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Bumps in the Road : Anticipating, Preventing, and Responding to Disruptions in Groups Clark, Lisa Jul 31, 2009

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     Bumps in the Road: Anticipating, Preventing, and Responding to Disruptions in Groups   by   LISA CLARK     A GRADUATE PAPER SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF     MASTER OF EDUCATION  In  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  (Adult Education)       THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (Vancouver)      July 31, 2009   © Lisa Clark, 2009  Table of Contents I. Introduction and Background to the Project A. Introduction B. Academic Research C. Workshop Design ll. Sample Full Day Schedule Ill. Basic Workshop A. Participants' Agenda B. Facilitator's Notes C. "Bag of Tricks" Handout D. "Intrapersonal Strategies" Handout IV. Optional Modules A. Disabilities and UDL Learning Disabilities Assessment Tool FASDIAsperger's Syndrome handout B. Feminist/Participatory Pedagogy C. Grief and Trauma D. Listening Handout V. Summary VI. Reference Lists A. Recommended Reading B. Comprehensive Reference List 2 4 14 15 16 17 21 22 24 26 27 29 31 33 35 36 37 39 Background on the Project This project has been a somewhat selfish undertaking. After some years in a variety of teaching and community development work and after completing nine-tenths of an M.Ed., this is still the question I have: How can educational/aciUtators anticipate, prevent, and react to disruptions in groups? An attempt to write a brief history on my experience as a teacher and facilitator would start with the five years I worked in ESL and family literacy with immigrants and refugees. After that I took a bit of a detour into community development work that included facilitating groups of high school and university students who were learning about the Downtown Eastside and facilitating the participant leadership group of a community project that worked with people who were homeless. During those four years in community work, I also volunteered at the Carnegie Learning Centre tutoring and teaching a basic English class. Additionally, I have chaired an advisory committee that supports a small refugee housing organization. In all these experiences, the question of disruption has been on my mind. For me, part of the attraction of adult education, compared to education for children, is not having to deal with behaviour or discipline questions. I would prefer that everything go smoothly, that people would collaborate instead of compete, that differences and disagreements would be discussed calmly. However, this is not the reality of the adult learning experience, especially one that truly wants to be inclusive. What should I do when one of the participant leaders comes to the meeting intoxicated and violent? What should I do when someone dominates the group and takes up all the discussion time? What should I do when someone unexpectedly shares a difficult story in class and there is someone in the back shouting about something else? What can I do to prevent some of this? After noticing these moments of disruption as a facilitator and teacher, I went back to school and saw that disruption happened in our classes, too. It is sometimes masked a little bit more than some of the communities with which I have worked, but it still exists. In fact, I know that I am sometimes the disruptive one in class (or in staff meetings or any number of places where I am a participant or student), that sometimes my passion spills out faster than my filters of tact and diplomacy can slow them down. I understand, too, that disruption is often culturally determined and the effect of a multitude of experiences and expectations. Furthermore, if we are honest with ourselves, we can also recognize that our perception of disruption can be influenced by whether or not we agree with what the person who is being disruptive is saying. The word "disruption" is automatically negative, but the experience of disruption does not have to be. For this workshop curriculum, I have chosen to use the title "Bumps in the Road" to attempt a more benign description, to try to change my perception away from thinking that disruption is always wrong. While recognizing that language is limited and that using words is one step away from creating labels, I also want to be clear in my writing and will also use the term disruption. This past semester, I was in a class where we were listening to a presentation by a woman who works with ASL interpreters at her college. One of my classmates asked, "why don't they videotape the class, so the interpretation doesn't interfere with the class?" This is an example of a time when I could have become a disruption, but chose to allow a calmer person to respond. I had two reactions to this comment. The first is that the deaf student is not considered part of the class in that question and is in fact the cause of disruption, in this person's mind. The second is that the benefits of diversity, inclusion, and universal design of instruction (that is, that what is good for the deaf student-speaking more slowly, visuals, etc.-is also good for the rest of the students) were not being recognized here. 2 What if we extended this to thinking about other kinds of so-called disruptions? What if we said that a person who causes or has caused a disruption is equally part of the class? What if we said that our perception was actually what made it a disruption? What are some classroom strategies that we could use that would make it easier for that person to participate? What kind of strategies would be universal in their design so that other students could be included there? And how can we do it with the limited resources and training that most of us have? I know that I am not the only one who experiences disruption as stressful and who wants to learn five easy steps to ending it. Every time I explain my project to other teachers, they either say that they have that question, too, or that they want to know the secret. I am sorry to say that there are not five easy steps or any real secrets that will completely transform your teaching. There are a few strategies and a lot to think about and, perhaps, the encouraging word that none of us are alone in this challenge. I drew upon several different streams of knowledge in the journey of writing this workshop curriculum. The first step was the knowledge I brought to it of my own past experiences and some of the research I have done during my time at UBC. Second, I was involved with two different organizations during the time I wrote this project and am very grateful to the many facilitators I happened to observe over the past few months. After I fmished my coursework and did not have to go out to the Endowment Lands three or four times a week, I was able to resume my involvement at the Carnegie Learning Centre at Main and Hastings. It is a great place to learn. Also, I was asked to be one of the facilitators at the recent Pacific Summit on Drug User Health hosted by the Vancouver Area Network of Drug Users (VANDU). As part of my preparation for that experience, I sat in on several of the educational groups that VANDU runs. The staff and volunteers at VANDU really impressed me with their ability to combine community work and education. The students, learners, and participants (these terms will be used somewhat interchangeably throughout the document) I have had the pleasure of learning with and from also deserve a lot of credit for helping shape my understanding of participatory education. Lastly, although I completely acknowledge that disruption can happen in any group, this particular workshop is designed specifically for people involved in Adult Basic Education (ABE). Again, this is not because there are no bumps in the road of higher education or health education or environmental education (as examples), but because this is my background and the only sub-field of adult education to which I feel qualified to speak from the role of teacher. As I have used bits and pieces from a variety of fields to compile this work, I hope that those outside ABE would also be able to pick and choose from what I have written. Also, as this workshop is participatory and draws on the knowledge of the facilitators present, it is expected that most of the participants will be experienced ABE educators and familiar with critical, participatory, and anti-oppressive pedagogy. I have written this with the assumption that I am building on what is already known by the participants and tying that experience and theory to the topic of disruption. Additionally, much of what I have found to be helpful depends on the possibility of relationship development, so it would be less helpful for more short-term educational expenences. This project can be divided into two sections. The first section is the theoretical framework and academic background that is necessary for understanding I) how my own thinking on this topic has developed, 2) the many different factors that intersect in ways that appear disruptive, and 3) possibilities for re-thinking and re-framing our understandings of disruptions. The second section is the workshop curriculum itself, which is described in more detail on page 14. The expected workshop participants are ABE practitioners, whether volunteer or paid staff, part-time or full-time. In the few occasions in the document when a learner is named, please understand that names have been changed to respect their privacy. 3 Academic Research In the course of my graduate studies, I have taken the opportunity several times to research topics related to the larger question of disruption. In order to provide a theoretical background for the practice-oriented workshop curriculum, I have excerpted and adapted material from two papers in particular. The conceptual basis of this graduating project is based on an assignment for a research class I took in the spring of 2009 that was titled "This is the Question We All Have: Anticipating, Preventing, and Reacting to Disruptions in Groups of Vulnerable People." It touches on the variety of influences that cause disruption and the theoretical framework on which I base my understanding of disruption. Additionally, some excerpts from a paper I wrote in the fall of 2008 for my Adult Education and Community class ("Inclusive, Effective, and Realistic Education for Learners with Disabilities in Resource-Poor Contexts") have been included as part of this framework. Not only did I draw upon this paper quite heavily for the workshop session on Universal Design in Learning (UDL) and disabilities, but this research and analysis also helped me shape and articulate my ideas of what creative inclusion might look like. While this research served as an academic background, it not comprehensive and does not address all that is covered in the workshop curriculum. Instead it is included to show where my journey in writing this paper began. The curriculum shows how that developed and changed as the project went along. 4 This is the Question We All Have: Anticipating, Preventing, and Reacting to Disruptions in Groups of Vulnerable People 1. Introduction The participant leadership group of a community project working with homeless people was discussing the qualities needed for ajob that would soon be posted. The question of whether a woman could be hired to coordinate the meal and shelter program came up. As both the meal and overnight shelter are dominated by men and sometimes require intervening in physical fights, the group was undecided about how well a woman could succeed in this role. One person said that it would be a challenge, but that there were some women who could do it. Another suggested that it would work as long as there was someone else around (a staff member or long-time volunteer) who could assist in a conflict. Nathaniel insisted that the men would treat a woman with as much respect as they treated the previous coordinators, who had all been men. The two women there laughed, and one said, "Yeah, right, some of those guys are not going to listen to a woman." }l1e facilitator asked the women to explain what they meant by that and whether there could be .some way to respond to potential problems. Nathaniel interrupted and said laughing, "Well, sure, they're going to give her some grief, but it's just harmless fun." This angered one of the women who responded that sexual harassment was not harmless fun. The facilitator repeated her question to the women. They started to answer, but again Nathaniel cut them off, insisting that there was no problem with men disrespecting women and that the men would recognize a woman's authority. The women were frustrated now and tried to express their disagreement. He continued to talk over them and the facilitator, who was desperately trying to get Nathaniel to stop talking and listen to what was being said by others. The women gave up and it was time for the meeting to end, so the group broke up. Not every group situation has the irony of this story: that by not allowing the women's voices to be heard, Nathaniel was actually proving their point that men do not always respect and listen to women. But most educators and group facilitators are familiar with those moments when group members dominate discussions, do not seem to have the social skills to recognize that their behaviour is causing people to disregard what they are saying because of how they say it, or do not seem to realize that there are other opinions and experiences that are also valid. It happens in homogeneous groups of financially wealthy people with formal educational backgrounds, and it happens in diverse groups of people who are financially poor and have limited formal education. Trauma, lack of sleep and nutrition, mental health issues, learning and social disabilities, and negative experiences with school can be reasons for adults to have limited ability to participate well in a group. For people who are extremely poor and marginalized, there is usually a combination of factors that contribute to these potential challenges. As a teacher and group facilitator, this is my biggest challenge. My question is: How can facilitators anticipate, prevent, and react to disruptions in learning groups of vulnerable people? II. Project Approach This curriculum development proj ect will be done out of the perspective of radical adult education that participatory, grassroots education can be used by marginalized people to resist oppression, in the tradition that includes Freire, Horton, Coady and others. This is not done by downplaying diversity within the group, but by realizing that it is a challenge for all groups to learn to work with differences among the participants. The educator bell hooks writes about her experiences 5 with diverse groups of students: "What was happening was not the comforting "melting pot" idea of cultural diversity, the rainbow coalition where we would all be grouped together in our difference, but everyone wearing the same have-a-nice-day smile. This was the stuff of colonizing fantasy, a perversion of the progressive vision of cultural diversity" (hooks, 1994, 30-31). True openness to diversity recognizes that differences will cause challenges to facilitation and seeks to include those differences, rather than excluding people who do not fit the dominant pattern. In addition to hooks' work, I will also use the work of Jenny Horsman as a guide. Although Horsman focuses on women's experiences with trauma and learning, her knowledge can be extended to other marginalized groups. As she writes in "Moving Beyond 'Stupid,''' a 2006 piece, "violence of all forms may make success harder to achieve and, depending on the responses of the educational centre or institution, attempting to learn may lead to one more experience of violence and diminishment" (p. 178). Since both hooks and Horsman are feminists, it is important to point out that this research will be done from the perspective that feminist educational theory has inspired much good, participatory, egalitarian practice. This is feminist education as process and not content (Walters & Manicom, 1996), since the topic is not focused on how men and women relate to each other in groups, but on how individuals relate to the group and to the facilitator. Ill. Useful Concepts from Literature A person could spend a lifetime exploring all the different factors that affect the ways that people work together and participate in groups. Humans are complicated beings, and the added intricacies of the life experience of adults add to that complexity. Knowledge from fields as wide-ranging as behavioural neurology, sociology, and the butterfly effect in chaos theory could be used to contribute to our understanding of how the puzzle pieces fit together. For this short paper, I will limit myself to a brief, but wide-ranging, treatment of knowledge from several specific areas: trauma and learning, group dynamics, asset-based community work, Asperger's Syndrome, disability studies, Universal Design for Learning (UDL), and adult education itself. Again, there is the reminder that educators usually do not know precisely what influences which actions, but that learning groups can often be designed and facilitated in ways that include a number of possibilities. Trauma and Learning Although Horsman writes extensively about many different effects of trauma on learning, her research on learner leadership (2001) offers three valuable insights for my project. One possible reason for learners to dominate groups is because they did not receive enough attention growing up and so want attention from facilitators. Another effect is that trauma survivors often live at one of two extremes, always out of balance. So if a task is a little hard, it feels extremely difficult. Or if it is slightly more on the side of good, it is really good. The third, and perhaps most important to remember, is "how scary it can be for someone who is used to living in a state of crisis to live without crises. The tension of waiting for the next crisis creates a state of continual expectation, so that for some women it may be easier to provoke the crisis than wait for it" (p. 98). Dominating groups, extreme reactions, and initiating crises all may look like disruption in a group. Group Dynamics Specific knowledge about trauma and learning is very useful, but it is also possible to find help in the general literature on group dynamics. A classic piece on small groups is Bruce Tuckman's 1965 6 "Developmental Sequence in Small Groups" where he identified a four-part sequence of forming, storming, norming, and performing (a fifth step-adjourning-was added later). Storming is that point in the process when the group is past the honeymoon stage of getting to know each other and everything seems to be embroiled in conflict. Group members resist each other and the work they are doing. l'e:am Developm.~.nt Performance jStcrntl 9 l\Jekmlln Illustration credit: http://www. huawei.com/publjcations/view.do?jd=2849&cid=5246m1=2043 Kaner's Facilitator's Guide to Participatory Decision Making offers a similar sequence of zones. A new topic will begin in the divergent zone where people express different responses, move to the groan zone where the conflict is at its worst, then enter the convergent zone, which will lead to the closure zone. Both Tuckman and Kaner's work help facilitators to remember that is important and normal for the group to go through a difficult stage in working together. Kaner also offers a helpful chart called "Dealing with Difficult Dynamics" that gives examples of these difficult dynamics followed by typical mistakes and effective responses. So for the example of "domination by a highly verbal member," the typical mistake is trying to control that individual and a more effective response is to focus on those who are not talking (p. 115). These natural processes, whether called "the divergent zone" or "the storming stage," may cause disruption in the group. Listening skills are another important part of research on group dynamics. In a workshop on this topic, Rose Clarke, a counsellor who specializes in both trauma and addictions, suggested that good listening skills are an important part of working with people who are causing disruptions. A list of these skills (from Rennebohm, 1999) include recommendations to listen "not so much for details as for feelings and for the themes of the conversation" and to listen to ourselves. Often the person who is currently experiencing some conflict in the group will not be expressing what is actually happening for her or him at that moment. Also, sometimes the conflict triggers another emotion in the listener or facilitator that makes it difficult to respond calmly or with empathy. That is why it is important to examine what is happening within ourselves. In another workshop on de-escalating conflict, Clarke used the "Guidelines for Addressing Aggression" to teach us both what to do and what not to do. Often, the best way to de-escalate conflict is to meet that person's emotional needs, which are "connection, control over self and one's life, fun, and freedom." The challenge is in knowing which of these needs to address. For example, with people for whom "fun" is soothing, they will react well to a joke and find that the humour diffuses the situation, while others will be aggravated if they feel their needs are being belittled. Techniques that should not be used are more clear. The following should be avoided: threatening, arguing, discounting, being defensive, making promises that will not be kept, challenging or calling a bluff, criticizing, or condescending. 7 Asset-based Community Work A handout from a workshop I attended on supporting people with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) focuses on how to support adults by building on their strengths. The authors offer many practical strategies such as a 'minimalist environment-less is best of everything-what is referred to as "high tech sterile" (less noise, people, stuff, colour, activity, etc.), (Antrobus and Lutke, 2005, p. 24) to reduce the possibility of people being overwhelmed. They also point out that it is better to look at what the worker can do differently, rather than focusing on the client as failing. Recognizing that the design of the space affects learners helps us understand how we may be unintentionally causing disruption. That is, excess clutter may be part of creating a disruptive environment, which may lead students to act in ways that feel disruptive to the group. Another example of literature from the perspective of asset-based community work is John McKnight's (1996) "A Twenty-First Century Map for Healthy Communities and Families." He describes how systems are set up to produce and how people who do not produce will not be included. The alternative is what he calls an "associational community" and describes how people are included as the individuals they are: "the individualization that is inherent in associational communities ... occurs when the community responds to the crisis of a particular individual in a particular way ... the associational community is focused on the dilemma or gift of a particular individual and is able to tailor a response that is beyond the capacity of the system" (p. 17). Illustration credit: A Twenty-First Century Map for Healthy Communities and Families II 0°°0 <30 l·~ll Ot> o 0 °0° V (McKnight 1996) In this map, we see families at the center. They are further extended by kinship relationships. Then another circle of informal and formal associations provides a context for them to act through consent, care and citizen empowerment. McKnight, 1996, p. 16 Although this type of community may seem idealistic sometimes, it is helpful for facilitators to change their thinking and approach. A local expert on community-based empowerment, Ann Livingston of Vancouver Area Network of Drug Users (VANDU), describes how this works in her organization. She writes that their "emphasis on the universal value of support reflects a non-judgmental belief that all people need support at some time ... Instead of asking "What is wrong with drug users? ," we ask "What are the strengths of the user population?" (n.d., p.2). As with the FASD example, instead of focusing on how a person is causing problems, we should not be tied to our system or way of doing things. This may lead to fewer disruptions, both because the students will feel less agitated and because our perception of disruption will change. If design can cause disruption, an emancipatory approach would look to people whose strengths and experiences are different from our own (or the dominant culture) as the experts in designing appropriate, inclusive, educational experiences. "Emancipatory research is concerned with a Freirian form of praxis, or a conscious effort at social change that brings about equity, social justice, and full participation in society where the work toward social change is led by those who are, themselves, oppressed" (Gabel, 2005). And to go beyond Freire, the educator should start with the premise that the 8 learner is already a valuable and functional person; we are not trying to make them into productive members of society. We should assume that they have "the ability to think critically, to act on their own behalf, to even believe change is possible" (Martin, 2001). The first step of an emancipatory approach is to discuss with the learners how they learn best. This validates different learning styles and will help the facilitator to develop the experience in ways that allow the learners to feel comfortable and more relaxed. It may also be helpful to have a discussion about disabilities and differences as part of the class, as most learners will know someone well who has a disability even if they do not have one themselves. Being transparent about the varieties of disabilities represented in the life experiences of all adults helps to normalize differences, instead of pathologizing them. Second, it is useful to look at the cultural backgrounds of the learners or at multicultural approaches to education in general. For example, the tradition of oral storytelling that is more common in some cultures may be a more appropriate way to learn for some and will have the advantage of not requiring print literacy (King, 2005). The medicine wheel is a graphic way of organizing holistic learning and may help some connect better with the material, as well as allowing dialogue about various aspects of the learners' lives that will uncover generative themes (Freire, 1970). Asperger's Syndrome It is also important to realize that we have a lot of assumptions about social norms and that most social expectations are not explicit. For some learners, social dynamics might be quite confusing. They may appear to be deliberately contravening these assumed rules because they do not actually know them. Some of these individuals are possibly adults with (undiagnosed in most cases) Asperger's Syndrome, which causes a difference in ability to perceive unstated social cues and to empathize with others. Asperger's is considered by many to be at one end of the autism spectrum. The author of Look Me in the Eye: My Life with Asperger's (Robison, 2007) describes his journey of learning explicitly what most adults have learned implicitly-how to respond appropriately (through words and facial expressions) to others' stories and questions, how to avoid saying everything he is thinking, and how to make friends and develop healthy relationships. Despite being extremely intelligent, Robison struggled through school, dropping out at age 15 and never completing more than a GED. His teachers could not handle having him in class and told him he would never succeed, that he would end up in jail. That is, his teachers perceived him as too disruptive. Instead of changing their methods, they chose to remove him from school. Now that more educators know about this condition, they are also able to learn techniques for helping children with Asperger's to avoid the disastrous school experience that Robison had. The website www.schoolbehavior.com provides a long list of tips for teachers. Significant tips include predictability and routine, giving "extra verbal and visual cues," providing a way for the child to get needed space from a stressful situation, and asking the student to write down questions rather than fixating on them in a group discussion. These can be adapted to adult learning contexts. Marc Segar, who had Asperger's, wrote a short book of guidelines and explanations of social expectations for his peers, published on the Internet (http;llwww-users.cs.york.ac.uk! ~alistairlsurvivall). Chapter topics include worrying, body language, conversation, and education, among others. In the "Conversation" section, Segar offers advice such as "try to avoid repeating 9 yourself or rephrasing yourself when you have already been understood" and the more lengthy explanation: "If there is something you need to say which is not relevant but is important. .. it is best to fmd the suitable person when they're not having a conversation. Try to find the right moment, get your timing right. If you need to pass on a phone call and think that you might forget if you are kept waiting too long, just write it down and leave it by the phone" (emphasis his). These tips may sound overly obvious to most people, but they remind us that for some people they uncover some of the mysteries of human interaction. From a teaching perspective, a few strategies from the "Education" section provide useful insight. Segar advises his readers to listen to teachers "even if at first it sounds unimportant to you ... make it clear that you are listening by nodding or saying 'Right.''' He also points out that people are generally not impressed by a lot of "obscure academic knowledge." The lesson for facilitators is to remember that there are many other reasons for group members not to listen to us or others in the group and that sometimes people do not know how to ask to be appreciated for who they are. This applies whether or not the individual has Asperger's Syndrome. In my personal experience, realizing that people who appear disruptive may actually not be aware of the implicit expectations of the social situation has been helpful. Here is an example: I was having a very serious conversation with a person named Trevor, when Dave interrupted us and started telling a completely unrelated story. My first reaction was to feel upset with Dave and to be annoyed that he had been rude. After a moment, I realized that he might not see himself the way I did. I took a chance and said to him, "Dave, I'm having a conversation with Trevor right now. Can I listen to your story a little bit later?" Dave agreed and left Trevor and me alone to fmish our conversation. When I talked to him later, he expressed no discomfort with what I had asked of him. Of course, I do not know whether Dave has Asperger's or not, but an understanding of social differences helped me to react to the disruption in the conversation. Disability Studies Knowledge from the Asperger's Syndrome community is one example of how specific knowledge about a specific condition can be generalized in ways that reduce the possibility and impact of disruption in a group setting. The field of disability studies also provides significant help in re-framing our ideas of disruption. I do not include topics related to disability to imply either causation or correlation between disability and disruption. Instead, reading and thinking in these fields has helped me to understand and identify ways to design and respond to educational experiences in ways that are both inclusive and emancipatory-for all students. To provide a background in disability studies, two points from the introduction to Susan Gabel's book Disability Studies in Education: Readings in Theory and Method are noteworthy. First, people without disabilities have designed text that is too small for some to read, buildings that are hard for all to access, and teaching styles that work for a limited number of brains. Is it the person who is disabled or the structures and attitudes of our everyday lives that are disabling? As Thomas Hehir is quoted to say, ableism "results in societal attitudes that uncritically assert that it is better for people to walk than roll, speak than sign, read print than read Braille ... " (Gabel, 2005). Educational experiences that are designed for all types of abilities are better than keeping all the old structures in place and then seeking to fit people with disabilities into those structures somehow. Likewise, for the more general topic of disruption, perhaps we are too quick to assign blame to the student when the fault might lie with structures and systems. 10 Universal Design for Learning A complementary approach to inclusive education is Universal Design for Learning (UDL), which is sometimes also called Universal Instructional Design (UID). Universal Design is "the design of products and environments to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialized design" (Mace, et al. 1997). Examples of this are curb cuts that make sidewalks accessible for people in wheelchairs, as well as parents pushing strollers, people pulling wheeled shopping baskets, and others. Closed captioning is useful for those who are hard of hearing as well as for people in noisy public spaces and for people whose reading comprehension in a new language is better than their oral comprehension. Universal symbols such as the ones for male and female on washroom doors assist with a variety of considerations, such as literacy level, visual impairments, and language differences. UDL takes this same principle and applies it to learning. The Center for Applied Special Technology, one of the earliest organizations to use adaptive technology and to adapt the architectural strategy of Universal Design for learning, defines UDL as curriculum that provides multiple means of representation, expression, and engagement. Representation is the way material is presented. Expression is in the ways learners communicate what they have learned. Engagement is the way learners interact with the instructor and co-learners (McGuire, 2006 and Meo, 2008). Instruction that is designed to accommodate people with hearing or visual impairments can be useful for people with learning disabilities or other challenges. For example, a teacher's effort to include oral, visual, tactile, and kinesthetic options in the educational experience will be inclusive of the greatest number of students. To teach the word "apple" in a beginning English class, the teacher can speak the word and ask the students to repeat it, print it on the blackboard, pass out handouts with the word in readable-size text and a picture of an apple, write it with thr~e-dimensional manipulatives, bring in an apple to pass around, and have a student cut the apple to share with the class. With so many options, learners will be able to find a way that matches their own learning styles and abilities as well as being exposed to a variety of ways to remember the new vocabulary word. Another benefit is that no one is singled out for special accommodation, as it is assumed that everyone in the class has different preferences and abilities for learning. The article "Universal Design and Multiple Literacies" (Michael & Trezek, 2006) describes other ways of teaching and measuring learning. Graphic texts (comic-book style) are useful for students with reading difficulties, for students who remember pictures better than text, or for language learners. Inquiry-based discussions allow students to approach the question through different styles. Perhaps some would do research on the Internet, some would do interviews, and others would fmd ways to illustrate the problem and possible solutions. Perhaps the whole group might travel to see evidence of the problem that has been posed. If the students work together, they will learn from each other and fill in gaps of knowledge. Additional ways to document knowledge besides the traditional print-centred, writing approach are to have students debate the question, to make graphs and charts, to present information as if they were television newscasters, and to make collages or other works of art. An entire volume of the ABEIESOL teachers' newsletter Field Notes focuses on working with students who have learning disabilities. Janet Isserlis, in an article on ESOL students with learning disabilities, describes some other key features ofUDL in Adult Basic Education in her article "Helping the LD Learner Helps All Students." The predictability of routines and repetition in an educational experience reduces some of the stress on students who may not be able to manage changes as easily: This can be 11 as simple as starting each class the same way, so that the learners will know what to expect when they arrive. Dialogue journals that allow students to communicate with the teacher without fear of correction and that allow for multiple ways of expression, such as drawing, are also useful once students are accustomed to some writing (Isserlis, 2008, see also Martin, 2001). Other ideas would be to use highlighters in different colours for different categories (Sherwin, 2007), manipulatives and realia (Kamiya, 2008), graphic organizers such as Venn diagrams, spider maps, and charts (Balliro, 2008) and colour-coded handouts by topic-e.g. green sheets for grammar lessons. This issue of Field Notes also includes a series of questions for instructors to evaluate how well they accommodate students with learning disabilities (BaHiro, 2008). As useful and intuitive (McGuire, et aI., 2006) as UDL seems, there are also a few critiques and cautions to consider. First, the segregation of special education training from most educational training means that most instructors are not trained in even the basics of working with learners who have disabilities. Second, despite good intentions, this design is not really universal to the full extent of the word. Students with mobility impairments will still not be able to go up three flights of stairs without an elevator. Some students, such as those who are blind or deaf, can benefit from specialized instruction in Braille or sign language. Finally, as this field is relatively new (UD in architecture is only about thirty years old and UDL about twenty), long-term results have not been measured, if it is even possible to measure them given the context. Despite the difficulties and complexities of inclusive, realistic, and effective educational experiences, participatory and emancipatory education models that use the principles of Universal Design for Learning approach the question of preventing disruption. Participants bring with them skills and self-awareness that can be used to design experiences that are accessible to the many different kinds of individuals in adult education programs. Using this knowledge, instructors, trainers, and program planners can create education that is beneficial to the most people possible. In situations where adults feel at ease, affirmed, and acknowledged as individuals, the possibility of disruption is lessened and likely to feel less threatening to others in the group. Adult Education From the perspective of adult basic education, the idea of a safe space for learners is commonly accepted. In their piece on classroom dynamics, Beder and Medina (2001) discuss the importance of a "relaxed, trustful, and emotionally safe classroom atmosphere ... consistent use of verbal praise, an absence of negative sanctioning, and considerable tolerance for tuning-out behavior and tardiness" (p. 34). In a more structured and traditional classroom, those learners whose lives are most chaotic or who had traumatic childhood school experiences will usually not be present. Betsy Alkenbrack and Lucy Alderson are two instructors working in the Downtown Eastside who describe how so little of the literature and research written about literacy education is relevant to their teaching situations. Both of these women were my supervisors when I was tutoring and teaching at the Carnegie Learning Centre and have written pieces about their work elsewhere in the neighbourhood. Alderson's 2003 publication "Literacy for Women on the Streets" describes her work at Women's Information Safe Haven (WISH) a drop-in centre for women working in the survival sex trade. She discusses the difficulty that the women's experiences of trauma create for the learning group at WISH. This trauma deeply affects learners' ability to feel safe in situations, to trust people who get close to them, and to want to reveal themselves; all critical elements in learning situations. At 12 WISH, we also recognize that violence is a tool that women use. Many women have developed aggressive street persona as a way to survive the street. .. .It is both a challenge to work with the individual and create safe learning settings for other women. Understanding aggression as self-expression and finding ways and environments to transform aggression in street women is critical to developing literacy programs for this group. (p. 10) She also describes how the very real and present trauma makes it difficult for some of the WISH participants to wait for their tum in a group discussion. The instructors found that keeping minutes and providing a way for people to write down their thoughts, even if they did not have time to speak, helped. In other conflicts around use of materials, learning "what it is that she needs at the time, rather than focusing on what she can't have" diffuses the situation (p. 50). Alkenbrack's piece is about harm reduction and learning in the Downtown Eastside. The traditional, systemic approach to learning is that there is some sort of continuum where people are expected to get their lives together-to quit using substances, to get counselling for experiences of abuse, etc.-before these individuals can participate in learning. She refers to Jenny Horsman's body of work and says, "According to Horsman, when we are working with learners who have experienced abuse, we need to accept and work with them as they come to us - not tell them to come back after they have dealt with emotional problems resulting from their abuse" (2007, p. 30). * * * * * 13 Workshop Design This workshop has been designed to be used in one of two ways. First, there is the basic three-hour workshop. It can be used as a stand-alone workshop or as part of a longer day (for example, volunteer or staff training or a professional.development). As with any of the other components of the workshop, it could also be extended to take a bit longer, depending on time available and participant interest. It is written as if it takes place from 1 :00-4 :00 in the afternoon. The time of day, of course, is not important as long as it is a time that works for the group involved. Different times of day will have different concerns that should be considered. For those who work late in the evenings, afternoon may be better. For others, morning may be a better time. I found it easier to imagine with actual times, so I choose this imaginary 1 :00-4:00 time slot. If used as the introduction to a full-day workshop, the times would be changed accordingly. Second, there are additional optional modules. These are designed to be used in mix-and-match style. All four could be used if this were an all-day workshop (see Sample Full Day Schedule on the next page). The facilitator and organizers can choose to do fewer modules or to replace one of the modules here with a site-specific session. Part II (page 15) is a sample schedule for a day-long training that incorporates all the curriculum detailed in this project. Part III is the material for the basic (three-hour) workshop. The Participant's Agenda (p .. 16), Bag of Tricks (p. 21), and Intrapersonal Strategies (p. 222) documents are intended to be passed out at the appropriate time in the workshop. That is, the agenda would be given to participants at the very beginning of the workshop, and the other two handouts would be incorporated as detailed in the Facilitator's Notes. The Facilitator's Notes document (p. 17) serves as the teacher's guide for the facilitation of the workshop. Part IV is divided into the four optional modules. Each module begins with a facilitator's guide to that module which is followed by any appropriate handouts. Finally, there is a Recommended Reading (p. 37) document that should be passed out to workshop participants at the "end of the basic workshop. The reference list that follows it is a comprehensive list of the materials I read for the academic research previously adapted and for the project itself. At first glance, it may seem that this workshop curriculum does not include enough methods, that it is heavy on concepts and not too practical. In truth, I wished I had been able to uncover more instantly useful tips and tricks to help myself and others. A passage I read in Parker Palmer's (1998) The Courage to Teach helped me to reconcile this tension. My concern for the inner landscape of teaching may seem indulgent, even irrelevant, at a time when many teachers are struggling simply to survive. Wouldn't it be more practical, I am sometimes asked, to offer tips, tricks, and techniques for staying alive in the classroom, things that ordinary teachers can use in everyday life? . ..1 have worked with countless teachers, and many of them have confirmed my own experience: as important as methods may be, the. most practical thing we can achieve in any kind of work is insight into what is happening inside us as we do it. The more familiar we are with our inner terrain, the more surefooted our teaching-and living-becomes. (p.5) 14 Bumps in the Road: Anticipating, Preventing, and Reacting to Disruptions in Groups Sample Full Day Schedule 9:00-12:00 Basic Workshop 12:00-12:30 Lunch 12:30-1:30 Listening Module 1 :30-2:30 Grief and Trauma Module 2:30-2:45 Break (coffee, tea, snacks available) 2:45-3:45 Disabilities and UDL Module 3:45-4:45 Feminist/Participatory Module 4:45-5 :00 Housekeeping and fmal evaluations 15 Workshop Agenda Anticipating, Preventing, and Reacting to Disruptions in Groups 1 :00-1 :30~ Welcome and introductions Please tell us your name & what comes to mind when you hear the title of this workshop. Language Notes: Ground Rules: 1 :30-1 :40~Small groups What are your concerns about a workshop on this topic? What are your concerns regarding this topic as a facilitator? 1 :40-2:20~Interpersonal StrategieslBag of Tricks ~Brea~ 2:30-3:30~~Intrapersonal Strategies (both within the facilitator and unspoken within participants) 3:30-3:45~~Philosophies of facilitation 3:45-4:00~~Evaluation, further resources, and questions 16 Workshop Agenda-Facilitator's Notes (standard text is instructions, italicized text is spoken) 1:00-1:30-Welcome and introductions/check-ins Name & what comes to mind when you hear the title of this workshop (anticipating, etc . . .) End the round of introductions with my own introduction & what I mean with the title. Point out that disruption is a normal part of group process. Need to establish some common language/ground rules for talking about this topic-Introduce my own challenges around language: All teachers know what "it" is, but do we have the right words to describe it? Is "disruption" even the right wordfor this topic? We have to recognize that we are limited in the words available to us. Can we try to avoid identifYing problem individuals, but rather identifY problematic actions? How do we make the distinction between expecting trouble and understanding that certain factors in people's lives often influence their participation in groups? For example, ifwhen we talk about empathy later on, I talk about how traumatic experiences can affect the way that people participate in groups, I don't want to say that you should watch out for people who have experienced trauma or (worse!) try to find out everyone's secrets. Instead, we are recognizing that people are really complicated beings and that there are a lot of factors that influence the way we act, including the ways that groups are facilitated. Ask them to suggest some ground rules for the workshop--how to be respectful of each other and the learners/ participants we work with Be sure to note that there are many different ways people participate in groups, here we are specifically focusing on disruptions, though there are other equally important and more subtle challenges to facilitating groups. This could include the challenge of drawing out quieter students, which is not covered here although it is certainly closely related to disruption. You know yourself and the people you work with. You are the expert on what works best for your group and what you (and your organization) can and cannot accept. However, I want to provide an opportunity for facilitators to support each other and get ideas from others who have had similar experiences. • I , I' 1:30-1:40-Break into small groups Have the larger group break into groups of 3-4 people (sitting. next to each other is best as this is most likely to be people they are already comfortable with). Write the answers to the following questions on flip chart paper, without names. What are your concerns about a workshop on this topic? What are your concerns regarding this topic as afacilitatorh Post these where I can see them and keep them in mind during the session. 1 :40-2:20-Interpersonal StrategieslBag of Tricks Introduce with the story of the flag and the Chinese seniors. When I was teaching a basic English class of about 15 senior citizens, I noticed that I was having trouble keeping them on topic and practising English. It was a lovely group of people, really kind and fun-loving. At least once a class, the large group would dissolve into several smaller groups having their own conversations in their first language, which could go on indefinitely. Since I don't speak Cantonese or Mandarin, I never knew if they were talking about the class material or something else. And since most of the group were Mandarin speakers, I wondered if those who did not understand Mandarin were feeling excluded. Since we only met an hour and a half once a week, I tried to stress with them that this was their chance to practice English. I didn't mind them helping each other out by translating or explaining every once in a while, but wanted a way to help us all regain focus in those moments when it became disruptive. I was explaining this to a goodfriend of mine, also a teacher, who is Chinese Canadian. He said, "You need aflag!" Upon seeing my astonishedface, he explained more: "In Chinese culture, teachers and leaders will wave aflag when they want the attention of the group. This way you don't have to shout over them, but they'll know to stop talking." WHAT? I couldn't see myselfwaving aflag. I'm sure they already found me a little odd; would this make them lose all respect for me? But I thought about it some more and decided to give it a try. I found an old pole (about a metre long) and some red paper that I decorated with flowers. I taped the flag to the pole and brought it with me to the class. Oh, and weren't those students amused when they saw that flag! I explained it to them, and they made some good-naturedjokes about the teacher's stick. But you know what? It worked. At some point, I stopped taping the flag to the pole (something I had to do every day as I couldn't carry the pole home with me) and just waved the paper. By the end of the time I was with the class, I would just have to reach for the flag and people would regain focus. It sounds a little Pavlovian to tell it, but it became a good example to me of how effective a wordless strategy can be. Ask the group to name some of the strategies they use when they facilitate. Pass out the "Bag ofTricks"J handout. Ask them to read it over and ask questions if they're not sure about some of the strategies. Talk about the question "Which strategies try to anticipate disruption? Prevent disruption? React to disruption?" Also, identify which strategies work best for one-off meetings, ongoing meetings with some turnover in the attendance, and ongoing classes with little turnover. 2:20-2:30-Break (snacks) 2 :30-3 :30-Intrapersonal Strategies (both within yourself and unspoken within participants) (10 minutes) When I started working on this project, I talked to an old co-worker who is a counsellor specializing in trauma and addictions. I thought she could help me with some ideas. She gave me a couple resources, but also said, "You know, it all really just comes down to empathy." So I tucked her advice in the back of my head and proceeded to do a whole lot of research. And guess what my conclusion is? (pause) That's right. There are some strategies we can use, like the ones we talked about before the break, but a lot of it comes down to our own approach and attitude. I wish I could say that if you have a good attitude and lots of empathy, that your classroom will be free of bumps in the road. That, unfortunately, is not what I'm saying. I do think it may ease some of the tension in the group, don't get me wrong. But it should also make the experience less frustrating and help you take a more objective look at the situation. I know my own tendency is to blame myselffor something that goes wrong in the group. Or I blame THAT person for ruining it all. I want to get out of that mindset, to step back and see the big picture. Allow the participants to react to this introductory paragraph. I I use this term borrowed from a former co-worker as a way of describing the methods we keep in the back of our minds that we go to when we need a better plan. Of course, these are not magic tricks that will solve complex challenges. 18 If we can make some huge generalizations here, there are three amorphous groups we can think about having empathy for. Draw a three-circled Venn diagram on the board to show that we may have primary identities, but also fit into other categories sometimes. One group is those people who seem to be causing the disruption at the time. Another is those people who are more quiet and who perhaps are quite negatively affected by what might feel like chaos. And the third group is us, the facilitators. We are shaped, and triggered, by the same kinds of experiences our learners are. (5 minutes for directions, 20-25 minutes for small group discussion) Illustration credit: http 'llwwwteach-nology.com/worksheets/graphic/venn31 Keeping that in mind, we are going to talk about four intra personal-that is, what is happening within ourselves-questions. Divide the large group into four (or three*) groups or have them choose which group they want by topic. Give each one of four introductory paragraphs [see Intrapersonal Strategies handout, p. 22] and ask them to expand on it. Groups report back to the large group at 3:05-3:10. Discuss as a large group what the small groups have shared. *Some of the subjects covered in the intrapersonal section are sensitive and might not be appropriate for every group. The facilitator of this workshop should carefully consider the potential for the topics (most likely #3 and #4) to cause conflict, stress or unintended experiencing of exclusion/discrimination and choose to eliminate one or more topics if necessary. Some of the topics might be better discussed in a longer session or only with certain combinations of individuals. 3:30-3:45-Philosophies of facilitation We all come to facilitation with different philosophies, whether they're conscious or not. Here is a quick way to begin to think about our subconscious theories. Think about what you value more in the following examples. Context is, of course, a factor in our answers to these questions. And ideally, we shouldn't have to make these choices, but in practice we sometimes do. There might not be time to discuss these questions-they are just examples of underlying philosophies. It would be easiest to have them already written out on a flipchart. Which statement do you value more? A. B. Discuss: 1. getting through the material or topic the most efficient way 2. making sure everyone's voice is heard 1. creating a safe space where the most withdrawn or "the good ones" can feel comfortable 2. creating a space that allows for a diversity of expressions and the tension that often comes with them Where have you found dissonance between your own philosophies (or perhaps the philosophies of the organizations you are part oj) in the material we've covered today? How do the resources you have or the mission of your group influence how you choose to respond to disruptions in your group? 19 3:45-4:00~Evaluation, hand out bibliography, and questions Transition from that to a brief evaluation exercise: Quickly draw (or have drawn ahead of time) a person with a head, heart and briefcase. What are you thinking about now? How are youfeeling about it? What new (or old) information are you taking with you? Handout Recommended Reading sheet (pp. 37 & 38). Tell the participants that the resources marked with an asterisk can be e-mailed to them as PDFs if they request them from me (actual contact information would be included in the bibliography in a real-life situation). 20 Bag of Tricks Which strategies try to anticipate disruption? Prevent disruption? React to disruption? Setup • group establishment of ground rules and procedures for enforcing them Discussion Flow • clear expectations • talking stick • going in rounds Group Design • begin sessions with check-ins • regularly scheduled breaks • snacks, food or beverages • providing paper to write thoughts on • schedule difficult conversations for earlier in the welfare cycle • breaking into smaller groups and frequent rotation of group members (global cafe format) • silly putty/modeling clay available • think about how the space adds to/ detracts from the group (may not be much you can do about it) • egg timers • max. number of contributions • alternate sitting still and moving around • devise (or have participants devise) some kind of visual aid to help group members regain their focus Approach • intentionally prepare peer facilitators ahead of time • know what your goals (and the organization's goals) are for the session • be flexible in how those goals are achieved, postponed or changed • don't allow individuals to "hijack" the meeting • allow some time, either within the planned activities or during breaks, to conference with individuals • remind yourself to identify the assets and strengths of people with whom you feel yourself in conflict • include stories (written, acted out or watched) about interpersonal conflict in the curriculum and use the opportunity to discuss a more abstract conflict • thank people for contributing, even if you disagree • be transparent-explain what you're doing and why (in advance as much as possible) Intrapersonal Strategies Read the thoughts assigned to your group and discuss the ones that seem most interesting or relevant. Group I-Finding Peace Within Ourselves as Facilitators/Caring for Ourselves and Others While I was thinking about writing this section [Sustaining and Nourishing Action} I dreamt of camels. Sometimes the journey can feel like crossing arid lands. Camels need to drink deeply, to store up inner nourishment to sustain their journeys between wells and oases. They also chew their cud and have times of gazing dispassionately into the distance. Ask yourself: What, or who in my life are my wells? Where are my oases? What nourishment do I need to keep body and soul going, for the long haul?}} Shield, K. (1994). In the Tiger's Mouth: An Empowerment Guide for Social Action. New Society Publishers: Gabriola Island, Be, page 28 Are there people and places in our lives to help us deal with our own grief and the challenging experiences of our work? How will we know if we need to seek professional assistance ourselves? How can we avoid trying to be superwomen or supermen? How do we avoid a "but their lives are so much harder than mine" complex that doesn't allow us to acknowledge our need for self-care? What can we do to not take it personally when disruptions happen? Group 2-Empathy for people who have hidden disabilities Examples of hidden disabilities: hearing loss, learning disabilities, mental health issues Sometimes we find out about a person's disabilities, sometimes we are left to guess. Most teachers do not have the training to make any sort of diagnosis, but can recogni~e .the highly likely possibility. \ ~ .. , The National Adult Literacy Database's Factsheet #7: Literacy and Learning Disabilities (accessible at http://www.nald.ca/library/research/mcllfactshtJlearndis/pagel.htm) says, "It is estimated that 30 - 80% of students in literacy and basic education programs have learning disabilities." Resources such as the educational film How Difficult Can This Be: Understanding Learning Disabilities (Rosen & Lavoie, 2004) point out some of the responses that people with learning disabilities develop as the result of years of experience with systems that do not accommodate the way their brains work. One coping strategy is to point out others' mistakes as a way of proving their owp intelligence. What are some other ways you can imagine learning disabilities 'to look like disruptions when they may in fact be masking underlying issues? \ Other disabilities may go undiagnosed or untreated. I noticed in some of the groups I've observed that people who could not see or hear well often felt excluded. Without contacts or glasses, I have pretty poor eyesight, so I can imagine how disconcerting it would be to never see clearly. I can extend that to think about how frustrating it would be to feel like people are always talking too softly or mumbling. How else might a variety of physical or mental health issues affect a person's ability to participate in a .... I 1 ).u .• 'l'~ ? -- - .---group. . " . '. 22 Group 3-Understanding the effect of trauma-whether major or minor, recent or long-past Adult educators should never overestimate their abilities to diagnose or treat the effects of trauma. Without the proper training, we must limit ourselves to recognizing its existence and working to make our classrooms and learning centres welcoming and inclusive spaces. We need to consider and respond to the fact that many of the adult learners who show up in our classes have been traumatized at some point in their lives. This trauma deeply affects learners' ability to feel safe in situations, to trust people who get close to them, and to want to reveal themselves; all critical elements in learning situations. At WISH, we also recognize that violence is a tool that women use. Many women have developed aggressive street persona as a way to survive the street . .. .It is both a challenge to work with the individual and create safe learning settings for other women. Understanding aggression as self-expression and finding ways and environments to transform aggression in street women is critical to developing literacy programs for this group. Alderson, L., Twiss, D. (2003, November) Literacy for Women on the Streets North Vancouver: Capilano College, page 10 [W] hen we are working with learners who have experienced abuse, we need to accept and work with them as they come to us - not tell them to come back qfter they have dealt with emotional problems resulting from their abuse. Alkenbrack, B. (2007, December) Improvements . . . No Less Than Heroic: Harm Reduction and Learning in Vancouver's Downtown Eastside. North Vancouver:Capilano College, page 30 What are your responses to the quotes above? Think about how you feel when you're hungry, sleep-deprived, or have lost a friend to death. How well are you able to cope with challenges or learning something new? How do you express that? When people feel reduced to survival mode, their options are limited to fright, flight, and fight. What do these look like in a group setting? Group 4-Cultural Differences We often associate culture with ethnicity or place of origin. Most people who are able to reflect on their own experiences with people of different cultures come to understand that there are some assumptions about social interactions that are not innate or universal. We can also understand culture to include gender and socioeconomic class (again as our society constructs us, not because of something inherent). When those children ffrom wealthier families] were treated better, we thought it was because they were prettier, smarter, and just knew the right way to act. Our mother was obsessed with teaching us how to do things right, teaching us manners and bourgeois decorum. Yet she had not been around enough middle-class black people to know what to do. b. hooks (2000) Where We Stand: Class Matters New York: Routledge, page 21 How is the above quote evidence that "correct" behaviour is not something that's innate, but is learned and determined by class/race/gender constructs? How have you experienced the influence of cultural differences in groups you've facilitated? When have you been an outsider? When have you participated in a group where the facilitator was the outsider? How did that add to or detract from the facilitation? 23 Disabilities and the Concept of Universal Design 20 minutes (10 minutes for assessment, 10 minutes for discussion) Have participants begin with the assessment from Field Notes (see page 26). Explain the concept ofUDL (or have someone from the group explain it). Universal Design is "the design of products and environments" to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the needfor adaptation or specialized design" (Mace, et al. 1997). So for example, that would include curb cuts-are youfamiliar with that term? (sketch on blackboard if necessary) Illustration credit: http://www. sapdesignguild.orgleditionslhighlight articles 01/ overview highlight.asp Who do you think curb cuts are primarily designedfor? Wheelchair users. Who else benefits from curb cuts? Parents pushing strollers, people pulling wheeled shopping baskets, skateboarders, kids on bikes, etc. I " I. I' ': ...... ·.l~ "\ t '.. ill; Likewise, closed captioning is useful for those who are hard of hearing as well as for people in noisy public spaces and for people whose reading comprehension in a new language is better than their oral comprehension. Can you think of any other examples? Elevators, signs with words and pictures, bigger washroom stalls that are also useful for parents with small children, etc. UDL takes this same principle and applies it to learning. The Center for Applied Special Technology, one of the earliest organizations to use adaptive technology and to adapt the architectural strategy of Universal Design for learning, defines UDL as curriculum that provides multiple means of representation-the way material is presented, expression-the ways learners communicate what they have learned, and engagement-the way learners interact with the instructors and co-learners (McGuire, 2006 and Meo, 2008). Instruction that is designed to accommodate people with hearing or visual impairments can be useful for people with learning disabilities or other challenges. Can you think of some examples of this, either in your own practice or something else you've seen? How might UDL be part of preventing disruptions in groups? 10 minutes I I" \1", 1 liphl "1"11 ' I,', "I ."" Today we're going to look at two specific disabilities that pjJect peopl'e's abilities to participate in groups, Asperger's Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). Is anyone here familiar with those terms? Can you explain what you know to the group? It is likely that the group will include a few teachers with more extensive knowledge about the conditions. They should share their knowledge. Points to cover would include: Asperger's Syndrome causes a difference in ability to perceive unstated social cues and to empathize with others. It is considered by many to be at one end of the autism spectrum. For some learners, social dynamics may be quite confusing. They mClJ'. "appea'i tp, '~~ 4,fPp~ratfl>: pontravening these assumed rules because they do not actually know them. Additionally, people with Asperger's tend to have normal to high verbal, mathematical, or scientific intelligence. This can create the illusion that 24 FASD is a term for the collection of the various manifestations of the effects of alcohol consumed during pregnancy. Some of the effects can be seen in individuals' abilities to process information (to understand what is being said and what to do with that information, how to respond to it). They can appear to be deliberately disregarding instructions when in fact they are not able to figure out the steps needed to complete the task or follow up with the questions that will help them complete the task. Although there are some facial characteristics often associated with FASD, most people cannot identify whether an individual has it by looking at them. So, you know how when you see a person with visible Down Syndrome you realize that this person has a disability and might need a little extra care? It's not as easy with someone who has FASD. 25 minutes Divide into four groups. If there are clear experts on the topics, divide them into separate groups. Two groups should work on FASD and two on Asperger's. Pass out handout (page 27-28). We are going to take a really brief look at Universal Design concepts related to Asperger's and FASD. One of the FASD groups will focus on the curriculum and one will focus on classroom design, and likewise for the Asperger's group (identify which group is which). Take a minute to look over the bullet points about the condition your group is focusing on. Then take about 8-10 minutes to talk about how you would design either the classroom or the curriculum in a way that includes a student with this particular condition. I'm using "classroom" and "curriculum" rather loosely, so you can interpret them however you see fit. After the groups have had some time come up with some ideas, have them share those ideas with each other. There wi11likely be a lot of overlap, but possibly some contradictions. See if there is a quick way to adapt those contradictions so they are more universal or identify whether they might seem impossible contradictions. For example, the Asperger's group might want to design the curriculum to work with their learners' stronger academic intelligences, but the FASD group will want to design it for the academic challenges their learners will face. Is this an irreconcilable difference or can there be another way to focus on the variety of assets learners have? Remind teachers that their job is not to diagnose the learners they work with, but to be creative in designing ways that work for their different abilities and learning styles. 5 minutes Evaluation: What are you already dOing? What is something you can add or change to the way you teach or to the physical layout of your space? What do you still need to know? What is frustrating you? 25 Learning Disabilities Assessment Tool Part I: Program Level • Are we aware of the most recent research about learning disabilities and adult learners? How can we fnd out more? (Example: I can do research at the National Adult Literacy Database-www.nald.ca.) • Do we understand disability-related government policy, such as the Charter of Rights and Freedoms, and how it relates to our adult students with learning disabilities? How can we find out more? • Do we recruit students for our program in various media? • Have we ever had staff development events on learning disabilities at our program? Can we arrange for this? How? • Does our program have policies in place about students with learning disabilities? Are we all aware of them? • Do we have a designated staff member who can assess, place, and help support learning disabled learners? Is this possible? Part II: In the Classroom • Is my classroom a clean, uncluttered, and well-lit place without too many distractions? Can I improve in this area? How? • Are some of my classroom tasks predictable so students achieve a comfort level with assignments? How can I improve in this area? (Example: I can establish classroom "rituals" so students know what to expect at regular times.) • Do I recycle and reuse new language and literacy (or math) skills so there is ample opportunity for reinforcement? How can I improve in this area? (Example: Do I stretch a topic over several classes and then review, or am I always trying to cover too much in one class?) • Do I include multi-sensory approaches in my teaching? Can I improve in this area? How? (Example: I can integrate video or DVD clips and songs into my ESOL class.) • Am I aware of assistive technologies to help students with various learning challenges? Can I improve in this area? How? • Am I aware of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) strategies and how I can draw from this area for classroom practices? • Do I use graphic organizers like charts, grids, or mapping to help present information? Can I improve in this area? How? Balliro, L., (2008, Spring). How Well Is Your Program Helping LD Students? Field Notes. 17(2): 14. (with some adaptations for the Canadian context) 26 Strategies to Improve Outcomes for Individuals with an FASD Sensory Integration Issues • Simplify the individual's environment • Provide a lot of one-to-one physical presence. • Take steps to avoid sensory triggers. Memory Problems • Provide one direction or rule at a time and review rules regularly. • Use a lot of repetition. Information Processing Problems • Check for understanding. • Use literal language. • Teach the use of calculators and computers. • Look for misinterpretations of words or actions and discuss them when they occur. Executive Function Deficits • Use short-term consequences specifically related to the behavior. • Establish achievable goals. • Provide skills training and use a lot of role playing. Self-Esteem and Personal Issues • Use person-first language (e.g. "child with FAS," not "FAS kid"). • Do not isolate the person. • Address issues of loss and grief. • Do not blame people for what they cannot do. • Set the person up to succeed. 27 Asperger's Syndrome Swedish physician Christopher Gillberg categorizes the features of Asperger's into six main domains of impairment: --Social impairment with extreme egocentricity, which may include: • Inability to interact with peers • Lack of desire to interact with peers • Poor appreciation of social cues • Socially and emotionally inappropriate responses --Limited interests and preoccupations, including: • More rote than meaning • Relatively exclusive of other interests • Repetitive adherence --Repetitive routines or rituals, that may be: • Imposed on self, or • Imposed on others --Speech and language peculiarities, such as: • Superficially perfect expressive language • Odd prosody, peculiar voice characteristics --Impaired comprehension including misinterpretation of literal and implied meanings. --Nonverbal communication problems, such as: • Limited use of gesture • Clumsy body language • Limited or inappropriate facial expression • Peculiar "stiff' gaze • Difficulty adjusting physical proximity Material taken directly from the following sources: SAMSHA FASD Center for Excellence. (n.d.) Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: The Basics. The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, US Department of Health and Human Services. http://www.fasdcenter.samhsa.gov/educationTraining/fasdBasics .cfm Packer, L.E. (n.d.) Overview of Asperger's Disorder. SchoolBehavior.com http://www.schoolbehavior.comlconditionsaspergeroverview.htm 28 ParticipatOlyiF eminist Pedagogy 15 minutes Pass out 9 Y2 xU (A4) size cards with various statements on them (see next page). Have participants post cards in one of two columns-traditional education vs feminist/participatory. As the two are not opposites, some will belong on the line between the two columns. 10 minutes What do you think about using the term "traditional" in contrast to feminist/participatory education? What do you think about using the term "feminist" to describe this kind of teaching? Is it exclusive or too narrow a wordfor this type of teaching? What are the benefits of keeping it? What are the disadvantages? Decide on a word to be used for this session, which will be referred to here as F /P. (I personally am happy to use "feminist" and think the feminists should be given credit for inspiring so much good teaching. However, it can be a controversial term and should not make people feel excluded.) 15 minutes Have one or two participants read this selection (posted on flip chart paper): I completed my dissertation on female-friendly chemistry in 1993 and part of my reason for attending the session was to see where the field of feminist pedagogy has gone in the past five years ... My research indicated that by using a less traditional approach to the teaching of chemistry it is possible to increase the number of female students who are prepared to consider a career in the non-traditional field of engineering and related subjects. The less traditional approaches included using examples from fields in which the women showed interest, using female role models, and encouraging student teacher and student interaction both inside and outside the classroom. Some of the topics introduced into the curriculum that were directly relevant to the theory being taught included the causes and solutions to acid rain and the greenhouse effect, the theory behind the 'PET scan' and the causes of the colour and brilliance of gemstones. As feminist teachers we have been concerned to explicitly value the contribution of the women in our classes to build self esteem and self respect. Developing a less hierarchical classroom atmosphere with the leadership coming at times from our students is one way that we allowed the classroom to reflect our ideology. We believe that female students will learn better in this environment. It seems likely that all students wi11learn better in this type of environment. Over the past two decades committed teachers have reduced the number of hours they spend lecturing and now use group problem solving, group discussions and other forms of interactive pedagogy to enhance the learning experience. As feminists, we believe that this approach was particularly beneficial to women because of their less competitive, more cooperative learning style. Since the ability to work in teams is highly regarded by employers the consensual classroom is a benefit to all and most members of disadvantaged groups could benefit from an environment that builds self-esteem. Is there a difference between good teaching and feminist pedagogy? Catherine Gilbert, Champlain Regional College, Quebec, Society for Teaching and Learning in Higher Education at McMaster Newsletter (25:Jan1999 p3) http://www.uregina.ca/tdc/FeministPedagogy.htm This example may seem a bit removedfrom your context. However, I think it's important to realize that F/P pedagogy is not just "being nice" or for lower-level humanities-type education. It can be used at all levels and with all subjects. If it can be used for university chemistry classes, does that legitimize it more for ABE Math or ABE Science? What do you think about F/P pedagogy in the so-called "harder" 29 subjects-math, science, etc. ? What are some other applicationsfor FIP pedagogy? How do you use it already? Where would you like to include it more, but feel like it's impractical or impossible? 15 minutes Most adult educators are women, but with the exception of women's programs (and possibly family literacy), most of us teach in environments that are at least 50% male ifnot much higher. What kinds of tension (and possibly disruptions) can this cause? Possible responses may include the roles of power/powerlessness/power dynamics between women in authority and men with little power or how patriarchy is also damaging for men. How do students respond to FIP educational practice? What are your fears about incorporating more FIP practices? Discussion will likely include students who think that FIP education is a waste of time (both men and women) because it doesn't match their ideas about what real education is-whether or not "real" education has ever worked for them. Other possible issues include cultural differences, the challenges oflearner-centred, problem-posing education with students who are learning English, etc. How can FIP pedagogy be used to minimize disruptions? 5 minutes-evaluation If you came in unsure of what FIP pedagogy is, do youfeel more equipped to describe it now? While participatory education is credible for us (unless there has been much debate about that in the group) it is not always so for participants and funders . How can it become more credible? (one thought would be that it needs to be done well, which would include teachers being intentional about pointing out to students what they have accomplished) Statements for Posting (note, they are categorized here, but should not be marked as one or the other for the exercise) F eministlParticipatory Education Traditional Education *Student experience is valued. *Teacher's knowledge is most important. *Syllabus is flexible, depending on students' needs *Syllabus is inflexible. and interests. *Emphasis on application. *Emphasis on measurable, linear outcomes. *Teacher is problem-poser. *Teacher is problem-solver. * Analysis and decision-making. * Assimilation. *May oppose systems and structures. *Trains students to be part of systems and structures. * Asset-based. *Deficit-based. *Rounds or check-ins. *Separates emotions from intellect. *Students as whole persons. *Students simply as students. *Different epistemologies. *One epistemology. The naming of some of these differences inspired by: Auerbach, E. (1992). Making Meaning, Making Change: Participatory Curriculum Development for Adult ESL Literacy. McHenry, IL: Center for Applied Linguistics. 30 Responding to Grief and Trauma in Groups Introduction-lO minutes I want to start by acknowledging and naming that this can a difficult conversation to have. Sometimes it's easier to be objective and to talk about grief, trauma, and loss. Sometimes it's really hard. There are some self-care strategies that we might identify for our learners that also work for us (take a break if you need to, write your thoughts down, think about who you can talk to). Of course, we are not counsellors (unless some of us are?) and should not pretend to be. I know I'm not, and the goal of this session is not to provide counselling or therapy about the grief we experience. Let me read a quote for you: Colleagues have shared with me that they do not want to be placed in the role of "therapist"; they do not want to respond to emotional feeling in the classroom. Refusing to make a place for emotional feelings in the classroom does not change the reality that their presence overdetermines the conditions where learning can occur. Teachers are not therapists. - However, there are times when conscious teaching-teaching with love-brings us the insight ,7 -that we will not be able to have a meaningful experience in the classroom without reading the emotional climate of our students and attending to it. (hooks, 2003, 133) 20 minutes Whether we have training to prepare us for this or not, the fact is that it is a factor in the groups we facilitate. Sometimes it's the stories or after-effects ofpeople's past traumas that are brought up in class by students. I remember one lovely Liberian man whom I taught a few years ago. Every time he told a story, it would always start with some reference to having to flee for his life or the awful things he had seen. It definitely felt like a bump in the road when that happened. Sometimes there are people in our classes who are in the midst of their own traumatic situation that is affecting their ability to learnlattendlfocus and re-entering more formal education can also be traumatizing. And sometimes we lose people who are members of our group to serious illness, death, deportation, or incarceration. Some teachers might prefer to leave this whole aspect of people's lives out of the classroom. "Okay, thanks for sharing about how your children were apprehended by the Ministry. Can anyone tell me what the main topic of this paragraph is? Yes, that's right. The life cycle of a frog has five stages." It doesn't really work, does it? What do you do when grief and trauma enter your classroom? 10 minutes Sometimes we can anticipate a difficult discussion. We might hear ahead of time that someone in the class is in hospital or we might know that the day's lesson might trigger some emotion. There are times, however, when it surprises us. There was one time very early in my teaching career that has really stayed with me. I was working with a group of literacy learners from around the world, primarily refugees from Southeast Asia and East Africa, mostly women and mostly mothers. I found a picture story about a mother at the grocery store who is loading her groceries onto the cashier's counter. At the end the distracted mother sets her baby on the counter. It seemed to be a good way to practice some food words and maybe talk about the busyness and tiredness the mother was experiencing. There was a young man in the group who burst out half in Khmer and half in English, so very upset about this story. He talked about his mother and how she had never forgotten him even when they were escapingfrom the Khmer Rouge into Thailand. He talked about how she had carried him in a sling, 31 even when she had to climb up a tree to hide. A mother will never forget her child no matter how tired she is. That was a hard experience for me. It was hard to know that I had, accidentally of course, brought up something so painful for him. It was hard, too, because I didn't know how to respond. One minute we're talking about how to spell "oil" and the next minutefleeingfrom death. One of the wise women in the class, a grandmother also from Cambodia, was able to talk to him and he relaxed some. I never used that picture story again because of my own negative experience with it, not because it was a bad story. Have you had similar experiences? How can we anticipate, prevent, and react to these kinds of disruptions? 10 minutes What services are available for your students to help them with their grief and trauma? (government-sponsored counselling services, local organizations such as Listening Post, spiritual caregivers as appropriate, friends, extended family and community) How can you refer them to the right place? How/where/when you can find out more about where to refer people? What services are available to you and your co-workers to help you with your own grief? Do you need to advocate for better access or for benefits such as stress days? (insurance plan that covers counselling, counsellor on staff, spiritual director/chaplain, friends, family, community) 5 minutes Evaluation-where do you go from here? Refer participants to Jenny Horsman's work. 32 -, Listening 5-10 minutes How many of you have attended a workshop on listening before? How many of you feel like you are a great listener now? I think listening is one of those skills we have to continually work on in order to keep improving our ability to listen well to others. And when the conversation is heated, it's pretty hard to keep some sort of fancy acronym or gentle advice from the world of Non- Violent Communication in mind. How do you think listening and disruption might be related? suggestions might include: helping learners to listen to each other, helping the facilitator to understand what the person is really saying, helping us focus on the other people in the group whose literal and metaphorical voices are more quiet, etc. 30-35 minutes We're going to do a listening activity in pairs now. Please find a partner to work with and decide who will do the talking and who will do the listening. Hand out "Working Women Almost Certainly Caused the Credit Crunch" (page 34) to the designated talkers. Talkers, please read this piece to your partner. Even if you don't agree with every tiny detail in it, try to read it like you believe it. Listeners, let the talker read without interruption. Try to pay attention to how you'refeeling. The piece should take about 5 minutes to read. Bring the group back together when most/all of them are finished reading. Discuss using some or all of the questions below. So, what did you think? Listeners, how did you feel when you heard that? Were you able to stay focused on what you were hearing? Did you find yourself drawing on any stereotypes (whether you wanted to or not) when you realized that the author was most likely not Canadian? Readers, what did you see in the listeners? How did their body language change? Did their facial expression make you want to continue reading? Did youfeellike you were being listened to non-judgmentally?2 Before you decide to write a letter to the editor of the Irish Times, you should know that this piece is supposed to be satirical. I think it's a good example of satire falling on its face, but that's beside the point. The fact is that there are people out there who express radically different ideas from our own and who often use ways to communicate those thoughts that make us recoil. What have you done when someone in a class you were teaching says something like this? Allow participants to share some stories 2 There are several variations on this activity that might work better with different groups. With some extra time, there could be two pieces read so that everyone in the group can experience being the talker and being the listener. Another possibility is to choose a video clip of a person talking in a way that the group members are sure to disagree with. For example, if you have a group of radical adult literacy educators, you could find a piece where a conservative politician talks about why funding for adult literacy is a waste of money and should be cut from the budget. Examples that draw on people from different walks oflife, especially one that the the participants might be likely not to relate to, may trigger some discussion about how that affects their ability to listen well to the speaker. In the book that this idea is adapted from, the author suggests that each partner be "invited to speak for 3-5 minutes about a personal topic (it is useful to choose one that the listener may be tempted to start discussing)" (p. 51, In the Tiger's Mouth). For this particular topic, I think that my adaptations allow the participants to practice listening to something they do not want to hear without the tension of making it personal or bringing up conflicts within the group. 33 of similar experiences. There should be some stories of handling it well and some of handling it badly. Encourage them to balance out the stories ifthere are more on one side than the other (e.g. We've heard a lot of stories about not knowing how to respond. Does anyone have an example of a time when they responded well or saw another teacher respond well?) An example of a story: I was doing a presentation for a class at UBC on adult Aboriginal education. There was a student in the class who was in her 70s, a sweet, kind, white woman, and she didn't quite have the same way of talking about sensitive issues that the rest of us had. Of course, there are plenty of older people who are up to date on politically-correct language, but she was not one of them. It was early in my first semester at UBC and I was still trying to figure things out. While we discussing the topic, she began to talk about how she was teaching elementary school in the 1950s and had a student who was "Indian" and shejust didn't think he had any problemsfitting in at that school. Well, sure he was really small for his age and he didn't have many fri~nds, but he wasn't discriminated against. There were also some coloured kids in the school and they knew each other. I don't remember all the details of what she said-honestly, it got a little fuzzy in my head as she continued to talk and all I could think was "that sounds so racist and ignorant!" What to address? Should I try to correct something she said or ask her one of the many questions I had in mind? One thing I did well was to acknowledge that that was her experience. But I wish I had been able to think of something that would have helped her to think a little more critically about that experience and maybe even to think about the words she used to describe it. Instead I panicked and let it go. 15-20 minutes Have someone in the group read the following quote (posted on flipchart paper): "We also found that some women carried an enormous amount of anger in them and would project this onto others, particularly others who got in their way. There have been several instances where an instructor had to stop a woman from taking too many of the materials. This invariably ends up in a negative encounter that affected everyone present in the room. After months of struggling with this pattern, we fmally learned that if we address the woman's need, what it is that she needs at the time, rather than focusing on what she can't have, then the situation gets diffused." (Lucy Alderson, Literacy for Women on the Streets, p. 50) This is listening in a more indirect way. What are your thoughts on this quote? What do you think the instructors in this program could have listenedfor? Have you had experiences like this? [On the small chance that there is no one or only one who responds affirmatively, ask if any of them can imagine it happening.] Could I have a couple of you who responded to that question help us with a role play? One of you will be the person who is taking all my felt pens and the other will be the instructor who is being empathetic, compassionate, and wants to figure out what slhe really needs. It might seem like a ridiculous example, but of course we know that there is more going on that just the felt pens. If there is time and enthusiasm, another pair could do the role play. Discuss: What did you hear the learner saying or not saying? What else have you heard through listening, so to speak, between the lines of what is actually being said? Now think about listening to yourself. What do you really need in this conversation? Are you feeling angry or associating what you hear with previous negative experiences? And-how would you react if someone told you not to take all the felt pens? 2-5 minutes (depending on time available) Any final thoughts on this topic? How can you practice listening better both to what is said and to what is unsaid? 34 Working Women Almost Certainly Caused the Credit Crunch THE ANSWER to all our problems is staring us in the face. It may even be quite literally staring at you, right now, across the breakfast table. So put the paper down, stare back and ask yourself a selfless question. Does the woman in your life really need a job? Admittedly, this is not a fashionable question. From Iceland to Australia, men are blamed for causing the credit crunch, while a more feminine approach to finance is proposed as the solution. Of course there will always be a place in the world of business for exceptional women. Women also have an important role to play in jobs that are too demeaning for men, like teaching. But the general employment of women is another matter. Indeed, working women almost certainly caused the credit crunch by bringing a second income into the average household, pushing property prices up to unsustainable levels. Whether working wom~n actually caused the credit crunch is now a moot point. The point is that removing women from the workforce would mitigate its effects. Consider the issue of unemployment. There were 221,301 men on the live register [unemployed] last month and just under one million women in work. Surely at least half these women have a partner who is earning? Surely at least half would be happier at home? One half of one half is a quarter and one quarter of a million is roughly 221,301. I think we can all see where this argument is going. It would be ludicrous to suggest that women should be sacked purely to give men their jobs. In many cases, their jobs should be abolished as well. Women are twice as likely as men to work in the public sector. They account for two-thirds of the Civil Service and three- quarters of all public employees. Yet they are barely represented in the useful public services of frrefighting and arresting people. Encouraging women to leave the workforce would go a long way towards addressing the budget deficit without any downside whatsoever. Further benefits of sacking women have been uncovered by the Central Gender Mainstreaming Unit at the Department of Justice. According to its research, twice as many woman as men travel to work by bus and train, potentially halving the impact of cutbacks in public transport. However, it is probable that three-quarters of the Central Gender Mainstreaming Unit's staff are women, so these figures should be taken with a pinch of salt. While the economic case for fewer women in the workforce is irrefutable, we should also acknowledge the social advantages. Women make the majority of spending decisions in Irish households and make almost all of the purchases. They are far more likely than men to regard shopping as a leisure activity, far less likely to make savings and investments, and were even almost twice as likely to spend their SSIAs [RRSPs] . In short, women were the driving force behind the greed, consumerism and materialism of the Celtic Tiger years and it was female employment that funded their oestrogen-crazed acquisitiveness. The time has come to build a more sustainable, equitable and progressive society. Why not make a start by telling your other half to quit her job? She can ask you for the housekeeping on Friday. By Newton Emerson, © 2009 The Irish Times, Wednesday, February 25,2009 http://www.irishtimes.com/newspaper/opinionJ2009/02251122424177 4267 .html 35 Summary Disruption is often depends on our perception of what the person is doing or saying. Also, our language is limited for describing and generalizing these bumps in the road. Design is very important. Knowing what works for certain groups of people (e.g. people who have survived traumatic experiences, who have Asperger's Syndrome, or whose opinions are different from ours) helps us design educational experiences that are accessible for many. It is easy to want to rely on design and teaching methods only. However, it is useful to consider both interpersonal and intrapersonal strategies, which includes listening to ourselves and listening to others. An appreciative, asset-based approach helps counter the tendency to focus on the negative at the expense of seeing the whole person. We are not trying to create the kind of diversity where people may look different, but all act the same. We can recognize and possibly even learn to celebrate the variety of communication styles and life experiences that shape both individual participants and the dynamics of the group. Finally, much has been left unsaid and untouched-upon in this workshop curriculum. There are many techniques from books such as The Facilitator's Guide to Participatory Decision Making that are quite useful, as would be training from specialists in disabilities/differences and the effects of trauma and learning and any number of other topics. The naming and discussion of the challenge of bumps in the road is a place to start or continue understanding this common experience. 36 Recommended Reading TRAUMA AND LEARNING * Alderson, L., Twiss, D. (2003, November) Literacy for women on the streets. N. Vancouver:Capilano. *Alkenbrack, B. (2007, December) Improvements . .. No less than heroic: Harm reduction and learning in Vancouver's Downtown Eastside. N. Vancouver:Capilano. Horsman, J. (2001) Reflections on learner leadership activities. in Campbell, P. and Burnaby, B. Participatory practices in adult education. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Horsman, 1. (2006) Moving beyond "stupid": Taking account of the impact of violence on women's learning. International Journal of Educational Development 26, 177-188. PEOPLE WHO HAVE DISABILITIES *Balliro, L. ed., (Spring 2008) . . Field Notes (Issue on Disabilities and UDL). 17(2). http://www.sabes.org/resources/publications/fieldnotes/vo117 Ifn 172.pdf Gabel, S. ED. (2005). Disability Studies in Education: Readings in Theory and Method. New York: Peter Lang. FASD Connections website. www.fasdconnections.ca Movement for Canadian Literacy. (2009). Factsheet #7: Literacy and learning disabilities. National Adult Literacy Database. http://www.nald.callibraryiresearchlmcl/factshtllearndis/pagel.htm Horchler, M. and C. Streck, eds. (February, 1999). The Change Agent (Focus on Working Together Across Differences) Issue 8. http://www.nelrc.org/changeagentlindex.htm Packer, L.E. (2004). Classroom tips: Asperger's Disorder. http://www.schoolbehavior.comlconditions_aspergertips.htm *Randall, N. and S. Smythe. (2007). Toward a "whole life" approach: A guide to learning disabilities resources for adult literacy educators. Vancouver: RiPAL. SAMSHA FASD Center for Excellence. ( n.d.) Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: The basics. The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, US Department of Health and Human Services. http://www.fasdcenter.samhsa.gov/educationTraining/fasdBasics.cfm Robison, 1.E. (2007). Look me in the eye: My life with Asperger's. New York: Crown. Segar, M. (n.d.) Coping: A survival guide for people with Asperger Syndrome. from http://www-users.cs.york.ac.uk/~alistairlsurvivaVindex.html UNIVERSAL DESIGN FOR LEARNING Hunt, 1. (2005). Learning tools that work: A survey of adaptive technology in learning programs. Guelph, ON: Garlic Press. Mace, R. (1997). Universal Design Principles. http://www.design.ncsu.edulcudlindex.htm. 37 FEMINISTIPARTICIPATORY PEDAGOGY Amstutz, D.D. (2003) Adult learning: Moving toward more inclusive theories and practices. In Talmadge, C.G. ed. Providing Culturally Relevant Adult Education. San Francisco, lossey-Bass. Auerbach, E. (1992). Making Meaning, Making Change: Participatory Curriculum Developmentfor Adult ESL Literacy. McHenry, IL: Center for Applied Linguistics. Campbell, P. and Burnaby, B.(2001). Participatory practices in adult education.Mahwah, Nl: Erlbaum. Gilbert, C. (1999). Is there a difference between good teaching and feminist pedagogy? Society for Teaching and Learning in Higher Education at McMaster Newsletter 25:3. htm:/ /www.uregina.ca/tdc/FeministPedagogy.htm hooks, b. (1994). Teaching to transgress. New York: Routledge. hooks, b. (2000). Feminism is for e~erybody: Passionate politics. South End Press: Cambridge, MA. Martin, R. (2001). Listening up: Reinventing ourselves as teachers and students. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. *Tisdell, E.J. (1995) Creating inclusive adult learning environments: Insightsfrom Multicultural Education and Feminist Pedagogy. Columbus, OH: ERIC Clearinghouse. Walters, S. and Manicom, L. (1996) Gender in popular education: Methods for empowerment. London & New lersey: CACE Publications. CULTURAL DIFFERENCES hooks, b. (1990). Yearning: Race, gender, and cultural politics. South End Press: Boston, MA. hooks, b. (2000). Where We Stand: Class Matters. Routledge: New York. GROUP PROCESS and FACILITATION Kaner, S. (1996). Facilitator's guide to participatory decision making. Gabriola Island, BC: New Society Publishers. Tuckman, B. (1977) Basic group theory: Tuckman's five stages of group development. Accessed 2/11109 at http://www.uoregon.edu/~tep/resources/crmodel/strategieslbasic group theory.html INTRAPERSONAL STRATEGIES Parker, P. (1998). The courage to teach: Exploring the inner landscape of a teacher's life. San Francisco: lossey-Bass. Shield, K. (1994). In the Tiger's Mouth: An Empowerment Guidefor Social Action. New Society Publishers: Gabriola Island, Be. *Resources marked with * are available bye-mail. Please contact the facilitator for a PDF. 38 Reference List Alderson, L., Twiss, D. (2003, November) Literacy for women on the streets. North Vancouver: Capilano College. Alkenbrack, B. (2007, December) Improvements . . . No less than heroic: Harm reduction and learning in Vancouver's Downtown Eastside. North Vancouver:Capilano College. Amstutz, D.D. (2003) Adult learning: Moving toward more inclusive theories and practices. In Talmadge, e.G. ed. Providing Culturally Relevant Adult Education. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass. Antrobus, T. & Lutke, J. (2005) Building on strengths: Understanding and supporting adults with FASD. Workshop materials. Auerbach, E. (1992). Making Meaning, Making Change: Participatory Curriculum Developmentfor Adult ESL Literacy. McHenry, IL: Center for Applied Linguistics. Balliro, L. ed., (2008). How well is your program helping LD students? Field Notes. 17(2): 14. Ballifo, L. ed., (2008). Tools for the classroom: Graphic organizers. Field Notes. 17(2): 16. Campbell, P. and Burnaby, B. eds. (2001). Participatory practices in adult education. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Canadian Human Rights Commission. Discrimination and harassment: Physical or mental disability. Retrieved November 19, 2008 from http://www.chrc-ccdp.caldiscriminationlphysical mental-en. asp Clarke, Rose (2006) Guidelines for addressing aggression. Workshop materials. Vancouver, BC. Dale, M. and Taylor, B. (2001) . How adult learners make sense of their dyslexia. Disability and Society 16 (7): 997-1008. Dawidowicz, P. (2008). Dimensions of group interaction. Online submission paper presented at Walden University Summer Conference. Emerson, N. (2009). Working women almost certainly the cause of the credit crunch. The Irish Times, February 25,2009 Retrieved June 15,2009 from http://www.irishtimes.comlnewspaper/opinionl2009/0225/l224241774267.htrnl Fernandez, C. (2006). The dimensions of the right to education for inclusion throughout life. Convergence 39 (2-3): 109-121. Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Continuum. Gabel, S. (2005). Introduction: Disability studies in education. In Gabel, S. ed. 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