempt to measure and monitor the effectiveness oftheir work. Such information is critical to strengthening interpersonal violence prevention capacity and improving its effectiveness by identifying and reinforcing programmes that deliver proven and promising interventions, and ensuring that different programmes have consistent goals and methods so that they support each other' s efforts (WHO, 2004a, p. v). In a similar fashion to conceptualizing violence on ' an ecological model' as the interplay of factors across different levels of interaction, conceptualizing prevention and - 28 -awareness also requires a multidimensional 'ecological ' approach for developing educational strategies across similar nested levels of interaction. Just as ecological model of violence can help understand a multiplicity of causes and risk factors for violence across the different levels of interpersonal interaction, prevention strategies from a multidimensional approach could better serve many women who, for example, experience repeated physical violence and who frequently report experiencing simultaneous psychological abuse as well, including social and political apathy (WHO, 2002b). Prevention, in this same case, could take the shape of better and more responsive resources and community services at the individual-relationship levels along with sustained efforts to transform social and cultural norms at the community-societal levels (WHO, 2004a). Multidimensional prevention strategies consistent with an ecological approach would therefore function in a parallel manner to the ' ecological model for violence' for example (WHO, 2004a, p. 13); Individual level approaches These are primarily concerned with changing beliefs and behaviours of individuals. These could include educational programmes that provide adolescents and young adults with vocational training and educational support, or social development programmes to teach very young children social skills, anger management and conflict resolution, so as to prevent violence later in life. Relationship approaches These aim to influence the types of relationships that individuals, as potential victims and perpetrators of violence, have with the people with whom they are most regularly in contact, and to focus on families and negative peer influences. Examples include training in parenting, where the bonding between parents and children is improved and more consistent child-rearing methods are taught to reduce the risk of child abuse; mentoring programmes to match young persons with caring adults to prevent antisocial behaviour; and home visitation programmes. Community based efforts At this level efforts are geared towards raising public awareness about violence, stimulating community action and providing care and support for victims. Examples include media campaigns to target entire communities or educational campaigns for settings such as schools, workplaces and other institutions. Societal approaches Prevention strategies at the societal level focus on cultural, social and economic factors related to violence, and include changes in legislation, policies and the larger social and cultural environment to reduce the risk of violence both in various settings as well as in entire communities. 3.3 Programs of Prevention - 29-Throughout the literature, and, across the community a set of fairly consistent goals emerged. These include; creating a climate of nontolerance of violence against women and family violence; empowering women and improving their status in society; eliminating the socially accepted use of violence, and; transforming social and political norms (Jewkes, 2002). Achieving these goals requires a fairly consistent and sustained effort across all levels of interaction to reinforce the message that violence against women and violence against women and family violence is not acceptable. At the community-societal levels, for - 30 -example, prevention includes public education campaigns including media advertising along with publicly available information in the form of fact sheets and brochures. What follows therefore is a sampling of efforts, consisted with the information model, aimed at halting and preventing violence against women and violence against women and family violence at the community-societal level ofthe ecological model. Fact sheets are one method of providing general information such as defining concepts and answering a set of frequently answered questions. In terms of providing information about violence against women and family violence, the WHO (2002b) provides a fact sheet entitled 'Intimate partner violence' which defines IPV as "physical aggression, psychological abuse, forced intercourse and other forms of sexual coercion". The WHO (2004a) fact sheet further defines IPV to include "various forms of controlling behaviour such as isolating a person from family and friends or restricting access to information and assistance". Justice Canada (2005a) also provides a fact sheet entitled 'Family Violence: a fact sheet from the Department of Justice Canada' which defines violence as "abuse, mistreatment or neglect that adults or children may experience in their intimate kinship or dependent relationships". Justice Canada (2005b) also produces and additional fact sheet entitled ' Spousal Abuse: a fact sheet from the Department of Justice Canada' which further defines spousal abuse as "violence or mistreatment that a woman or a man may experience at the hands of a marital, common-law or same-sex partner". The Justice Canada (2005b) fact sheet concludes that "spousal abuse may happen at any time during a relationship". Beginning with the community-societal level of interaction and crossing into the individual-relations levels of interaction, the British Columbia Ministry of Community Services (2006f, 2006g, 2006h) produces fact sheets aimed more specifically at halting - 31 -violence against women and family violence by asking three specific questions; 'do you know the warning signs' , 'do you need a safe place to go' , and, 'do you know how to protect yourself. Together, these fact sheets describe how to recognize signs of violence, provide information about what to do if you suspect that somebody is being abused and where to get help and support. Unlike the WHO (2002a) and Justice Canada (2005a, 2005b) fact sheets which defines IPV, family violence and spousal abuse, the Ministry of Community Services fact sheets (2206f, 2006g, 2006h) provide guidance for identifying risk factors that transcend levels of interaction. For example, the fact sheet entitled ' Is someone you know being abused? Do you know the warning signs' poses the question "Does He: put her down; do all the talking and dominate conversations; check up on her all the time even at work; suggest he's the victim; try to keep her away from you; acts as ifhe owns her; lie to make himself look good or exaggerate his good qualities; or, act like he's superior to others in his home" (Ministry of Community Services, 2006h). Finally, in addition to defining domestic violence as physical violence, the threat of physical violence, non-consensual sex, a constant stream of criticism, intimidation and control, shorter facts sheets produced by Vancouver Coastal Health (2003a) provides specific information about "what health care workers and what hospital can do to help". Another method to prevent violence against women and family violence involves raising awareness at the community-societal level of interaction by making brochures publicly available in a variety of formats and languages. Generally these brochures are on display in the company of similar concerns such as gambling addiction, family counseling and substance abuse to only name a few examples. Brochures provide more information than fact sheets and include, for example, check lists to complete for people who are in - 32 -violent relationships or for people who are contemplating leaving violent relationships. A brochure produced by the British Columbia Legal Services Society(1998) entitled ' Speaking of Abuse: Violence against women in relationships ' for example, defines violence against women in greater detail than facts sheets and provides additional information including normative guidelines for ' ending a violent relationship ', ' safety planning' , ' going to the police', and, 'what happens after leaving a violent relationship' . In addition to fact sheets produced by the British Columbia Ministry of Community Services, the Ministry (2006a, 2006b, 2006c, 2006d, 2006e) produces a series of five brochures that expand the information contained on the fact sheets and includes brochures about ' how to talk to him about his abusive behaviour' and with 'what are my options' . Together, these additional brochures provide information on how to talk to men who are abusive and answers questions about 'why does he do it' and ' why does she stay' . These additional brochures also compare and contrast behaviours bases on power and control with behaviours that promote equality. Closely related to fact sheets and brochures are wallet size cards produced by both the British Columbia Ministry of Community Services (2006i) and by Vancouver Coastal Health (2003b) that contain specific safety planning information in a condensed 'checklist' form. Other form of raising awareness at the community-societal levels of interaction come in the form of information books. The Canadian Association of Broadcasters (2005) produced a "dynamic, nationwide campaign to deal with the problem of violence in our society". Accordingly, the publication contains a series of thematic modules that begins with ' signs of abuse', 'what you can do to help an abused women - friend, relative, coworker or neighbour', and ends with a family strategy for developing critical media literacy. Health - 33 -Canada also produces information books of a similar nature. The first publication entitled 'Breaking the Pattern: How communities can help' (1994a) along with a second one entitled 'Family Violence: Awareness information for people in the workplace' (1994b) provide an opportunity to engage in preventing family violence throughout the community and at the workplace. Interestingly enough, at first glance the publication date may appear to render these information books outdated, surprisingly however, the material remains timely and relevant. For example, 'Breaking the Pattern' (1994a) provides a process for people to work together as a community to understand and work toward halting family violence, while the second information book 'Family Violence' (1994b) provides a lesson plan for leading a "55 Minute Discussion' that covers "what is family violence, how does it affect us, is there help in our community". Prevention and Technology. Before concluding this paper, it is necessary to consider how web technology assists in helping to prevent and halt violence against women and family violence. While all efforts to halt family violence cited above operate accompanying web cites which contains, among other information copies of their publications, some efforts to prevent violence against women and family violence at the community-societal levels of interaction are entirely web based. Formal organizations on the national scale such as the National Clearing House on Family Violence (NCFV), along with formal organizations a little closer to home such as the British Columbia Institute Against Family Violence (BCIAVF), Vancouver City Police (VPD) and the British Columbia Women's Hospital and Health Center (BCWHHC) rely primarily on web technology to provide electronic fact sheets about their organizations, the nature of their intervention, their mandate along with - 34 -additional information about what constitutes violence against women and family violence along with instructions for reporting violence and where to get help. The NCFV provides an on-line electronic library of resources, publications and videos. The BCIA VF is largely concerned with primary prevention across all levels of interaction, while the VPD along with the BCWHHC' s ' Woman Abuse Response Team' generally intervene after violence has occurred or has been reported, follow up individual complaints then work to strengthen efforts to halt and prevent violence against women and family violence throughout the community. Table 4: Links to Electronic Publication Sources Document type Web link - On-line directory of referral serVIces National Clearing - On-line directory of http://www.phac-House on Family resources including aspc.gc.calncfv-Violence publications and educational cnivf/familyviolencelindex.ht material ml British Columbia - On-line directory of services Institute Against - On-line directory of http: //www.bcifv.org/index.s Family Violence recourses html - On-line fact sheets - On-line directory of police Vancouver City Police and community based http://vancouver.calpolice/inv serVIces estigationisis/dvachiDomestic - On-line fact sheet Violence.htm British Columbia - On-line directory of hospital Women's Hospital and and community based http://www.bcwomens.calSer serVIces vices/HealthServices/Woman Health Center On-line fact sheet AbuseResponse/default.htm -- 35 -3.5 Chapter Summary In this Chapter, I considered the consistent message of prevention that is present throughout the literature and across various efforts to halt and prevent violence against women and family violence. For example, programs of primary prevention reveal threads of agreement and congruence, particularly in those that aim to prevent violence by raising awareness at the community-societal levels of the ecological model. This chapter ended with a sampling of programs of prevention and awareness, that are in general terms, indicative of the wider landscape, many of them available in multiple languages. In the concluding chapter I take up the notion of education as a key dimension of halting violence against women and family violence, reviewing different theoretical and philosophical approaches, including radical adult education, in light of the educational messages found in the examples considered in this chapter. Based on this review I offer an alternative approach, a multidimensional curricular umbrella, to thinking about the role of education, most particularly adult education in preventing violence against women. Chapter 4 - Reconceptualizing Anti-Violence Education The solution to [violence against women and] family violence lies in the social reforms that so many of us desire; it also lies in the everyday process of talking about and sharing our lives and work (Harrison foreword in Duffy and Momirov, 1997. p. ix). 4.1 Multidimensional Curricular Umbrella - 36 -In this concluding chapter, I will discuss how education, prevention and awareness are interrelated and function together across different levels of interaction and throughout multiple programs, under a multidimensional curricular umbrella to halt violence against women and family violence. Briefly, prevention has been defined as efforts to halt violence and raise awareness before it occurs, intervention generally responds to violence after it has occurred and after it has been reported (Barnett, Miller-Perrin and Perrin, 2005). When prevention and awareness appear throughout the literature, they are sometimes used in conjunction with each other, sometimes they are used interchangeably, and sometimes prevention or awareness appear in specifically targeted programs such as public education, batterer treatment programs, anger management or training for the police. At the community level of interaction for example, the WHO argues that "efforts [to prevent violence] are geared towards raising public awareness about violence, stimulating community action and providing care and support for victims" (2004a, p. 13). Elsewhere, the WHO concludes that "prevention strategies at the societal level focus on cultural, social and economic factors related to violence, and include changes in legislation, policies and the larger social and cultural environment to reduce the risk of violence both in various settings as well as in entire communities" (WHO, 2004a, p. 13). - 37 -Education, in particular adult education, on the other hand frequently appears on its own without any specific reference to prevention and awareness. For example, Duffy and Momirov (1997) argue that efforts at the community level combine education and community action. Justice Canada argues for a need for "public education to change attitudes, which contribute to the continued existence of family violence, in order to help victims identify abusive behaviour, to inform them of assistance available and to encourage individual and community action" (2003 , p. 82). In a similar fashion to Justice Canada, Duffy and Momirov conclude that "public educational campaigns have become popular mechanisms for both informing the population about woman abuse and challenging some of the beliefs and values that support violence against women" (1997, p.177). And, recall that the SCC (1992) concluded that "serious social problems such as violence against women [that] require multi-pronged approaches by govenunent; education and legislation are not alternatives but complements in addressing such problems". As previously noted, it is becoming increasingly evident throughout the literature that, while "education alone will not necessarily contribute to improved programs and policies, [education] provides a foundation on which to generate greater understanding and support for effective domestic violence initiatives" (Mears, 2003, p. 142). Further complicating matters, Knud Illeris (2003) found that many adults approach education ambivalently. Moreover, he concludes that "adults have very little inclination to really learn something they do not perceive as meaningful" (2003 , p. 13). It is perhaps at this point where education, in addition to existing strategies, can begin to problematize violence against women and family violence by strengthening efforts to halt violence at the community-societal levels of interaction. - 38 -Nevertheless, while there is variation in how prevention, awareness or education operate across different programs, there remains a consistent conceptual thread throughout inasmuch as there is "increasing recognition that a coordinated response [to educate, halt and prevent violence against women and family violence] is required - one that integrates criminal justice, social services, mental health and community responses (Justice Canada, 2003 , p. 39). What follows therefore is a discussion of educational foundations that are 'more likely to generate a greater understanding of how adult education, prevention and awareness are indeed interrelated under a multidimensional curricular umbrella. 4.2 Conceptualizing Education In general terms, education spans a vast and disparate theoretic and practical landscape. In one sense, education is divided along social structures; andragogy for example is sometimes said to encompass all adult education, presuming that adults learn differently from children. The accumulation of' human capital' is sometimes attributed to adult learners who acquire vocational skills and personal qualifications (Baptiste, 2001). When the WHO (2002) refers to education, they sometimes emphasize anti-violence school based curriculum, while at other times they refer to anti-violence public campaigns aimed at the general population. Before proceeding further, however, it is necessary to clarify the distinction between education, adult education and learning. Out of the many different ways to conceptualize it, education is generally thought to be formal in nature - "organized and sustained instruction designed to communicate a combination of knowledge, skills and understanding valuable for all the activities of life" (Jarvis, 1999, p. 53). Learning, on the other hand, is sometimes said - 39 -to be an internal "process of acquiring knowledge, skills, attitudes, values, beliefs, emotions senses, etc. (Jarvis, 1999, p. 104). Closely related to a formal definition of education, curriculum is sometimes considered to contain the entire body of knowledge that explicitly contains the following elements; philosophical foundation; context; content, chronology of events, and; a process of evaluation (Rogers, 2002). While it may appear that education, learning and curriculum operate differently, much like prevention and awareness, they are better thought of simultaneously. Thus, I will consider education, learning and curriculum to be linked in a dialectic fashion constantly reinforming themselves in light of new information. Adult education also spans a vast and disparate theoretical and practical landscape. For example, adult education is sometimes thought to include all organized and sustained instruction designed to bring about learning in adults. There are also discussions about whether adult education oppress or liberates learners. But, for my purposes, I will consider adult education to be concerned with social transformation and personal empowerment on the assumption that certain forms of adult education have the power to transform oppression (Jarvis, 1999). More specifically, if educational efforts targeted at the community-societal levels of interaction can be just as relevant to the individual-relationship levels of interaction, then, in a similar fashion to Paulo Freire, I shall consider education, adult education, to hold a conscientizing foundation brought about by a collective struggle and praxis (Rogers, 2002). Conscientization, or conscious raising, is intended to awaken people to their collective capacity to critically analyze their environment along with their interpersonal relations and work towards transforming the oppression that touches their lives (Huiskamp, 2002, p. 73). - 40-The more people become aware of the forces that influence them, the more likely they are to begin to question those forces, then begin to work at transforming them (Scott, 1998). Theories of adult education range from problem solving to shaping behaviour and adapting to the environment, from personal empowerment to improving society by challenging social and political oppression (Zinn, 1998). And, while each theoretical foundation retains a legitimate claim to adult education, I will employ principles of 'Radical Adult Education' (RAE) to illustrate where adult education can support programs of prevention and awareness at the community-societal levels of interaction. Briefly, RAE espouses four general principles; 1. The aim of RAE is to transform society through political action by educating its members to a new vision, 11. Central to RAE is the critique of power and empowerment which are intricately intertwined, Ill. Critique calls for a special and suspicious interpretation of those ideologies and institutions which support and maintain ruling power structures, and, IV. As one critically reflects in dialogue with others and acts upon that reflection, both personal and social transformation occurs (Scott, 1998, p. 103). Accordingly, RAE aligns itself nicely with prevention and awareness at the community-societal levels of interaction where individuals and communities are encouraged to work together to empower themselves and challenge the social and political factors that are more conducive to violence. In other words, RAE conceptualizes the role of education to be a catalyst for social transformation, conscious raising, problem posing and critical reflection (Zinn, 1998). - 41 -4.3 A Multidimensional Curricular Approach As previously noted, education alone will not single handedly halt or prevent violence against women and family violence (Mears, 2003). WHO, Justice Canada along with the SCC all concluded, in one form or another, that halting violence against women and family violence requires a multi-pronged approach across different levels of interaction. Nevertheless, in addition to multidimensional programs of prevention and awareness, education is one essential component that necessitates further discussion. This discussion is intended to be along the same multidimensional tone that was previously employed to understand prevention efforts across different levels of interaction. In this sense, I will consider a multidimensional curricular umbrella to go beyond RAE and include elements of emancipatory and transformative learning. Just as multidimensional efforts were shown to offer the best approach to halting violence against women and family violence across different levels of interaction, a multidimensional and dynamic interaction between prevention and awareness, and, education and learning promises preventative strategies that may be just as effective in raising awareness across the different levels of interaction. For example, fact sheets can operate at the individual-relationship level by providing educational material from which individuals can learn. At the community-societal level of interaction, fact sheets can also serve to inform family and community members and about the impact of violence against women and family violence. - 42-However, while RAE is helpful in promoting a collective conscious raising, John Elias and Sharan Merriam (1998) conclude that it is not so powerful and so wide ranging as to capture all liberating, empowering and transformative concepts of education for personal empowerment and social transformation. Accordingly, bringing all of those (liberating, empowering and transformative) concepts together under a multidimensional curricular umbrella requires piecing together additional elements of various education and learning theories that are, together, more conducive to preventing violence against women and family violence. A multidimensional curricular umbrella will therefore bring together the following key elements that operate across different levels of interaction; Radical Adult Education "an approach to adult education that regards it as a movement having a social mission to change society and to empower learners to be aware, active and seek to change oppressive conditions in which they live" (Jarvis, 1999, p. 154). Communicative Learning "learning changes in the realm of interpersonal relations and concerned with increasing interpersonal understanding" (Rogers, 2002, p. 14). Emancipatory Learning "self understanding, awareness and transformation of cultural and personal presuppositions that are always with us and affect the way we act" (Rogers, 2003, p. 15). Transformative Learning "strives for change in societal power relations and aims at developing knowledgeable voices in every adult person through promoting individual transformation" (Wilhelmson, 2002, p 180). Liberator Education "education which is liberatory encourages learners to challenge and change the world, not merely uncritically adapt themselves to it" (Heany, 1995). - 43 -Consistent with a multidimensional approach to preventing violence against women and family violence, a multidimensional curricular umbrella as I have outlined above captures elements of personal empowerment and social transformation capable of supporting multidimensional program of prevention and awareness across various levels on interaction. 4.4 Chapter Summary The purpose of this enquiry was to consider the extent of publicly available material to prevent and raise awareness of violence against women and family violence at the community-societal level of interaction. Along the way, a variety of programs were found throughout the community at the national and provincial levels along with programs offered by various local service providers. Briefly, programs were considered to be "interrelated preventative activities or projects . . . for reducing the level or consequences of violence" (WHO, 2004a, p.7). Interestingly enough, some of the most common methods of informing the general public at the community-societal levels of interaction include stand-alone electronic documents, facts sheets, brochures, and information books produced by the various providers with seemingly little coordination among them. Although all efforts at all levels of program delivery, contain for example, a relatively consistent message about what constitutes abusive behaviour. But, while there have been public media advertising campaigns in other parts of Canada (Quebec and Alberta), there was no consistency across Canada nor were any such efforts found in British Columbia. - 44-Since violence against women and family violence was found to be the result of a complex interplay of interrelated factors across different levels of interaction, a multidimensional and multipronged approach to preventing violence against women and family violence promised to be more effective that unidimensional approaches. For example, factors that operate at one level of interaction can also be found to influence interpersonal relationships at other levels of interaction. In this sense the WHO (2002b) concludes that violence that is accepted at the community-societal levels of interaction can affect and influence the acceptance of violence at the individual-relationship levels of interaction. A multidimensional approach could therefore conceivably address violence at all levels of interaction with various programs of primary prevention that reinforce the message that violence against women and family violence is intolerable. Nevertheless, from the beginning of this enquiry, education was cited either as a remedy to violence against women and family violence or as an accompaniment to programs of prevention and awareness. While there was no general agreement on what constitutes education or even how education ought to operate, Mears (2003) provided the best conceptualization of how and where education can strengthen exiting efforts to halt violence against women and family violence - "education provides a foundation on which to generate greater understanding and support for effective domestic violence initiatives" (2003 , p. 142). RAE was found to be a suitable starting point, but, as Elias and Merriam (1998) concluded, RAE is not so powerful and so wide ranging as to capture all liberating, empowering and transformative concepts of education. Therefore, in a similar fashion to multidimensional efforts to halt and prevent violence against women and family violence, a multidimensional curricular umbrella was suggested as a conceptual scheme for including all efforts to halt - 45 -violence against women and family violence. Accordingly, alongside a multidimensional program of prevention and awareness, a multidimensional curricula umbrella could borrow and mesh together conscientizing elements of RAE, communicative, emancipatory and transformative learning, along with critical concepts of liberatory education. Finally, violence against women and family violence remains a pressing problem that requires sustained, multidimensional and multipronged intervention efforts. 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