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Private supplementary tutoring in a Vancouver independent school Gale, Trevor 2016-05

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   PRIVATE SUPPLEMENTARY TUTORING IN A VANCOUVER INDEPENDENT SCHOOL   By  TREVOR GALE BA, University of British Columbia, 1986 Certificate in Secondary Education, Simon Fraser University, 1994    A GRADUATING PAPER SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF EDUCATION In THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES   (Educational Administration and Leadership)   UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 2016   © Trevor Gale, 2016Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   i Abstract   Private supplementary tutoring is an increasing part of the educational landscape in Canada. There is a great deal of literature from around the world investigating different aspects of the tutoring phenomenon, however there are not many studies utilizing recent Canadian data or focusing on how tutoring relates to a single institution or its implications for school administrations.  This paper presents a detailed study of the use of tutoring in the senior division of a single independent school. A survey of parents provided data on gender, grade, citizenship, language spoken at home in relation to different subjects tutored, forms of tutoring, time spent tutoring and reasons for undertaking tutoring. The resulting data was analyzed and compared to the wider literature to identify patterns that were broadly similar to the studies for the wider Canadian experience, but with local variations specific to the school. The school on the whole had a higher rate of tutoring than the Canadian average. The time spent in tutoring increased with grade level and the pending examinations. The subjects being tutored were similar to those reported in studies from around the world. One-to-one tutoring was the most common method of receiving tutoring. Students from East Asian cultural backgrounds tended to have higher levels of tutoring in terms of the numbers of subjects and hours per week. The study provides an opportunity for school administrations to reflect on policy and procedures regarding tutoring and develop ways to support students who are accessing outside providers of tutoring services.     Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   ii   Preface  This study was completed under the supervision of Dr. Wendy Poole in accordance with the University of British Columbia’s Behavioral Research Ethics Board (BREB) ethical standards. The BREB certificate number is: HR – 01563.                         Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   iii Table of Contents  Chapter 1 - Focus of Inquiry ............................................................................................................1 Purpose and research questions ....................................................................................................3 Definition of terms .......................................................................................................................5 Significance of the study ..............................................................................................................5  Chapter 2 – Review of Literature.....................................................................................................6 Growth of tutoring  .......................................................................................................................8 Trends in tutoring  ......................................................................................................................12 Reasons for accessing tutoring  ..................................................................................................17 Who uses tutoring?  ....................................................................................................................22 Tutoring effectiveness ................................................................................................................25 Tutoring issues  ..........................................................................................................................27  Chapter 3 – Methodology and Research Design............................................................................31 Ethics ..........................................................................................................................................34 Delimitations ..............................................................................................................................35 Limitations .................................................................................................................................35  Chapter 4 – Results and Discussion ...............................................................................................37 Overall response rate  .................................................................................................................37 Response rates in relation to demographic characteristics  ........................................................38 Findings related to tutoring services ..........................................................................................43 Reasons for accessing tutoring and issues with tutoring ............................................................59 Summary of main findings .........................................................................................................71 Reflections on the limitations of the survey instrument .............................................................72  Chapter 5 – Implications and Reflections ......................................................................................73 Implications for the school .........................................................................................................73 Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   iv Implications beyond the school ..................................................................................................76 Researcher Reflection.................................................................................................................77  References  .....................................................................................................................................80 Appendixes Appendix A – Tutoring by Grade ..............................................................................................87 Appendix B – Gender and Tutoring ...........................................................................................88 Appendix C – Citizenship and Tutoring ....................................................................................89 Appendix D – Language at Home and Tutoring ........................................................................90 Appendix E – Grade and Tutoring Subjects ...............................................................................91 Appendix F – Females and Males Being Tutored (number and percentage) .............................92 Appendix G – Citizenship and Subjects .....................................................................................93 Appendix H – Language at Home and Tutoring Subjects..........................................................94 Appendix I – Grade and Tutoring Delivery Method ..................................................................95 Appendix J – Gender and Tutoring Delivery Method ................................................................96 Appendix K – Citizenship and Tutoring Delivery Method ........................................................97 Appendix L – Language Spoken at Home and Tutoring Delivery Method ...............................98 Appendix M – Grade and Type of Provider ...............................................................................99 Appendix N – Gender and Type of Provider ...........................................................................100 Appendix O – Citizenship and Type of Provider .....................................................................101 Appendix P – Language at Home and Type of Provider .........................................................102 Appendix Q – Grade and Hours per Tutoring Subject (per week) ...........................................103 Appendix R – Gender and Hours per Tutoring Subject (per week) .........................................104 Appendix S – Citizenship and Hours per Tutoring Subject (per week) ...................................105 Appendix T – Language and Hours per Tutoring Subject (per week) .....................................106 Appendix U – Total Hours per Week by Grade .......................................................................107 Appendix V – Gender and Total Hours per Week ...................................................................108 Appendix W – Citizenship and Total Hours per Week ............................................................109 Appendix X- Language and Total Hours per Week .................................................................110 Appendix Y – Grade and Reasons for Tutoring (ranked by total) ...........................................111 Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   v Appendix Z – Gender and Reasons for Tutoring (ranked by total)..........................................112 Appendix AA – Citizenship and Reasons for Tutoring (ranked by total) ................................113 Appendix BB – Language and Reasons for Tutoring (ranked by total) ...................................114  Appendix CC - Survey Questions  ...........................................................................................115                         Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   1  Case Study of Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School  Chapter 1: Focus of Inquiry Private supplementary tutoring has grown dramatically in the past two decades and is having an impact on the educational landscape of Canada. I am interested in developing a greater understanding of the nature and extent of this type of tutoring at the secondary school level, in particular in the Vanwest School (a pseudonym) in Vancouver.  There is a lot of anecdotal evidence, hearsay and gossip about the increase in the number of students receiving tutoring outside of the school. A more precise and detailed knowledge of the situation would be of benefit to our administration and teachers as they navigate the changes in schooling that are taking place.  I am an administrator at the Vanwest School. It is a mid-sized, urban, co-educational, independent school of 560 students from Junior Kindergarten to Grade 12. In the Senior Division (Grades 6 to 12) there are 310 students. I have had numerous meetings with parents over the past few years, which involved, at some level, a discussion about tutoring for their children. These meetings may be initiated by parents who are concerned about their child’s academic progress, grades, or applications to certain courses or university options. Others were initiated by myself in the course of ongoing discussions regarding their child’s education.  It appears that many of our students receive tutoring from outside tutoring agencies or individuals.  As a school we have seen an increase in the number of students asking about tutoring and there seems to be a greater desire for tutoring among some groups in the school – senior grades (10, 11 & 12) and recent immigrant families and visa students from China, Taiwan and Korea. For other groups; Canadian citizens of European or South Asian ancestry, there seems to be a desire to get extra academic assistance from their teachers in the school, which is provided at no extra charge and is Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   2 considered part of each teachers’ contract, before paying for additional tutoring from outside sources. I have also noticed more aggressive marketing of tutoring services over the past few years both in the media; in calling the school to introduce their companies and services and request access to, or information on, students; and posters and flyers outside our campus from private tutors and agencies offering to provide tutoring services for our students both on and off campus. Thus I wanted to undertake an investigation of the extent of the use of supplementary private tutoring by students at my school; how does this conform to the characteristics found elsewhere in the work of other researchers and, conversely, how does it differ.   Private supplementary tutoring forms a third education sector and a parallel education sector to the established school systems of public schooling and private schooling (Dang & Rogers, 2008a). It has seen very rapid growth in the past two decades and this seems likely to continue into the foreseeable future and as educators we, and our students, are all impacted by this. There are bodies of research investigating the magnitude and variety of tutoring through national and cross-national studies, and studies of the impact and effectiveness of tutoring from a variety of different perspectives. However, the literature is scant on small-scale studies that focus on local situations and institutions. Response to the growth in tutoring and the development of tutoring policy and procedures for schools has been hampered by this knowledge gap.  The recent literature indicates that certain types of parents and students are more likely to purchase supplementary private tutoring. As an independent school in Vancouver, the community of the Vanwest School has many of the characteristics of the typical clients of tutoring services; urban location, middle to upper-middle socio-economic class, higher income brackets with disposable income to spend on additional enrichment or extra educational experiences for their children, higher levels of education amongst parents, and a very active Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   3 interest in their child’s education. Parents have already made the decision to spend extra money on their child’s education, through the paying of fees for each year of schooling, the initial investment trust required at admission to the school and used for development purposes, and subsequent calls for donations to annual fundraising events. Parents are generally working professionals with limited time available to assist their children themselves. There is also a significant group of parents from overseas who may have limited academic English language skills and feel that hiring a tutor to assist their child is necessary as they do not have the ability to help with homework and assignments. Parents and students are aware of the competitive nature of their schooling, with highly contested tests in the form of FSA’s in Grade 4 and 7, and high stakes tests in the Grade 10 provincial examinations, and the IB Diploma Programme in Grade 11 and 12. They want to access the better universities in Canada, the USA and the United Kingdom and are well aware of the requirements and competition to get accepted to them. Purpose and Research Questions The purpose of this study is to develop a deeper understanding of the type and extent of use of private supplementary tutoring at the Vanwest School. Private supplementary tutoring presents challenges for the school community in a number of ways. For educators and administrators it may affect the learning of students, their engagement in classes, their level of fatigue and their ability to focus. It is difficult to determine how successful pedagogical practices are if students are receiving additional support of an unknown magnitude outside of school. Tutors may also provide inappropriate assistance such as advice contradictory to that of their student’s class teacher, additional tasks not related to the student’s courses or helping complete assignments that are meant to be the student’s own work. Parents have to pay additional costs for tutoring and the choice to find tutoring for their children may be based on assumptions or Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   4 concerns about the nature of the teaching and learning done in the school. Students who are involved in private tutoring will have additional time commitments at tutoring sessions; potentially more work to complete and less time for other activities, including their regular school work. The study endeavours to examine the patterns related to accessing of tutoring services by students and their parents, and how these relate to the patterns of tutoring indicated in the literature. The study also seeks to understand if the families at Vanwest School are typical of the clientele of private tutoring, or if there are other context-specific factors at play. Finally, the study may suggest implications for the school itself and how it decides to provide for its students in the future. Specifically, the study seeks to answer the following questions: 1. From what providers do parents access tutoring services? Are they private individuals, franchised or non-franchised centres or agencies? 2.  What are the demographic patterns of students accessing private tutoring? What variations are there in age, grade level, gender, citizenship, language spoken at home? 3. What is the nature of the services used by students? What subjects and academic services are used? How many hours per week do students receive tutoring? Is tutoring in person or online? 4. What are the reasons that parents have for choosing to access private tutoring for their children? 5. What, if any, issues or concerns have parents experienced with their child’s tutoring?  6. What are the implications of these patterns of tutoring for the school? Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   5 Definition of terms Private supplementary tutoring is the fee-paying instruction of students in academic subject areas related to their school programs. This is undertaken outside of school time and at locations not connected to the school. This tutoring can be remedial or enrichment focused. Learning Centres are privately run education providers of supplementary education services such as tutoring. Tutoring Franchises are businesses where a local owner invests in the business, buying the right to use the brand and in return receives the established recognition from customers and the support from the central office in terms of marketing, training, pre-packaged tutoring systems and educational products to sell. Significance of the study  While there is extensive literature on private tutoring from around the world, there are not many studies using recent Canadian data and only two, to my knowledge, that focus on the Vancouver context. Both of these have a different focus than I intend; Wu (2003) looked at the specific experiences of 12 Taiwanese immigrant families and Lim (2010) investigated the experiences of clients of one learning centre. Both of these are phenomenological qualitative studies. I have found no studies of tutoring as it relates to school administration. This study will be the first of its kind, providing an understanding of a specific individual school situation. It will outline a methodology that researchers may find useful for future studies. On a more practical level, the information gained from this study will allow the school administrators and teachers to understand the extent and nature of the tutoring in which their Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   6 students are involved. In particular, it will enhance understanding of the possible impact of tutoring schedules on student attendance and participation in class and co-curricular activities, possibilities of academic misconduct due to providing too much assistance on assignments and possible issues related to student fatigue. The study will provide data that can be used to inform procedures and policy at Vanwest School, and to communicate with parents regarding the use of tutoring.  Tutoring is a part of the educational landscape and the experience of our students; knowing more about it will allow schools to respond positively to it. From discussions with other independent school principals, I know there are concerns about the extent and quality of tutoring that students receive outside of school and the impact on their assessments and other work completed outside of school hours. Ultimately, the information gained from the study will be useful in developing a workable tutoring policy for the school. In order to formulate policy and procedures it is essential to understand the nature and extent of the issue first. The study will provide a snapshot of the general patterns related to external tutoring accessed by parents in the school. Chapter 2: Review of Literature  The expansion of private tutoring in recent decades can be broadly situated in the theoretical framework of neoliberalism. The neoliberal project, which began in the late 1970s and continues to the present, means that government provided services are increasingly privatized and subject to market forces (Saxe, 2015). Globalization and the subsequent changes in workplace and economic relations between countries have been some of the driving forces in this process. A particular set of beliefs operates in the neoliberal project: the market is the best Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   7 method of providing social goods and it operates best without regulation; private property rights, a free market and free trade should be facilitated by government to allow the emergent knowledge-based economy to flourish (Robertson, 2005). The neoliberal discourse articulates a movement from the social state to an enabling state, in that the state becomes less responsible and individuals become more responsible for their own development and education (Davies & Bansel, 2007). Thus education becomes a commodity for private consumption. The marketization of education is designed to increase accountability, efficiency, competition and the individuality of consumers (Apple, 2006; Davies & Bansel, 2007; Dale & Robertson, 2009).         With respect to schooling, neoliberalism has led to government funding cuts in education, the marketization of schools, control of the curricula through standardized testing (Apple, 2006; Lakes & Carter, 2011). Apple (2006) suggests that “because so many parents are justifiably concerned about the economic and cultural futures of their children in an economy that is increasingly characterised by lower wages, capital flight and insecurity, neoliberal discourse connects with the experience of many” (p. 22). Lakes and Carter (2011) and de Saxe (2015) go further in pointing out that neoliberal techniques such as high-stakes testing has the impact of increasing demand for tutoring companies as parents try to help their children compete.   The literature on private supplementary tutoring is extensive. A range of recent studies from diverse contexts have been consulted: Australia (Watson, 2008), China (Chen, 2009; Kwok, 2010), Hong Kong (Bray & Kwok, 2003; Kwok, 2004), Ireland (Smyth, 2008 and 2009), Japan (Dierkes, 2013), Korea (Choi, Calero & Escardibul, 2012; Heyneman, 2011; Kim, 2004; Kim & Park, 2010; Sohn, Lee, Jang & Kim, 2010), Nepal (Jayachandran, 2014), Singapore (Tan, 2009), Taiwan (Kuan, 2011; Liu, 2012), Turkey (Gurun & Millimet, 2008; Tansel & Bircan, 2008), the United Kingdom (Ireson, 2004; Ireson & Rushworth; 2005), the United States (Burch, 2006; Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   8 Buchmann, Condron & Roscigno, 2010; Nishio, 2007), Eastern Europe (Silona, 2010; Safarzynska, 2013), Africa (Bray & Suso, 2008) and international comparative studies (Bray, 2001; Bray, 2003; Bray, 2006; Bray, 2010; Bray & Kwo, 2013; Dang & Rogers, 2008a and 2008b; Huang, 2013; Mori & Baker, 2010; Song, Park & Sang, 2013; Southgate, 2014). From the Canadian context recent work (Aurini, 2004, 2006 and 2012; Davies, 2004; Aurini & Davies, 2004; Davies & Aurini, 2006; Davies, Aurini & Quirke, 2002; Aurini & Davies, 2013; Lim, 2010; and Wu, 2003) as well as the Canadian Council on Learning survey of 2007 were of particular note. Growth in tutoring Tutoring has a long history, particularly in the East Asian countries of Japan, Korea and Taiwan where there has traditionally been greater societal pressure to achieve academically. This is often connected by scholars to the traditions of Confucianism and standardized testing that exist in these countries (Song, Park & Sang, 2013). Today, private supplementary tutoring is commonplace in most countries and is part of the normal educational routine of students. It is a global phenomenon that is continuing to grow (Bray & Kwo, 2013).  It is becoming institutionalized and corporatized through the development of larger tutoring businesses and franchises. Growth of the school choice movement and increased marketization of education have led to a rapid increase in educational businesses; private schools, private tutoring, learning centres and test prep centres (Aurini, 2004). There is less focus on tutoring for remedial purposes, as it has been traditionally used, and an increase in the options and services offered by tutors leading to a longer-range view of a complete educational path for children that prepares them for university and life (Davies, 2004).   Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   9 Types of private tutoring range from the individual part-time tutor to large providers which are full-time businesses running several programs and consultancy services. Individual private tutoring is small scale, generally involving a single tutor and a single student. They may meet in the home of the student, the tutor’s home, a coffee shop, library or other public venue. Private tutoring of this type focuses on short term goals, is specialized, and offers a small range of services or subjects, uses school based materials and success is measured by improved school grades for the student (Aurini & Davies, 2004). Private tutors work with minimal overheads and costs. They gain customers through word-of-mouth, telephone pole posters, flyers and Craigslist or other Internet sites. Payment is often in cash and incomes may go unreported (Aurini & Davies, 2004).  Online tutoring has increased dramatically as the development of the internet and computer technology have made access more widespread. In the USA, Burch (2006) and Burch, Donovan and Steinberg (2006) found that government policy, in particular the No Child Left Behind program, encouraged online tutoring as school districts developed partnerships with private tutoring companies. Under the program, districts are required to contract with private providers of tutoring, particularly if their students are not reaching the goals mandated by the government.  Learning centres, such as Oxford Learning, Sylvan and Kumon, focus on longer-term goals and skill-building rather than improving grades in one subject. These centres go beyond traditional tutoring to offer a range of services and programs. Study skills, organization and homework planning, reading comprehension and developing long-term abilities are part of the focus (Davies & Aurini, 2006).  Learning centres are larger enterprises, offering a wider range of options for parents in a fixed location, with several services ‘under one roof’ (Aurini, 2006; Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   10 Aurini & Davies, 2004). They use their own curricula, workbooks, lessons and diagnostic tests and issue formal reports (Aurini, 2006). Students work at their own pace and are promoted through their program with testing every 12 weeks (Aurini, 2006). They have also developed niche markets to tap into particular types of students or learning issues such as; written output, cognitive processing or organizational challenges (Aurini, 2006). Learning centres have expanded their hours and programs to cover pre-school, adult learning and programs for after-school, evening, holiday and summer ‘camp’ options. Increasingly, larger centres are offering Ministry of Education credit courses, Advanced Placement courses and university advising services (Aurini & Davies, 2004). Thus they becoming more like private educational institutions than merely supplementary tutoring services.  Learning  centres have higher costs, especially due to their more expensive locations in storefronts and easily accessible sites. Many are franchised and have costs associated with this; advertising, mandated materials and equipment as well as insurance, rent, heat and light costs. As franchises they have to have all staff trained in the franchise methodology, undergo inspections and evaluations from the head office and keep the brand image strong by delivering the services in the approved manner. The individual franchise locations have a territory around them that they serve, so competition among  centres is reduced (Aurini & Davies, 2004). Marketing, rules of provision and standardization of the services provided are all important aspects to franchises (Davies & Aurini, 2006).  There has been rapid growth in both franchised learning centres and independent ones. In Toronto from the 1960s to 2000 there was an increase from 10 to 74 franchise locations of private tutoring businesses. In Ontario from 1996 to 2003 the expansion went from 245 to 396 locations – the equivalent to 60% growth (Aurini, 2004). Overall there was a 200%  to 500% Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   11 growth in private tutoring business in the 1990s in Canadian cities (Canadian Council on Learning, 2007). This has continued and accelerated and, according to the Canadian Franchise Association, tutoring franchises have doubled since 2007. This is due to an increase in the number of parents who have tertiary education and expectations of such for their children (Canadian Franchise Magazine, 2014).  The big five tutoring franchises in Canada are Kumon, with 300 centres; Oxford Learning, with 113  centres; Tutor Doctor, with 95  centres; Sylvan, with 92  centres; and Academy of Learning with 54  centres (Canadian Franchise Association, 2015). Kumon is by far the largest franchised tutoring service. It began in 1954 in Japan and by 1969 it had 10,000 students. In 1974 it branched out beyond Japan and a year later had 100,000 students. Kumon came to Canada in 1980 and by 1981 it had 1 million students worldwide. This doubled in 1994 and tripled by 2001. By 2006 there were 4 million Kumon students world-wide, and in 2015 there were 16 million in 48 countries (Kumon Group). In Canada from 2009 to 2012, Kumon experienced a growth rate of 28% (Chai, 2013). Sylvan Learning Systems showed a similar trend, from 1996 to 2004 going from 250 to 483 locations in Ontario; a rate of 90% growth (Aurini, 2006) or a 50% increase in 5 years between 1998 to 2002 (Georg, 2003). Recent growth for Sylvan, on a per-year basis has been 7 % to 10% growth between 2008 and 2010. This is slightly slower but still substantial (Whyte, 2010). Globally, the private tutoring market is projected to surpass $100-billion by 2018, according to a study by market research firm Global Industry Analysts released last year (Seale, 2014).  Several websites offer services to parents to help them search for a tutor. The Teachers Tutoring Service (tutor.bc.ca) is an agency that accepts only qualified teachers and is sanctioned by the BC Teacher’s Federation. They ensure that the teachers are qualified, have criminal record Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   12 checks, and follow their own code of conduct and that of the BC Teacher’s Federation code of conduct. They represent 400 tutors and have been operating in Vancouver since 1983 (Teacher's Tutoring Service). At MoreTutors.ca parents can search by city, subject, grade, lesson type (one on one, class, online), language of instruction and price. The site has 2511 tutor profiles with contact details, fees, experience, grades, subjects and services offered (More Tutors). Other options are FindaTutor.ca and Craigslist. Tutoring agencies and learning centres also have their own websites with advice, testimonials and lists of services, fees and other general information. The marketing of tutoring services plays on the anxieties of parents who want the best for their children and who have concerns about competition and about how to provide the best possible environment for learning and development that they can. Trends in tutoring In terms of who and what are being tutored, Table 1 illustrates a selection of national and cross-national studies from recent years. Countries are included if they have multiple studies or have significant data sets. The growth in numbers or percentage of students participating in tutoring shows a number of trends. The first trend is that there is an increase in the percentage of students using tutors over time in all countries listed. In cross-national studies the trend in increasing participation in tutoring is evident; in 1995 16 out of 41 countries had over 40% of Grade 8 students with mathematics tutors, by 2003 this was up to 33 out of 41 countries and in 2009 it had increased to 42 out of 57 countries (Song, Park, & Sang , 2013). 70% of students attend cram schools (training for national examinations) in Taiwan (Liu, 2012) and in Turkey the number is 80% (Tansel & Burcan, 2008). Tutoring seems to have become the norm for students across the globe and is now an established part of childhood routines. In Japan parents accept, and indeed seek out, the contribution of supplementary education (Dierkes, 2013). The data from Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   13 Huang (2013) also indicates that, with few exceptions, Asian countries have higher rates of tutoring than western countries (i.e., Europe, North American and Oceania). This may be due to the longer history of tutoring in these countries or the larger market for and supply of tutoring options for families. It may also be that the competition for places in secondary and tertiary education is greater. A second trend one might expect to see is an increase in tutoring at each successive grade level or age group in school, as found by Bray and Kwok (2003) and Ireson and Rushforth (2005). This demand is driven by increasingly higher stakes tests, a more challenging curriculum and stronger competition. However, as the studies in Table 1 show, there are some exceptions, notably the math and science data for Grade 4 and Grade 8 in China, Korea and Canada, where the percentage of students receiving tutoring actually dropped with increased age or grade level (Huang, 20013).  The third trend relates to the subjects most likely to be tutored. Top ranking subjects, ranked in descending order, include mathematics, English, science and ‘other’ (likely humanities, second language), are noted in all studies and across all countries. Huang’s (2013) data, collected from the TIMSS 2003 survey, shows that mathematics is more popular than science for tutoring. Some authors identify science as more likely to be tutored than arts (Bray, 2010; Kwok, 2004). There is an exception noted in the United Kingdom study. This showed mathematics, reading and writing, and science as being the most important tutoring subjects, but with reading and writing being more prevalent in primary school and declining with age (Ireson & Rushforth, 2005). Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   14 It should be noted that tutoring demand varies over the course of the school year with peaks when high stakes testing is taking place, and on a weekly basis after school, evenings and weekends (Aurini, 2006). Finally, there is a trend in tutoring expanding into younger grades, particularly as franchises and individual learning centres try to expand their business opportunities, and parents become more concerned about children falling behind or missing out on opportunities (Aurini, 2006; Davies, 2004). Table 1 – Selected Studies of Tutoring by subject and age/grade (% of total students) Country/Author By Subject By Age/Grade Level Azerbaijan – Silova and Kazimzade (2006) – 2004 data. 4  Secondary (57%) Azerbaijan – Silova (2010) – 2005/8 data (p. 333)  Senior (94%) Bangladesh – Bray (2013) – 1998 data (p. 414)  Primary (21.4%) Bangladesh – Ahmed and Nath (2005) – 2000 data. 3  Primary (43.2%) Bangladesh – Bray (2013) – 2005 data (p. 414)  Primary (31%) Bangladesh – Nath (2011) – 2008 data. 7  Primary (37.9%) Secondary (68.4%) Canada – Aurini (2004) – OISE 1997 data. p. 477  17% overall Canada – Canadian Council of Ministers of Education (2000) 2  13 year olds (10.9%) 16 year olds (13.3%)  Canada – Aurini (2004) – OISE 2002 data. p. 477  24% overall Canada (Ontario) – Huang (2013) – TIMSS 2003 data. (p. 702) Grade 4 Math (45.7%) Grade 4 Science (37.1%) Grade 8 Math (29.7%) Grade 8 Science (16.3%)  Canada – Southgate (2014) – PISA 2003 data. p. 247  15 year olds (18.5%) Canada – Davies and Guppy (2010) – 2007 data. 7  33% overall Grade 4 (21%) Canada – CCL (2007) p. 8 Math (26.1%)  Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   15 Reading/Writing (14.4%) Science (7.5%) Other (4.4%) China – Xue & Ding (2009) – 2004/5 data. 1  Primary 1-6 (73.8%) Middle 1-3 (65.6%) Secondary 4 - 6 (53.5%) Egypt – Fergany (1994). 5  Primary (58%) Egypt – Suliman and El-Kogali (2002) – 2000 data. 4  Primary and Middle (71%) Egypt – Sobhy (2012) – 2009 data. 7  Primary (50%) Secondary (81%) Ghana – Montgomery et al (2000). 3   Primary (32.8%) Middle (49.5%) Senior (72.3%) Ghana – Antonowicz et all (2010) – 2008 data. 7  Primary (48%)  Hong Kong – Lee (1996). 1  Grade 1 - 6 (45%) Grade 7 - 9 (26%) Grade 10/11 (34%) Grade 12/13 (41%) Hong Kong – Kwok (2001). – 1996/8 data. 1, 2 Math (89.7%) English (78.2%) Science (52.6%) Chinese (44%) Grade 7 to 9 (35.1%) Grade 10/11 (46.6%) Grade 12/13 (70.3%) Hong Kong – Huang (2013) – TIMSS 2003 data. (p. 702) Grade 4 Math (56.3%) Grade 4 Science (46.3%) Grade 8 Math (55.3%) Grade 8 Science (37.7%)  Hong Kong – Census Dept. (2004/5). 1  Grade 1 to 6 (36%) Grade 7 to 9 (28%) Grade 10/11 (33.6%) Grade 12/13 (48.1%) India – Aggarwal (1998) – 1997 data. 2  Primary (39.2%) India – Pratham (2012) – 2011 data. 7  Grade 1 (61%%) Grade 6 (75%) Japan – Min. of Ed. (1976) – 1976 data. 6  Elementary (12%) Secondary (38%) Japan – Min. of Ed. (1985) – 1985 data. 6  Elementary (17%) Secondary (44%) Japan – Min. of Ed. (1995) – 1993 data. 2  Elementary (23.6%) Secondary (59.5%) Japan – NCES (1996) – TIMSS 1995 data. 4 Grade 8 Math (64%) Grade 8 Science (41%)   Japan – Huang (2013) – Grade 4 Math (66.6%)  Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   16 TIMSS 2003 data. (p. 702) Grade 4 Science (52.4%) Grade 8 Math (46.3%) Grade 8 Science (33%) Japan – Dierkes (2013) – Min of Ed. data - 2007  Grade 1 (16%) Grade 6 (38%) Grade 9 (65%) Kenya – Nzoma et al (2001) – 1997 data. 2  Grade 6 (68.6%) Kenya – Paviot et al (2008) – 2000 data. 3  Grade 6 (87.7%) Korea – Lee (2005) – 1980 data estimate. 5  Primary (12.9%) Middle (20.3%) Secondary (26.3%) Korea – Kim (2000) – 1997 data. 2  Primary (72.9%) Middle (56%) Secondary (32%) Korea – Kwak (2004) – 2003 data. 3  Primary (83.1%) Middle (75.3%) Secondary (56.3%) Korea – Southgate (2014) – PISA 2003 data. p. 247  15 year olds (54%) Korea – Kim (2010) – 2008 data. 7  Primary (87.9%) Middle (72.5%) Secondary (60.5%) Korea – Song et al (2013) – 2009 government data. p. 125  Primary (87.4) Middle (74.3%) Secondary (53.8%) Korea – Choi et al (2012) – PISA 2006 data. (p. 307) Math (84%) Reading (71.75) Science (60.6%) (Secondary students) Mauritius – Kulpoo and Soonarane (2005) – 2001 data. 4  Grade 6  (78%) Mauritius – Paviot et al (2008) – 2000 data. 3  Grade 6 (86.6%) Nepal – Jayachandran (2012) – 2004 data. (p. 13) Math (70%) Science (63%) English (59%) (grade 10 students) Poland – Southgate (2014) – PISA 2003 data. p. 247  15 year olds (42%) Poland – Silova (2010) – 2005/8 data (p. 333)  Senior (66%) Poland – Safarzynska (2013) – PISA 2006 data (p. 142) Math (15.7%) Science (4.4%) Polish (5%) Math Prep course (25%) (senior secondary students) Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   17 Humanities Prep course (20%) Tanzania – Paviot et al (2008) – 1995 data. 4  Grade 6 (46%) Tanzania -  Paviot et al (2008) – 2000 data. 3  Grade 6 (55.9%) Turkey – Tansel and Bircan (2006) – 2001 data  Secondary (35%) Turkey – Gurun and Millimet (2008) – 2002 data. p. 4  Grade 12 (80%) Turkey – Southgate (2014) – PISA 2003 data. p. 247  15 year olds (56.5%) USA – Briggs (2001) – 1990/2 data. 4 Private tutoring (14%) SAT Prep (21%) Secondary (57%) USA – Huang (2013) – TIMSS 2003 data. (p. 702) Grade 4 Math (53.9%) Grade 4 Science (42.9%) Grade 8 Math (34.4%) Grade 8 Science (20.4%)  USA – Southgate (2014) – PISA 2003 data. p. 247  15 year olds (17%) UK – Ireson and Rushforth (2005) – 2003 data. 4  Grade 6 (26%) Grade 11 (30%) Grade 13 (30%) UK – Ireson and Rushforth (2005) – 2003 data. p. 5 Math (65%) English (27%) Science (10%) Other (5%)  Vietnam– Dang (2007) – 1997/8 data. 4  Primary (31%) Middle (56%) Secondary (77%) Vietnam – Bray (2013) – 2001 data (p. 414)  Primary (38%) Vietnam – Dang (2011) – 2006 data. 7  Primary (32%) Middle (46%) Secondary (63%)  Sources:  (1) Kwok (2010) p. 51/52, (2) Bray & Kwok (2003) p. 612/613, (3) Bray and Suso (2008) p. 1 /2,  (4) Dang and Rogers (2008b) p.189/190, (5) Bray (2006) p.517, (6) Mori and Baker (2010) p.43, and (7) Bray and Kwo (2013) p. 485  Reasons for accessing tutoring Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   18 Giving their children a competitive edge was a major reason, given by parents, for hiring tutors in many studies: (Nishio, 2007; Kim & Park, 2010; Tan, 2009; Kwok, 2010; Bray & Kwok, 2003; Safarzynska, 2013; Watson, 2008; Bray, 2010; Davies, 2004; Canadian Council on Learning, 2007; Aurini & Davies, 2013). In some cases this was due to an increased demand for higher education and the growth in tertiary institutions and enrolment in many countries (Mori & Baker, 2010) (Silona, 2010). In addition, there are hierarchies of tertiary education with community colleges at the bottom and Ivy League universities, or their equivalents in different countries, at the top. Supplementary tutoring and test preparation classes are seen by many parents as necessary to access these ‘better’ institutions (Aurini & Davies, 2013). High stakes testing, either in the form of final examinations or entrance examinations for admission into selective secondary schools or tertiary education, was another major reason for hiring tutors:  (Kim & Park, 2010; Tan, 2009; Kwok, 2004; Bray & Kwok, 2003; Safarzynska, 2013; Tansel & Bircan, 2008; Watson, 2008; Smyth, 2008; Ireson & Rushforth, 2005; Dang & Rogers, 2008; Song, Park & Sang, 2013; Aurini & Davies, 2013; Davies, Aurini & Quirke, 2002). These are key transition points in a student’s academic journey and create more anxiety amongst parents and students and thus more demand for tutoring assistance. Kwok (2004) found that, in Hong Kong, exam pressure was a main reason for undertaking tutoring, and that this increased with the student’s age. In secondary grades 1- 3, 35% of students gave exam pressure as a reason for tutoring, while in secondary grades 4-5 and 6-7, it was 47% and 70% respectively (Kwok P. L., 2004). This was also noted by Dang and Rogers (2008) in their study of 23 countries, showing that in grades where there was a competitive examination determining the next level of schooling, tutoring increased, and that Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   19 these occurred more frequently in the higher grades approaching university (Dang & Rogers, 2008) . In Turkey, students are tested at the end of primary school for entrance into selective academic or ordinary and vocational high schools, and at the end of secondary school there is an entrance test for university places (Tansel & Burcan, 2008). Only 20% of students writing the entrance examinations get into university (Gurun & Millimet, 2008). Places in these institutions are limited and very competitive, so much so that the process is disruptive to the regular school calendar. Students preparing for the university entrance test will miss large amounts of school to attend their private tutoring prep classes. 55% of high school seniors used false medical notes to excuse their non-attendance in mainstream schooling during the month leading up to their exams (Turcan & Bircan, 2008).  Publication of test results by schools or other organizations has an impact on parental anxiety and concern about their child’s progress in their school. The publication of school league tables in the United Kingdom beginning in the 1990s resulted in an increase in tutoring. Similar results were observed in Australia (Bray, 2003). In Canada, the Fraser Institute publishes yearly report cards on the education systems in each province, including data on standardized tests and provincial examinations. Parents are becoming increasingly aware and influenced by the performance data of their schools, and will take action, by increasing use of private tutoring, to give their child an advantage if they perceive it as necessary (Davies, Aurini, & Quirke, 2002). Lim (2010) found parents raised concerns that their child’s regular school was not providing enough challenge and that funding cuts were negatively impacting what schools could provide. Similarly, dissatisfaction with schools, perceptions of lower quality in schooling and Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   20 declining state expenditures on schooling have resulted in an increase in spending by families on private education (Kim, 2004; Nishio, 2007; Silona, 2010). Parental ability or lack of ability, in terms of assisting their children in their studies is a major reason for accessing tutoring services. Some parents may feel they are not able to help their children with schoolwork due to their lack of expertise (Tan, 2009), or lack of time due to both parents working (Davies, 2004; Kwok P. L., 2004; Lim, 2010). In areas where the language of instruction in schools is not that which is spoken at home, or in which parents may lack academic skill, they may turn to tutoring to provide assistance to their children (Kwok P. L., 2004). In the Vancouver context, Wu (2003) found that immigrant parents were hiring tutors because their lack of proficiency in English prevented them from helping their children at home. In addition, Wu’s interviews revealed that the parents perceived that their child’s school was missing parts of education they felt were important, for example grammar and oral presentation skills in the teaching of language. Using tutors also allowed students to complete requirements for graduation early or faster. Finally, tutors acted as advisors in course selection and applications to university and as intermediaries with the child’s school. Parental anxiety, brought on by the aforementioned reasons; competition, high stakes testing, comparative data on school performance, have been contributing factors in the growth of the tutoring industry. In addition, intensive parenting trends are having an impact. Parents seeking more activities, environments and experiences for their children; to enhance their child’s competitiveness and chances of future success (Canadian Council on Learning, 2007). Aurini and Davies (2013) note that supplementary education “is seen as what ‘good’ parents do for their children” to help them succeed (p. 167).  Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   21 Enrichment of educational experiences was an important reason for tutoring mentioned in several studies: (Kim and Park, 2010; Watson, 2008; Bray, 2010; Heyneman, 2011; Song, Park and Sang, 2013; Davies, 2004; Canadian Council on Learning, 2007). In most cases it formed part of a package of after school activities organized by parents (Lim, 2010), including music, dance, art and a structured environment for children (Bray 2010; ray & Kwok, 2003). Bray and Kwok (2003) and Ireson and Rushforth (2005), both mention parental concerns about developing confidence and self-esteem as important reasons related to this trend of organized activities for children.   Tutoring as an investment was a dominant theme in the literature across several countries. This can be connected to human capital theory and the work of Schultz (1993). He notes that education, in all its forms, contributes to the human capital that an individual ‘owns’ and can leverage in the marketplace. Moreover, Schultz suggests that human capital gained through education is advancing at a faster rate than physical capital. Hence the importance of tutoring for parents who wish to give their children an added competitive advantage.  In the US context Nishio (2007) discusses tutoring in terms of human capital theory, and this is also prevalent in the Korea (Sohn, Lee, Jang & Kim, 2010). Parents in Korea believe that the higher the level of education a person obtains, the better their employment prospects will be and therefore their salary and status will be higher (Choi, Calero, & Escardibul, 2012). Kwok (2010) also noted this social mobility trend. This investment is greater in exam-driven school systems (Bray, 2003). Future earnings, determined by the university attended, the program of study and degree(s) received and ultimately the career one is able to choose are all part of the dividends produced by investing in tutoring (Bray & Kwok, 2003).  Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   22 Who uses tutoring? The research shows that certain factors have an impact on which parents and students are more likely to undertake tutoring, and in most cases, who is more likely to have more intense levels of tutoring in terms of frequency, duration and total number of hours per week. Family or parental income, or socio-economic status, was a major factor related to tutoring choices in almost all studies: (Lim, 2010; Nishio, 2007; Choi, Calero & Escardibul, 2012; Kim & Park, 2010; Kwok, 2010; Bray & Kwok, 2003; Safarzynska, 2013; Silona, 2010; Smyth, 2008 and 2009; Buchmann, Condron & Roscigno, 2010; Dang & Rogers, 2008; Ireson & Rushforth, 2005; Dang & Rogers, 2008; Song, Park & Sang, 2013; Davies, 2004). Parents who are already paying for their child’s education, through private schooling, are more likely to also pay for tutoring (Smyth, 2009). Parents’ careers or occupations were also related to spending on tutoring. In Ireland, 58% of high-income professionals invested in tutoring, while only 32% of low income semi-skilled and 28% of unskilled parents did so. In South Korea similar results were observed with 91.8% of high-income parents investing in tutoring while only 34.3% of low income parents did so (Bray & Kwo, 2013). Davies (2004) also found that there was a strong correlation between hiring tutors and the parents wanting their children to attend a private school in Canada.  The second most important factor was the education level of parents (Lim, 2010; Choi, Calero & Escardibul, 2012; Kim & Park, 2010; Chen, 2009; Kwan, 2011; Liu, 2012; Bray & Kwok, 2003; Safarzynska, 2013; Silona, 2010; Buchmann, Condron & Roscigno, 2010; Dang & Rogers, 2008; Smyth, 2008; Ireson & Rushforth, 2005; Dang & Rogers, 2008; Southgate, 2013; Bray, 2003; Song, Park & Sang, 2013; Davies, 2004). Kwok (2004) found that parental Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   23 education levels had a profound effect on the likelihood of their children undertaking tutoring.  As parental education levels rose from primary to university the percentage of their children being tutored doubled: parents with primary level education at 35%, junior secondary at 45%, upper secondary at 55%, matriculation at 67% and university or higher at 73% (Kwok P. L., 2004). The fourth major factor was the previous higher academic achievement of the student. Students with higher academic achievement levels are more likely to participate in tutoring (Nishio, 2007; Kwan, 2011; Kwok, 2010; Bray & Kwok, 2003; Smyth, 2008; Song, Park & Sang, 2013; Canadian Council on Learning, 2007). This might seem somewhat counter-intuitive since in the past tutoring was considered something used as a remedial measure when students were struggling with an aspect of their education. However, tutoring has recently become more of a supplement to regular schooling to provide advantages otherwise not available. Thus those most likely to use tutoring are those who are already doing well in school and want to continue to do well or to achieve at an even higher level.        Other factors mentioned to a lesser degree in the literature include the value placed on education by parents or the expectations of the parents and students (Nishio, 2007; Safarzynska, 2013; Dang & Rogers, 2008; Southgate, 2013; Davies, 2004). There are several factors related to this, including the motivation of students (Kwan, 2011; Bray & Kwok, 2003; Smythe, 2009; Lim, 2010), the number of books in the household  (Choi, Calero & Escardibul, 2012; Safarzynska, 2013; Southgate, 2013), and the provision of educational resources in the home, such as computers (Safarzynska, 2013). These are interrelated with the education and income levels of parents. More educated and wealthier  parents will likely have more books and Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   24 educational resources in their homes and are more likely to encourage their children to make use of them. There is a distinct urban/rural dichotomy in the provision and use of tutoring services in all studies that specifically looked at this area (Nishio, 2007; Kim & Park, 2010; Kwok, 2010;  Safarzynska, 2013; Silona, 2010; Buchmann, Condron & Roscigno, 2010; Dang & Rogers, 2008; Dang & Rogers, 2008;  Bray, 2003; Song, Park & Sang, 2013). In Egypt in 1994 a study by Fergany (cited in Bray & Kwok, 2003) indicated urban tutoring rates at 64% and rural rates at 52% (p. 612).  They also mention that in Romania, from a 1994 government survey, 58% of urban and 32% of rural students received tutoring (p. 613). In a 1997 study from Korea, tutoring in urban areas was 82.5% for elementary, 65.5% for middle school and 59.1% for high school. Conversely for rural areas the numbers were 54.1%, 45.6% and 12.2% respectively (Bray, 2003). Factors that might explain this include the existence of fewer tutors in rural areas and income and education levels of parents are often higher in urban areas.                          Gender was of very little significance. No variation between male and female students was seen in the majority of studies (Nishio, 2007; Kim & Park, 2010; Chen, 2009; Kwan, 2011; Liu, 2012; Ireson & Rushforth, 2005; Southgate, 2013). Exceptions were however noted in Poland and Ireland, where female students were more likely to take tutoring in mathematics than males (Safarznska, 2013; Smyth, 2008), and in the taking of SAT tutoring in the US where females were more likely to take test prep classes (Buchmann, Condron & Roscigno, 2010).  Race was a factor in some cases, although it was not specifically examined in many studies. Nishio (2007) found in the US that race was a factor, with African Americans making up 27% of the tutees, Asians at 26%, Hispanics at 13% and Whites at only 10%. Similar ratios were Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   25 seen in the data on those taking SAT training. Nishio also references the Malaysian situation, noted in Bray’s 1999 work, where tutoring was used by 71% of Indians, 63% of Chinese but only 39% of Malays. Buchmann, Condron and Roscigno (2010) found that non-white students in the US were more likely to take SAT prep courses. In the United Kingdom, non-white students were more likely to take tutoring; Indian (45%), Chinese (35%), African (31%), other Asian (29%), Pakistani (28%) and Caribbean (27%) (Ireson & Rushforth, 2005). Tutoring effectiveness Measuring the impact of tutoring is challenging. There are many outside factors that may have an influence on the effectiveness of tutoring; length of time spent in tutoring, frequency of tutoring, natural ability of the student, style of tutoring, quality of the tutor, prior knowledge and skills (particularly from the student’s regular schooling) and so forth. That said, there seems to be enough evidence that tutoring does have an impact, although that impact may be negligible (Kuan, 2011).  In comparative studies, Sohn, Lee, Jang and Kim (2010) found limited evidence in eight out of 11 studies of Korean students that the amount of time spent on tutoring had a positive effect on student achievement. This effect was noticed particularly in the context of repeating what was taught in regular school and in test-driven instruction, with greater time spent tutoring equating to raised achievement levels (Sohn, Lee, Jang, & Kim, 2010). They note, however, that higher level thinking skills and self-direction by students were not positively affected. In their study of 23 countries, Dang and Rogers (2008b) found eight studies that indicated an improvement in test scores or academic performance due to tutoring, and three that had a negative effect. Using the TIMSS 2003 data, Huang (2013) found that tutoring in math and science raised national mean performance scores (Huang, 2013). Finally, Bray and Suso (2008) found that tutoring may have an impact, but that other factors such as English being spoken at Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   26 home, motivation of the child and parent involvement in the child’s education were much more significant factors in success (Bray & Suso, 2008). Use of English in the home, and therefore greater exposure to it, is particularly important in schools where it is also the medium of instruction and it is a second language for most of the population. Students who receive extra tutoring will be more likely to be successful. Some single-country studies indicated an improvement in student performance that could be attributed to tutoring. Nishio (2007) noted in her US based research that mathematics scores and college acceptances increased with tutoring. In Korea, Choi, Calero and Escardibul (2012) found that mathematics and English grades/scores showed positive increases due to tutoring but that there was no significant impact in science. In Chen’s 2009 study of the SAT preparation in China, both tutoring hours per week and the duration of tutoring, in months, had positive effects on the SAT scores of students undertaking tutoring (Chen, 2009). In Turkey, Gurun and Millimet (2008) found that private tutoring was positively connected with university placement, but only if large amounts of tutoring took place. Finally, Smyth (2008, 2009) noted that in her study of Irish students, that rates of entry into tertiary institutions was higher by a factor of three among those who had taken extra tutoring. When controlling for grades, the rate was still two times higher. She also found, however, that those students who spent more time on homework and extra personal study also did well, and likely would have been successful in the entrance exams anyway, being pre-disposed to academic success. Thus motivation, behaviour and prior ability and effort may be more important factors rather than tutoring itself (Smyth, 2008).  Beyond academic achievement or acceptance to university programs, tutoring may raise self-esteem and confidence in particular skills or subjects, lower anxiety for test taking and Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   27 positively influence attitude changes toward schooling or particular subjects (Canadian Council on Learning, 2007). Tutoring Issues Tutoring has an impact on students and their educational experiences, particularly given the extent to which students participate in various tutoring options. On the positive side, tutoring can boost self-esteem, overcome anxieties, both in the student and the parents, and address knowledge and skill deficiencies. Particular to this, Lim (2010), noted that parents in her interviews commented that tutoring raised confidence in their children. However, tutoring can also have negative implications. Wu (2003) in her interviews with teachers, noted that they often raised concerns about ‘over-tutoring’, or excessive tutoring and that students received too much help from their tutors. This issue manifests itself in tutors completing assignments for the student, or at least offering too much help, and concerns about the authenticity of the student’s work. Teachers had to change their assessment practices to include more assessments completed in controlled classroom conditions to ensure authenticity and validity for the assessments used in generating grades. Wu also notes that tutors can offer contradictory advice, or pedagogical methodologies, to students and their parents that lead to conflicts between home and school. Tutors focus on the academic attainment and skills or knowledge needed to raise attainment levels. They do not generally emphasize attitudes or goals that would be expected in a school context where the whole child’s development would be considered (Ireson, 2004). Bray (2003) noted a tendency to focus on cramming and rote learning instead of developing critical thinking skills or other broader educational goals. This may also manifest itself in a hierarchy of Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   28 subjects with mathematics, science and language as the more important ones, and arts, sports, and music being neglected (Bray, 2003). Over-tutoring also results in a lack of balance in student’s lives in two ways; late night tutoring may prevent students from completing school assignments or may result in students being fatigued and falling asleep in class, or developing health problems. Lack of balance may mean missing out on opportunities in sports, arts, hobbies, play or other life experiences (Bray & Kwo, 2013). Tutoring reproduces social inequalities as discussed by Mori and Baker (2010) and Bray and Kwo (2013). Social inequalities, urban versus rural discrepancies in access and opportunity (Bray, 2010), gaps between those who are tutored and those who are not tutored are particular issues (Bray, 2003). The purchase of tutoring services has been found to be driven by cultural capital, as part of social reproduction (Southgate, 2013). This can be connected to Bourdieu’s (1974) work on social capital and how it is utilized and reproduced. In the case of tutoring, this manifests itself in parents giving their children cultural capital to succeed and is linked to family attitudes toward and expectations of academic success. Tutoring may be counterproductive to social cohesion because it creates inequality of opportunity as it is based on the ability to pay. This could exacerbate divisions based on social class. It may also create feelings of lower self-worth amongst non-tutored students and conflict with what is taught in public schools (Heyneman, 2011). Tutoring exacerbates social inequalities and disrupts public education. However, if tutoring did not exist the families would find other ways to advantage their children through books, experiences, play and equipment (Dang & Rogers, 2008b). In these ways, tutoring may maintain and extend social stratifications. Wealth and earning power, education levels of parents, class and urban rural divides are reinforced as students who have access to tutors will have greater chances of performing better in school, staying longer in school, Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   29 achieving higher levels of education and obtaining jobs with higher levels of earnings (Bray, 2001 and 2006). There are social justice issues related to tutoring, and the work of Young (2006) speaks to these. In particular, her discussion of social divisions of labour, decision-making power and normativity. Social structures affect relations between individuals and institutions and place opportunities and boundaries on their actions. The increase in private tutoring has put the onus on families to provide for these services out of their household income. Clearly this will exacerbate inequalities that already exist and put limits on what lower-income families can potentially provide for their children. Families with more disposable income are able to afford supplementary education for their children (Lim, 2010), which may give them greater advantage in competitive education and job markets. Davies (2004) discusses the increase of private tutoring as a result of part of a larger demand for private schooling in general. Private tutoring is an inexpensive option to either homeschooling or full private education. It can be targeted to the student’s needs and the student-to-teacher ratios are small. The use of supplementary tutoring can be seen as an inexpensive risk-minimizing strategy for parents. However it is still only available to those families who can afford it. Wu (2003) discusses the influence of social practice and social construction in the growth of families purchasing tutoring services. Social reproduction is the re-creation of existing structures, behaviours and norms in society. This will include existing inequalities as well. This was noted as a major factor in Korea (Kim & Park, 2010). Davies, Aurini and Quirke (2002) noted that parents are more educated and sophisticated than in the past. They are more aware of the educational needs of their children and more willing to take action and spend money to help Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   30 their child to have an edge on their peers. They rely more and more on experts for advice and expertise to do this. Finally, there are questions about the credentials of tutors, the lack of accountability mechanisms and the lack of regulation of the market (Aurini, 2004). However, for many parents quality and accountability is measured by the progress of their child. Tutors and tutoring centres customize their services to the student. This brings parents into a partnership role and appeals to the view of the uniqueness of their child. This individual attention appeals to parents and reduces their need for specific tutor qualifications (Aurini, 2004). Learning centres have their own programs, they measure their students according to their program, not on the basis of regular school assessments (Aurini, 2006). Accountability is thus determined by the success of the tutor student/parent relationship and success in raising scores in their specific program or accessing higher levels of education, and as long as this happens parents will be less concerned with the specific academic qualifications of the tutors. From the literature review there are several themes that will be the focus of this study. Certain types of students are more likely to access tutoring and certain subjects are more popular than others. There are common reasons for accessing tutors and some common issues related to tutoring. It is likely that I will see similar results in this study. The school community is composed of higher socio-economic groups, with high levels of educational attainment, high expectations for their children’s educational future and high disposable incomes to spend achieving these ends. In addition, the parents who are coming from an East Asian cultural background will be more likely to provide tutors for their children. Given these characteristics of the school population, I expect to see levels of tutoring on par or above the levels shown in the literature.  Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   31 I expect that mathematics, English and sciences will be the most commonly tutored subjects and that the number of students being tutored and the hours/week will increase with age from grade 6 to 12. In the upper grades I expect to see more focus on preparation for examinations and university applications. The reasons cited in the literature for accessing tutors; enrichment, looking to improve grades, and getting a competitive advantage will likely be replicated in this study. I expect that certain issues surrounding tutoring such as the quality of tutors and the impact of tutoring on student schedules may be of importance. The study will not investigate the nature of the social reproduction or social equity issues related to private tutoring as it will be assumed that all the students in the study have similar access to these services due to the fact that they are already fee-paying independent school students. The study will also not investigate any measures of tutoring effectiveness as the data to undertake this type of investigation, such as individual test scores before and after tutoring, and measures of tutoring quality, are not readily available. Chapter 3: Methodology and Research Design Having completed the literature review there were a number of specific characteristics of tutoring that could be investigated through survey research. A survey comprising primarily closed questions was chosen to provide standardized questions that would generate comparable data from the whole school division population. This data allowed numerical analysis and provided information to answer the questions of the study related to the nature and extent of tutoring services utilized by students. Descriptive statistics then allowed emergent patterns related to the research questions in the responses to be identified.  Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   32 The research approach was two-fold; first it took the form of a detailed study of a single independent institution. Secondly it was  a mixed methods survey with both closed and open-ended questions. These were analysed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. As outlined in the survey literature (Gay, Mills & Airasian, 2009; and Bell, 2002) a census type survey was used as the population is relatively small and the intention is to sample the whole of the parent population. This was a cross-sectional survey of a single point in time, providing a snapshot of the situation. This method was chosen as it was efficient and provided data quickly. It allowed the same questions to be asked in similar circumstances, allowing comparisons.  The survey took the form of an online questionnaire with checklist questions and free-response questions. This method was chosen to make the process of filling in the survey sheet quick and relatively easy, thus making it more likely that participants would respond to all questions. The survey asked four types of questions. First, questions related to demographic information such as age/grade, gender, nationality/citizenship (or citizen, permanent resident, visa student). Secondly, questions regarding the type of tutoring that students participate in, academic subjects or other types of subjects (e.g., study skills/organization skills, TOEFL, SAT/ACT, SSAT, university applications, additional subjects from the BC curriculum or AP courses). Third were questions about the location, format and frequency of these tutoring sessions; in class, one-on-one or online and the hours per week of tutoring they receive. Fourth were questions related to the reasons parents have accessed private tutoring and any issues or concerns they may have had related to their private tutoring experience. Finally, there was an option for giving additional information if the participant feels it is necessary. A sample of the survey is provided in Appendix CC. Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   33 Following receipt of permission from the school to conduct the study and UBC ethics approval, all parents of students in Grades 6 through 12 were sent an invitation to participate in the study. The invitation letter included a link to an online survey. The invitation was accompanied by a consent form that outlined the purpose of the study, what participants were being asked to do, how much time it would take, what steps were taken to ensure the confidentiality of information they provided, and who to contact if they had questions or concerns. The consent from clearly stated that completion of the survey constitutes consent to participate in the study.   The intention was to have a parent of every student in the school participate. Completion of the survey would take approximately 15 minutes and participants were be given a period of one month to complete the survey. Reminders were sent to parents after a period of two weeks following the initial letter of invitation. The online survey site used was Simple Survey (www.simplesurvey.com), which is located in Canada.  Once the data was collected, it was analyzed for patterns, e.g., grades, genders, subjects, formats, hours per week, and reasons for accessing tutoring. Descriptive statistics were computed and the data presented in tabular format. Data from open-ended questions was searched, and emerging themes and patterns among the responses identified and analyzed. The findings were compared with studies in the literature to identify similarities and idiosyncrasies with respect to findings at the school. The findings are then discussed in terms of what they reveal about patterns related to tutoring within the school and the implications these patterns have for school policy and practice.  Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   34 Ethics Ethics approval was sought from the UBC Behaviour Research Ethics Board (BREB). There were no foreseeable physical or emotional risks to students or parents involved in participation in the study. Participation was voluntary, as parents could freely choose to participate or not. Confidentiality was ensured as only the online survey provider had information on the IP addresses of respondents and this was not available to the researcher. Participants had the right to refuse to answer any of the questions on the survey. They were not able to withdraw after the survey was completed, as the researcher will not be able to identify participants.  Steps were taken to protect the confidentiality of information provided by participants. The survey did not ask the participant for information that may identify the student or the family.  Given the nature of the academic programs offered at the school, it is not possible to identify any student from the information asked in the survey, such as gender, grade and subject combinations. Servers for the online survey company are located within Canada, therefore authorities in the US will not have access to the data. The survey data will be stored on the survey provider’s website and will be deleted upon completion of the research project. During the analysis, study data will be stored on a password protected computer in a locked office and will be deleted upon completion of the research project. Data and consent forms will be stored in a locked filing cabinet in the research supervisor’s locked office at UBC for a period of five years following completion of the study.   Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   35 Delimitations The survey focuses on private supplementary tutoring that is academic in nature, is paid for by the family and takes place outside of school. The survey excludes extra assistance from the student’s teacher in the school and free assistance by family members at home as these do not include additional financial costs to the families. Religious classes, sports, arts, music or dance classes are not included because they generally do not directly relate to the work in academic courses at school.  This research does not examine the impacts of the quality of tutoring, variations in tutoring style, the impact of class size, timing, length and frequency of sessions, and the topics and skills covered in the curriculum.  Limitations  There are limitations to this research. As an insider in the school and a member of the school administration, I have particular perspectives, both known and unknown, that may influence my research and interpretation of my findings. The participants will know that I am an administrator at the school and this may affect their willingness to complete the survey and possibly their answers to some questions. The literature review is limited to publications written in or translated into English. Studies from South and Central America are noticeably absent.  There will be some degree of error in the completion of the surveys. Parents may make mistakes, incorrectly report information or misunderstand the survey form particularly if they have limited English skills, however this will likely only affect a small number of families. There Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   36 is also the potential for bias on the part of participants, either in preference for tutoring or against it with pro-tutoring parents likely to fill in the questionnaire either more completely or with more detail. If the response rate to the survey is low, it may produce insufficient data to identify clear patterns related to the use of tutoring by students in the school.  Researcher’s social position and reflexivity My interest in this study is influenced by my role as an administrator at the school and my own background and education. I encounter the subject of tutoring on a regular basis when speaking with parents, students and faculty at the school. I believe that tutoring does have an impact on students and I sense that tutoring may not always be beneficial or necessary. I also harbour concerns as to the quality of tutoring that is taken up by the students in the school. My personal educational journey also influences my perspective toward the research topic. I am a white, unilingual, Anglo, heterosexual male who is middle aged. I was raised in a traditional nuclear family with a protestant work ethic.  As a child and adolescent I was exposed to a value system that education and learning were valued for its own sake, and that success was largely due to hard work and self-reliance. I was educated in public schools in North Vancouver. I did not use tutors, nor did I know of anyone who did. When I had my own children, they did not require tutoring. I am aware that these experiences could potentially influence my analysis.     Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   37 Chapter 4: Results and Discussion Findings are organized and analyzed in four sub-sections: overall response rate; response rates in relation to demographic characteristics including, gender, citizenship and language spoken at home; patterns of tutoring services for the data set by subject, type of tutoring, location of tutoring, hours of tutoring per week; and reasons for accessing tutoring and issues with tutoring. These data are presented in tables related to individual themes, providing percentage of responses and averages of tutors or hours where appropriate. The findings for each table are discussed. Finally, findings related to cross-thematic patterns are presented and discussed.  Overall Response Rate In order to ascertain how well the survey represents the students in the school, I compared the survey results with the information from the school’s population. Using the school’s database, I obtained data on the breakdown of total students, total families, student numbers by grade, gender, citizenship residence type (referring to either Canadian citizens, Permanent Residents or visa students) and language spoken at home. In the school there are 310 students in grades 6 to grade 12, comprising 277 families. Incomplete surveys were not included in the data, with the result that there were 140 out of a possible 277 family responses to the questionnaire, which represents a response rate of 51%. The survey was designed so that parents could respond to each question for each of their children. This enabled analysis to take into consideration patterns for both families and individual students. A number of families have more than one child in the senior division of the school. There are 28 families with 2 children and 3 families with 3 children. Of these, 21 families with 2 children (75%) and 2 families with 3 Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   38 children (66%) responded to the survey. Data for 165 individual students were collected, representing 53% of all students in the division. This data is shown in Table 2.  Table 2 Survey Responses in Relation to Student Population and Number of Families   School population Response rate by category Total number of students  310 165 (53%) Total number of families  277 140 (51%) Multiple-child families 31 23 (74%)  Table 3 shows the breakdown of responses by grade. Most grades had close to a 50% response rate with grade 11 and 12 having substantially higher response rates at 67% and 57% respectively. Table 3 Survey Responses in Relation to School Population    School population by grade Response rate by grade Grade 6 44 24 (55%) Grade 7  44 21 (48%) Grade 8 45 23 (51%) Grade 9 45 22 (49%) Grade 10 46 21 (46%) Grade 11 46 31 (67%) Grade 12 40 23 (57%) Total 310 165  Response Rates in Relation to Demographic Characteristics The student population at the school is 129 females and 181 males, representing 42 % and 58% of the school division population respectively. The survey responses show a slightly Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   39 higher proportion of responses representing females (46%) and a slightly lower percentage of responses representing male students (54 %). When compared to the total number of males and females in the school division, this shows that 58% of girls and 48% of boys are represented in the survey. That being said, there was a reasonably close approximation of the gender ratio of responses in relation to the gender distribution within the student population. This is shown in Table 4. Table 4 Survey Response Rate by Gender in Relation to School Data  School population Survey responses % of category represented Total females 129 (42%) 75 (46%) 58% Total males 181 (58%) 88 (54%) 48% Total Students 310 165 53%  The vast majority of data comes from parents of Canadian citizens (84%), while permanent residents (9%) and visa students (7%), make up much smaller numbers represented in the survey. These response rates do not reflect the actual distribution of students in the division across these categories (68% Canadian citizens; 21% Permanent Residents; 11% Visa students). A disproportionate number of Canadian citizens responded to the survey as compared to the other categories. While 66% of all Canadian citizen parents completed the survey only 23% of Permanent Residents and 31% Visa students completed it. The fourth column of Table 4 shows the percentage of the three citizenship categories represented in the school and in the survey. Parents of students who are not Canadian citizens were less likely to complete the survey. Only 26 of the 100 non-Canadian citizens (26%) are represented in the survey. These response rates could possibly be at least partially explained by language barriers or misunderstanding of the Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   40 invitation to participate or of questions on the survey. Visa students’ parents are generally not living and working in Vancouver; they are based overseas and generally have less contact and involvement in the school community compared with those families living in Vancouver and participating more regularly in school activities as volunteers, so this might partially explain a lower response rate from parents of Visa students. The data for citizenship is shown in Table 5. Table 5 Survey Response Rate by Citizenship Status in Relation to School Data   School population Survey responses % of category represented Canadian Citizens 211 (68%) 139 (84%) 66% Permanent Residents 65 (21%) 15 (9%) 23% Visa Students  35 (11%) 11 (7%) 31% Total 310 165   Table 6 provides a further breakdown of data related students who are not Canadian citizens. When comparing the survey data with the school division data, the percentages of citizenship for non-Canadian students are roughly similar.  However not all countries of citizenship are represented. Many countries are represented by only one family and thus if that family did not complete the survey their citizenship does not appear in Table 6.  This is the case with Belgium, Germany, India, Iran, Kazakhstan, Malaysia, and Mexico. At least 50% of parents from each of the other nationalities in the school responded to the survey, with two notable exceptions where much lower response rates were received - 15% of Chinese families responded and 17% of Taiwanese families responded. Despite being sent an email in Mandarin inviting them to participate, Mandarin speaking parents or parents speaking other Chinese languages may have had language difficulties with the survey and the invitation to participate. The survey itself was only provided in English, which is one of the limitations of the study. Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   41 Table 6 Response Rate by Country of Citizenship for Non-Canadian Citizens  School population Survey responses by category % of category represented Belgium 1 (1%)   German 1 (1%)   India 1 (1%)   Iran 1 (1%)   Italian 1 (1%) 1 (4%) 100% Kazakhstan 1 (1%)   Malaysia 1 (1%)   Mexico 1 (1%)   New Zealand 1 (1%) 1 (4%) 100% Sweden 1 (1%) 1 (4%) 100% UK 1 (1%) 1 (4%) 100% Brazil 2 (2%) 1 (4%) 50% Philippines 2 (2%) 2 (7%) 100% Singapore 2 (2%) 1 (4%) 50% USA 2 (2%) 1 (4%) 50% Austria 3 (3%) 3 (11%) 100% Taiwan 6 (6%) 1 (4%) 17% China & Hong Kong 72 (72%) 11 (43%) 15% unknown ------ 2 (7% )  Total 100 26 26%  The main languages spoken by the families at home are shown in Table 7 and referred to as ‘home language’.  As with the data on citizenship, the data showing tutoring patterns in relation home language data closely approximates the school data in terms of the percentages of students speaking a particular language.  The exceptions include situations where only one family in the school speaks a particular language and that family did not fill in the survey, thus their home language is not represented in the survey data. This applies to Dutch, Greek, Japanese, Kurdish, Macedonian, Spanish, Vietnamese and Hindi speakers. School records indicate that English is spoken by nearly 50% of the families and Mandarin by 37%. Cantonese Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   42 and Punjabi are the next most common home languages at 4% and 2.5% respectively. Families that speak English at home were most likely to complete the survey (111 families representing 150 children at the school, or 67%. Mandarin and Cantonese speaking families were much less well represented with only 1 out of 12 Cantonese speaking families (1.2%) and only 39 out of 116 Mandarin speaking families (24%) completing the survey. Data are not available for bi-lingual or multi-lingual families since there was not an option to state multiple home languages on the survey, therefore patterns cannot be ascertained for multi-lingual family situations. Since multi-lingualism is a growing phenomenon, this could be an important oversight in the survey design. Table 7 Response Rate by Language Spoken at Home Language School population Survey responses by category % of category represented Dutch 1 (0.3%)   Farsi 2 (0.6%) 1 (0.6%) 50% Greek 1 (0.3%)   Japanese 1 (0.3%)   Kurdish 1 (0.3%)   MacadonianMacedonian  1 (0.3%)   Portuguese 1 (0.3%) 1 (0.6%) 100% Russian 2 (0.6%) 2 (1.2%) 100% French 1 (0.6%) 1 (0.6%) 100% Spanish 2 (0.6%)   Vietnamese 3 (1%)   German 4 (1.2%) 3 (2%) 75% Hindi 4 (1.2%)   Punjabi 8 (2.5%) 5 (3%) 63% Cantonese 12 (4%) 1 (1.2%) 8% Mandarin 116 (37%) 39 (24%) 34% English 150 (48%) 111 (67%) 74% Total 310 165 53%  Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   43  Findings Related to Tutoring Services Tutoring services are accessed by 70 of the 165 students represented in the survey, or by 42% of respondents. Conversely, 95 or 58% of the students do not receive any form of supplementary tutoring. This rate of tutoring is higher than the percentages reported in the literature on Canadian secondary school students, varying from 10.9% (Canadian Council of Ministers of Education, 2000) to 33% (Davies and Guppy, 2010). As expected, the school has a high percentage of students accessing tutoring in relation to data reported elsewhere for Canadian students. As discussed in a previous chapter, the school is an independent school charging tuition fees and the community is comprised of higher socio-economic groups, having high levels of educational attainment, high expectations for their children’s educational future and high disposable incomes to spend on achieving these ends. In addition, the high number of families from East Asia, particularly China, where tutoring is commonplace, is likely a cultural factor contributing to higher rates of tutoring within the school division. In contrast, several patterns within the study data match trends noted in the literature. For example, studies indicate an increase in the rate of tutoring for older students in grade 11 and 12, which is also true at Vanwest. In grades 6 to 10 at Vanwest more students do not receive tutoring than those who do. The opposite is true in grades 11 and 12 where more students receive tutoring than do not. Most studies found no major difference between the genders. The situation is similar at Vanwest with 44% of girls and 41% of boys receiving tutoring.  Citizenship seems to make a difference as only 40 % of Canadian families at the school choose tutoring compared to 60% of Permanent Residents. Families with student visa holders Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   44 were slightly more likely to access tutoring, at 45%, than Canadians. These data indicate that recent arrivals in Canada are more likely to access tutoring. However, the data may be skewed as only 11 out of 35 families in the school with student visa holders responded to the survey. Of those who answered this question, Permanent residents and visa students who chose tutoring were more likely to be from the Asian countries of China, Taiwan, and the Philippines. Of those choosing not to seek tutors a larger proportion were from Brazil, Austria, Sweden, Italy, UK and the USA, indicating that those from a western cultural and educational background are less likely to seek tutoring. Finally, the language spoken at home has a significant impact on the choice to access tutoring. English language speakers are less likely to choose tutoring. Only 31% of all English speakers have tutors, whereas Mandarin speakers showed much higher numbers, at 82%. The other languages of those who completed the survey were 50% or lower. Cross analysis of home language and citizenship status reveals a relationship between Mandarin being spoken at home, recent arrival to Canada, and the choice to access tutoring services. While only 29% of the Canadian citizens who receive tutoring speak Mandarin at home, 71% of the permanent residents and student visa holders who receive tutoring speak Mandarin at home. Thus, both the country of citizenship and the home language data show similarities to the surveys from the literature that indicate a relationship between culture, citizenship, and tutoring. Non-Canadian students from China, Taiwan, Singapore and Hong Kong are considerably more likely to seek tutoring. The data is shown in Appendices A, B, C and D. Table 8 shows the data for tutored subjects reported by respondents of the survey. Note that the total number of students receiving tutoring does not match the number of responses, as some students will receive tutoring in more than one subject. Overall, Math, at 24% and English, at 22%, are the two top subjects for tutoring. Sciences, Languages and the Humanities are Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   45 considerably smaller at between 8% and 1%. Art is a bit of an anomaly and can be explained by the use of art studio and portfolio building classes that several of the students take in order to boost their chances of acceptance into an art college or fine arts program at university. The SAT/ACT also ranks highly; sixth in the table although considerably lower than Math and English, with 8 students (5%) compared to 40 (24%) for Math and 37 (22%) for English. The SAT/ACT is necessary for entrance to universities in the US, an aspirational destination for many students at the school. Mandarin receives more tutoring than French. It may be the case that Mandarin speaking families want their children to maintain academic levels in Mandarin or it may mean that their children are proficient speakers but need to have assistance with reading and/or writing. English speaking students who enrol in Mandarin courses may find this character-based language to be more challenging to learn and thus they may require supplementary tutoring. Table 8 Rank Order of Tutored Subjects Tutored Subject # and % of students receiving tutoring Mathematics 40 (24%) English  37 (22%)  Mandarin 13 (8%) Science  11 (7%)  Art 11 (7%) SAT/ACT 8 (5%) French 8 (5%) Biology 7 (4%) Socials  6 (4%)  Physics 5 (3%) General Study Skills  4 (2%)  Chemistry 3 (2%) Spanish 2 (1%) History 2 (1%) Business 2 (1%) IELTS/TOEFL 2 (1%) Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   46 Geography 1 (0.5%) Design (& IT) 1 (0.5%) SSAT 1 (0.5%) AP/Ministry Course * 1 (0.5%) University Agent ** 1 (0.5%) Total 166 Note: * The school offers the IB Middle Years and Diploma Programmes. Some students take BC Ministry of Education or AP courses through outside tutoring agencies. ** University agents tutor students in university applications, essay writing and coaching on interviews.  Table 9 Ranking Order of  Academic Subject Category Tutored Subject Group Categories Number of students Mathematics  40 (27%) English 37 (25%) Science ( and Biology, Chemistry & Physics combined) 26 (17%) Languages (French, Mandarin & Spanish) 23 (15%) Social Studies (and History, Geography & Business) 11 (8%) Art 11 (8%) Design (& IT) 1 (<1%) Total 149  When school subjects are grouped according to broader categories (e.g., all science subjects together, all languages together and all humanities together), the general trends in tutoring subjects are more apparent.  This is done in Table 9, which also eliminates the grade variations that occur due to the fact that some subjects are only available in grade 6 to 10 in the school’s middle years program or in grade 11 and 12 in the diploma program. For example, in the middle years general science and humanities are taught, whereas when students get to grade 11 they choose a specific science course (either Biology, Chemistry or Physics) and a specific humanities course (either History, Geography or Business). In addition, while French and Mandarin are taught throughout the school at all grade levels, Spanish becomes an alternative Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   47 language course in grade 11. The grouped data in Table 8 shows that Mathematics is the most common supplementary tutoring subject followed by English, Sciences, Languages and Humanities.  This relative ordering of tutored subjects closely corresponds with the data from the literature on other Canadian surveys such as Huang (2003) and the Canadian Council for Learning (2007). This shows that Vanwest’s students have subject tutoring patterns similar to those of other schools across Canada. When we look at the ranking of other tutored subjects, i.e., non-academic subjects shown in Table 10, we see that the SAT/ACT examination required for entry into universities in the United States is the most important category by far, twice as high as the next most common non-academic subject, which is general study skills. IELTS or TOEFL test preparation for students whose level of English proficiency requires them to take a supplementary test for university entrance is tutored at only half the frequency of SAT/ACT and SSAT. IELTS/TOEFL is generally not an issue unless the student has not had sufficient years of formal English instruction for application to a particular university.  AP or Ministry of Education courses and university agents are infrequently tutored with only two students receiving this type of service (1%). These are likely due to situations specific to an individual student’s needs. AP and BC Ministry of Education courses are occasionally taken through tutors when students wish to preview material, add additional qualifications to their transcripts or take a course not offered by the school.  For example some students may need a specific course for university admission, which is not offered, or not available in their timetable at Vanwest School, others take Ministry or AP courses as preparation for their IB Diploma Programme. Some students receive tutoring in the SSAT if they are planning to apply to a different high school, many of which use the SSAT as an entrance exam.  Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   48  Table 10 Rank Order of Non-academic Subject Tutored  Subject Number of students SAT/ACT 8 (47%) General Study Skills 4 (23%) IELTS/TOEFL 2 (12%) SSAT 1 (6%) AP/Ministry Course 1 (6%) University Agent 1(6%) Total 17   Engaging in cross-thematic analysis, there are variations in the subjects tutored when viewed by grade, shown in Appendix E, with grade 11 having a wider range of subjects and larger average number of subjects being tutored. This seems to drop off in grade 12, the second year of the IB Diploma programme possibly as students are more used to the pace and level of difficulty and have adjusted their study habits accordingly. In addition, grade 11 grades are weighted more heavily when generating predicted grades for university applications. These predicted grades are generated in October and November of the grade 12 year. Students wishing to show themselves in the best possible light may seek tutoring in grade 11 to enhance their grades in advance of their university applications. Grade 8 also has a high average number of subjects being tutored possibly because this grade is traditionally the start of high school and may be perceived to be more challenging than prior grades. Language subjects are more commonly tutored in the younger grades as are general study skills. Specific sciences (Biology, Chemistry and Physics), and specific humanities (History, Geography and Business) are more likely to be tutored in grades 11 and 12 when they become options beyond general science and general humanities offered in the middle years up to grade 10. SAT/ACT and IELTs/TOEFL for Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   49 university application to the USA are also more common in grade 10 and 11 due to students beginning to plan for their university applications.   There are small gender differences in subjects for tutoring shown in Appendix F. These indicate slightly greater Math tutoring for boys (65% for boys versus 49% for girls) and slightly greater English tutoring for girls (61% for girls versus 46% for boys). In the sciences and the languages, there are even smaller variations between boys and girls. However, in humanities more girls receive tutoring (24% for girls versus 8% for boys). These results are surprising and deviate from findings reported in the literature. The only studies that showed gender variation were two that indicated greater tutoring in Math for girls in Poland and Ireland (Safarznska, 2013; Smyth, 2008), and one study that showed greater numbers of girls taking of SAT tutoring in the US (Buchmann, Condron & Roscigno, 2010). The Vanwest data, when we look at the whole school division, does not correspond to either of these for either gender or tutoring subjects. In grade 11 and 12 general Science, Social Studies and Math are broken down into different disciplines. Students choose Chemistry, Biology or Physics; History, Geography or Business and one of three levels of Math (Higher, Standard or Studies). Further breakdown of the data for grade 11 and 12 in Appendix E reveals some interesting gender differences. For Chemistry and Spanish only girls are tutored in both grade 11 and 12. In grade 11 girls form all tutees in Mandarin, History, Geography, Business, General Studies and SAT/ACT. Grade 11 girls are the majority in French, Biology, Art and English and in grade 12 they are the majority in SAT/ACT. Roughly equal numbers of girls and boys are tutored in grade 11 Math, Science and Chemistry and grade 12 Biology. Boys are not the majority of tutees in any grade 11 subject. Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   50 They are however the only Chemistry, Physics, Socials and Art tutees and the majority in Math and English for grade 12.  In studies of school subject selection and gender (Francis, 2000 and Colley & Comber, 2003) advanced Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry were more frequently selected by boys than girls. Biology is the only science course more frequently chosen by girls. In grade 12 at Vanwest school these patterns are replicated; 92% of physics students, 65% of Chemistry, and 75% of advanced Mathematics students are boys. In the basic math course and Biology girls were the majority at 55% and 62% respectively. This effect is less evident in the grade 11 group this year but in previous years the gender based subject selection pattern noted in the literature is evident in Vanwest. Gender had an impact in terms of girls receiving a higher total number of hours of tutoring per week compared to boys; 30% of girls compared to 11% boys receive 5 or more hours of tutoring per week and, in terms of the average number of hours per week, girls receive 4.8 and boys receive 2.8. All students receiving more than 9 hours of tutoring per week are girls including 2 at 10 hours, and 1 at each of 11, 13 and 16 total hours of tutoring. These numbers are also surprising and a departure from the literature. They indicate that gender is of importance in some aspects of tutoring. It is not clear why this is the case at Vanwest school. However it would benefit the school to investigate further.  There may be something about the way the classes are structured or taught that is causing gender to be significant. The school has roughly 60% boys and 40% girls on average in each grade.  Considering the relationship between citizenship and tutoring as shown in Appendix G, there are not many significant differences between Canadians, permanent residents and visa Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   51 students. What is interesting is that all of the general study skills students are Canadian and all of the Mandarin tutoring is received by Canadians. General study skills may be accessed by parents who may be looking to support skill development across subjects, whereas non-Canadian parents may consider subject-specific tutoring more helpful for their child. In addition, taking information from the school database, the majority of special educational needs students with IEPs are Canadians and these students are more likely to seek out general study skills tutoring. When we look at the languages spoken at home (Appendix H), Mandarin speakers have higher percentages of tutoring in almost all subjects except for Mathematics and Mandarin. Mandarin speakers form the majority of students being tutored in SAT/ACT and all of the students receiving Art studio tutoring. These data on Mandarin speakers confirm the findings reported in the literature. The exception to this pattern is that roughly equal percentages of English and Mandarin speakers, at Vanwest receive tutoring in English This may be due to an emphasis in the BC education system on literacy and writing skills, which might explain why all parents are concerned about it regardless of their language backgrounds.  Table 11 shows the data on the delivery method of tutoring used by students: either one-to-one, face-to-face class, or online. Overall one-to-one tutoring was the most popular at 66% of all respondents, nearly two times more frequently occurring than tutoring in face-to-face classes, which was the second most popular at 31% of all respondents. Only a handful of students (3%) received tutoring through online methods. The latter is a surprise as the literature, particularly Burch (2006) and Burch, Donovan and Steinberg (2006) indicates that online tutoring is becoming more common. Because no baseline data is available, it is unclear whether the use of online tutoring is rising among Vanwest students, however the study findings indicate that online tutoring is not prevalent among Vanwest students. Parents clearly prefer personal face-to-face Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   52 attention in tutoring for their children. This may not be surprising because these are parents who have chosen an independent school, and independent schools tend to have small class sizes and can offer greater individualized, face-to-face attention to students. It seems to follow that these values are also reflected in these parents’ choices related to tutoring.  In terms of subject differences, Mathematics, English, General Science, Biology, Physics, Mandarin, French and Social Studies were most frequently tutored one-on-one. However, Chemistry, History, Business, Design/IT, SAT/ACT, AP or Ministry courses and university agents were more commonly tutored in classes rather than one-on-one. While it is difficult to know why this is the case for some of these subjects, SAT/ACT tutoring is most commonly offered as classes in certified test training centres such as Princeton Review. Art, Physics and IELTS/TOEFL showed an even spread of occurrence between one-on-one tutoring and class-based methods.  Art tutoring studios tend to provide classes and IELTS/TOEFL, similar to SAT/ACT, are frequently offered as classes in certified training centres.  Table 11 Students Tutored by Delivery Method and Subject (number and percent)  Subject One-on-one Face-to-Face  Class Online Mathematics 22 (69%) 8 (25%) 2 (6%) English 23 (77%) 7 (23%) 0 General Science 9 (75%) 2 (17%) 1 (8%) Biology 4 (80%) 1 (20%) 0 Chemistry 1 (33%) 2 (66%) 0 Physics 3 (60%) 2 (40%) 0 French 7 (88%) 1 (12%) 0 Mandarin 9 (82%) 2 (18%) 0 Spanish 1 (33%) 1 (33%) 1 (33%) Socials Studies 5 (83%) 1 (17%) 0 History 0 2 (100%) 0 Geography 1 (100%) 0 0 Business 1 (50%) 1 (50%) 0 Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   53 Art 5 (50%) 5 (50%) 0 Design/IT 0 1 (100%) 0 General Study Skills 2 (66%) 1 (33%) 0 SSAT 0 1 (100%) 0 SAT/ACT 1 (14%) 5 (72%) 1 (14%) IELTS/TOEFL 1 (50%) 1 (50%) 0 AP/Ministry course 0 1 (100%) 0 University agent 0 1 (100%) 0 Total (144) 95 (66%) 44 (31%) 5 (3%)  Data in Appendices I, J, K and L further breaks down the tutoring delivery method and examines it in relation to other variables. One to one is most common across grade, gender, citizenship and language at home. Classes are the second most common and online tutoring is the least common by far. Within this general pattern, we can see face-to-face in-class tutoring is more popular in grade 8, amongst girls and Mandarin speakers. The majority of online tutees are in grade 11, are girls, speak English at home and are Canadians. Students may feel more confident to manage online learning if they are older and have stronger English skills. On the other hand face-to-face classes may be popular with younger students others due to the familiarity of the method and a preference for a live teacher to interact with.          Table 12 shows the data on the location of tutoring services used by students. Private individual tutors predominate with 50% of respondents using them. This is followed by services at tutoring centres at 39%. Least popular were franchised centres at only 11%, representing only one tenth of the number of students utilizing private individual tutors or tutoring at centres. Tutoring centres are operated by individuals and offer a number of tutoring services whereas tutoring franchises are businesses where a local owner provides services under an established national or international brand and receives the benefit of centralized marketing, training, pre-packaged tutoring systems and educational products to sell. Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   54  In terms of individual subjects, Math, English, Mandarin, Business and study skills were accessed mainly through individual tutors. Science, French, Socials, Art, SAT/ACT and IELTS/TOEFL were most commonly sought through both tutoring and franchise centres. For Art, SAT/ACT and IELTS/TOEFL the responses match other data on the type of tutoring and hours. As mentioned above, these subjects are more likely to be in classes due to being offered in certified centres in the case of SAT/ACT and IELTS/TOEFL, or using studio space in the case of Art. There may have been a possible misunderstanding of this question on tutoring type as the numbers for tutoring type and tutoring location do not match. Several respondents recorded no answers to this question regarding tutoring location, despite answering other questions in the survey. The question might have been more successful if it had been separated into two; one on type and one on location, and if it used terms like teaching method (rather than tutoring type) and tutoring service provider type (rather than tutoring location). There seems to have been some confusion about what a franchise tutoring centre was compared to a tutoring centre. These terms were differentiated but not explicitly defined in the survey. The implication is that the data on the different choices made by parents between tutoring centres and tutoring franchises may not have been clearly delineated in the survey. Thus the differences between tutoring centre types may not be clearly indicated, although the distinction between tutoring provided by private individual and tutoring provided by centres is clear. Table 12 Students Tutored by Type of Provider and Subject (number and percent)  Subject Private individual Tutoring Centre Franchise Tutoring  Centre Mathematics 13 (52%) 7 (28%) 5 (20%) Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   55 English 9 (64%) 4 (28%) 1 (8%) Science 2 (29%) 3 (42%) 2 (29%) Biology 2 (50%) 2 (50%) 0 Chemistry 0 0 0 Physics 2 (66%) 1 (33%) 0 French 1 (20%) 4 (80%) 0 Mandarin 5 (100%) 0 0 Spanish 0 0 0 Socials 0 1 (100%) 0 History 0 0 0 Geography 0 0 0 Business 1 (100%) 0 0 Art 0 4 (100%) 0 Design/IT 0 0 0 General Study Skills 1 (100%) 0 0 SSAT 0 0 0 SAT/ACT 0 2 (100%) 0 IELTS/TOEFL 0 1 (100%) 0 AP/Ministry course 0 0 0 University agent 0 0 0 Total (72)  36 (50%) 28 (39%) 8 (11%)  Cross analysis of the data on tutoring provider, shown in Appendices M, N, O and P, indicates that private tutoring by individuals is more popular amongst males, Canadians and Permanent residents and English speakers. Tutoring centres are equal to or more important for grades 7, 9, 10 and 12 and for visa students. Tutoring centre classes and private individuals were equally popular with Mandarin speakers.  Table 13 shows the responses to the question regarding types of tutoring, other than those delineated in the survey, used by students. This question was open ended and allowed parents to list other subjects their children received tutoring in. These are shown in the number of students receiving each type of tutoring and the number of hours per week. 28 respondents answered these questions and it indicates that some students have other activities for which they receive Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   56 tutoring. However the current study does not deal with music, acting or other classes that are not academic tutoring as defined in this study, hence this data is not significant to this study. Table 13 Other Types of Tutoring Used  Type Number Hours Music 4 0.5 to 1 Acting 1 6 Japanese 1 1 Executive Functioning for time and organization 1 1 Public speaking 2 0.5 None 19  Note: The survey specified that tutoring did not include extracurricular activities such as religious classes, sports, arts, music or dance classes.  Referring to Table 14, respondents most commonly report one or two hours per week of tutoring; 48% reporting one hour of tutoring per week and 38% reporting two hours per week. Far fewer respondents (6%) report three or more hours per week for a subject. Of particular note are the responses for Art and SAT/ACT classes. Art tutoring involves longer sessions in studio settings where students need extended time to work on art pieces for their portfolios. SAT/ACT classes tend to be longer sessions as they involve practicing exam questions and conditions. Rather than being run over a number of months, they tend to be run over weeks just prior to an examination and, thus, they tend to be more intense. The longer hours in English reported by some respondents could be explained by students in ESL programs that are designed to rapidly improve English skills.   Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   57 Table 14 Tutoring By Subject and Number of Hours per Week  1 hour 2 hours 3 hours 4 hours 5 hours 6 hours Math 22 12 2 1 0 0 English 14 13 3 2 1 1 Science 4 4 0 0 0 0 Biology 3 0 1 0 0 0 Chemistry 0 2 0 0 0 0 Physics 1 2 0 0 0 0 French 4 2 0 0 0 0 Mandarin 9 3 1 1 0 0 Spanish 0 1 0 0 0 0 Socials 1 1 0 0 0 0 History 1 0 0 0 0 0 Geography 1 0 0 0 0 0 Business 0 1 0 0 0 0 Art 3 5 0 1 0 2 Design 0 0 0 0 0 0 General Study Skills 1 1 0 0 0 0 SSAT 0 0 0 0 0 0 SAT/ACT 1 3 1 1 0 1 IELTS/TOEFL 0 1 0 0 0 0 AP/Ministry course 0 0 0 0 0 0 University agent 0 0 0 0 0 0 Total (135) 65 (48%) 51 (38%) 8 (6%) 6 (4%) 1 (<1%) 4 (3%)  The time spent on tutoring in relation to grade, gender, citizenship and language spoken at home is shown in Appendices Q, R, S and T. The majority of students have 1 or 2 hours of tutoring per subject per week. However there are some in grade 8, 10 and 11 who receive up to 6 hours of tutoring in a subject each week. Girls receive more hours of tutoring compared to boys. 30% of girls receive more than 3 hours of tutoring per week, whereas only 3% of boys do. All of the parents reporting four and five hours of tutoring per week had female children in the school division and the majority of participants who reported six hours of tutoring per week were Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   58 reporting about girls. Citizenship had no significant impact on the length of tutoring per week, although Mandarin speakers have more hours than English speakers. This may be because Mandarin speakers, as recent arrivals to Canadian education, felt the need to have tutoring to catch up. It is also likely influenced by cultural practices in East Asia where tutoring is commonplace. The longer hours are SAT/ACT classes, Art studio and English classes. These types of tutoring are affected by the nature of the class. Practice exams and art projects require longer sessions than other types of tutoring.  In terms of total hours of tutoring per week, shown in Appendices U, V, W and X, the total hours increased by grade to a peak in grade 11. Most common were 1 or 2 hours of total tutoring per week, but significant numbers (20%) access four or more hours per week and 39% of grade 11 students were in this category. Students in grade 6 have just begun the middle years program at the school and parents may feel they need to assist their children in getting ahead or managing the increased level of challenge in the new program. Grade 8 had a slightly higher number of total tutors, likely due to the perceived increase in academic challenge with the traditional start of high school. At Vanwest School there is 25% turnover in students between grade 7 and 8, with students leaving to go to other schools and new applicants joining the school for grade 8.  Many new parents may feel the need to boost their children’s chances of success as they start in a new school with a challenging academic program. Grade 12 sees a drop in the total hours of tutoring and this is likely due to the students being more used to the rigorous diploma programme by their second year in grade 12 and that their acceptance to university has already been secured and they may feel it in unnecessary to work so hard.  Citizenship affected the total number of hours with higher average hours shown by Visa students (at 4.8 hours per week) and Permanent resident students (at 4.6 hours per week) Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   59 compared to Canadians who on average have 3.3 hours per week Appendix W.  This pattern is repeated when we look at the number who have 5 or more hours per week. 16% of Canadians, 33% of Permanent residents and 40% of visa students have 5 or more hours per week. Interestingly, it was Canadian students who had the two largest number of hours; 13 and 16. If these are removed from the data, the larger numbers of hours for the permanent residents and visa students becomes even more significant. Language spoken at home displayed a similar pattern to citizenship with English speakers having 2.5 hours per week and Mandarin and Cantonese speakers having 4.8 and 4 hours respectively (Appendix X). Students with more than 5 hours per week of total tutoring were 8% for English speakers but 34% of Mandarin speakers.  All of the students with 8 or more hours per week spoke Mandarin at home. The subjects with longer tutoring sessions were completely or largely dominated by Mandarin speakers; Art (100%), IELTS (100%) and SAT (80%). There is a likely connection between citizenship and language at home, at least for visa students and permanent residents, the majority of whom are from China and Taiwan and speak Mandarin at home. As noted earlier, the influence of cultural patterns of tutoring are in effect here.  Reasons for Accessing Tutoring and Issues with Tutoring The survey asked respondents to report the reasons why they accessed tutoring. There were eleven statements to choose from and respondents were given the option to choose as many reasons as applied to their situation. Seventy respondents (42%) answered this question and most gave multiple reasons for choosing to access tutoring for their children. These data are ranked in Table 15. The most common reasons for choosing tutoring are improving grades (26 responses) Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   60 and seeking enrichment (26 responses). These are closely followed by preparation for examinations (23 responses) and providing help that parents cannot (22 responses), increasing a child’s confidence (22 responses), university preparation (21 responses) and dealing with subject difficulties (21 responses). Improving organization and study skills is slightly less important  (18 responses). Less important, in terms of reporting in the survey, were concerns about children falling behind (12 responses). The responses from parents indicate the same sorts of reasons as reported across the literature. The ranking of responses in this survey roughly corresponds with the literature, which indicated that the top reasons for parents were test preparation, preparation and competition for university including getting higher grades. This was followed by parent’s inability to assist their children and wanting enrichment beyond school curriculum for their child. Self-esteem and child confidence were of much lower significance. Interestingly, enrichment was more important  in the Vanwest survey than in other studies in the literature. By far the lowest response rate was related to children who could not access out of school help from teachers (5 responses). This is not surprising as most of the teachers offer before school, lunch and after school sessions for catch-up and additional assistance or their students. This is an expectation that the school has of its faculty and it is part of the school culture. The school has a policy that strongly encourages students to meet with their teacher if they are having academic difficulties or need extra tutorials before seeking outside supplementary tutoring. This is communicated in the staff, student and parent handbooks given out at the beginning of the school year.    Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   61 Table15 Frequency of Reasons for Accessing Tutoring Reason Total number of responses I wanted academic enrichment for my child 26 I wanted my child to receive higher grades 26 I wanted my child to be better prepared for examinations 23 I cannot assist my child by myself 22 I wanted my child to be more confident 22 I wanted my child to be better prepared for university. 21 My child was having difficulty with homework or classwork. 21 I wanted my child to receive assistance with organization or study skills 18 My child had fallen behind and I wanted them to catch up. 12 I wanted to make sure my child does not fall behind their peers. 12 My child has not been able to access sufficient out-of -school help from teachers at the school. 5   A more detailed breakdown of the reasons respondents gave for choosing tutoring for their children, by grade, gender, citizenship and language spoken at home, is shown in Appendices Y, Z, AA and BB. There is no significant difference in the pattern of responses based on gender. Data for the higher grades, 10, 11 and 12, show a greater number wanting their child to be better prepared for university, for examination preparation or for higher grades. These three reasons are logically related as better exam results lead to better grades which in turn lead to acceptance at more competitive universities. The numbers for academic enrichment, or tutoring that extends content and skills beyond what required and delivered in school classes, were higher for grades 6, 7 and 8. Grade 8 and 11 showed 50% of respondents were concerned with not being able to assist their child themselves, possibly due to the change in academic challenge brought about by joining the school in grade 8 or joining the IB Diploma Programme in grade 11 or limited time due to parents’ work commitments. University preparation was Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   62 important for visa students and speakers of Mandarin. Development of organization skills was frequently chosen by English speakers and only Mandarin speakers reported an inability to access out-of-school help from teachers.  In total there were 68 responses to the question about issues that had been experienced by families employing tutors. Interestingly 16 (46%) of the English-speaking respondents commented, whereas only 6 (19%) of Mandarin speaking respondents answered this question. It would appear that English speakers felt more comfortable communicating their thoughts in the open ended format of this question. The responses are grouped in Table 16 by the major issues raised in the written comments. Of these, 45 (66%) of respondents presented no issues with tutoring or indicated they were happy with the progress their child was making through the use of a tutor. The other 23 (34%) reported a variety of concerns. The two most frequently reported were: firstly, time, including time available to receive tutoring, issues of scheduling, lack of time in the student’s schedule and effective use of the time with the tutor; and secondly, the relationship between the tutoring received and the school curriculum and pedagogy, including a lack of tutor awareness of the school curriculum, different teaching styles between tutors and school teachers and limited knowledge of the school programs. To a lesser degree parents mentioned tutors’ inexperience, incompatibility between the tutor and their child, potential over-reliance of children on tutors, and lack of progress with some tutors. Table 16 Issues Related to Tutoring Reported by Parents Not applicable (do not have tutors) 11 responses  No Issues 30 responses (16 without comment) Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   63 Reported We did have a math tutor in the past with no concerns None it has been only a positive experience None, it has proven beneficial None, since we have not provided tutoring for our son. None. We have found it useful for enrichment purposes on this occasion. None-it's working really well. No concerns, tutors are professional and know their area of expertise. Not that I am aware of We have not done tutoring with our children...our eldest went to tutoring in two places, one she learned nothing and basically had people walk her through homework, the other was incredible and she was enriched greatly in mathematics. We have not seen a need for our other children to receive tutoring  He is happy with his SAT tutoring. Has helped him in past. My child had tutoring in math for five years She really enjoys the safety of making mistakes and learning in a confidential area and away from her peers and peer judgement; bonding with her tutor has made her try harder to do a better job - feeling of responsibility Mandarin tutoring at home is a satisfactory factor for me as a parent to know that my son is doing well in a second language. Language I can't support him with. Continuity of work helps them. I top up with my help on projects. My kids want to prove that they can succeed without any support from myself.  Not meeting expectations  Some subjects have been improving, but most of them are still not progress![sic]  Sometimes self-study is more efficient, working better than tutoring. Still nervous during test.  Compatibility of student and tutor Sometimes my child didn't like the tutor or she cannot understand what the tutor said. Then we may change another tutor. [sic] The tutor is dependent on the student effectively communicating what they are doing at school.  Sometimes I have a different idea of what my son should be learning than the tutor does.   Tutor’s Experience It is difficult to want [sic] to find a teacher with teaching experience.  Levels in class Different level students in the same class is not good for improving skills. 1 on 1 with teacher doesn't always work if there are other students there first  Over reliance Become too reliant on the tutor and lose independence in thinking, analyzing, Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   64 on the tutor collecting resources and summarizing.   Lack of consistency between tutoring and school (curriculum and pedagogy) Tutor may not completely understand course objectives. Not consistent with the school Not matching with IB English examination requirements Tutors direct access to teachers and curriculum We haven't used tutoring yet, but may do so soon.  Concerns would be whether the tutoring fits the DP program. Sometimes we are not sure if the tutor is helping the student on things that are relevant to what he is doing in school.  Time Time. Most outside/ independent tutors often work as teachers during the day and therefore cannot privately tutor until evening. This is very tiresome for the student as it makes for a very long school day. Trying to get proper hours so the individual isn't brain dead before they get there Having had tutors in the past, my main concern that the time spent is used effectively. Lack of time for other school commitments and extracurricular activities Extra time to spend at the centre, schedule adjustment is difficult, weekend is blocked. I would prefer my kids join sports instead.  If my child's timetable doesn't work that week with the teacher then one could fall behind  Student resisting tutoring My son often asks why he has to go, feeling that he already knows what he is learning, while in reality he doesn't.   Having our child own the tutoring, rather than having it imposed on him [researcher assumes this is by the parent]. Sometimes there is an issue of practicing at home what he has learned at tutoring; we both have to remember to do it.   Cost The cost is an issue Expensive.  There were 62 parents who took the opportunity to respond to the final question on the survey, an open-ended question that asked if they had any additional comments to make. These responses are shown in Table 17. The responses were searched for common themes. Common themes were named and the comments were then categorized according to the major concern or Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   65 issue indicated. The 62 responses fall into six categories: No issues or not applicable; have not found it necessary to use tutors; successfully using tutors; would use tutoring if necessary; issues with the school; and concerns with tutoring. Eleven stated they had no comment or the question was not applicable; 12 are not using tutors and not intending to do so; 9 are not currently making use of tutors but indicate they would if necessary in the future. There are 4 comments that indicate disagreement with the (assumed) school policy toward tutoring and 10 concerns similar to those raised in the question on tutoring issues; that is time, tutor’s experience, compatibility, over-reliance on tutors and disconnection with the school curriculum or program.  Table 17 Additional Comments by Parents Regarding Tutoring N/A  11 responses indicating that the question was not applicable or there are no issues, or their children do not have tutors.  Have not found it necessary to use  tutors My first child graduated from this school completing his entire K-12 education at this site.  We did not access any additional tutoring. Now in third year at one of Canada's best universities, my child continues to excel and to demonstrate accomplishment of a highly appropriate and complete preparation for advanced studies.    I don't believe that my child needs tutoring unless he cannot keep up with the curriculum. At that point, we would evaluate if the IB programme is suited for him or not.   Have thought about tutoring but feel that our son is doing well and therefore tutoring would be for getting him ahead not helping him keep up. With everything else he's involved with we therefore have not pursued tutoring or felt it necessary at this time   I believe the teachers at the school are the most qualified to teach Jack the IB curriculum. If he needs extra help, he goes to his teachers   I do not feel that my child requires tutoring as the quality of instruction at the school is such that tutoring is not required.  In addition, I believe that the smaller class size enables the teacher to do his/her job effectively and each student can then receive the attention/help they need to be successful in school.  I have other children in public school that required tutoring and I believe it is due in part to class size.   I have researched various forms of extra assistance for my daughter this past year but her teachers have made arrangements for additional assistance such as math club and meeting for extra help at lunch.  This has made tutoring unnecessary   It really shouldn't be necessary in a private school Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   66   My child should not need to receive tutoring if they understand the basic of what is being taught   Our son has performed exceptionally well in school without the assistance of tutoring.  The quality of education and teaching is at a high standard   We do not use tutors - dad helps with homework if needed   We haven't found it necessary.  His marks are reasonable and he is receiving a well rounded education.   We are fortunate to not have needed this service so far   Successfully using tutors As for Art, my child has strong interest towards Arts; As for English, it is not his native language, additional attention is needed for his advancement.   For my daughter it is essential to her learning and has made her perform better in other courses as well.   If tutors are suitable for my child, they can help her a lot.   My son gets very specific tutoring with skills primarily that [sic] aren't being taught directly at school.  These skills, such as grammar, phonics, and spelling, help fill in the blanks that are missing.  Also he is learning how to type, which is crucial. For him, tutoring is not a way for him to be ahead of his class, but to keep up, as he has an IEP.   It really helps him to improve.   It's really helpful, I wish they offered it on site at school   The Supplementary Private tutoring helps my child's education since her first language is not English.   There was no option for 'fun' - or for half an hour! Our child gets half an hour of tutor Maths fun/quizzes per week - not stressful; it's just to keep it enjoyable for him.   Tutoring is necessary for my child who just comes [sic] to Canada recently and who have [sic] a dream to get a good future.   We don’t like the idea of extra tutoring till grade 9, our son is taking extra help to do his homework and his project.   We have a great ACT prep tutor. Hopefully some of the techniques learned will help in school as well.   Tutoring has a valid place in the process of educating our child.  The teachers provide assistance outside the classroom, which is fantastic.  Our child takes advantage of that service regularly, and values it.  However, in certain circumstances the tutoring gives our child just that much more of an explanation, which results in the lesson being understood.   Tutoring sets a specific time for subject study on a weekly basis with immediate tutor parent interaction to know the progress of students or area of improvement. This regular interaction supports consolidated better academic result for the student.   Very important for 1-1 and boost of confidence Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   67   We chose to hire a math tutor as it has seemed clear that Math instruction in the class has never at any grade been enough to support our children throughout their academic life and more importantly they have built confidence through this process.   Would use tutoring if necessary DP is jumping too quick, my child could not absorb all the new things at once, and I think tutoring can help them understand the material easily.   I am constantly looking for a good math tutor and planning to have a math tutor for both of my children   I would absolutely pay for tutoring if my child's teacher or I felt it necessary.   If my child needed more academic help, I would first look for help within the school before getting it outside. I do not believe in Kumon style tutoring and learning by rote.   I would like the teachers to let us know that my child needs a tutor and not get bad grade.   The IB curriculum is quite vigorous.  Although my children do not require tutoring now, I believe they might require it in the near future.   This specific tutoring would likely benefit all students and would be terrific if could be offered through the school   We have wondered if it would be worthwhile to engage a Math tutor. Our son has expressed that had he had one earlier in his schooling career that he would be more comfortable and nimble with the material. Next to folks with tutoring, he experiences something of the difference and wonders if it might have shaped is growth and strength as a mathematician. Good questions.   Would be interested in more information if 2nd child would benefit from tutoring   Issues with the school Private individual tutoring has a place in my child's education despite the school saying we don't need tutors outside of school.  The tutor goes over new work, makes sure my child understand the new concepts by having him do questions.  The tutor reviews concepts my child understands and this reinforces the skills for my child.   School teachers, math and physics, do not seem to offer enough guidance in preparing students step-by-step in the IB course. A bit disappointed. In contrast, the chemistry teacher is excellent.   Teachers at the school have many other responsibilities (sports teams, accompanying other grade school trips) so are often unavailable for 1 on 1 tutoring to fit my child's schedule   The school informs parents that no tutors are allowed for the students.  I disagree and have hired a tutor for my child.   Concerns with tutoring I hope my child could be absent from tutoring when she is too busy at school. Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   68   I personally feel that once you fall in the trap of using outside tutor, it becomes a habit that is tough to break. It is difficult to know when to stop.   Important that tutors have sufficient info regarding teaching curriculum and students' academic progress   Tutoring provides additional practices in addition to what is given at school. However, it should not be used as a way to improve their homework.   I hope the teaching more normalize and systematize.[researcher assumes this means more regimented and organized]   Tutoring should assist the child by complementing what he has already learned and reinforcing what has been taught, so it is important that the tutor understands the DP program courses offered at the school. [researcher understands this to indicate the importance of the tutor understanding the school’s program]    It was my understanding that the school and IB does not look favourably on outside tutoring?  As well, your survey only asks me about my child in the present - at this time he is not doing any outside tutoring so that is how I responded, however he has received past tutoring for 2 years previous to this current year- so I didn't know how to answer that.   We spent lots of money with no long term help (bandaid) now we have no tutoring, same overall understanding, lower grades however.  I would love to teach my kids but time is an issue. I can't afford to sit with my children on regular basis due to multi tasks I do  Haven't really found tutoring to be of much value.  It also time consuming when there are so many other activities on the go  I have strong concern about the possibility of widespread tutoring with the objective of excelling in class as opposed to those who have learning problems and have tutors to keep up.  But I have no data but kids say most of the class is tutored.  I think this would lead to unfairly fast teaching and self esteem problems.  And just plain poorer marks than others.  The responses in Tables 16 and 17 indicate that similar issues concern parents at the school compared to issues raised in the data from the literature. These include time, lack of balance in student’s lives due to over-tutoring, tutor credentials and disconnects with the school program. Interestingly there are few comments related to cost or social inequalities created through tutoring. Finally the majority of respondents indicated they had no issues with tutoring with only respondents 15 (25%) indicating a clear concern or problem with the use of tutors for their children. Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   69 The data in Table 17 provides insight into broader views of tutoring which are not available through the other checklist questions with their limited options to choose from. One respondent who is not using tutoring commented that tutoring should not be necessary in a private school. I infer from this comment that they believe an independent school education should already provide enough assistant to students, making external tutoring unnecessary, particularly since the school charges fees. For parents who are accessing tutoring for their children there are comments regarding English skills, most likely referring to EAL students and recent arrivals to Canada. Other comments reference confidence building indicating either a challenge the student may have or a belief on the part of the parents that confidence, however they may perceive it, is a necessary and important characteristic for a student to have in order to achieve success. There are also several comments that indicate that tutoring is part of the educational process or package of services they obtain for their child. Some mention that it is a necessary part of their child’s life or the educational landscape.  Comparing reasons for accessing tutoring (Table 15) with the additional comments (Table 17) a number of common areas can be seen. Parents note in both that tutoring helps their child keep up, perform better or get ahead. There are also similarities in comments on the provision of enrichment, confidence and coping with the change of coming to Canada. For those who indicated they would use tutoring if necessary, the responses suggest that tutoring has become normalized in their community and is seen as an integral part of childrens’ educational experiences, and that these parents will make it part of their child’s educational activities as and when it is required. These parents clearly want to help their child and value their Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   70 child’s success, however that may be defined. Tutoring is considered necessary if it provides a route to that success.  For parents who expressed concerns about tutoring the main issues relate to the quality and effectiveness of the tutoring. For example, issued were raised about tutors not having sufficient knowledge of the school program, not teaching the skills or curriculum or simply not being effective. The latter also relates to comments about challenges in finding a compatible and experienced tutor for their child. These comments point to parents not wanting to waste their child’s time, and probably their own money, on tutors who are not going to be helpful to their child. These concerns are understandable as it is difficult to ascertain the ability of a tutor from the advertising of tutors and tutoring agencies. In addition, concerns about dependency were mentioned, indicating that parents want their children to become independent learners. There is clearly a potential that the wrong tutor might create the opposite effect the parents might have intended.  The data seems to suggest that some parents are conflicted about whether tutoring is the best thing for their child. Parents are aware that tutoring is being used by other students and they don’t want their child to be disadvantaged. This may speak to the increased competitiveness of education generally, particularly admission into universities, and to the competitiveness of parents and students who choose an independent, university preparatory school education. In addition, their children are generally very busy with extra-curricular activities and there also seems to be time stress and scheduling challenges that may be exacerbating their concerns about tutoring. While some extra-curricular activities are expected by the school, children are usually involved in activities organized outside of school. There are many reasons for enrolling in these types of activities, but anecdotal evidence from conversations with families point to a desire to Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   71 ensure children have broad and deep experiences with a variety of athletic, artistic and service type activities as they move through secondary school, partially to prepare them to be competitive candidates for university admissions. Over scheduling of extra-curricular activities could lead to insufficient time for students to complete homework or being tired when trying to complete their work. It would also reduce the time available for tutoring. While Vanwest School has records of the in-school extra-curricular activities of its students, there is no data on the out of school activities. Summary of main findings The results of the survey reveal a number of ways in which the situation at Vanwest School matches the trends in the literature. The school is composed of students from higher socio-economic groups whose parents have the disposable income to assist their children to achieve the highest levels of education; thus they may be more likely to select tutoring for their children in order to accomplish this. The survey results as a whole support this because they show a 42% tutoring rate, higher than the averages in other Canadian studies that gathered data from both public and independent school students. Tutoring generally increases, in terms of hours per week, with grade level and this was shown by the results of the survey, but with grade 8 and 11 showing higher levels, likely due to the perceived increase in academic challenge at these grades: grade 8 being a year when many new students join Vanwest for the first time and grade 11 being the start of the IB diploma programme. Gender has little overall impact on tutoring, but it does seem to influence the number of hours and subjects tutored with girls having larger numbers of both. The subjects selected for tutoring by parents followed the same ranking as found in most surveys in the literature: Math, English, Sciences, Languages and Humanities. In terms of non-academic tutoring, SAT/ACT was the most common affected by the parents’ Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   72 desire for their child to achieve acceptance into American universities. The data on tutoring delivery method  supported expectations, with one-on-one tutoring being most common, followed by face-to-face class tutoring. Interestingly, online tutoring, despite its apparent growth reported in the literature, is not popular with students at the school. Parents from an East Asian cultural background, as indicated by Mandarin spoken at home or by visa and permanent resident status, tended to have higher levels of tutoring for their children, in terms of subjects, hours and number of tutors. The reasons cited by parents for selecting tutoring included expectations of improving grades, receiving enrichment and becoming more competitive, with the upper grades indicating a greater concern about university and exam preparation. In general the issues raised by parents regarding tutoring are not surprising: concerns about time, scheduling, credentials of the tutors and tutors’ knowledge of school programs. Reflections on the limitations of the survey instrument There are a number of areas where the survey was not as successful as it might have been. While there was a good survey response rate (51%), there were some groups who were underrepresented. Specifically, only 26% of non-Canadians completed the survey. Mandarin and Cantonese speakers were under-represented. Language could have been challenge, since the survey was only produced in English. Misunderstanding of questions was a possible issue as well, specifically in relation to the questions regarding tutoring type and location, and the difference between a tutoring centre and the franchise centre. This could have been addressed by including specific definitions in the survey or by using descriptions more recognizable to the respondents.   Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   73 Chapter 5: Implications and Reflections  Implications for the School As a result of this survey and the analysis of the data there is an opportunity for the school to review the implications of the findings and possibly re-assess policy and procedures related to tutoring. There are a number of things that should be noted in this regard. First is that tutoring is extensive and affects all grades in the senior division of the school. This is not surprising since the topic of tutoring and tutors comes up regularly in conversations teachers and administrators have had with students and parents. The school was aware that many children receive tutoring but what was not well understood was the extent and nature of this tutoring. Prior to this study, the evidence that was available was only anecdotal. Now that there is a clearer picture of what is taking place the school has information that it can use to further develop the support it provides to its students and parents.   Secondly, the increase in tutoring at grade 8 and 11 might indicate a perception amongst some parents that grade 8 and grade 11 are particularly challenging. Grade 8 is traditionally the start of high school in the Canadian context and grade 11 is the beginning of the two-year IB Diploma Programme. Parents and students believe there is a significant increase in the level of academic expectations and challenge at these transition points in their education. The magnitude of the change is possibly less important than the perception of it by students and parents. The school should look at how it transitions students through these changes in their education. Currently it holds information meetings for parents and students to explain the upcoming programs, provides information sessions on aspects of the programs (such as assessment) and on university preparation, and provides study skills training for students and parents. Attendance at Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   74 the information sessions is generally about 50% of the parents and this is an area where communication could be improved. Currently the school uses an online calendar and weekly newsletter to inform parents of upcoming events. However these are only listed with an event title, time and location. Monthly grade newsletters with more information on the purpose of the event and how it will benefit parents to attend would be an improvement. Providing translation for Mandarin speaking parents would also be helpful.  Thirdly, some parents seem to be misinformed about the school’s policy and messaging related to tutoring, suggesting that the school does not allow it or that it should not be necessary in an independent school setting. This is worrying as it seems some parents feel they are somehow breaking the rules or at odds with school policy, but want the best for their child. This communication issue does not benefit the school, the parents or the students and it needs to be addressed urgently. In addition, there is some indication that some parents may not be aware of the lunchtime, study block and afterschool sessions that subject teachers offer during the school day. Students are informed of the provision of these tutorial sessions by their subject teachers and academic coordinators and they have been promoted informally during parent-teacher conferences and in periodic meetings and report cards. However, such extra assistance occurs on a case-by-case basis and is not formalized in terms of a deliberate communication to the parent body. A clearer process of communicating this, through the parent and student handbooks and a published schedule of times and locations for teachers would likely help resolve this information gap. While some students take advantage of extra sessions provided by teachers, and they have done so increasingly over the past five years since this provision has become more established, it would be helpful to investigate who is using this service and how it is helping them. Such data would help the school modify its provision to meet the needs of more of the students. Some Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   75 students may find it difficult to seek extra help from their teachers. International students from educational backgrounds where the teacher is not questioned may feel they are insinuating the teacher has not taught properly if they ask for assistance. Quiet or shy students may also find it challenging to initiate the process of asking for help. The school should look at ways to formalize the extra assistance sessions so that more students make use of them. This could be done through an invitation process so the onus is not so much on students to seek help, but rather the teacher who suggests or requests their attendance at the extra tutorial. Once a student is more comfortable with the process and school culture these steps might be less important. Fourth, the school could look at offering more structured tutoring experiences. Looking at the demand for tutoring in Math and English, these subjects might be a place to start as a pilot project and work to add additional subjects if demand was there. In-house tutoring might resolve some of the issues raised by parents with regard to finding a suitable tutor, disconnect between school and tutor, and scheduling and time issues. With a more formalized approach the school would need to decide who would tutor, when and where this would take place and how costs would be covered. Finally, the findings suggest that there are gender implications. The girls are accessing tutoring more frequently than boys. The school has a gender imbalance in most grades with 60% boys and 40% girls on average. In some grades the ratio is greater- up to 75% boys and 25% girls. The school should investigate if this is having an impact on subject choices in the upper grades. This may be significant as in Physics, Chemistry and advanced Mathematics in grade 12 there are significantly more boys enrolled. The school should also investigate why girls are seeking tutoring to see if this is having an impact on tutor choices and if anything needs to change in teaching practices or classroom structures to better support girls. Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   76 Moving forward it will be helpful for the school to provide professional development for staff regarding tutoring, the provision of in-house assistance and addressing the jump between grade 7 and 8 and grade 10 and 11.   Information sessions for parents might also be helpful to clarify the school’s position and to offer guidance and assistance in how to select and make use of tutoring for the specific benefit of the child. A more overt process of involving parents and students in setting educational goals and using tutoring in an appropriate and targeted way might be the best way to serve the needs of the children at the school. Mandarin translation of important written communications, such as the parent handbook, and during information sessions might improve engagement with Chinese parents. Finally, as many parents and students are concerned about university options and ensuring that they are competitive in terms of admission, they often pursue universities based on their perceived reputations and this strategy might not necessarily serve the best interests of the student.  The school should look at how it provides guidance to families when preparing for university applications. Specifically, the school might advise students and their parents about how to select a university that is within their reach and will help the student meet their educational goals. The school is addressing this, having hired a second university advisor last year and ensuring that one of the advisors is a Mandarin speaker. Further steps in this regard should include translation of written guidance materials.   Implications beyond the School While the data and findings of this study are specific to Vanwest School and its students, there may be lessons for other schools that can be gained from this work. All schools would likely benefit from reviewing their policy and procedures related to tutoring. To begin, gathering information about how students use tutors would be necessary to get a sense of how significant, and in what ways, tutoring is for a particular school community and its various constituent Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   77 groups. Once this information is analysed, the school might review its policy and procedures to see if changes need to be made to address issues raised by the findings. Decisions about how to provide students with extra assistance, either formally or informally, may have implications for scheduling, staffing and costs. Schools may wish to partner with tutoring providers or use their own staff. The school would also need to address how it provides services in a manner that deals with disadvantaged students who cannot access tutoring in its current configuration, due to such challenges as time, scheduling, costs and access.  Finally, ensuring that all their messages related to tutoring are clearly communicated to all constituents, including translating into any languages that have significant representation in the community, is essential. Schools cannot afford to have misconceptions about their policies develop within the parent body. Researcher Reflection  This study takes the position that tutoring is well established and its recent increase has been created to a large degree by competition in education. In its crudest form this can be stated; as competition in education increases the demand for tutoring services also increases. Market-based conceptualizations of education have leadled to increased competition between schools and between students. This has been exacerbated by standardized tests, high stakes final exams and ranking of schools. Students in their final years of secondary education are also competing for grades to gain access to universities and colleges that are perceived as being highly ranked. This process reinforces aspects of inequality in education. Neo-liberal critiques of inequality in education, such as Apple (2001) and Van Zanten (2005) point out that schools and school systems disadvantage those groups in society who are least able to compete.  Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   78 The student body at Vanwest school is an advantaged group and only 7 of 310 enrolled students receive some form of bursary and do not pay full tuition fees. The privileged socio-economic class that the students come from contributes to competition. Families’ responses to competition are reflected in their choice of an independent school and their choice to be involved in tutoring, or summer camps or other additional educational experiences. Their economic means allow them greater opportunity and access to various forms of educational services. Students from other backgrounds and less privileged socio-economic situations will not necessarily be able to access similar services despite being in the same competitive educational environment. The school benefits from competition in education. Parents who obtain tutoring for their children are extending the learning beyond what the school can provide during the school day. When tutoring contributes to increased achievement in examinations or access to high-profile universities, the school’s reputation is enhanced and the school can make use of these successes in its marketing. This marketing increases demand for admission to the school among new students who will see Vanwest School as a means to become more competitive themselves and further exacerbates the cycle of competition. Part time jobs or family responsibilities on the part of students were not mentioned by parents who completed the survey. Given their socio-economic background students at Vanwest are not likely involved in these activities and therefore have more free time to pursue formal educational activities. This further privileges them in comparison of other socio-economic groups in the city. Finally, there are issues of language equity, for students new to Canada. While the school has an ESL program for students it takes several years of language support for non-English Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   79 speakers to be able to compete academically. If we also consider the challenges of navigating a new, and sometimes very different school format and pedagogy, and a new cultural and geographic context, students new to Canada are not as advantaged as those who were born here. Students new to Canada may have to spend extra time, effort and expense with tutors to compete with their peers who are native speakers of English.   Suggestions for Further Research There is likely more information that could be gathered on tutoring through further data collection and analysis. I see these potentially falling into two broad categories, tutoring relationships and effectiveness, and equity/access issues. For the former, a future survey might specifically examine parents’ and students’ experiences with tutoring and how successful they have been, or might focus on issues of tutor/student compatibility, knowledge and skill differentials between school and tutor, and the effectiveness of different tutoring methods. Another area of interest would be to investigate the relationship between extra-curricular activities (types, frequency and scheduling) and tutoring. To investigate equity and access issues in tutoring, studies of whether bursary students are disadvantaged by the market for tutoring and how ESL students access tutoring would be interesting. Finally, comparative studies of different schools representing differing socio-economic groups could be undertaken. 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Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   87 Appendix A Tutoring by Grade Grade No tutoring Tutoring 6 16 8 7 11 10 8 13 10 9 15 7 10 16 5 11 13 18 12 11 12 Total 95 70              Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   88 Appendix B Gender and Tutoring Gender No tutoring Tutoring Female 42 33 (44%) Male 53 37 (41%) Total 95 70 (42%)                       Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   89 Appendix C Citizenship and Tutoring Citizenship No tutoring Tutoring Canadian 83 56 (40%) Permanent Resident 6 9 (60%) Visa 6 5 (45%) Total 95 70 Note: No tutoring responses for Permanent residents = 6 (2 x China, 1 x Philippines, 1 x Brazil, 1 times England, 1 x unknown); for Visa students = 6 (2 x Austria, 1 x Sweden, 1 x Singapore, 1 x Italy, 1 x USA).Tutoring responses for Permanent resident = 9 (7 x China, 1 x Philippines, 1 x unknown); for Visa students  = 5 (2 x China, 1 x Taiwan, 1 x Austria, 1 x New Zealand)                  Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   90 Appendix D Language at Home and Tutoring Language at home No tutoring Tutoring English 76  34 (31%)  Mandarin 7 32 (82%) Punjabi 3 2 (40%) German 2 1 (50%) Cantonese 2 1 (50%) Farsi 1 0 French 1 0 Portuguese 1 0 Russian 2 0 Total 95 70 (42%)                 Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   91 Appendix E Grade and Tutoring Subjects Subject Grade 6 (8) Grade 7 (10) Grade 8 (10) Grade 9 (7) Grade 10 (5) Grade 11 (18) Grade 12 (12)        girls boys girls boys  Math 3 6 5 4 3 7 6 2 4 40 English 7 4 6 4 3 6 3 1 3 37 Science 0 2 3 1 2 1 1 0 1 11 Biology 0 0 0 0 1 3 4 1 1 7 Chemistry 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 3 Physics 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 1 5 French 3 1 0 0 1 2 1 0 0 8 Mandarin 2 5 3 2 0 1 0 0 0 13 Spanish 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 2 Socials 1 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 1 6 History 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 Geography 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 Business 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 2 Art 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 0 1 11 Design 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 General Study Skills 0 1 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 4 SSAT 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 SAT/ACT 0 0 1 0 1 3 0 2 1 8 IELTS/TOEFL 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 AP/Ministry course 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 University agent 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Total (166) 18 20 29 12 16 49 21 166 Average 2.25 2 2.9 1.7 3.2 2.7 1.75  Note: some students receive tutoring in more than one subject. In the Grade column heading the number of students receiving tutoring in that grade is in brackets.     Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   92 Appendix F Females and Males Being Tutored (number and percentage) Subjects Female (33) Male (37) Math 16 (49%) 24 (64%) English 20 (61%) 17 (46%) Science 3 (9%) 8 (22%) Biology 5 (15%) 2 (5%) Chemistry 3 (9%) 0 Physics 2 (6%) 3 (8%) French 6 (18%) 2 (19%) Mandarin 4 (12%) 9 (24%) Spanish 2 (6%) 0 Socials 3 (9%) 3 (8%) History 2 (6%) 0 Geography 1 (3%) 0 Business 2 (6%) 0 Art 6 (18%) 5 (14%) Design 0 1 (3%) General Study Skills 2 (6%) 2 (5%) SSAT 0 1 (3%) SAT/ACT 5 (15%) 3 (8%) IELTS/TOEFL 1 (3%) 1 (3%) AP/Ministry course 0 1 (3%) University agent 0 1 (3%) Total (166) 83 83 Average 2.5 2.2       Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   93 Appendix G Citizenship and Subjects Subjects Canadian (56) Permanent Resident (9) Visa (5) Total Math 34 4 2 40 English 29 6 2 37 Science 10 1 0 11 Biology 7 0 0 7 Chemistry 3 0 0 3 Physics 3 1 1 5 French 4 1 3 8 Mandarin 13 0 0 13 Spanish 2 0 0 2 Socials 4 2 0 6 History 2 0 0 2 Geography 0 0 1 1 Business 2 0 0 2 Art 7 2 2 11 Design 1 0 0 1 General Study Skills 4 0 0 4 SSAT 1 0 0 1 SAT/ACT 5 2 1 8 IELTS/TOEFL 2 0 0 2 AP/Ministry course 1 0 0 1 University agent 1 0 0 1 Total (166) 135 19 12 166 Average 2.4 2.1 2.4        Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   94 Appendix H Language at Home and Tutoring Subjects Subjects English Mandarin Punjabi German Cantonese Total Math 21 17 1 0 1 40 English 17 18 2 0 0 37 Science 7 3 1 0 0 11 Biology 5 2 0 0 0 7 Chemistry 1 2 0 0 0 3 Physics 1 4 0 0 0 5 French 2 5 0 1 0 8 Mandarin 8 5 0 0 0 13 Spanish 2 0 0 0 0 2 Socials 2 3 1 0 0 6 History 2 0 0 0 0 2 Geography 0 1 0 0 0 1 Business 0 2 0 0 0 2 Art 0 11 0 0 0 11 Design 0 1 0 0 0 1 General Study Skills 2 2 0 0 0 4 SSAT 0 1 0 0 0 1 SAT/ACT 2 6 0 0 0 8 IELTS/TOEFL 0 2 0 0 0 2 AP/Ministry course 0 1 0 0 0 1 University agent 0 1 0 0 0 1 Total subjects 72 87 5 1 1 166 # students 34 32 2 1 1  Average 2.1 2.7 2.5 1 1          Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   95 Appendix I Grade and Tutoring Delivery Method Type Grade 6 (8) Grade 7 (10) Grade 8 (10) Grade 9 (7) Grade 10 (5) Grade 11 (18) Grade 12 (12) Total One on one 9 13 12 7 15 26 13 95 Face to face  Class 6 2 15 1 0 15 4 43 Online 0 1 0 0 0 4 0 5                                Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   96 Appendix J  Gender and Tutoring Delivery Method  Type Female Male Total One on one 43 52 95 Face to face  Class 32 11 43 Online 4 1 5                       Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   97 Appendix K Citizenship and Tutoring Delivery Method Type Canadian (56) Permanent Resident (9) Visa (5) Total One on one  74 12 9 95 Face to face in Class 39 4 0 43 Online 4 0 1 5                      Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   98 Appendix L Language at Home and Tutoring Delivery Method Type English Mandarin Punjabi German Cantonese Total One on one  44 46 4 1 0 95 Face to face class 13 30 0 0 0 43 Online 4 1 0 0 0 5                      Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   99 Appendix M Grade and Type of Provider  Type Grade 6 (8) Grade 7 (10) Grade 8 (10) Grade 9 (7) Grade 10 (5) Grade 11 (18) Grade 12 (12) Total Private Individual 1 5 6 1 4 15 4 36 Tutoring Centre 0 5 1 1 8 9 4 28 Franchise  Centre 2 2 0 2 0 2 0 8 Note – the numbers do not match between delivery method and type of provider . Some respondents chose either a delivery method  or type of provider  and some chose to answer both.             Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   100 Appendix N Gender and Type of Provider  Type Female Male Total Private Individual 16 20 36 Tutoring Centre 15 13 28 Franchise Centre 2 6 8                       Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   101 Appendix O Citizenship and Type of Provider  Type Canadian (56) Permanent resident (9) Visa (5) Total Private Individual 31 5 0 36 Tutoring Centre 23 2 3 28 Franchise Centre 8 0 0 8                       Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   102 Appendix P Language at Home and Type of Provider  Type English Mandarin Punjabi German Cantonese Total Private Individual 20 15 0 0 1 36 Tutoring Centre  13 14 0 1 0 28 Franchise Centre 6 0 2 0 0 8                       Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   103 Appendix Q Grade and Hours Per Tutoring Subject (per week) Hours Grade 6 Grade 7 Grade 8 Grade 9 Grade 10 Grade 11 Grade 12 Total 1 6 15 6 6 1 19 8 65 2 11 4 4 5 5 15 7 51 3 0 1 0 1 0 4 2 8 4 1 0 1 0 0 4 0 6 5 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 6 0 0 1 0 2 1 0 4                    Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   104 Appendix R Gender and Hours Per Tutoring Subject (per week) Hours Female Male Total 1 30 35 65 2 28 23 51 3 4 4 8 4 6 0 6 5 1 0 1 6 3 1 4                     Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   105 Appendix S Citizenship and Hours Per Tutoring Subject (per week) Hours Canadian Permanent resident Visa Total 1 52 6 7 65 2 39 8 4 51 3 6 1 1 8 4 5 1 0 6 5 1 0 0 1 6 2 2 1 4                     Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   106 Appendix T Language and Hours Per Tutoring Subject (per week) Hours English Mandarin Punjabi German Cantonese Total 1 34 27 1 1 0 65 2 9 38 2 0 2 51 3 6 2 0 0 0 8 4 1 5 0 0 0 6 5 1 0 0 0 0 1 6 0 4 0 0 0 4                    Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   107 Appendix U Total Hours Per Week by Grade Total Hours/week Grade 6 Grade 7 Grade 8 Grade 9 Grade 10 Grade 11 Grade 12 Total unknown      1 1  1 1 3 3 2 3 2 2 16 2 3 4 2 1 0 2 6 18 3 1 0 1 2 0 3 0 7 4 1 1 1 2 0 3 2 10 5 0 1 1 0 0 2 0 4 6 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 5 7 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 3 8 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 11 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 12 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 13 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 14 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 16 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 # Students 8 10 10 7 5 18 12  Average 3.9 2.6 3.5 3 5 5.4 2.3          Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   108 Appendix V Gender and Total Hours Per Week Total Hours/week Female Male Total 1 8 10 18 2 7 10 17 3 3 4 7 4 5 5 10 5 2 2 4 6 3 2 5 7 2 1 3 8 0 1 1 9 0 0 0 10 2 0 2 11 1 0 1 12 0 0 0 13 1 0 1 14 0 0 0 15 0 0 0 16 1 0 1 # Students 33 37  Average 4.8 2.8          Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   109 Appendix W Citizenship and Total Hours Per Week Total Hours/week Canadian Permanent resident Visa Total 1 16 1 1 18 2 15 1 1 17 3 3 3 1 7 4 9 1 0 10 5 4 0 0 4 6 4 1 0 5 7 2 0 1 3 8 1 0 0 1 9 0 0 0 0 10 0 2 0 2 11 0 0 1 1 12 0 0 0 0 13 1 0 0 1 14 0 0 0 0 15 0 0 0 0 16 1 0 0 1 # Students 56 9 5  Average 3.3 4.6 4.8              Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   110 Appendix X Language and Total Hours Per Week Total Hours/week English Mandarin Punjabi German Cantonese Total unknown       1 12 2 1 1 0 16 2 10 6 0 0 2 18 3 3 4 0 0 0 7 4 2 7 1 0 0 10 5 4 0 0 0 0 4 6 2 3 0 0 0 5 7 1 2 0 0 0 3 8 0 1 0 0 0 1 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 0 2 0 0 0 2 11 0 1 0 0 0 1 12 0 0 0 0 0 0 13 0 1 0 0 0 1 14 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 16 0 1 0 0 0 1 # Students 34 32 2 1 1  # of hours 88 128 5 1 4  Average hours per week 2.5 4.8 3 1 4        Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   111 Appendix Y Grade and Reasons For Tutoring (ranked by total) Reason 6 (8) 7 (10) 8 (10) 9 (7) 10 (5) 11 (18) 12 (12) Total I wanted academic enrichment for my child 4 4 5 3 1 5 4 26 I wanted my child to receive higher grades 3 3 2 1 1 10 6 26 I wanted my child to be better prepared for examinations 1 4 3 0 1 8 6 23 I wanted my child to be better prepared for university. 2 0 1 1 3 11 4 22 My child was having difficulty with homework or classwork. 1 5 2 2 2 8 2 22 I cannot assist my child by myself 1 1 5 2 1 9 2 21 I wanted my child to be more confident 3 2 4 1 0 9 2 21 I wanted my child to receive assistance with organization or study skills 0 2 5 1 2 6 2 18 My child had fallen behind and I wanted them to catch up. 0 2 1 1 1 6 1 12 I wanted to make sure my child does not fall behind their peers. 1 3 2 2 0 3 1 12 My child has not been able to access sufficient out-of-school help from teachers at the school. 1 0 0 0 0 4 0 5             Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   112 Appendix Z Gender and Reasons For Tutoring (ranked according to the total responses) Reason Female Male Total I wanted academic enrichment for my child 12 14 26 I wanted my child to receive higher grades 11 15 26 I wanted my child to be better prepared for examinations 8 15 23 I cannot assist my child by myself 10 12 22 I wanted my child to be more confident 9 13 22 I wanted my child to be better prepared for university. 12 9 21 My child was having difficulty with homework or classwork. 9 12 21 I wanted my child to receive assistance with organization or study skills 7 11 18 My child had fallen behind and I wanted them to catch up. 4 8 12 I wanted to make sure my child does not fall behind their peers. 6 6 12 My child has not been able to access sufficient out-of-school help from teachers at the school. 2 3 5                 Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   113 Appendix AA Citizenship and Reasons For Tutoring (ranked according to the total responses) Reason Canadian (56) Permanent Resident (9) Visa (5) Total I wanted academic enrichment for my child 21 3 2 26 I wanted my child to receive higher grades 19 4 3 26 I wanted my child to be better prepared for examinations 20 2 1 23 I cannot assist my child by myself 19 2 1 22 I wanted my child to be more confident 17 4 1 22 I wanted my child to be better prepared for university. 16 3 2 21 My child was having difficulty with homework or classwork. 16 3 2 21 I wanted my child to receive assistance with organization or study skills 17 1 0 18 My child had fallen behind and I wanted them to catch up. 9 2 1 12 I wanted to make sure my child does not fall behind their peers. 8 2 2 12 My child has not been able to access sufficient out-of-school help from teachers at the school. 3 1 1 5          Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   114 Appendix BB Language and Reasons For Tutoring (ranked according to the total responses) Reason English Mandarin Punjabi German Cantonese Total I wanted academic enrichment for my child 10 13 2 1 0 26 I wanted my child to receive higher grades 13 13 1 0 1 26 I wanted my child to be better prepared for examinations 13 9 1 0 0 23 I cannot assist my child by myself 11 11 0 0 0 22 I wanted my child to be more confident 13 7 1 1 0 22 I wanted my child to be better prepared for university. 6 14 1 0 0 21 My child was having difficulty with homework or classwork. 13 8 0 0 0 21 I wanted my child to receive assistance with organization or study skills 11 6 1 0 0 18 My child had fallen behind and I wanted them to catch up. 6 5 0 1 0 12 I wanted to make sure my child does not fall behind their peers. 6 6 0 0 0 12 My child has not been able to access sufficient out-of-school help from teachers at the school. 0 5 0 0 0 5      Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   115 Appendix CC: Survey Questions a) Demographic Questions 1. How many children in the family are enrolled in the secondary division at this school? 2. What is the main language spoken at home? (fill in the blank)  For each of your children in the senior division of the school, please answer these questions:  3. What is your child’s age? (11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18) 4. What is your child’s gender? (M/F/Other) 5. What is your child’s grade? (6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12) 6. What is your child’s residency status? (Canadian citizen, permanent resident, visa student) 7. If your child is not a Canadian citizen, state his or her country of citizenship (fill in the blank)  b) Nature of Tutoring Services Tutoring services are defined as additional classes or teaching that is academic in nature, is paid for by the family and takes place outside of school. Tutoring does not include extra assistance from the student’s teacher in the school and free assistance by family members at home. Nor does it include extracurricular activities such as religious classes, sports, arts, music or dance classes. 1. How many children in the family, attend the school and receive tutoring? 2. Please check the subjects in which your child (or children) receives tutoring (Mathematics, English, Science, Biology, Chemistry, Physics, French, Mandarin, Spanish, History, Business, Geography, Art, Design, Other: Please specify) 3. Please check the other academic areas for which your child receives tutoring (General Study Skills, SSAT, SAT/ACT, IELTs/TOEFL, Other courses such as AP or BC Ministry of Education credit courses, University Agent (assistance with university applications) 4. For each subject, how many hours per week does each child go to tutoring?  (.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 4.5, 5, 5.5, 6, 6.5, 7, 7.5, 8, 8.5, 9, 9.5, 10). Include space for Child # 1, Child #2, Child #3 5. For each subject, how is the tutoring provided? (1 to 1, in a class, online) 6. For each subject or service, who are the providers? (private individuals, franchised  centre or agency, non-franchised  centre or agency)   Private Supplementary Tutoring in a Vancouver Independent School   116 c) Reasons for choosing to access tutoring (check all that apply)  1. My child was having difficulty with homework or classwork. 2. My child had fallen behind and I wanted them to catch up. 3. I wanted to make sure my child does not fall behind their peers. 4. I wanted my child to receive assistance with organization or study skills. 5. I cannot assist my child by myself. 6. I wanted my child to achieve higher grades. 7. I wanted my child to become more confident. 8. I wanted academic enrichment for my child. 9. I wanted my child to be better prepared for examinations. 10. I wanted my child to be better prepared for university. 11. My child has not been able to access sufficient out-of-school help from teachers at the school. 12. Other (please specify): ____________  d) What, if any, issues or concerns have you or your child experienced with tutoring (open-ended  response) e) What additional comments would you like to make regarding tutoring as it relates to your child’s education? (open-ended)          

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