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Providing a vehicle of support on the road to energy independence for the seven generations of the Skeetchestn… Haley, Brigit O. E. Apr 22, 2016

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		Providing	a	Vehicle	of	Support	on	the	Road	to	Energy	Independence	for	the	Seven	Generations	of	the	Skeetchestn	First	Nation		Brigit	O.	E.	Haley	BSc.	ENSC,	Royal	Roads	University,	2013		Faculty	of	Applied	Science	Master	of	Engineering	in	Clean	Energy	Engineering	(MEng	CEEN)	Candidate		Academic	Supervisor:	Dr.	Vladan	Prodanovic	Dept.	of	Mechanical	Engineering,	University	of	British	Columbia		Prepared	for:	Skeetchestn	First	Nation	Project	Sponsor:	BHD	Service	Inc			Date:	April	22,	2016					 	 			 			 	 					2	This	page	is	left	intentionally	blank.		 					3	ABSTRACT	The	Skeetchestn	First	Nation	has	resided	in	their	traditional,	unceded	territory	since	time	 immemorial.	 Despite	 pressures	 to	 assimilate,	 the	 on-reserve	 community	 has	experienced	 a	 recent	 resurgence.	 The	 intention	 of	 this	 paper	 was	 to	 initiate	 the	community	energy	planning	process	and	 to	compare	 the	energy	consumption	of	a	conventional	 on-reserve	 house	 to	 the	 traditional	 style	 Round	 House.	 An	 Energy	Awareness	questionnaire	was	circulated	 through	 the	community	 to	determine	 the	importance	of	energy	related	issues;	highlighting	energy	independence,	residential	energy	use	and	climate	change.	The	questionnaire	results	were	used	to	facilitate	an	open-dialogue	to	draft	the	energy	objectives	during	the	community	energy	planning	breakfast.	 Both	 events	 were	 well	 received	 with	 35%	 response	 rate	 and	 31%	participation	rate,	respectively.	Two	home	energy	audits	were	performed	to	satisfy	the	 HOT2000	 analysis	 in	 comparing	 the	 energy	 consumption	 of	 the	 two	 houses.	Base	 case	 and	 upgrade	 models	 were	 simulated;	 the	 former	 indicated	 the	conventional	 on-reserve	 house	 consumed	 83%	 more	 energy	 than	 the	 traditional	style	 Round	 House.	 The	 latter	 indicated	 the	 conventional	 on-reserve	 house	consumed	59%	more	 energy	 than	 the	Round	House.	Overall,	 the	 findings	 support	the	salience	of	the	housing	crisis	in	First	Nation	communities	and	validate	the	dire	need	 for	 affordable,	 safe	 and	 culturally	 appropriate	 housing.	More	 specifically	 the	findings	indicate	that	the	Round	House	should	be	considered	as	the	primary	option	for	future	residential	development.	Keywords:	First	Nations,	 energy	 independence,	 residential	 energy	use,	net-zero	energy,	affordable	housing					4	Acknowledgements	It	 is	 my	 intention	 as	 a	 non-Indigenous	 professional	 to	 use	 this	 paper	 to	 provide	technical	 support	 while	 seeking	 to	 respect	 and	 honour	 the	 Skeetchestn	 First	Nation’s	own	aspirations	and	priorities.	At	this	time,	with	an	open	heart,	I	would	like	to	 extend	 warmest	 gratitude	 to	 the	 Skeetchestn	 First	 Nation	 for	 accepting	 my	proposal	to	collaborate	with	them	in	support	of	their	goals;	to	Rochelle	Porter,	the	community	 energy	 champion,	 for	 organizing	 and	 motivating	 the	 community	members	 to	 participate;	 and	 to	 Mike	 Anderson,	 the	 Round	 House	 proprietor,	 for	connecting	the	Round	House	into	the	project.		In	this	moment	of	appreciation,	I	would	like	to	extend	a	sincere	gratitude	to	my	project	sponsor	BHD	Service	 Inc	 for	supporting	the	project’s	vision;	and	to	Dr.	Vladan	 Prodanovic,	 my	 academic	 supervisor,	 for	 being	 patient,	 supportive	 and	offering	encouragement	throughout	this	program.	Finally,	I	would	like	to	thank	my	family,	friends	and	fiancé	Cedar	for	the	unconditional	love	and	support	over	the	last	two	years.				 					5	Table	of	Contents	ABSTRACT	..................................................................................................................................	3	Acknowledgements	.................................................................................................................	4	Table	of	Contents	.....................................................................................................................	5	List	of	Figures	............................................................................................................................	8	List	of	Tables	..........................................................................................................................	10	Glossary	of	Terms	.................................................................................................................	12	Introduction	...........................................................................................................................	15	Community’s	History	.....................................................................................................................	16	Community	Energy	Planning	......................................................................................................	17	First	Nation	On-reserve	Housing	..............................................................................................	20	Traditional-style	Round	Houses	...............................................................................................	21	Net-zero	Energy	..............................................................................................................................	21	Defining	Boundaries	....................................................................................................................................	22	Energy	Accounting	and	Measurements	..............................................................................................	23	Tabulating	Source	Energy	.........................................................................................................................	24	Applying	Renewable	Energy	Certificates	...........................................................................................	25	Methodologies	.......................................................................................................................	26	Part	I:	Results	.........................................................................................................................	28	Raising	Energy	Awareness	..........................................................................................................	28	Defining	Energy	Objectives	.........................................................................................................	34					6	Part	II:	Results	.......................................................................................................................	35	Net-zero	Energy	Opportunities	.................................................................................................	36	Thermal	Performance	of	the	Building	Envelope:	Thermal	Images	........................................	36	Photovoltaic	Analysis	..................................................................................................................................	38	Energy	Consumption:	Conventional	On-reserve	House	vs.	Round	House	..................	41	Building	Parameters:	Base	Case	.............................................................................................................	41	Part	I:	Discussion	..................................................................................................................	54	Raising	Energy	Awareness	..........................................................................................................	54	Defining	Energy	Objectives	.........................................................................................................	60	Part	II:	Discussion	................................................................................................................	61	Net-zero	Energy	Opportunities	.................................................................................................	61	The	Building	Envelope:	Passive	Design	..............................................................................................	61	Passive	Solar	Design	....................................................................................................................................	62	Mechanical	Systems:	Active	Design	......................................................................................................	65	Energy	Consumption:	Conventional	On-reserve	House	vs.	Round	House	..................	71	Conventional	On-reserve	House	............................................................................................................	72	Round	House	..................................................................................................................................................	75	Comparing	Energy	Footprint:	HOT2000	............................................................................................	78	Recommendations	...............................................................................................................	83	Part	I	...................................................................................................................................................	84	Part	II	..................................................................................................................................................	85	Conclusion	...............................................................................................................................	89	References	..............................................................................................................................	90					7	Appendix	I	...............................................................................................................................	97	Appendix	II	.............................................................................................................................	99	Appendix	III	..........................................................................................................................	100	Appendix	IV	..........................................................................................................................	101	Appendix	V	............................................................................................................................	102	Appendix	VI	..........................................................................................................................	103	Appendix	VII	.........................................................................................................................	104	Appendix	VIII	.......................................................................................................................	105	Appendix	IX	..........................................................................................................................	106	Appendix	X	............................................................................................................................	109	Appendix	XI	..........................................................................................................................	110	Appendix	XII	.........................................................................................................................	111	Appendix	XIII	.......................................................................................................................	112	Appendix	XIV	........................................................................................................................	113	Appendix	XV	.........................................................................................................................	114	Appendix	XVI	........................................................................................................................	115			 					8	List	of	Figures	Figure	1.	Locates	Skeetchestn	First	Nation,	in	South-Central	BC.	......................................	17	Figure	2.	Displays	the	structural	design	(left)	and	the	Kekuli	1040	ft2	(right)[12].	.....	21	Figure	3.	Outlines	the	energy	transfer	within	the	site	boundary	(dashed	line)	and	the	energy	transfer	delivered/exported	(solid	lines)	of	the	site	boundary	for	NZE	building	[14].	......................................................................................................................................	23	Figure	4.	Displays	Skeetchestn’s	community	(adult)	population	responses	to	Question	1	to	Question	3	in	the	Energy	Awareness	questionnaire.	........................	29	Figure	5.	Displays	Skeetchestn’s	school	(child)	population	responses	to	Question	1	to	Question	3	in	the	Energy	Awareness	questionnaire.	...............................................	29	Figure	6.	Displays	Skeetchestn’s	community	(adult)	population	responses	to	Question	4	in	the	Energy	Awareness	questionnaire	using	the	Likert	scale.	........	31	Figure	7.	Displays	Skeetchestn’s	school	(child)	population	responses	to	Question	4	in	the	Energy	Awareness	questionnaire	using	the	Likert	scale.	...............................	32	Figure	8.	Displays	Skeetchestn’s	community	(adult)	population	responses	to	Question	4	in	the	Energy	Awareness	questionnaire	ranking	independently	from	the	Likert	scale	...............................................................................................................................	33	Figure	9.	Displays	Skeetchestn’s	school	(child)	population	responses	to	Question	4	in	the	Energy	Awareness	questionnaire	ranking	independently	from	the	Likert	scale.	....................................................................................................................................................	33	Figure	10.	Displays	the	draft	version	of	Skeetchestn’s	energy	objectives.	....................	35					9	Figure	11.	Compares	the	heat	loss	of	a	normal	house	(left)	to	a	passive	house	(right)	[24].	........................................................................................................................................................	36	Figure	12.	Thermal	images	captured	areas	of	infiltration	under	the	front	door	and	along	the	doorframe	in	the	conventional	on-reserve	home	(left)	and	the	RH	(right),	Skeetchestn,	BC.	Images	captured	using	a	Fluke	Ti20	Thermal	Imager,	February	23rd,	2016.	....................................................................................................................	37	Figure	13.	Schematic	drawing	of	the	RH	roof	with	10	Trina	245W	solar	panels	facing	south	(0˚).	Drawing	not	to	scale.	.............................................................................................	39	Figure	14.	Exemplifies	a	top-pole	ground	mounted	array	of	96	Trina	245W	solar	panels	facing	south	(0˚).	Drawing	not	to	scale.	................................................................	41	Figure	15.	Displays	front	(left)	and	back	(right)	view	of	the	conventional	on-reserve	house.	Photo	was	taken	February	23,	2016,	SFN,	BC.	...................................................	42	Figure	16.	Presents	plan	view	of	on-reserve	conventional	house.	Drawing	not	to	scale.	....................................................................................................................................................	43	Figure	17.	Living	room	(NE)	single-pane	window	duct	tapped	to	prevent	wind	from	blowing	window	out.	Picture	was	taken	February	23,	2016,	SFN.	..........................	44	Figure	18.	Current	wood	burning	stove.	Photo	was	taken	February	23,	2016,	SFN,	BC.	........................................................................................................................................................	47	Figure	19.	Highlights	the	cross-section	of	the	SIP	panel	[36].	................................................	49	Figure	20.	Schematic	of	a	HRV	(left)	[52]	and	dedicated	ductwork	(right)	[51].	..............	66	Figure	21.	Outlines	the	process	for	net	metering	in	BC.	.........................................................	71					10	List	of	Tables	Table	1.	Displays	the	statistical	analysis	performed	on	Question	1	to	Question	3	for	both	population	means	in	the	Energy	Awareness	questionnaire.	α=0.05	and	degrees	of	freedom	=	91	(See	Appendix	VII	for	statistical	data).	.............................	30	Table	2.	Highlights	PV	specifications.	.............................................................................................	38	Table	3.	Highlights	PVSyst	output	for	10	Trina	Solar	TSM-245	PC/PA05	modules	with	an	array	size	of	16.5m2.	....................................................................................................	40	Table	4.	Highlights	wall	parameters	from	HOT2000.	.............................................................	43	Table	5.	Displays	window	characteristics	from	HOT2000.	...................................................	45	Table	6.	Displays	wall	parameters	from	HOT2000.	.................................................................	49	Table	9.	DHW	specifications.	..............................................................................................................	52	Table	10.	Summarizes	conventional	on-reserve	house	base	case	building	parameters	from	HOT2000.	Above	and	below	grade	parameters	are	included.	........................	53	Table	11.	Summarizes	RH	base	case	building	parameters	from	HOT2000.	..................	53	Table	12.	Summarizes	building	parameters	after	upgrades	have	been	applied	in	HOT2000.	..........................................................................................................................................	73	Table	13.	Highlights	the	HVI	Certified	HRV	unit	[63].	................................................................	73	Table	15.	Specifies	Dr.	Lstiburek’s	NZE	design	considerations	[66].	...................................	75	Table	16.	Summarizes	RH	building	parameters	after	upgrades	have	been	applied	in	HOT2000.	..........................................................................................................................................	76	Table	17.	Highlights	HRV	unit	specifications	[67].	......................................................................	76					11	Table	18.	Summarizes	the	total	energy	consumption	for	the	conventional	on-reserve	house’s	base	case,	upgrades	and	calculates	the	savings	associated	with	retrofits	(GJ/m2).	Data	acquired	through	HOT2000.	.......................................................................	79	Table	19.	Summarizes	the	RH’s	total	energy	consumption	for	base	case,	upgrades	and	calculates	the	savings	associated	with	retrofits	(GJ/m2).	Data	acquired	through	HOT2000.	........................................................................................................................	80	Table	20.	Compares	the	average	household	energy	use	by	heated	area	(GJ/m2)	of	the	conventional	on-reserve	house	and	RH	for	the	base	case	and	upgrade	to	the	average	household	in	BC	[72].	....................................................................................................	81					 					12	Glossary	of	Terms	£	–	British	Pound		˚C	–	Degree	Celsius		λ	–	Wavelength		AANDC	–	Aboriginal	Affairs	and	Northern	Development	Canada		AC	–	Alternating	Current	ach	–	Air	Changes		AFUE	–	Annual	Fuel	Utilization	Efficiency	ANSI	–	American	Nation	Standards	Institute		ASHRAE	–	American	Society	of	Heating,	Refrigeration	and	Air-Conditioning	Engineers		c	–	Capita		CEP	–	Community	Energy	Plan	CMHC	–	Canadian	Mortgage	and	Housing	Corporation	cm	–	Centimeter	COP	–	Coefficient	of	Performance		DC	–	Direct	Current	DOE	–	Department	of	Energy	DSM	–	Demand-side	Management	DWH	–	Domestic	Hot	Water	EPS	–	Expanded	Polystyrene		FNCEBF	–	First	Nation	Clean	Energy	Business	Fund					13	GHG	–	Green	House	Gas	Emissions	GJ	–	Gigajoule	GMO	–	Genetically	Modified	Organism	GSHP	–	Ground	Source	Heat	Pump			HSPF	–	Heating	Seasonal	Performance	Factor	HVAC	–	Heating	Ventilation	and	Air-Conditioning	INAC	–	Indigenous	and	Northern	Affairs	Canada	kWh	–	Kilowatt	Hour	kW	–	Kilowatt	L	-	Litre	m	–	Meter	m2	–	Square-meter	MoARR	–	Ministry	of	Aboriginal	Relations	and	Reconciliation	MT	–	Metric	Tonne	MWh	–	Megawatt	Hour	NIBS	–	Nation	Institute	of	Building	Sciences	NZE	–	Net-zero	energy	OECD	–	Organisation	for	Economic	Cooperation	and	Development	Pa	–	Pascal		PV	-	Photovoltaic	RE	–	Renewable	Energy	REC	–	Renewable	Energy	Credit					14	RH	–	Round	House	RSI	–	Resistance	System	International	SEER	–	Seasonal	Energy	Efficiency	Ratio	SFN	–	Skeetchestn	First	Nation	SHGC	–	Solar	Heat	Gain	Coefficient	SVTC	–	Silicon	Valley	Toxic	Coalition	W	–	Watt	ZEB	–	Zero	Energy	Building			 					15	Introduction	The	 negative	 implications	 of	 colonization	 of	 Indigenous	 peoples	 still	 reverberate	across	 Canadian	 communities	 today.	 	 One	 area	 of	 great	 concern	 is	 the	 lack	 of	affordable,	 safe	 and	 culturally	 appropriate	 housing	 available	 to	 Indigenous	communities.			 The	 overarching	 goal	 of	 this	 paper	 is	 to	 contribute	 to	 the	 success	 of	 the	Skeetchestn	 First	 Nation’s	 (SFN)	 Community	 Energy	 Plan	 (CEP),	 which	 will	 be	executed	in	2016.	The	paper	is	organized	into	two	components;	the	first	is	to	initiate	the	 community	 energy	 planning	 process	 for	 SFN.	 The	 second	 is	 to	 compare	 the	energy	consumption	of	a	conventional	on-reserve	house	to	a	traditional-style	Round	House	(RH);	and	to	determine	if	the	HOT2000	energy	simulation	software	will	be	a	useful	application	when	analyzing	the	demand-side	management1	(DSM)	portion	of	the	CEP.	The	following	objectives	have	been	set:		(1) Raise	local	awareness	on	energy	issues	in	the	community;		(2) Consult	with	Skeetchestn	community	members	to	draft	energy	objectives;		(3) Explore	net-zero	energy	(NZE)	design	opportunities	for	the	traditional-style	RH;	and		(4) Simulate	 energy	 consumption	 of	 a	 conventional	 on-reserve	 house	 and	traditional-style	RH	in	order	to	compare	energy	consumption.																																																										1	Manages	existing	energy	demands,	through	energy	conservation	and	behavioural	change	programs.						16	It	 is	 the	 author’s	 aspiration	 that	 the	 SFN	will	 use	 the	 findings	 of	 this	 paper	 as	 a	support	tool	to	navigate	the	colonial	system	and	acquire	the	tools	necessary	to	work	towards	self-reliance	and	meaningfully	contribute	to	the	housing	crisis.		Community’s	History	The	 SFN,	 part	 of	 the	 Secwépemc	 Nation,	 has	 thrived	 in	 their	 territory	 since	 time	immemorial.	 Traditionally,	 the	 Skeetchestn	 people	 lived	 in	 pithouses	 during	 the	winter	and	adapted	a	nomadic	 lifestyle	spring	 through	 fall	 to	gather	resources	 for	the	winter	months.	First	exposure	to	European	settlers	was	during	the	fur	trade	era,	and	 initially	 at	 this	 time	 their	 ancestral	 practices	 and	 lifestyle	 remained	 largely	intact.	 In	 the	 years	 to	 follow,	 the	 colonial	 government,	 later	 to	 become	provincial	and	federal	government,	began	allocating	reserve	lands	to	the	First	Nation	peoples.	While	 many	 other	 First	 Nation	 communities	 in	 Canada	 signed	 treaties	 with	 the	government,	 Skeetchestn	 did	 not.	 In	 1877,	 the	 Skeetchestn	 Indian	 Band	 was	established	(See	Appendix	I	for	a	detailed	list	of	important	historical	dates)	[1].		Despite	being	subjected	to	extreme	vagaries	of	colonization:	disease	epidemics,	oppression,	 residential	 schools,	 the	 “sixty-scoop”2,	 and	 the	 constant	 pressure	 of	assimilation	 from	 the	 government,	 the	 band	 has	 experienced	 resurgence	 towards	self-reliance.	 Chief	 Ron	 Ignace	 (1982	 to	 present)	 has	 been	 instrumental	 in	 the	implementation	of	projects	that	have	contributed	to	the	success	of	the	community,																																																									2	In	the	1960s,	the	Canadian	government	removed	First	Nation	children	from	their	parents	care,	without	consent,	and	placed	them	into	the	foster	care	and	adoption	system	to	further	support	the	policy	to	assimilate.						17	including	 the	 Deadman	 River	 Fish	 Hatchery,	 the	 Quiq’wi’elst	 (Blackstone)	 School,	and	 a	 ginseng	 cultivation	 co-venture	 agreement	 with	 the	 Chai-Na-Ta.	 The	Skeetchestn	people’s	sense	of	community,	culture	and	perseverance	has	given	them	strength	to	strive	towards	obtaining	their	vision	and	goals	to	a	more	self-sustaining	lifestyle	[1].	SFN	reserve	land	encompasses	7,969	hectares,	segmented	into	three	sections	between	Deadman’s	 Creek	 and	Thompson	River	Area	 in	 South-Central	BC	 (Figure	1).	 The	 population	 is	 522,	 with	 262	 living	 on-reserve	 and	 260	 off-reserve.	 Their	native	 tongue	 is	 Secwépemctsin	 –	Western	Dialect,	with	 only	 12	 remaining	 fluent	members	[2]		Figure	1.	Locates	Skeetchestn	First	Nation,	in	South-Central	BC.	Community	Energy	Planning		CEP	 is	 a	 three-tier	 approach	 that	 integrates	 policy,	 energy	 management	 and	urban/rural	 planning.	 It	 promotes	 sustainable	 development	 by	 integrating	 energy					18	considerations	 into	 local	planning	strategies	across	 the	 following	sectors:	 land	use	planning,	 transportation,	site	orientation,	and	energy	supply	and	distribution.	This	framework	enables	communities	to	evaluate:	• Zoning	for	energy	supply	infrastructure		• Transportation	modes,	infrastructure	and	connectivity	• Energy	efficiencies	and	development	of	renewable	energy	projects	• Triple	bottom	line	analysis	(environmental,	social	and	economic)	of	current	and	future	energy	demand,	and	supply	systems	[3].			The	 integration	 of	 CEP	 has	 been	 an	 effective	 tool	 for	 implementing	greenhouse	gas	(GHG)	emissions	strategies	and	mitigating	climate	change	[3].		Local	benefits	of	can	include:	(1)	enhancing	air	quality;		(2)	gaining	energy	independence;	(3)	identifying	energy	inefficiencies;	(4)	lowering	energy	bills;	(5)	improving	energy	literacy	and	awareness;	and	(6)	creating	employment	and	training	opportunities	[4].	As	 of	 2015,	 CEPs	have	been	 amalgamated	 into	 50%	of	 communities	 across	Canada	[5].	During	a	recent	webinar	hosted	by	Fraser	Basin	Council,	a	poll	was	taken	to	determine	 the	percentage	of	 First	Nation	 communities	 (attending	 the	webinar)	that	 were	 currently	 engaged	 in	 the	 CEP	 process.	 According	 to	 the	 poll	 results,	 it	appears	 that	 only	 16%	have	 initiated	 a	 CEP	 and	 only	 6%	have	 completed	 one	 [6].	With	203	First	Nation	reserves	in	BC,	this	leaves	a	largely	untapped	population	that	would	 most	 likely	 benefit	 from	 the	 implementation	 of	 a	 CEP	 [7].	 Local	 examples	include	the	City	of	North	Vancouver,	who	completed	their	CEP	and	the	Naut’sa	mawt	Tribal	Council	which	represents	11	First	Nations,	e.g.	Malahat	and	Tsawwassen	that					19	have	recently	initiated	the	CEP	process	[4];	[8].	In	Canada,	there	are	currently	six	CEP	frameworks:	• Natural	Resources	Canada’s	(2007)	Community	Energy	Planning	Guide;		• The	 Federation	 of	 Canadian	 Municipalities	 &	 Local	 Governments	 for	Sustainability's	 Partners	 for	 Climate	 Protection	 Program	 (2006)	Toolkit	 for	Community	Energy	Planning	in	BC;			• The	Artic	Energy	Alliance’s	(2006)	Community	Energy	Planning	Toolkit;		• The	Community	Energy	Association’s	and	Province	of	BC	(2006)	Community	Energy	&	Emissions	Planning:	A	Guide	for	BC	Local	Governments;		• BC	Hydro’s	Sustainable	Communities	Program;	and	• First	 Nation	 Clean	 Energy	 Business	 Fund	 (FNCEBF)	 (2015)	 Community	Energy	Planning	[9].		 The	Skeetchestn	First	Nation	CEP	will	 follow	 the	First	Nation	Clean	Energy	Business	Fund	(FNCEBF)	framework	(enabled	by	The	Clean	Energy	Act)	designed	by	BC	 Ministry	 of	 Aboriginal	 Relations	 and	 Reconciliation	 (MoARA)	 to	 encourage	participation	of	Aboriginal	peoples	in	the	clean	energy	sector	within	their	allocated	ancestral	 territories.	 There	 are	 two	 avenues	 of	 project	 funding	 available,	 i.e.	Capacity	 and	 Equity.	 SFN	will	 initially	 apply	 for	 the	 former,	 as	 up	 to	 $50,000	 are	available	 to	 assist	 with	 CEP,	 pre-feasibility	 or	 feasibility	 studies	 and/or	 engaging	with	project	proponents	[10].						20	First	Nation	On-reserve	Housing			The	 current	 First	 Nation	 on-reserve	 housing	 situation	 in	 most	 communities	 is	deplorable.	Across	Canada	there	are	107,627	on-reserve	housing	units	available	and	it	has	been	estimated	that	between	2010–2031,	131,000	new	units	will	be	required,	12,000	units	will	 need	 to	 be	 replaced	 and	36,300	units	will	 require	 rehabilitation	[11].	 Many	buildings	contain	unsafe	levels	of	mould,	pests,	exhibit	poor	air	quality	and	are	subject	to	overcrowded	living	arrangements.	These	conditions	contribute	to	a	 diminished	 quality	 of	 life	 and	 negative	 health	 implications	 both	 physically	 and	emotionally	[11].	In	addition,	the	majority	of	these	dwellings	lack	cultural	significance	further	disconnecting	them	from	their	culture.	The	pressure	is	rising	for	affordable,	safe	and	culturally	appropriate	housing	as	the	First	Nation	on-reserve	birth	rate	is	double	the	Canadian	average	[12].	It	appears	that	Skeetchestn’s	on-reserve	housing	situation	is	not	quite	as	dire	as	 others.	 In	 fact,	 it	 is	 one	 of	 the	 only	 bands	 whose	 members	 out-right	 own	(certificate	of	possession)	the	majority	of	their	houses,	i.e.	89	of	110	houses	owned.	Yet,	despite	these	statistics	many	on-reserve	residential	and	commercial	dwellings	are	in	need	of	DSM	applications.	Some	issues	reported	include:	duct-taped	windows,	decommissioned	 baseboard	 heaters,	 insufficient	 insulation,	 natural	 gas	 leaks	 and	mould	 contamination	 [13].	 Those	 on-reserve	 are	 responsible	 for	 their	 individual	utility	bills.						21	Traditional-style	Round	Houses		Skeetchestn’s	 Natural	 Resources	 Corp	 has	 responded	 to	 the	 on-reserve	 housing	crisis	through	the	construction	of	energy	efficient	traditional-style	RH.	The	12-sided,	post	and	beam,	pre-fabricated,	 structurally	engineered	design	was	 inspired	by	 the	ancient	 Kekuli	 houses	 (Figure	 2).	 There	 are	 currently	 three	 engineered	 models	varying	in	size,	the	Kekuli	520	ft2,	the	Kekuli	1040	ft2	and	the	Ske’lep	5000	ft2.	It	is	estimated	that	the	lifespan	is	twice	that	of	the	conventional	on-reserve	home	[12].			Figure	2.	Displays	the	structural	design	(left)	and	the	Kekuli	1040	ft2	(right)[12].	Net-zero	Energy	A	 building	 that	 consumes	 as	 much	 energy	 as	 it	 produces	 is	 a	 concept	 that	 has	become	 increasingly	 popular	 in	 recent	 years.	 South	 of	 the	 border,	 the	 National	Institute	 of	 Building	 Sciences	 (NIBS)	 recently	 prepared	 a	 report	 for	 the	 U.S.	Department	 of	 Energy	 (DOE)	 to	 define	 NZE.	 The	 leading	 author	 Peterson	 (2014)	states	“an	energy-efficient	building	where,	on	a	source	energy	basis,	the	actual	annual	delivered	energy	is	less	than	or	equal	to	the	on-site	renewable	exported	energy”	(p.	8)	!				22	is	the	adopted	definition	for	a	NZE	building	or	Zero	Energy	Building	(ZEB)	of	which	both	terms	can	be	used	interchangeably.		In	Canada	the	building	sector	is	the	third	largest	polluter,	accounting	for	11%	or	 80MT	 of	 Canada’s	 annual	 GHG	 emissions	 [15].	 Canadian	Mortgage	 and	 Housing	Corporation’s	 (CMHC)	 EQuilibrium™	 Sustainable	 Housing	 Demonstration	 project,	partners	 private	 and	 public	 stakeholders	 to	 design	 homes	 with	 the	 end	 goal	 to	develop	 sustainable	 communities.	 This	 nationally	 led	 sustainability	 initiative	supports	 occupant	 health	 and	 comfort,	 energy	 efficiency	 and	 renewable	 energy	production,	resource	conservation,	reduced	environmental	impact	and	affordability.	The	EQuilibrium™	project	partnered	with	Québec-based	company,	CanmetENERGY,	to	 evaluate	 facets	 of	 NZE	 for	 12	 homes	 across	 Canada	 in	 varying	 climates.	CanmetENERGY’s	 goal	 is	 to	 enable	 NZE	 housing	 technologies	 to	 become	 readily	available	 in	 the	 marketplace	 by	 reducing	 the	 risk	 and	 cost	 involved	 in	 the	 high	capital	 investment	 ($100,000	 to	 $150,000)	 [16].	 The	 performance	 of	 the	 12	homes	will	be	evaluated	over	 the	course	of	 four	years	and	one	additional	year	after	each	home	 is	 sold	 to	 determine	 if	 it	 meets	 energy	 consumption	 targets	 and	 other	EQuilibrium™	Healthy	Housing	targets	during	the	first	year	of	occupancy	[17].		Defining	Boundaries	To	 ensure	 architects	 and	 builders	 meet	 the	 pre-defined	 NZE	 design	requirements,	the	NIBS	stress	the	importance	of	defining	the	site	boundary	(Figure	3).			 					23			Figure	3.	Outlines	the	energy	transfer	within	the	site	boundary	(dashed	line)	and	the	energy	transfer	delivered/exported	(solid	lines)	of	the	site	boundary	for	NZE	building	[14].	Energy	Accounting	and	Measurements	A	NZE	building	is	designed	to	have	a	very	energy	efficient	building	envelope	and	is	typically	connected	to	 the	electric	grid.	Two	site	boundaries	can	be	drawn:	 first,	 if	on-site	 renewable	 energy	 were	 located	 within	 the	 building	 footprint,	 the	 site	boundary	would	encompass	the	building	footprint.	Second,	if	a	portion	of	the	on-site	renewable	 energy	 were	 on-site	 but	 not	 within	 the	 building	 footprint	 it	 would	encompass	 the	 building	 site.	 The	 premise	 of	 such	 an	 archetype	 is	 to	 transfer	 any	surplus	of	on-site	renewable	energy,	such	as	solar,	to	other	users	connected	to	the	electric	grid	[14].					24	Tabulating	Source	Energy		Energy	can	be	delivered	to	a	site	two	ways:	primary	energy3	and	secondary	energy4.	Due	 to	 inherent	 losses	 associated	 with	 generating	 and	 delivering	 heat	 and	electricity,	 source	 energy	 can	 account	 for	 any	 losses,	 in	 turn	 enabling	 a	 thorough	thermodynamic	analysis	by	tracing	heat	and	electricity	requirements	of	the	building	back	 to	 raw	 fuel	 input.	 For	 buildings	 that	 have	multiple	 fuel	 types	 i.e.	 electricity,	geothermal	and	natural	gas,	it	is	necessary	to	normalize	these	different	fuel	types	to	a	 single	 common	 unit.	 Source	 energy	 ensures	 a	 complete	 assessment	 of	 energy	efficiency	[18].	Electricity	is	displaced	from	the	grid	when	on-site	renewable	energy	is	exported	to	the	grid	as	electricity.	To	appropriately	credit	displacement	of	delivered	electricity,	 exported	 energy	 is	 assigned	 the	 same	 source	 conversion	 factor	 as	 the	delivered	energy	(Appendix	II)	 [14].	Using	source	energy	conversion	factors,	source	energy	 can	be	 calculated	 from	 the	delivered	energy	and	exported	energy	 for	 each	fuel	type:	Esource	=	∑i(Edel,irdel,i)	–	∑i(Eexp,irexp,i)	[1.0]	[14]																																																									3	Heat	and	electricity	are	generated	through	the	combustion	of	raw	fuel	i.e.	natural	gas	or	fuel	oil.		4	Electricity	purchased	from	the	grid	or	heat	received	from	a	district	steam	system	is	an	energy	product	created	from	a	raw	fuel.					25	Applying	Renewable	Energy	Certificates	Renewable	Energy	Certificates5	(REC)	or	“green	tags”,	typically	sold	in	kWh	or	MWh,	represent	 the	 environmental	 attributes	 associated	 with	 renewable	 electricity	 [20].	REC	 cannot	 act	 as	 a	 delivered	 renewable	 energy	 source	 in	 the	 ZEB	 for	 single-site	buildings	 but	may	 be	 applied	 for	multi-story	 buildings,	 such	 as	 a	 hospital,	 as	 this	scale	of	building	would	not	be	able	to	balance	annual	delivered	energy	with	on-site	renewable	energy.	In	turn,	this	archetype	would	be	designated	as	REC-ZEB.		 It	is	only	after	a	building	has	demonstrated	that	the	delivered	energy	is	less	than	 or	 equal	 to	 the	 on-site	 renewable	 exported	 energy	 that	 the	 ZEB	 designation	should	be	assigned.	Finally,	a	building	is	encouraged	to	identify	their	intent	to	be	or	return	 to	 being	 a	 ZEB	 if	 such	 building	 has	 not	 yet	 measured	 performance	requirements	for	a	full	year	of	operation	[14].	In	 the	 last	10	years,	perspectives	have	 shifted	 from	perceiving	buildings	as	consumers	to	perceiving	them	as	producers.	This	shift	is	part	and	parcel	to	declining	cost	 of	 renewable	 energy	 and	 technological	 advancements	 [19].	 Sustainable	neighbourhoods	 and	 communities	 where	 transportation	 is	 minimized	 through	effective	 land	 use	 planning	 and	 energy	 production	 mechanisms	 are	 shared,	showcase	a	promising	context	to	achieve	NZE	housing	[16].																																																										5	A	REC	can	be	sold	for	each	unit	of	electricity	generated	from	a	renewable	energy	project.	Both	new	and	existing	renewable	energy	facilities	benefit	from	the	sales	generated	by	REC	[20].						26	Methodologies		The	 methodologies	 to	 carry	 out	 the	 research	 for	 this	 project	 are	 set	 out	 in	 four	stages	according	to	the	objectives.	The	first	component	of	the	paper	opens	with	the	first	stage	of	research	proposed	to	meet	the	objective	of	raising	local	awareness	on	energy	 issues	 in	 the	 community.	 	To	 this	 end	an	Energy	Awareness	questionnaire	was	 created.	 Community	 members	 were	 surveyed	 to	 depict	 the	 current	 level	 of	energy	 awareness	 in	 the	 community	 (See	 Appendix	 III	 to	 view	 questionnaire).	Participants	 either	 obtained	 the	 questionnaire	 from	 the	 Skeetchestn’s	 Owl	 (bi-monthly	 newsletter)	 or	 during	 the	 first	 site	 visit	 where	 the	 questionnaire	 was	personally	circulated.		To	 carry	 out	 a	 statistical	 analysis,	 the	 community	 and	 school	 respondents	were	 divided	 into	 populations,	 adult	 and	 child,	 respectively.	 To	 encourage	 survey	participation,	a	raffle	was	drawn	for	a	$50	gift	card	to	 the	winner’s	choice	of	Wal-Mart,	Canadian	Tire	or	Tim	Horton’s.	During	the	second	site	visit,	 the	Green	Home	Building	 Design	 Activity	 was	 facilitated	 to	 further	 increase	 awareness	 on	 energy	specifically	on	sustainable	building	and	energy	conservation	practices.	The	 second	 stage	 of	 research	 proposed	 to	 meet	 the	 objective	 of	 consulting	 with	Skeetchestn	 community	 members	 to	 draft	 energy	 objectives.	 The	 Community	Energy	 Champion,	 Rochelle	 Porter,	 in	 concert	with	 the	 band	managers	 suggested	hosting	 a	 community	 engagement	 breakfast	 (See	 Appendix	 IV	 for	 promotional	material).	The	event	was	open	to	all	members	of	the	community.	It	was	advertised	in	the	Owl,	posted	on	the	community	notice	board	and	on	the	community	welcome					27	post	on	Deadman	Vidette	Road.	To	entice	participation,	a	series	of	door	prizes	were	offered,	ranging	from	$10	gift	cards	for	ITunes	Music	to	a	2GB	IPod	Mini	Shuffle.		After	breakfast,	the	Energy	Awareness	questionnaire	results	were	presented	followed	by	an	open-dialogue	with	the	community	to	draft	the	energy	objectives.	In	concert	with	the	CCP’s	vision,	principles	and	goals	(Appendix	V	-	VI)	 [1]	 the	results	from	the	Energy	Awareness	questionnaire	were	used	to	facilitate	an	open-dialogue.	To	 ensure	 all	 members	 of	 the	 community	 have	 an	 opportunity	 to	 contribute,	 the	energy	 objectives	 included	 in	 this	 report	 will	 be	 considered	 a	 draft.	 The	 energy	objectives	will	be	finalized	once	the	CEP	commences.		The	second	component	of	the	paper	opens	with	the	third	stage	of	research	proposed	to	meet	the	objective	of	exploring	NZE	design	opportunities	for	the	traditional-style	RH.	A	secondary	literature	review	was	completed	to	access	five	facets	of	NZE	design,	encompassing	 both	 passive	 design	 and	 active	 design	 [12],	 	 [21].	 The	 integrity	 of	 the	building	envelope,	specifically	infiltration,	was	further	analyzed	using	a	Fluke	Ti20	Thermal	Imager.	A	high-level	photovoltaic	(PV)	generation	analysis	was	carried	out	using	HOT2000	v10.51	and	PVsyst	V6.43	PREMIUM	–	student	software	to	determine	the	 probability	 of	 achieving	 NZE	 from	 rooftop	 capacity	 and	 top-pole,	 ground	mounted	capacity.		The	 final	 stage	 of	 research	 proposed	 to	 meet	 the	 objective	 of	 simulating	 energy	consumption	of	a	conventional	on-reserve	house	to	a	traditional-style	RH.	HOT2000	v10.51	software	was	applied	to	quantify	the	energy	consumption	of	both	buildings.	This	software	is	designed	to	model	energy	patterns	of	low-rise	residential	buildings					28	[22].	During	the	first	site	visit	two	energy	audits,	one	in	each	home,	were	carried	out	to	determine	the	required	inputs	for	HOT2000.	Once	data	was	collected,	the	energy	consumptions	 of	 both	 households	 were	 modeled.	 The	 following	 equipment	 was	utilized:	Clinometer,	Fluke	laser	distance	meter,	measuring	tape,	and	camera.	Part	I:	Results	The	 following	 section	 introduces	 the	 findings	 of	 the	 paper’s	 first	 and	 second	objectives.	Raising	Energy	Awareness	In	accordance	with	the	first	stage	of	research,	an	Energy	Awareness	questionnaire	was	created.	The	sampling	populations	encompassed	the	community	and	the	school,	under	 the	 assumption	 that	 adult	 participants	 were	 18	 years	 and	 older	 and	 child	participants	were	6	years	 to	17	years,	 respectively.	The	questionnaire	utilized	 the	Likert	 ranking	 scale6	and	 the	 total	 response	 rate	 was	 35.5%	 of	 the	 on-reserve	population	 (262).	 Figure	 4	 and	 Figure	 5	 display	 the	 results	 from	 Question	 1	 to	Question	 3.	 On	 the	 scale	 “one”	 implies	most	 important	 while	 “five”	 implies	 least	important	and	should	not	be	associated	with	unimportant.																																																										6	A	statistical	method	that	typically	uses	a	ranking	scale	from	one	through	five.						29	Figure	4.	Displays	Skeetchestn’s	community	(adult)	population	responses	to	Question	1	to	Question	3	in	the	Energy	Awareness	questionnaire.			Figure	5.	Displays	Skeetchestn’s	school	(child)	population	responses	to	Question	1	to	Question	3	in	the	Energy	Awareness	questionnaire.	Response	rate	(n)	=	68	Response	rate	(n)	=	25					30			 Among	the	first	three	questions	posed,	the	community	respondents	indicated	achieving	 energy	 independence	 (Question	 2)	 as	 most	 important	 (N=35,	 51.5%)	(Figure	 4)	 while	 the	 school	 respondents	 indicated	 creating	 short-term	 goals	 to	reduce	GHG	emission	by	2020	(Question	3)	as	most	important	(N=11,	44%),	(Figure	5).	The	community	respondents	indicated	similar	agreement	for	Question	3	(N=28,	41.7%).	A	two-tail	T-distribution	test	was	applied	to	the	ordinal	data.			 𝑇 =  ! ! –!! !"#!!! !!"#!!! 	[1.1]	  		 The	 proposed	 null	 hypothesis	 postulates	 that	 the	 means	 of	 the	 two	populations	are	equal	to	one	another,	such	that	the	responses	from	each	population	are	 in	 agreeance.	The	alternative	hypothesis	postulates	 that	 the	means	of	 the	 two	populations	 are	 not	 equal	 to	 each	 other,	 such	 that	 the	 responses	 from	 each	population	differ.	 H!  =  µ! = µ! 	[1.2]	𝐻!  =  µ! ≠ µ! 	[1.3]	Table	1.	Displays	the	statistical	analysis	performed	on	Question	1	to	Question	3	for	both	population	means	in	the	Energy	Awareness	questionnaire.	α=0.05	and	degrees	of	freedom	=	91	(See	Appendix	VII	for	statistical	data).					 Therefore,	 Question	 1	 and	 Question	 3,	 the	 responses	 between	 each	population	means	are	the	same,	whereas	the	opposite	is	true	for	Question	2.		Question 1 2 3T-test !1.6488 !2.1745 0.6675p-value 0.1026 0.03226 0.5061Null3Hypothesis Do.not.reject Reject Do.not.reject				31		 Question	 4	 provided	 the	 opportunity	 for	 respondents	 to	 rank	 five	 areas	 of	energy	 use	 and	 GHG	 emissions	 that	 required	 the	 greatest	 focus	 (using	 the	 Likert	scale)	 (Figure	 6)	 and	 (Figure	 7).	 Many	 community	 respondents	 indicated	 that	residential	energy	use	(N=15,	42.8%)	and	renewable	or	alternative	energy	projects	(N=14,	40%)	were	most	important	while	waste	facilities	were	indicated	as	important	(N=15,	 42%).	 	 Interestingly,	 the	 majority	 of	 community	 respondents	 indicated	implementing	a	climate	change	action	plan	(N=19,	54.3%)	as	least	important	(Figure	6).	Intriguingly,	33.3%	of	the	school	respondents	indicated	residential	energy	use	as	most	 important	 (N=3,	 33.3%)	 while	 44.4%	 of	 school	 respondents	 expressed	disagreeance	(N=4)	(Figure	7).			Figure	6.	Displays	Skeetchestn’s	community	(adult)	population	responses	to	Question	4	in	the	Energy	Awareness	questionnaire	using	the	Likert	scale.	Response	rate	(n)=	35					32			Figure	7.	Displays	Skeetchestn’s	school	(child)	population	responses	to	Question	4	in	the	Energy	Awareness	questionnaire	using	the	Likert	scale.			 For	Question	4,	 some	respondents	assumed	a	 ranking	scale	 independent	of	the	suggested	Likert	scale	(Figure	8)	and	(Figure	9).	In	this	case,	it	is	assumed	that	a	rank	of	“five”	or	“No	Response”	is	considered	unimportant.				 	Response	rate	(n)=	9					33	Figure	8.	Displays	Skeetchestn’s	community	(adult)	population	responses	to	Question	4	in	the	Energy	Awareness	questionnaire	ranking	independently	from	the	Likert	scale		Figure	9.	Displays	Skeetchestn’s	school	(child)	population	responses	to	Question	4	in	the	Energy	Awareness	questionnaire	ranking	independently	from	the	Likert	scale.	Response	rate	(n)=	33	Response	rate	(n)=	16					34	A	 majority	 of	 the	 respondents	 indicated	 residential	 energy	 use	 (N=25,	75.8%)	 as	 the	 most	 important	 followed	 by	 climate	 change	 action	 plan	 (N=16,	48.3%).	 	 Interestingly,	 opinions	 seem	 to	 be	 divided	with	 regards	 to	 renewable	 or	alternative	 energy	 projects.	 Many	 respondents	 indicated	 this	 option	 as	 most	important	(N=15,	45.5%)	but	roughly	an	equal	number	expressed	it	as	unimportant	(N=13,	39.3%),	(Figure	8).	In	comparison,	the	school	respondents	expressed	waste	facilities	 (N=11,	 68.9%)	 followed	 by	 climate	 change	 action	 plan	 (N=9,	 56.3%)	 as	most	 important.	 Of	 note,	 residential	 energy	 use,	 renewable	 or	 alternative	 energy	projects,	and	transportation	were	not	ranked	by	50%	of	respondents	(Figure	9).	Defining	Energy	Objectives	In	 accordance	 with	 the	 second	 stage	 of	 research	 proposed,	 a	 community	engagement	 breakfast	 was	 hosted	 at	 Skeetchestn’s	 Recreation	 Centre.	 It	 was	estimated	that	80	community	members	attended	(31%	participation	rate),	ranging	in	 age	 from	 infant	 to	 Elder.	 Figure	 10	 is	 a	 summary	 of	 the	 community’s	 feedback	during	the	event	with	order	of	importance	not	implied:					35		Figure	10.	Displays	the	draft	version	of	Skeetchestn’s	energy	objectives.	Part	II:	Results	The	 following	 section	 introduces	 the	 findings	 of	 the	 paper’s	 third	 and	 fourth	objectives.	Community	Energy	Plan	Builds	capacity	in	all	ages,	both	short-term	and	long-term	 Ensures	new	housing	or	retrowits	are	customized	to	Skeetchestn’s	local	climate	Enables	new	housing	to	express	cultural	signiwicance	into	the	design	Provides	an	open,	transparent	and	inclusive	planning	process		Protects	local	environment	and	traditional	food	sources	from	potential	harm	imposed	by	new	projects		Aligns	with	traditional	laws	Promotes	cultural	signiwicance					36	Net-zero	Energy	Opportunities	The	 third	 stage	 of	 research	 proposed	 encompasses	 a	 secondary	 literature	 review,	highlights	 thermal	 images	 captured	 to	 explore	 the	 thermal	 performance	 of	 the	building	envelope	and	a	high	level	solar	analysis	using	HOT2000	and	PVsyst.		Thermal	Performance	of	the	Building	Envelope:	Thermal	Images	Buildings	 should	 be	monitored	 after	 construction	 to	maintain	 the	 integrity	 of	 the	building	envelope.	Heat	losses,	missing	or	damaged	thermal	insulation	in	walls	and	roofs,	 thermal	 bridges,	 air	 leakage	 and	 moisture	 sources	 can	 be	 detected	 using	thermal	infrared	(IR)	imaging	[23].			Figure	11.	Compares	the	heat	loss	of	a	normal	house	(left)	to	a	passive	house7	(right)	[24].		 The	image	above	can	be	used	to	further	compare	the	thermal	performance	of	the	 conventional	 on-reserve	house	 (above	 left)	 to	 the	RH	 (above	 right).	 	Note	 the	scale	on	the	right-hand	side	can	be	used	to	calculate	heat	loss.																																																										7	Top	performance,	energy	efficiency	building	standards.					37	𝑄 = 𝐴 × 𝑈 ×ΔT  [1.4] Applying this formula, two times the heat loss occurs through the walls and windows in the house on the left vs. the house on the right.  Factors	 such	 as	emissivity8	of	measured	surface,	air	particles,	ambient	temperature,	wind	speed	and	distance	 from	 the	 target	 are	 interdependent	 to	 the	 accuracy	 of	 leakage	measurements.	Thermal	IR	images	were	taken	in	both	houses	to	identify	infiltration	[23].								 							 	Figure	12.	Thermal	images	captured	areas	of	infiltration	under	the	front	door	and	along	the	doorframe	in	the	conventional	on-reserve	home	(left)	and	the	RH	(right),	Skeetchestn,	BC.	Images	captured	using	a	Fluke	Ti20	Thermal	Imager,	February	23rd,	2016.			Although	 the	 radiometric	 data	 was	 not	 available,	 the	 images	 suggest	 a	greater	 level	 of	 infiltration	 under	 the	 conventional	 on-reserve	 house	 door	 (above	left)	 (Figure12).	 This	 difference	 is	 part	 and	 parcel	 to	 the	 integrity	 of	 the	 building	envelope.																																																										8	At	a	specific	temperature	(˚C)	and	wavelength	(λ)	the	ratio	of	the	energy	emitted	by	a	flat,	opaque,	optically	polished	object	to	that	of	a	blackbody	at	the	equivalent	˚C	and	λ	[25].	 				38	Photovoltaic	Analysis	To	 meet	 NZE	 requirement	 a	 PV	 system	 has	 been	 applied	 to	 the	 upgraded	 RH	HOT2000	model.	The	245W	Trina	(Table	12)	is	known	for	its	low	cost	of	energy	per	panel	($0.31/kWh)	[26]	has	been	selected	for	the	HOT2000	simulation	(See	Appendix	VIII	for	typical	package	pricing).	Table	2.	Highlights	PV	specifications.	Brand	 Model	 η	(%) STC:	Peak	Power	Output		(W)	NOTC:	Max.	Power	(W)	Power	Output	(%)	NOCT	(°C)	Dimensions	(mm)	Cost	(CAD)	Total	Cost	(CAD)	Trina	 TSM-PDG5	 15%	 245	 178	 0-3	 45	 1658x992x25	 $212	 $2120		To	determine	the	array	size	needed	to	reach	NZE,	peak	sunlight	hours	were	acquired	from	an	on-line	calculator.	Peak	sunlight	hours	are	also	referred	to	as	the	average	daily	solar	insolation	(kWh/m2/day)	that	occurs	when	the	solar	insolation	is	perpendicular	to	the	solar	panel	for	a	specified	time.	The	number	of	peak	sunlight	hours	 is	numerically	 identical	when	 the	solar	 insolation/irradiance	averages	1000	W/m2	during	one-hour	period.	The	reference	location	in	nearest	proximity	to	SFN	is	Kamloops,	BC	which	receives	on	average	3.219	hours/day	of	peak	sunlight	annually	(4.48	hours	and	1.46	hours	in	the	summer	and	winter,	respectively)	 [27].	Therefore	the	 annual	 average	 solar	 insolation	 is	 3.219	 kWh/m2/day	 [28].	 ASHRAE	 Clear	 Sky	Model	was	applied	 [29]	using	SFN	geospatial	 coordinates,	positioning	 the	panels	 to	face	south	at	12:00pm	on	June	21	and	December	21	to	measure	irradiation	on	clear	sky	day	and	to	verify	peak	sun	hours	(See	Appendix	IX	for	calculations).					39	The	RH	consumes	on	average	33.88kWh/day	or	hourly	energy	consumption	of	 1.41kWh	 (See	 Appendix	 X	 for	 RH’s	 energy	 consumption	 history).	 Recently,	Riverside	Energy	Systems	conducted	a	Solar	Resource	Study	for	SFN	that	indicated	virtually	insignificant	external	shading	impacts	from	surrounding	geography	[30].		The	 pattern	 of	 the	 sun	 rising	 in	 the	 east	 and	 setting	 in	 the	 west	 in	combination	 with	 the	 Trina	 solar	 panel	 dimensions	 (1.64	 m2	 per	 panel),	 optimal	available	 area	 on	 roof	 (measured	 facing	 southwest	 (45˚),	 south	 (0˚)	 southeast	 (-45˚)),	with	a	4/12	slope	suggests	the	maximum	exposure	on	the	RH	roof	appears	to	be	10.92	m2	or	~9%	coverage,	or	10	solar	panels	(Figure	13).			Figure	13.	Schematic	drawing	of	the	RH	roof	with	10	Trina	245W	solar	panels	facing	south	(0˚).	Drawing	not	to	scale.		The	HOT2000	PV	simulation	accounts	for	daily	solar	insolation	and	estimates	this	 coverage	would	generate	~2881kWh/year.	To	 further	support	 these	 results	a	second	 analysis	 was	 simulated	 using	 PVsyst	 software,	 which	 indicated	 an	 annual	system	output	of	3727	kWh	was	probable	(Table	3).					40			Table	3.	Highlights	PVSyst	output	for	10	Trina	Solar	TSM-245	PC/PA05	modules	with	an	array	size	of	16.5m2.	Month		 Gl.	horizon	(kWh/m².day)	Collection	Plane	(kWh/m².day)	System	Output	(kWh/day)	System	Output	(kWh/monthly)	January	 0.97	 2.19	 4.86	 151	February	 1.78	 3.19	 7.07	 198	March	 3.33	 5.11	 11.33	 351	April	 4.77	 5.73	 12.72	 382	May	 5.76	 5.94	 13.17	 408	June	 6.44	 6.28	 13.93	 418	July	 6.63	 6.63	 14.72	 456	August	 5.46	 6.19	 13.73	 426	September	 4.04	 5.61	 12.44	 373	October	 2.39	 4.24	 9.4	 291	November	 1.18	 2.44	 5.42	 163	December	 0.7	 1.6	 3.54	 110	Year	 3.63	 4.6	 10.21	 3727		 The	second	column	displays	the	radiation	received	by	a	surface	horizontal	to	the	ground.	The	third	column	highlights	the	radiation	received	by	a	surface	tilted	to	the	 ground.	 The	 system	 output	 measures	 daily	 (4th	 column)	 and	 monthly	 (5th	column)	output	capacity.	This	analysis	expresses	an	annual	yield	~23%	greater	than	the	HOT2000	software.	Given	the	information	provided,	the	size	of	the	array	(for	15%	efficient	Trina	solar	 panels)	 to	 achieve	 NZE	 would	 be	 154.7	 m2	 or	 50.42m2,	 during	 winter	 and	summer	 respectively.	 Using	 an	 azimuth	 of	 0˚	 (facing	 south),	 with	 a	 slope	 of	 33˚,	HOT2000	PV	simulation	postulates	an	area	of	151.3	m2	would	be	required.	Given	the	panel	dimensions	(1.64m2),	approximately	92	solar	panels	would	be	required.						41		Figure	14.	Exemplifies	a	top-pole	ground	mounted	array	of	96	Trina	245W	solar	panels	facing	south	(0˚).	Drawing	not	to	scale.			 This	analysis	would	yield	NZE,	or	an	annual	system	output	of	12,	366kWh.	Energy	Consumption:	Conventional	On-reserve	House	vs.	Round	House		In	 accordance	with	 the	 fourth	 objective	 of	 the	 research,	 two	 home	 energy	 audits	were	 performed.	 Unfortunately,	 blue	 prints	 or	 drawings	 were	 not	 available	 for	either	building;	in	turn	assumptions	made	will	be	specified	throughout	the	paper.	In	this	 section,	 the	 base	 case	 for	 each	 house	 is	 modeled.	 Based	 on	 the	 building	parameter	summaries,	upgrades	were	modeled	and	are	presented	in	the	discussion.		Building	Parameters:	Base	Case	The	base	case	building	parameters	of	the	conventional	on-reserve	house	and	RH	are	portrayed	in	the	subsequent	section.							42	Conventional	On-reserve	House	The	 house	 was	 constructed	 in	 1983	 (Figure	 15).	 The	 Indigenous	 and	 Northern	Affairs	 Canada	 (INAC)9	(previously	 Aboriginal	 Affairs	 and	 Northern	 Development	Canada	(AANDC))	in	concert	with	CMHC	provided	funding	and	support	for	housing	but	 failed	 to	 provide	 capacity	 to	meet	 construction	 standards,	 contributing	 to	 the	First	Nation	housing	crisis.	The	act	of	failing	to	provide	capacity	is	common	among	First	Nation	 communities,	 not	 only	 in	Canada	but	 also	 in	other	 in	other	 colonized	countries.		Walls	The	 conventional	 on-reserve	 house	 is	 a	 rectangular,	 two-story	 building	 with	 an	unfinished	basement	(Figure	16	and	Table	4).					 	Figure	15.	Displays	front	(left)	and	back	(right)	view	of	the	conventional	on-reserve	house.	Photo	was	taken	February	23,	2016,	SFN,	BC.																																																									9	One	of	34	federal	departments	involved	in	aboriginal	and	northern	affairs	that	fulfill	commitments	to	the	Indigenous	peoples	of	Canada	[31].					43		Figure	16.	Presents	plan	view	of	on-reserve	conventional	house.	Drawing	not	to	scale.		Table	4.	Highlights	wall	parameters	from	HOT2000.	Facing	Direction	No.	of	Corners	No.	of	Intersections	Height	(m)	Perimeter	(m)	Area	(m2)	R-Value	(RSI)	10	Northeast	 2	 1	 2.23	 10.00	 22.34	 1.48	Southeast	 2	 2	 2.23	 10.00	 22.34	 1.97	Southwest	 2	 2	 2.23	 10.00	 22.34	 1.68	Northwest	 2	 0	 2.23	 10.00	 22.34	 1.99	Pony	wall	 4	 2	 1.22	 36.58	 44.59	 1.51		 The	 corner	 and	 intersection	 parameters	 account	 for	 the	 thermal	 breaks	experienced	by	the	building	envelope.			Foundation	The	foundation	consists	of	a	concrete	basement	with	a	floor	area	of	74.35	m2	and	an	exposed	perimeter	(36.58	m).	The	basement	can	be	entered	from	an	open	stairwell																																																									10	Thermal	Resistance	measurement	in	imperial	units	is	Resistance	System	International	(m2	K	/W).	The	ability	of	a	material	to	resist	heat	flow,	a	low	R-value	indicates	high	heat	flow	through	a	material	and	visa	versa	[32].					44	(8.64	m2)	off	 the	main	 entrance	 (northeast)	 or	 through	 the	 side	door	 (southeast).	The	foundation	was	subject	to	premature	backfill	and	lacks	insulation.	The	first	floor	above	the	basement	slab	is	exposed	concrete.	HOT2000	calculated	an	RSI	of	0.47.		Roof	The	 roof	 has	 a	 pitch	 of	 4/12.	 It	 is	 assumed	 that	 it	 was	 constructed	 from	plywood/particle	board	(12.7mm)	with	asphalt	shingles	on	the	exterior.	Given	these	parameters	HOT2000	calculated	an	RSI	of	3.53.	Windows	The	conventional	on-reserve	house	has	nine	windows.	All	windows	are	single-pane.	Windows	have	metal	spacers	and	are	encased	by	aluminum	frames	(Table	5).	The	windows	 are	 subjected	 to	 condensation	 and	deposition,	 air	 and	water	 infiltration.	The	majority	 of	 the	 windows	 are	 duct	 tapped	 around	 the	 edges	 to	 prevent	 wind	from	popping	out	the	windows	during	extreme	weather	events	[33].			 	Figure	17.	Living	room	(NE)	single-pane	window	duct	tapped	to	prevent	wind	from	blowing	window	out.	Picture	was	taken	February	23,	2016,	SFN.		 					45	Table	5.	Displays	window	characteristics	from	HOT2000.	Location	 SHGC	 RSI	 Area	(m2)	Northeast	(BDRM)	 0.7911	 0.152	 1.82	Northeast	(BDRM)	 0.7911	 0.152	 1.82	Northeast	(LR)	 0.8098	 0.154	 3.47	Northeast	(BSMT)	 0.7603	 0.150	 1.36	Southwest	(BSMT)	 0.7969	 0.153	 2.06	Southwest	(KTHN)	 0.7767	 0.151	 1.18	Southwest	(BTHRM)	 0.7324	 0.148	 0.51	Southwest	(MBDRM)	 0.7911	 0.152	 1.82	Southwest	(SL.	GLDR)	 0.8114	 0.154	 3.52	Doors	The	 conventional	 on	 reserve	 house	 has	 three	 doors,	 two	wooden	 and	 one	 sliding	glass	 door.	 For	 the	 purpose	 of	 this	 analysis	 the	 sliding	 glass	 door	 is	 considered	 a	window.	The	front	and	side	doors	face	northeast	and	southeast,	respectively.	Due	to	limited	information	on	door	type,	the	doors	were	assumed	to	be	hollow	wood	core.	HOT2000	calculated	an	RSI	of	0.37.	Lighting	Information	on	lighting	fixtures	and	bulbs	were	unknown	to	the	occupants	and	out	of	physical	reach	during	the	energy	audit.	HOT2000’s	default	lighting	consumption	(3kWh/day)	was	assumed.		Ventilation/Natural	Infiltration	and	Heating	Ventilation	and	Air-Conditioning	Living	 in	a	naturally	ventilated	building,	 thermal	 comfort	 is	 influenced	by	 thermal	sensations,	 such	as	 environmental	 (temperature),	 personal	 (activity	 and	 clothing),					46	and	daily	and	seasonal	climate	changes	[34].	Not	all	openings	(windows)	are	available	for	ventilation	as	most	are	duct	taped,	painted	shut,	or	broken.		The	only	ventilation	is	an	exhaust	fan	in	the	newly	renovated	bathroom.	Due	to	the	age	and	condition	of	the	building	envelope	an	airtightness	of	10.35ACH	was	assumed.	 HOT2000	 calculated	 an	 annual	 net	 air	 leakage	 and	 ventilation	 load	 of	96042	MJ.	Space	Heating	System	–	Wood	Stove	The	 primary	 source	 of	 heating	 is	 a	 wood	 burning	 stove.	 The	 house	 has	 electric	baseboard	heaters	but	they	have	been	out	of	commission	for	at	least	10	years.	The	original	 wood	 stove	 was	 replaced	 with	 a	 second-hand	 stove	 from	 another	 on-reserve,	 renovation	 project	 with	 the	 notion	 that	 it	 would	 be	 more	 efficient.	 The	occupants	 believe	 otherwise	 and	 are	 currently	 burning	 12	 cords	 (~43,000	 kg)	 of	wood	 from	November	 to	April	 each	year.	 In	 comparison,	 an	energy	efficient	 stove	burns	roughly	one	and	a	half	cords	of	wood	each	year	[35].	The	current	stove	does	not	meet	 CSA	 standards,	 which	 prevents	 the	 house	 from	 being	 insured.	 HOT2000	estimates	an	annual	space	heating	energy	consumption	of	647837	MJ.							47		Figure	18.	Current	wood	burning	stove.	Photo	was	taken	February	23,	2016,	SFN,	BC.		Under	 the	 assumption	 of	 an	 efficiency	 of	 28%	 and	 a	 33	 cm	 flue	 diameter,	HOT2000	 estimates	 the	 annual	 fuel	 (wood	 1000kg)	 consumption	 for	 the	conventional	wood	 stove	 to	 be	43,	which	 is	 in	 accordance	with	 current	 use	 of	 12	cords	of	wood.		Domestic	Hot	Water	System	HOT2000	 estimated	 the	 annual	 domestic	 hot	 water	 (DHW)	 heating	 energy	consumption	as	16988	MJ.	Due	to	the	 insulation	 jacket	(R-value	of	8)	on	the	DHW	tank,	 the	 model	 specifications	 are	 unknown.	 It	 was	 estimated	 that	 the	 unit	 was	installed	during	construction	[33],	therefore	50%	efficiency	was	assumed.	The	annual	GHG	emissions	are	estimated	 from	the	sum	of	 the	annual	 space	heating	and	DWH	energy	consumption	as	63	Tonnes/year.						48	Occupancy	The	 occupancy	 rate	 is	 two	 adults	 and	 two	 youth.	 As	 both	 adults	 work	 and	 both	youth	are	in	school,	a	50%	occupancy	rate	is	assumed.		Temperature	Since	 the	 electric	 baseboard	 heaters	 have	 been	 out	 of	 commission	 for	 at	 least	 10	years,	 there	 is	 no	 thermostat	 to	 gauge	 the	 indoor	 temperature.	 The	 heating	temperature	is	assumed	to	be	20°C	for	both	the	unfinished	basement	and	the	main	floor,	with	an	allowable	rise	of	5.5°C.		Round	House	The	 RH	 was	 constructed	 in	 2008.	 In	 efforts	 to	 alleviate	 the	 First	 Nation	 housing	crisis	the	Skeetchestn	Natural	Resources	Corp	wanted	to	provide	an	energy	efficient	housing	option	while	building	capacity	in	the	community.	The	RH	is	an	open	concept	living	 space	 that	 consists	 of	 four	 rooms:	 office,	 bathroom,	 mechanical	 room	 and	open	 space.	 The	 latter	 is	 currently	 used	 as	 a	 common	 learning	 area.	 In	 future	development,	 the	 office	 and	 common	 area	will	 be	 the	 bedroom	and	 open-concept	kitchen,	living	room,	to	dining	room,	respectively.	Walls	The	RH	is	a	dodecagon11.	The	HOT2000	can	only	simulate	for	up	to	eight	directions	(Table	6).	To	compensate	 for	 the	 loss	of	 the	 four	SIP	panels	 the	building	 footprint	(m2)	was	adjusted	from	94.8	m2	to	100.5	m2.	The	walls	are	constructed	from	16.75																																																									11	12-sided	polygon.					49	cm	thick	structurally	 insulated	panels	(SIP)	with	an	R-value	of	24	K.m²/W	(Figure	19).				Figure	19.	Highlights	the	cross-section	of	the	SIP	panel	[36].	A	non-toxic	spray,	environmentally	sound	EPS	additive	is	applied	to	prohibit	insect	 infestation	 and	mould	 contamination.	 In	 addition,	 air	 leakages	 and	 thermal	bridging12	are	minimal	for	SIP	construction	[36].	Table	6.	Displays	wall	parameters	from	HOT2000.	Facing	Direction	No.	of	Corners	No.	of	Intersections	Height	(m)	Perimeter	(m)	Area	(m2)	R-Value	(RSI)		East	 2	 0	 2.44	 6.89	 16.80	 4.23	North	 1	 0	 2.44	 6.89	 16.80	 4.23	Northeast	 2	 1	 2.46	 3.44	 8.47	 4.23	Northwest	 2	 0	 2.46	 3.44	 8.47	 4.23	South	 1	 0	 2.44	 6.89	 16.80	 4.23	Southeast	 2	 1	 2.44	 3.44	 8.47	 4.23	Southwest	 2	 0	 2.46	 3.44	 8.47	 4.23	West	 2	 0	 2.44	 6.89	 16.80	 4.23	Foundation	The	foundation	is	a	slab-on-grade	with	a	floor	area	of	100.5	m2	and	a	perimeter	of	41.5m.	The	HOT2000	simulated	a	thermal	break	R-value	of	4.23	RSI.																																																										12	Heat	or	cold	can	move	through	a	continuous	element	such	as	a	stud	between	cold	and	warm	surfaces	of	the	wall,	resulting	in	a	thermal	bridge	[36].						50	Roof	The	roof	has	a	pitch	of	4/12	and	is	constructed	from	25.4	cm	thick	SIP	(R-value	of	40K.	m²/W)	with	asphalt	shingles	on	the	exterior.	To	accommodate	the	adjustment	in	the	building	footprint	(m2)	the	roof	and	ceiling	area	were	adjusted	to	105.94m2	and	118.6	m2,	 respectively.	Given	 these	parameters	HOT2000	calculated	an	RSI	of	7.04.	Windows	The	RH	has	four	windows.	All	windows	are	double	glazed	with	one	clear	coat,	and	13mm	air	filling.	Windows	contain	metal	spacers	and	are	encased	with	a	vinyl	frame	(Table	 7).	 As	 limited	 information	 was	 available,	 the	 glazings	 were	 not	 noted	 as	ENERGY	STAR.		Table	7.	Displays	window	parameters	from	HOT2000.	Location	 SHGC	 RSI	 Area	(m2)	Southeast	 0.6039	 0.334	 0.84	Northeast	 0.6039	 0.334	 0.84	Northwest	 0.6039	 0.334	 0.84	Southwest	 0.6039	 0.334	 0.84	Doors	The	RH	has	 two	doors,	 the	 front	 and	back	 doors	 face	 east	 and	west,	 respectively.	Due	to	limited	information	on	door	type	the	doors	were	assumed	to	be	hollow	wood	core.	HOT2000	calculated	an	RSI	of	0.37.					51	Lighting	There	are	eight	interior	light	fixtures.	All	bulbs	are	32W,	T8	fluorescents.	The	lights	are	 assumed	 to	 be	 in	 use	 50%	 of	 the	 time	 during	 occupied	 hours,	 equating	 to	0.58kWh/day	or	211.7kWh/year.		Occupants	The	RH	is	currently	being	used	as	a	classroom	and	seats	up	to	25	people.	However	since	 the	HOT2000	 platform	 can	 only	 account	 for	 a	maximum	 of	 nine	 adults	 and	youth,	18	occupants	(nine	adults	and	nine	youth)	were	applied.		Ventilation/Natural	Air	Infiltration	and	HVAC	The	 only	 mechanical	 ventilation	 the	 RH	 has	 is	 an	 exhaust	 fan	 in	 the	 bathroom.	Ventilation	occurs	naturally	through	openings	such	as	windows	and	doors.	Since	an	air	 blower	 door	 test13	has	 yet	 to	 be	 performed	 an	 airtightness	 of	 1.5ACH	 was	assumed.	 HOT2000	 calculated	 an	 annual	 net	 air	 leakage	 and	 ventilation	 load	 of	22521	MJ.	Space	Heating	System	–	Ground	Source	Heat	Pump		The	horizontal	loop,	Ground	Source	Heat	Pump	(GSHP)	provides	a	percentage	of	the	heating	 and	 cooling	 for	 the	 RH	 (Table	 8).	 HOT2000	 estimated	 an	 annual	 space	heating	energy	consumption	of	6120	MJ.																																																												13	A	tool	to	determine	the	air	tightness	of	a	building	envelope.					52	Table	8.	GSHP	specifications.	Manufacturer	 Water	Furnace	Model	Number	 Synergy3D:	SDV038A101CTR	Heating:	COP14	at	0	˚C	 4.5	Cooling:	COP	at	8	˚C	 5.6	Domestic	Hot	Water	System	The	 hot	 water	 load	 was	 adjusted	 for	 50%	 occupancy	 to	 include	 sanitation	 (daily	toilet	 flushing,	 hand	washing)	 and	 potable	 drinking	water.	 For	 18	 occupants,	 this	equates	 to	~	436	L/c/day	[37].	HOT2000	estimated	an	annual	DHW	heating	energy	consumption	of	30380	MJ.	Model	specifications	can	be	found	in	Table	9.	Table	9.	DHW	specifications.	Manufacturer	 Rheem	Model	Number	 PRO415TM	Energy	Factor	 0.910	Primary	Water	Heating	Fuel	 Electricity	Water	Heating	Equipment	 Conventional	tank	Tank	Capacity	(L)	 170.48		The	annual	GHG	emissions	are	estimated	at	11	Tonnes/year.		Temperature	Temperature	 data	 collected	 from	 the	 energy	 audit	 indicated	 that	 the	 RH	temperature	 should	 remain	 at	 a	 constant	 temperature	 of	 22.2°C	 for	 both	 heating	and	cooling	seasons.	Setback	temperatures	are	available	on	existing	thermostat	but	appear	to	have	been	by-passed	for	perceived	occupancy	comfort.																																																									14	Coefficient	of	Performance	gauges	the	efficiency,	the	higher	the	COP	the	greater	the	efficiency.						53	Building	Parameter	Summary	The	following	section	highlights	areas	of	high	heat	loss	in	both	building	envelopes.		Table	10.	Summarizes	conventional	on-reserve	house	base	case	building	parameters	from	HOT2000.	Above	and	below	grade	parameters	are	included.		Component Area m2 Area (m2) Effective Heat Loss    % Annual 		 		The	 summary	 suggests	 the	 greatest	 areas	 of	 annual	 heat	 lost	 for	 the	 on-reserve	 house	 are	 associated	with	 the	 single-pane	windows,	 the	walls,	 the	 ceiling	and	the	below	grade	foundation	(Table	10).	Due	to	the	black	mould	contamination	throughout	 the	 entire	 house,	 an	 extensive	 renovation	 in	 which	 only	 the	 crude	elements	 of	 the	 structure	 remain	 will	 be	 required	 (See	 Appendix	 XI	 for	documentation	of	mould	contamination).		Table	11.	Summarizes	RH	base	case	building	parameters	from	HOT2000.	Component Area m2 Area (m2) Effective Heat Loss % Annual  Ceiling Gross 105.94 Net 105.94 (RSI) 7.04 (MJ) 4417.59 Heat Loss 7.83 Main Walls 101.00 101.00 4.23 8123.25 14.40 Doors 3.62 3.62 0.37 4265.22 7.56 Southeast Windows 0.84 0.84 0.33 1090.62 1.93 Northeast Windows 0.84 0.84 0.33 1090.62 1.93 Northwest Windows 0.84 0.84 0.33 1090.62 1.93 Southwest Windows 0.84 0.84 0.33 1090.62 1.93 Slab on Grade 101.00 101.00 4.23 12720.49 22.55 	   Foundation 113.34   113.34   27724.51       13.26  Ceiling  78.04    78.04       3.53  4841.48  2.32 Main Walls  94.94 94.94 1.80 30538.49 14.61 Doors 3.77 3.77 0.37 3786.85 1.81 Exposed floors 10.00 10.00 0.72 3082.52 1.47 Windows (NE) 8.47 8.47 0.26 22237.91 9.93 Windows (SW) 9.07 9.07 0.26 19292.41 10.64   				54	The	summary	for	the	RH	suggests	that	the	main	walls,	foundation,	ceiling	and	doors	 experience	 the	 greatest	 percentage	of	 annual	 heat	 loss	 (Table	11).	Upgrade	opportunities	for	both	buildings	will	be	developed	in	the	discussion.		Part	I:	Discussion	The	following	section	discusses	the	findings	from	Part	I	Results.			Raising	Energy	Awareness	The	purpose	of	the	Energy	Awareness	questionnaire	was	to	gauge	the	community’s	level	 of	 energy	 awareness	 by	 determining	 what	 areas	 of	 energy	 use	 and	 GHG	emissions	were	most	 important.	 As	 the	 two-tail	 distribution	T-test	 expressed,	 the	null	 hypothesis,	 for	 Question	 1	 and	 Question	 3	 was	 not	 rejected	 such	 that	 the	responses	 from	 the	population	means	are	 the	 same.	However,	 the	null	hypothesis	for	Question	2	was	rejected,	such	that	the	responses	between	the	two	population’s	means	differ	(Table	1).	This	could	be	associated	with	different	levels	of	importance	allocated	to	each	question.	The	school	population	data	indicated	a	wider	spread	of	responses	 (Figure	 5).	 Alternatively,	 it	 could	 be	 associated	 with	 the	 level	 of	understanding	 of	 what	 achieving	 energy	 independence	 would	 mean	 for	 the	community.	During	the	circulation	of	the	questionnaire,	several	school	respondents	questioned	the	term	energy	independence	and	renewable	energies,	these	inquiries	further	support	the	postulation	that	the	level	of	understanding	could	be	associated	with	the	rejection	of	the	null	hypothesis	for	Question	2.						55	Meanwhile,	 the	 community	 respondents	 indicated	 Question	 2	 (achieving	energy	 independence)	 as	most	 important	 (51.5%)	 which	 is	 not	 surprising.	 Many	First	 Nation	 communities	 are	 working	 towards	 self-determination	 and	 gaining	independence	 from	 the	 crown	 and	 privately	 owned	 utilities	 companies	 and	 this	outcome	would	only	 further	 support	 this	 goal	 [38].	 The	questionnaire	 results	were	presented	 to	 the	 community	 during	 the	 	 community	 engagement	 breakfast	 at	 the	Skeetchestn	 Recreation	 Centre.	 A	 community	 member	 opened	 a	 discussion	 that	although	 energy	 independence	 is	 something	 to	 strive	 towards,	 the	 capital	 cost	 of	investing	in	renewable	energy	infrastructure	was	out	of	the	community’s	reach	[39].		In	the	last	two	years,	solar	technology	prices	have	declined	by	over	65%.	This	is	part	and	parcel	 to	high	 learning	 rates	 (20%	to	22%	decline	 in	PV	module	 costs	realized	 for	 every	 coupling	 of	 cumulative	 installed	PV	 capacity)	 paired	with	 rapid	deployment	of	solar	PV,	in	turn,	leading	to	a	reduction	in	installed	costs	compared	to	wind	and	coal	fired	power	stations	in	OECD15	countries.	In	fact,	PV	is	anticipated	to	gain	 market	 competitiveness 16 	by	 2020	 [40].	 This	 trend	 is	 encouraging	 for	communities	 like	 SFN	 who	 can	 garner	 support	 from	 programs	 like	 the	 FNCEBF	Capacity	and	Equity	grant	funding.		Recently,	 Riverside	 Energy	 Systems	 carried	 out	 a	 Solar	 Resource	 Study	 for	SFN.	 Seven	potential	 zones	were	 analyzed	 in	 the	 SFN	 territory.	 Evidence	 suggests	that	 an	 annual	 projected	 harvest	 of	 1150	MWh/year	 is	 probable.	 Although,	 long-																																																								15	Organisation	for	Economic	Co-operation	and	Development	16	The	price	of	an	asset	–PV	is	directly	linked	to	another	price	–	hydro	electricity,	resulting	in	parity	price	or	market	competiveness.						56	term	local	irradiance	and	insolation	data	are	required	to	confirm	the	annual	harvest,	3.5MW	to	11MW	 is	anticipated	 from	 fixed	ground	mounted	solar	[30].	 Shortly	after	the	 study,	 the	 community	 commissioned	 BC	 Hydro	 to	 perform	 a	 conceptual	screening	 assessment17	for	 solar	 energy.	 BC	 hydro	 assumed	 a	 1MW	 maximum	power	injection	from	the	site	to	the	grid,	and	that	anything	above	the	1MW	would	require	a	substation	upgrade,	at	the	expense	of	SFN.	As	well,	additional	work	would	be	required	to	determine	if	SFN	is	eligible	for	a	simplified	interconnection	process.	The	 progress	 thus	 far	 is	 promising,	 yet	 the	 capital	 expenditures	 appear	 to	 be	 a	limiting	factor,	as	noted	during	the	community	engagement	breakfast.		Including	 youth	 in	 the	 planning	 process	 fosters	 a	 sense	 of	 community-ownership	 and	 long-term	 involvement	 in	 community	 planning.	 	 Adults	 are	 often	unaware	of	what	youth	deem	as	important	and	what	they	envision	for	the	future	[41].	The	 school	 respondents	 reported	Question	3	 (creating	 short-term	goals	 to	 reduce	GHG	emission	by	2020)	as	most	important	(44%).	Evidence	suggests	that	the	youth	of	 SFN	 are	 serious	 about	 climate	 change	 and	 protecting	 the	 environment	 for	 the	seven	 generations18.	 Such	 responses	 are	 in	 harmony	 with	 the	 recent	 landmark	climate	change	case	 in	the	U.S.	Federal	District	Court	 in	Eugene,	OR,	ruling	against	the	 U.S.	 Federal	 Government	 and	 fossil	 fuel	 industry	 and	 on	 behalf	 of	 future	generations,	in	favour	of	21	plaintiffs,	ages	8	to	19	[42].	As	the	questionnaires	were	in																																																									17	Performs	a	high-level	technical	feasibility	of	a	project	to	determine	areas	requiring	further	study.	This	project	guides	customers	to	determine	what	is	the	next	phase	of	study	that	should	be	considered.		18	Refers	to	intergeneration	within	an	individuals	family	to	account	for	the	past	three	generations	and	the	future	three	generations.							57	circulation,	 community	 members	 questioned	 how	 a	 small-scale	 community	 could	contribute	to	such	GHG	reduction	targets	 [43].	A	climate	change	action	plan	for	SFN	would	 likely	have	a	stronger	 focus	on	adaptation	measures	 rather	 than	mitigation	measures.	 Evidence	 suggests	 that	 communities	 currently	 prone	 to	 hunger	 and	malnutrition	 will	 likely	 experience	 food	 insecurity	 that	 is	 directly	 correlated	 to	climate	variability	and	change	[44].	In	addition,	extreme	weather	events	are	likely	to	become	more	 frequent	 and	more	 intense	 [45],	 thus	 fostering	 a	 cascading	 effect	 on	food	 inequalities	 and	 uncertainties	 with	 the	 global	 food	 system.	 As	 such,	highlighting	 the	 urgency	 of	 addressing	 food	 security	 and	 formulating	 adaptation	measures	 [44].	 One	 adaptation	 measure	 in	 response	 to	 food	 security	 and	 energy	intensity	is	correlated	to	importing	food.	Factors	that	contribute	to	a	food	source’s	carbon	 impact	 include:	 production	 (grown	 organically	 vs.	 conventional	 with	chemicals	or	genetically	modified	organism	(GMO)),	distance	to	market	and	position	on	 the	 food	 chain.	 Today,	 foods	 from	 supermarkets	 are	 not	 only	 energy-intensive	(17%	to	26%	of	American	fossil	 fuels)	[46],	but	many	food	options	are	prepackaged	and	 often	 laden	with	 chemicals,	 and	GMOs	 that	 threaten	 buyers	with	 obesity	 and	diabetes	 [47].	 Being	 proactive	 to	 the	 projected	 impacts	 on	 food	 security	 by	 global	climate	change	would	be	in	SFN’s	best	interest.	One	adaptation	measure	in	response	to	food	security	could	be	a	community	garden.		During	 the	 community	 engagement	breakfast,	 a	 community	member	 stated	that	 an	 application	 to	 build	 a	 community	 garden	 had	 been	 recently	 rejected	 [39].	Building	a	 community	garden	can	provide	a	plethora	of	benefits	 for	all	 ages.	Blair					58	evaluated	12	quantitative	studies,	where	schools	utilized	gardening	and	place	based	learning	 of	 local	 ecology	 (2009).	 Nine	 of	 the	 12	 studies	 confirmed	 behavioural	improvement	in	school	and	increased	achievement	in	math	and	science	subjects	[46].		Hence,	 a	 community	 garden	 could	 reduce	 the	 community’s	 carbon	 footprint,	support	self-sufficiency	through	food	security,	improve	access	to	clean	food	sources	such	 as	 vegetables,	 support	 waste	 facilities	 through	 a	 composting	 program	 and	support	academic	success.		The	 community	 respondents	 who	 ranked	 Question	 4	 following	 the	 Likert	scale	expressed	residential	energy	use	and	renewable	energy	or	alternative	energy	projects	 as	most	 important,	 42.8%	 and	 40%,	 respectively	 (Figure	 6).	 The	 level	 of	importance	 allocated	 to	 the	 former	 (42.8%)	 could	 be	 correlated	 to	 the	 financial	burden	 associated	 with	 residential	 energy	 use	 and	 broken	 infrastructure,	 further	underlining	 the	 issues	 pertaining	 to	 the	 First	 Nation	 housing	 crisis.	 The	 latter	ranking	 (40%)	 supports	 SFN	 interest	 in	 achieving	 energy	 independence	 and	 self-reliance.	An	interesting	trend	surfaced	from	the	school	respondents	for	Question	4	whereby	 33%	were	 in	 agreeance	 that	 residential	 energy	 use	was	most	 important	while	44%	disagreed	stating	 residential	 energy	use	as	 somewhat	–	least	important	(Figure	7).	This	trend	could	be	associated	with	the	level	of	conservation	awareness	in	 the	 home.	 For	 example,	 parents	 who	 communicate	 to	 their	 children	 on	 the	importance	 of	 turning	 off	 lights	 or	 unplugging	 electronics	 when	 not	 in	 use	 could	account	for	the	former	(33%)	while	the	latter	(44%)	could	be	associated	with	a	lack	of	communication	with	respect	to	energy	conservation	practices	in	the	home.						59		 The	 community	 respondents	 who	 ranked	 Question	 4	 independently	expressed	 residential	 energy	 use	 followed	 by	 climate	 change	 action	 plan	 as	most	important,	75.8%	and	48.5%,	respectively	(Figure	8).	These	responses	exemplify	the	concerns	 of	 the	 community	 from	 a	 local	 and	 a	 global	 perspective	 further	emphasizing	the	need	for	affordable	and	safe	housing.	It	is	rare	to	see	marginalized	populations	prioritize	climate	change	 issues	over	basic	amenities	such	as	the	right	to	 safe	 shelter	 [45].	 This	 difference	 in	 data	 could	 be	 correlated	 to	 a	 variance	 in	economic	 structure	 in	 the	 community	 such	 that	 the	 majority	 of	 the	 respondents	(75.8%)	appear	to	be	struggling	to	meet	their	basic	amenities	in	turn	disabling	them	from	 expressing	 concern	 at	 a	 global	 scale;	 whereas	 the	 minority	 of	 respondents	(48.5%)	most	 likely	 feel	 that	 their	basic	amenities	are	met	can	 focus	on	a	broader	issue	such	as	global	climate	change.	Secondly,	such	concerns	could	be	attributed	in	part	 to	 traditional	 worldviews	 with	 the	 respondent’s	 connection	 and	 values	associated	with	surrounding	environment	and	all	living	things.		The	school	respondents	who	ranked	Question	4	independently	indicated	that	waste	 facilities	 were	 of	 greatest	 importance	 followed	 closely	 by	 climate	 change	action	 plan,	 68.0%	 and	 56.3%,	 respectively	 (Figure	 9).	 A	 global	 consciousness	 is	apparent	 in	 these	 results.	 It	 is	 common	 among	 youth	 to	 be	 aware	 of	 their	surrounding	 environment.	 Waste	 disposal	 practices	 such	 as	 recycling	 and	composting	 are	 often	 integrated	 into	 the	 school	 curriculum	and	 later	 shared	with	family	members	at	home.	The	response	 to	climate	change	 is	not	surprising,	as	 the	younger	 generations	 (school	 population)	 will	 experience	 the	 greatest	 effects	 of					60	global	 climate	 change.	 Additionally,	 the	 level	 of	 importance	 associated	 with	 this	option	 correlates	 to	 Question	 3,	 in	 turn	 highlighting	 a	 pattern	 that	 the	 school	population	is	concerned	about	global	climate	change.		Defining	Energy	Objectives	In	order	to	respect	and	honour	the	community’s	own	aspirations	and	priorities,	the	energy	 objectives	 will	 not	 be	 further	 analyzed	 (Figure	 10).	 However,	 two	 energy	objectives	 require	 further	 elaboration.	 The	 first,	 builds	 capacity	 in	 all	 ages,	 both	short-term	and	long-term,	such	that	training	and	employment	opportunities	will	be	provided	 for	 installation,	 operation	 and	 maintenance	 of	 new	 projects	 and/or	equipment.	The	second	protects	local	environment	and	traditional	food	sources	from	potential	 harm	 imposed	 by	 new	 projects,	 such	 that	 the	 term	 ‘environment’	encompasses	land,	water	and	all	living	things.	Once	finalized,	the	energy	objectives	will	be	used	to	evaluate	recommendations	from	the	CEP.			 					61	Part	II:	Discussion	The	following	section	discusses	the	findings	from	Part	II	Results.		Net-zero	Energy	Opportunities		An	 integrated	approach	 is	 required	 in	 the	design	of	NZE	buildings.	 It	 is	 estimated	that	passive	solar	gains	can	account	for	40%	of	a	buildings	gross	heating	demand	[48]	while	63%	of	total	energy	consumption	and	77%	total	CO2	emissions	are	correlated	to	residential	buildings	within	the	global	construction	sector	[49].	Building	envelope	and	airtightness,	passive	solar	design,	PV	generation	and	control	strategies	are	the	NZE	design	applications	explored	in	the	subsequent	section.	The	Building	Envelope:	Passive	Design		Active	 and	 passive	 strategies	 can	 be	 applied	 to	 improve	 a	 building’s	 energy	efficiency.	 The	 former,	 relates	 to	 mechanical	 systems	 i.e.	 Heating	 Ventilation	 and	Air-Conditioning	 (HVAC),	 while	 the	 latter	 refers	 to	 the	 building	 envelope.	 The	interior	 and	 exterior	 environments	 are	 separated	 by	 the	 building	 envelope.	Irrespective	 of	 exterior	 conditions,	 the	 building	 envelope	 is	 able	 to	moderate	 the	quality	 of	 the	 indoor	 conditions.	 Roof,	 thermal	 insulation,	 walls,	 thermal	 mass,	foundation,	 and	 shading	 all	 contribute	 to	 the	 makeup	 of	 the	 building	 envelope.	Research	suggests	energy	savings	up	to	47%	percent	can	be	realized	from	an	energy	efficient	 building	 envelope.	 Thermal	 and	 acoustic	 comforts	 are	 provided	 by	walls	and	 the	 energy	 consumption	 of	 a	 building	 is	 heavily	 influenced	 by	 the	 thermal	resistance	of	the	wall	[23].					62	Passive	Solar	Design	One	of	the	most	attractive	strategies	for	energy		efficient	archetypes	is	passive	solar	design.	 Daylighting19,	 enhanced	 connection	 to	 the	 external	 environment	 and	 free	heat	can	all	be	achieved	from	the	sun.		Every	building	site	is	unique	and	solar	design	strategies	 must	 be	 adjusted	 accordingly.	 After	 ensuring	 the	 building	 envelop	 is	airtight	 and	 well	 insulated,	 the	 subsequent	 information	 provides	 insight	 on	important	passive	solar	design,	in	order	of	importance:	1. Apply	 the	 percentage	 of	 the	 home’s	 conditioned	 floor-area	 to	 calculate	 the	area	of	south-facing	windows;	the	ideal	range	is	between	9%	and	12%.	2. Indicate	a	high-solar-gain	glazing.	The	 type	of	glass	chosen	 for	south-facing	windows	is	extremely	important	and	the	solar	heat-gain	coefficient	(SHGC)20	should	be	high.	A	SHGC	range	from	0.4	to	0.78	is	ideal.	3. Effective	building	orientation	to	optimally	utilize	the	sunlight	is	critical.	Often	the	building’s	orientation	is	dictated	by	the	characteristics	of	the	site.	During	the	 cooling	 season	 (summer	months),	 the	 impact	 of	 intense	 east	 and	west	sun	angles	are	minimized	by	increasing	the	wall	area	for	southern	windows.	In	 cooler	 climates	 (assuming	 Skeetchestn	 accounts	 for	 a	 cooler	 climate),	southeast	 orientation	 is	 preferred	 over	 southwest	 orientation.	 Although	 it	has	been	argued	that	orientation	within	40˚	of	true	south	is	acceptable,	facing																																																									19	Daytime	lighting	needs	are	met	through	sunlight.	Skylights,	tube	lights	and	solar	orientation	of	the	windows	are	a	few	mechanisms	in	which	daylighting	can	be	achieved.		20	Measured	on	a	scale	of	0	to	1	to	represent	the	fraction	of	solar	gain	admitted	through	a	window	[50].					63	within	 20˚	 true	 south	 is	 the	most	 advantageous.	 If	 site	 conditions	will	 not	allow	for	optimal	orientation,	roof	overhangs	can	be	designed	to	mitigate.		4. Integrate	 roof	 overhangs	 into	house	design	 to	 counter	 the	 costs	during	 the	cooling	season.	Overhangs	are	 typically	designed	 to	enable	 sunlight	 to	 fully	pass	 through	 on	 December	 21	 (winter	 solstice)	 and	 completely	 shade	 the	south-facing	windows	on	June	21	(summer	solstice).		5. Incorporate	 a	 thermal	 mass	 to	 lower	 annual	 heating	 and	 cooling	 costs.	 In	cooler	climates,	concrete	floors	or	concrete	walls	that	receive	sunlight	 from	south-facing	windows	 can	 prevent	 or	 delay	 the	 home	 from	overheating,	 as	the	concrete	soaks	up	a	portion	of	the	heat	generated	from	the	sunlight.	The	following	characteristics	should	be	considered	for	thermal	mass:	(a)	confine	area	 of	 concrete	 wall	 to	 three	 to	 six	 times	 the	 area	 of	 the	 south-facing	windows;	(b)	avoid	reflection	of	sunlight	projected	by	 light-coloured	floors;	dark-coloured,	 uncarpeted	 floors	 are	 ideal	 for	 thermal	 absorption;	 and	 (c)	ensure	thermal	mass	is	completely	inside	a	conditioned21and	insulated	space.		Research	 suggests	 that	 heating	 costs	 can	 be	 significantly	 reduced	 by	incorporating	 these	passive	 solar	 design	 features,	 paired	with	 an	 airtight	 building	envelope	 further	 enhancing	 the	 connection	 to	 the	 outdoors	 and	 offering	 efficient	daylighting	[50].																																																										21	Area	of	the	building	that	is	actively	heated	and/or	cooled,	well	insulated	and	airtight.						64	Thermal	Performance:	Thermal	Images	The	 difference	 in	 temperature	 between	 interior	 and	 exterior	 air,	wind	movement	and	operation	of	mechanical	ventilation	equipment	and	vented	combustion	devices	generate	 a	 pressure	 difference	 across	 the	 building	 envelope	 to	 drive	 infiltration.	Climate	 factors,	 building	 surroundings,	 age	 and	 construction	 characteristics	 all	affect	the	rate	of	infiltration	(m/s).	Air	tends	to	infiltrate	in	low	areas	and	exfiltrate	in	 high	 areas	 during	 interior	 heating	while	 reverse	 patterns	 occur	 during	 interior	cooling.	Moisture	levels,	temperature	and	air	conditioning	loads	are	directly	affected	by	infiltration.	Condensation	can	result	as	infiltrated	air	moves	into	colder	areas	of	the	building,	creating	optimal	growing	conditions	for	mould	[23].			 Mechanical	 ventilation,	 natural	 ventilation	 (through	 fenestration22 )	 and	infiltration	 are	 the	 three	 methods	 by	 which	 buildings	 are	 ventilated.	 The	penetration	of	ambient	particulate	matter	(PM)	are	influenced	by	filters,	size	of	air	exchanged	 openings,	 geometry	 of	 air	 leakage	 paths	 and	 pressure	 differences.	Pollutants	 associated	 with	 mould	 formation	 include	 diesel	 soot,	 constituents	 of	photochemical	 smog,	 industrial	 particulate	 emissions,	 aerosols,	 airborne	 pollen,	spores	and	microbial	volatile	organic	compounds.	The	level	of	penetration	through	the	building	envelope	corresponds	to	concentrations	of	PM		[23].																																																									22	Ventilation	induced	by	wind	and	buoyancy	force.					65	Mechanical	Systems:	Active	Design	Installing	 energy	 efficient	 and	 cost-effective	 mechanical	 systems23	in	 a	 home	 is	runner-up	 to	 passive	 design	 strategies.	 The	 following	 section	will	 provide	 a	 high-level	 overview	 of	 an	 active	 energy	 efficient	 design	 strategy,	 specifically	 heat	recovery	 ventilation	 (HRV)	 unit;	 followed	 by	 standards	 for	 indoor	 environmental	conditions.	Heating	Ventilation	and	Air	Cooling		The	heat	 losses	 through	the	building	envelope	are	calculated	to	match	the	heating	system	 capacity	 under	 specific	 design	 conditions.	 Heat	 losses	 can	 occur	 by	conduction	through	the	exterior	envelope,	radiation	from	the	exterior	envelope,	and	convection	 from	 both	 air	 leakages	 through	 the	 envelope	 and	 via	 the	 ventilation	system.	Designing	a	smaller	building	envelope	in	concert	with	the	construction	of	a	well-insulated,	 airtight	 building	 envelope	 and	 through	 the	 use	 of	 an	 HRV	 unit,	significantly	reduces	the	heating	system	size	and	fuel	consumption	[51].	Heating	Recovery	Ventilation		Fresh	outdoor	air	is	exchanged	for	stale	indoor	air	through	a	HRV	unit.	At	the	core	of	the	unit	lies	a	plastic	or	metal	heat	exchanger.		Two	air	streams,	one	for	intake	and	one	 for	 exhaust,	 are	 separated	which	 enables	 heat	 transfer	 to	 occur	 between	 the	outgoing	and	incoming	air.	The	heated	intake	air	is	typically	circulated	through	the																																																									23	Domestic	hot	water	(DHW),	Heating,	Ventilation	and	Air-Conditioning	(HVAC)	plumbing	and	electrical	systems					66	living	 room	 and	 bedrooms	 while	 the	 stale,	 moist	 air	 is	 removed	 from	 kitchen,	laundry	room	and	bathrooms.			 In	 an	 airtight	 building	 envelope	 where	 uncontrolled	 airflow	 is	 limited,	 an	HRV	supplies	energy	efficient	ventilation	that	can	capture	up	to	85%	of	heat	energy	from	exhaust	 air	 [51].	Heat	 that	would	otherwise	be	 lost	by	means	of	uncontrolled	airflow	through	the	building	envelope,	such	as	openings,	can	be	minimized	with	this	system.	Although	HRVs	can	be	retrofitted,	it	is	ideal	to	install	during	construction	as	retrofit	 installations	 can	 compromise	 the	 integrity	 of	 the	 building	 envelope.	However,	 if	 a	 house	 has	 no	 to	 limited	 airflow,	 condensation	 or	 indoor	 air	 quality	issues,	 installing	an	HRV	to	mitigate	these	issues	is	 ideal.	To	accommodate	various	ventilation	 requirements,	 HRVs	 have	 multi-speed	 settings	 while	 time	 and	 indoor	humidity	levels	can	be	controlled	through	automatic	settings.				Figure	20.	Schematic	of	a	HRV	(left)	[52]	and	dedicated	ductwork	(right)	[51].		Installation	considerations	must	be	taken	into	account	to	ensure	placements	of	 the	 fresh	 air	 intake	 and	 exhaust	 outlet	 are	 safely	 away	 from	 dryer	 vents,	 air	intakes,	 e.g.	 space	 and	water	 heating	devices,	windows	 and	doors,	 to	 avoid	 cross-				67	contamination.	Snow	build	up	height	must	also	be	taken	into	account.	An	HRV	must	have	an	undisrupted	open	space	thus	placement	under	decks,	in	garages	or	in	attics	must	 be	 avoided.	 Lastly,	 kitchen	 range	 hoods,	 cooktops	 and	 clothes	 dryers	 must	have	a	separate	ventilation	hookup	[53].		To	avoid	house	depressurization	or	pressurization	problems,	the	supply	and	exhaust	 airflows	 must	 be	 measured	 and	 balanced	 at	 installation.	 To	 ensure	homeostasis	 airflows	 and	 achieve	 energy	 efficiency,	 it	 is	 important	 to	 schedule	preventative	maintenance,	clean	the	filter	and	heat	recovery	core,	and	inspect	intake	and	 exhaust	hoods	[52].	 These	 systems	have	 a	 low	operating	 energy	 as	 the	 smaller	HRV	fans	are	designed	to	distribute	the	airflow.	To	provide	adequate	heat	a	thermal	slab	is	often	coupled	with	an	HRV	unit	[53].		A	recent	study	by	CMHC	indicated	that	if	a	family	of	four,	in	a	two-story	home	installed	a	high-efficient	ENERGY	STAR	rated	HRV	unit,	a	65%	reduction	in	energy	costs	associated	with	ventilation	could	be	realized.	As	a	 typical	air	exchanger	uses	960kWh	to	1080kWh,	a	high-efficiency	HRV	unit	uses	significantly	less	i.e.		340kWh	to	 400kWh.	 Taking	 BC	 average	 electricity	 consumption	 rate	 of	 $0.0775/kWh	 an	annual	energy	cost	savings	of	roughly	$48.00	to	$52.00	could	be	realized	[52].		Control	Strategies:	Indoor	Environmental	Conditions	for	Human	Occupancy		The	perception	of	comfort	 in	an	 indoor	environment	can	be	affected	by	 indoor	air	quality	 parameters	 such	 as	 temperature	 and	 relative	 humidity.	 Metabolic	 heat	production,	the	transfer	of	heat	to	the	environment,	physiological	adjustments	and	body	temperature	all	relate	to	one’s	perception	of	thermal	comfort.	Factors	such	as					68	temperature,	humidity,	air	circulation,	personal	activities	and	clothing	can	influence	heat	transfer	from	the	body	to	the	environment	[54].		Acceptable	thermal	conditions	for	a	majority	(80%)	of	occupants	in	a	space,	is	 specified	 in	 the	 ANSI/ASHRAE	 Standard	 55-2013:	 Environmental	 Conditions	 for	Human	Occupancy.	During	winter	months	(October	to	April),	ASHRAE	recommends	a	 temperature	 range	 from	 20.3°C	 to	 23.9°C	 and	 during	 summer	 months	 (May	 to	September)	 23.9°C	 to	 26.7°C,	 assuming	 slow	 air	 movement	 (less	 than	 12m	 per	minute)	and	50%	indoor	relative	humidity	[54].	To	avoid	condensation	during	winter	months,	the	CHMC	stats	that	the	RH	should	not	exceed	45%	and	30%	for	cold	and	very	 cold	 weather,	 respectively.	 Although	 a	 lower	 relative	 humidity	 controls	condensation	 (associated	 with	 mould	 issues)	 it	 can	 also	 be	 associated	 with	 eye,	nasal	and	throat	dryness,	leading	to	occupancy	discomfort	[55].			 During	unoccupied	periods	or	at	night,	buildings	with	simple	HVAC	units	are	often	 turned	 off	 to	 save	 energy.	 Depending	 on	 outdoor	 conditions	 energy	 savings	may	incur,	yet	once	turned	back	on	the	demand	on	the	system	often	increases.	This	is	 particularly	 true	 in	 warmer	 climates,	 as	 the	 desired	 indoor	 temperature	 and	humidity	 set	 points	 are	 harder	 to	 reach,	 as	 the	 equipment	 often	 has	 to	 operate	longer	 to	meet	 set	 points.	 During	 the	 “off”	 periods	 condensation	 is	more	 likely	 to	occur.	 Setback	 parameters	 can	 be	 applied	 through	 programmable	 thermostats	 or	building	 automation	 systems	 to	 address	 unoccupied	 periods.	 The	 HVAC	 unit	 will	turn	 on	 to	 prevent	 extreme	 fluctuations	 as	might	 otherwise	 be	 experienced	 if	 the	system	 was	 shut	 off,	 yet	 still	 enables	 parameters	 i.e.	 temperature	 and	 relative					69	humidity,	 to	 drift	 from	 the	 occupied	 set-points.	 By	 implementing	 the	 setback	method,	 the	system	is	not	required	to	work	as	 long	or	as	hard	to	bring	the	 indoor	conditions	 back	 to	 set	 points	 in	 preparation	 for	 building	 occupancy,	 and	 still	provides	significant	energy	savings	[54].		Photovoltaic	System	There	 are	 a	 variety	 of	 PV	 technologies	 available.	 Silicon	 Valley	 Toxics	 Coalition	(SVTC)24	compiles	 an	 annual	 report	 to	 rank	 the	 production	 of	 PV	 panels	 against	sustainability	 and	 social	 justice	 benchmarks,	 ensuring	 that	manufacturers	 protect	workers,	communities	and	the	environment	(See	Appendix	XII	for	Solar	Scorecard).	For	 the	 last	 three	 reports,	 the	 245W	 Trina	 panel	 has	 been	 rated	 number	 one	(92/100).	For	this	reason,	as	well	as	its	low	cost	of	energy	per	panel	($0.31/kWh),	it	has	been	selected	for	the	HOT2000	simulation	[26].		The	efficiency	of	the	panel	 is	dependent	on	how	much	electrical	energy	can	be	generated	from	the	usable	energy	from	the	sun.	The	efficiency	is	 limited	by	the	material	properties	of	 the	solar	cell,	 resulting	 in	over	 three	quarters	of	 the	energy	being	wasted.	This	is	correlated	to	the	band	gap	as	light	can	only	be	absorbed	with	a	certain	amount	of	energy	from	the	semiconductor	material	e.g.	silicon	in	a	solar	cell.	Heat	loss	occurs	when	sunlight	with	energy	greater	than	the	band	gap	is	too	much	for	the	solar	cell	to	absorb	and	when	sunlight	with	energy	lower	than	the	band	gap	is	too	low	to	be	absorbed	by	the	solar	cell	[56].																																																									24	SVTC	is	a	non-profit,	grassroots	organization	responding	to	the	rapid	growth	of	the	high-tech	industry	by	promoting	human	health	and	environmental	justice	[26].						70	Grid	Tied-System	A	 photovoltaic	 cell	 converts	 solar	 energy	 (produced	 from	 the	 sun)	 into	 direct	current	 (DC).	 An	 inverter	 is	 required	 to	 convert	 it	 into	 conventional	 alternating	current	 (AC),	which	 is	 compatible	 to	 feed	 the	 electrical	 circuit	 breaker	 panel	 in	 a	building.	 The	power	 is	 fed	 to	 the	 grid	 at	 a	 slightly	 higher	 voltage	 level	 and	utility	voltage	 levels	are	monitored	 from	the	 intertie25	inverter.	No	current	 flows	 in	 from	utility	 as	 long	 as	 production	 and	 usage	 remain	 in	 homeostasis	 and	 the	 grid-tied	inverter	maintains	 the	voltage	 level	 in	 the	house.	As	 the	utility	company	 is	able	 to	absorb	 excess	 energy	 and	 supply	 it	 when	 insufficient	 energy	 is	 available,	intermittent	issues	associated	with	renewable	energy	systems	can	be	mitigated	[57].		Grid-tied	 systems	with	 battery	 backup	 are	 possible	 and	 both	DC-coupled	 and	AC-coupled	packages	are	available,	but	are	outside	of	the	scope	of	this	project.			Central	inverters	and	string	inverters	are	two	methods	to	convert	DC	power	to	 AC	 power.	 A	 solar	 string	 is	 formed	 as	 individual	 solar	 panels	 are	 connected	 in	series.	The	central	 inverters	are	connected	in	parallel	with	other	strings	and	use	a	combiner	box	to	connect	the	DC	power	from	each	array.	Multiple	smaller	inverters	for	 several	 strings	 are	 in	 place	when	 using	 string	 inverters,	 in	 turn	 replacing	 the	need	for	a	combiner	box	as	the	DC	power	from	a	couple	of	strings	is	run	directly	into	the	string	inverter.	Total	system	cost	(including	space	constraints)	and	total	energy	production	should	be	taken	into	account	to	determine	which	method	of	inverter	is	ideal	(See	Appendix	XIII	and	Appendix	XIV)	[58].																																																										25	Passage	of	current	between	two	or	more	electric	utility	systems	enabled	through	an	interconnection					71	Net	Metering	The	consumption	of	electricity	can	be	offset	by	connecting	a	small	(up	to	100	kW),	clean	renewable	electricity	(RE)	generator	to	the	grid.	When	the	demand	for	energy	is	minimal	 the	 utility	 company	 can	 in	 real	 time	 absorb	 the	 surplus	 generation,	 or	more	accurately,	the	energy	is	consumed	elsewhere.	This	method	can	eliminate	the	need	for	batteries.	Once	the	renewable	energy	unit	is	producing	energy	and	sending	it	 back	 to	 the	 grid,	 the	 utility	 meter	 measures	 a	 negative	 power	 consumption	 or	rather	 views	 the	 house	 as	 a	 source	 rather	 than	 a	 load.	 BC	Hydro	 (or	 other	 utility	companies)	credits	the	supplier’s	account	and	at	the	end	of	each	year,	if	the	user	has	generated	 more	 electricity	 than	 consumed	 BC	 Hydro	 purchases	 the	 excess	 for	0.099$/kWh.	The	process	guide	is	outlined	below	[59]:		Figure	21.	Outlines	the	process	for	net	metering	in	BC.		Energy	Consumption:	Conventional	On-reserve	House	vs.	Round	House		The	energy	consumed	to	maintain	the	occupants’	comfort	inside	a	structure	defines	the	 energy	 consumption	 of	 a	 building	 [49].	 Investing	 in	 sustainable	 building	infrastructure	promotes	both	direct	and	indirect	savings	[60].	The	current	state	of	the	conventional	 on-reserve	 house	 is	 deplorable	 and	 is	 in	 dire	 need	 of	 renovations.	Moving	 the	 RH	 towards	 NZE	 design	 to	 provide	 affordable,	 safe	 and	 culturally					72	appropriate	 homes	 appears	 to	 be	 a	 viable	 response	 to	 the	 First	 Nation	 housing	crisis.	The	following	section	outlines	upgrade	opportunities	applied	to	the	HOT2000	models	 to	 determine	 the	 difference	 in	 energy	 consumption	 from	 base	 case	 to	upgrades	for	both	the	conventional	on-reserve	house	and	RH.	Conventional	On-reserve	House	Areas	 of	 high	 heat	 loss	 indicate	 room	 for	 improvement	 in	 the	 building	 envelope	(Table	10).	The	ceiling,	walls,	doors,	exposed	floor,	and	windows	were	adjusted	to	meet	section	9.36	of	the	BC	Building	Code	for	Climate	Zone	5		(See	Appendix	XV	for	effective	insulation	requirements)	[61].		The	 walls	 and	 the	 ceiling	 were	 assigned	 an	 RSI	 of	 4.23	 (R-value	 of	 24	K.m²/W)	and	RSI	of	8.76	(R-value	of	49.5	K.m²/W),	respectively.	The	existing	doors	were	upgraded	to	insulated	polyurethane	steel	and	assigned	an	RSI	of	1.14	(R-value	of	 6.74	 K.m²/W).	 At	 present,	 all	 flooring	 has	 been	 removed	 due	 to	 mould	contamination,	 leaving	 exposed	 subfloor	 (particle	 board).	 In	 the	 HOT2000	model	the	floors	have	been	upgraded	to	Greenguard	Air	Quality	certified	laminate	flooring.	An	analysis	for	triple-glazed	windows	was	applied	and	indicated	heat	loss	from	the	windows	would	 be	 further	 reduced	 by	 30%.	 However,	 since	 cost	 is	 a	 prohibiting	factor,	double-glazed,	clear	coat,	 low–e	270	windows	were	applied	(Table	12)	(See	Appendix	XVI	for	window	quote)	[62].								73	Table	12.	Summarizes	building	parameters	after	upgrades	have	been	applied	in	HOT2000.	Component Area m2 Area (m2) Effective Heat Loss % Annual  Ceiling Gross 78.04    Net     78.04 (RSI)   8.72 (MJ) 1761.84 Heat Loss 1.18   Main Walls 94.94 94.94 4.23 17341.56 11.60 Doors 3.74 3.74 1.14 1236.31 0.82 Exposed floors 10.00 10.00 5.02 1443.53 0.98 Windows (NE) 8.47 8.47 0.38 8386.06 5.45 Windows (SW) 9.07 9.07 0.38 8975.6 5.84 Foundation     113.34   113.34   27639.22 18.26 	 In	 comparison,	 after	 building	 envelope	 updates	 have	 been	 implemented	 a	total	savings	in	annual	heat	loss	of	40%	is	realized.		The	subsequent	upgrades	focus	on	the	mechanical	systems	(active	design).	Ventilation/Natural	Air	Infiltration	and	HVAC	To	ensure	safe	indoor	air	quality	an	HRV	unit	has	been	applied	to	the	upgrade.	The	Venmar	EVO5	700	was	chosen	as	it	includes	a	HEPA26	filter	(Table	13).	This	would	be	 beneficial	 for	 the	 current	 occupants,	 as	 all	 have	 developed	 asthma	 potentially	attributed	to	indoor	mould	contamination	[33].	Table	13.	Highlights	the	HVI	Certified	HRV	unit	[63].	Manufacturer	 Venmar	Model	Number	 EVO5	700	Fan	and	Preheater	Power	at	0°C	and	-25°C	(W)	 68	Sensible	Heat	Recovery	Efficiency	at	0.0	°C	(%)	 61	Sensible	Heat	Recovery	Efficiency	at	-25.0	°C	(%)	 55	Total	Heat	Recovery	Efficiency	in	Cooling	Mode	(%)	 25																																																										26	High	Efficiency	Particulate	Air	filters	out	harmful	PM	such	as	dust,	pollen	and	tobacco	smoke.							74	After	 the	 implementation	of	 the	HRV,	HOT2000	calculated	a	net	air	 leakage	and	ventilation	 load	of	78471	MJ	and	an	annual	 energy	 saving	of	18%	 is	 realized.	This	 is	 likely	 associated	 with	 the	 improved	 thermal	 performance	 of	 the	 building	envelope,	in	turn	reducing	infiltration	and	thermal	bridging.		Space	Heating	System		The	outdated	stove	was	upgraded	to	a	CSA	certified	wood	pellet	stove	(Table	14).	The	annual	space	heating	energy	consumption	becomes	155287	MJ,	realizing	an	energy	savings	of	76%. Table	14.	Highlights	the	wood	pellet	stove	specifications	[64].	Manufacturer		 Castle	Stoves	Serenity	Model	 12327	Capacity	Output	(kW)	 24	 	Efficiency	 78		This	stove	would	enable	the	occupants	to	re-apply	for	house	insurance	and	is	eligible	to	qualify	for	BC	Wood	Stove	Exchange	program	[65].	HOT2000	predicts	that	by	 replacing	 the	 conventional	wood	 stove	with	 a	wood	pellet	 stove	 the	 estimated	annual	fuel	(wood	1000kg)	consumption	would	be	7.96	for	space	heating,	gaining	an	annual	fuel	(wood)	savings	of	81%.	The	 estimated	 annual	 GHG	 emissions	 are	 17	 Tonnes/year.	 The	 suggested	upgrades	would	reduce	GHG	emissions	by	46	Tonnes/year.					75	Round	House	As	previously	discussed,	the	building	envelope	is	the	most	important	factor	towards	attaining	NZE	design.	A	recent	study	by	Dr.	 Joeseph	Lstiburek,	an	ASHRAE	Fellow,	indicated	specific	building	component	and	system	standards	should	be	considered	to	 achieve	 NZE	 design	 (Table	 15),	 particularly	 in	 a	 cooler	 climate	 such	 as	Skeetchestn.		Table	15.	Specifies	Dr.	Lstiburek’s	NZE	design	considerations	[66].	R-5	windows	 R-60	roof	insulation	 SEER	≥18	-	cooling	R-10	slab	insulation	 Airtightness	≤ 1.5	ach@50	Pa		 HSPF	≥10	-	heating	R-20	basement	insulation	 HRV	 Appliances	from	top	10%	of	ENERGY	STAR® R-40	wall	insulation	 AFUE	95%		 Appropriate	 upgrades	 were	 applied	 in	 accordance	 with	 Lstiburek’s	 study.	The	walls	and	foundation	were	assigned	an	RSI	of	7.07	(R-value	of	40	K.m²/W)	and	the	ceiling	was	assigned	an	RSI	of	10.57	(R-value	of	60	K.m²/W).	Since	the	windows	cover	 such	 a	 small	 area,	 upgrades	 at	 this	 time	were	 not	 implemented	 (Table	 16).	However	one	could	postulate	that	by	increasing	the	RSI	a	reduction	in	annual	heat	loss	would	occur	[66].									76	Table	16.	Summarizes	RH	building	parameters	after	upgrades	have	been	applied	in	HOT2000.	Component Area m2 Area (m2) Effective Heat Loss % Annual  Ceiling Gross 105.94            Net 105.94 (RSI) 10.57 (MJ) 2305.79 Heat Loss 4.57 Main Walls 101.00       101.00 7.04 4056.67 9.68 Doors 3.62 3.62 1.14 1189.95 2.36 Southeast Windows 0.84 0.84 0.33 937.45 2.24 Northeast Windows 0.84 0.84 0.33 937.45 2.24 Northwest Windows 0.84 0.84 0.33 937.45 2.24 Southwest Windows 0.84 0.84 0.33 937.45 2.24 Slab on Grade 101.00       101.00 7.04 9399.94 22.42 	 In	 comparison,	 after	 building	 envelope	 updates	 have	 been	 implemented,	 a	total	annual	heat	loss	saving	of	39%	is	realized.		The	subsequent	upgrades	focus	on	the	mechanical	systems.	Ventilation/Natural	Air	Infiltration	and	HVAC	As	 previously	mentioned	 the	 RH	 uses	 natural	 air	 infiltration	 through	 openings	 to	ventilate	 the	 interior.	With	such	an	airtight	building	envelope,	providing	adequate	airflow	 is	 important	 to	 alleviate	 odours	 and	 particulate	matter.	 In	 turn,	 a	 HVI27	-Certified	HRV	unit	was	applied	(Table	17).		Table	17.	Highlights	HRV	unit	specifications	[67].	Manufacturer	 Lifebreath	Model	Number	 95MAX	Fan	and	Preheater	Power	at	0°C	and	-25°C	(W)	 72	Sensible	Heat	Recovery	Efficiency	at	0.0	°C	(%)	 75	Sensible	Heat	Recovery	Efficiency	at	-25.0	°C	(%)	 68	Total	Heat	Recovery	Efficiency	in	Cooling	Mode	(%)	 25	   																																																								27	Home	Ventilation	Institute.					77	In	addition	to	the	implementation	of	the	HRV	unit,	an	air	tightness	of	1.5	at	50Pa	was	 assumed.	 HOT2000	 calculated	 a	 net	 air	 leakage	 and	 ventilation	 load	 of	21814	 MJ,	 to	 realize	 an	 annual	 energy	 saving	 of	 707	 MJ.	 SIPs	 can	 contribute	 to	lowering	 energy	 consumption	 by	 reducing	 conductive	 losses	 and	 air	 exchange	losses.	 In	 turn,	 low	 air	 infiltration	 levels	 can	 significantly	 reduce	 energy	consumption	for	heating	and	cooling	[68].	The	estimated	annual	GHG	emissions	after	upgrades	are	9.1	Tonnes/year,	incurring	a	saving	of	1.5	Tonne/year.	Photovoltaic	System	The	solar	analysis	performed	on	both	commercial	platforms,	HOT2000	and	PVsyst	in	concert	with	the	Solar	Resource	Study	indicate	the	ability	to	support	a	portion	of	the	 RH’s	 electrical	 load.	 The	 RH	 roof	 can	 conservatively	 handle	 an	 array	 area	 of	16.5m2	(Figure	13).	HOT2000	estimates	the	PV	system	could	generate	~2881kWh	of	electricity,	 in	 turn	 reducing	 the	 electricity	 demand	by	 18%.	 If	 a	 top-pole,	 ground-	mounted	approach	was	integrated,	an	increase	in	array	area	could	be	achieved	thus	increasing	 the	 probability	 of	 achieving	 near	 to	 net-zero	 energy.	 	 In	 addition,	implementing	 a	 top-pole	 array	 would	 increase	 the	 visibility	 not	 only	 to	 the	community	 but	 also	 to	 passing-by	 traffic,	 reminding	 the	 community	 of	 their	commitment	 to	 transitioning	 to	 a	 low-carbon	 society	 while	 working	 towards	becoming	self-reliant.		Currently,	 the	 high	 capital	 cost	 of	 renewable	 energy	 (RE)	 installations	 and	low	efficiencies	appear	 to	be	 the	prohibiting	 factor	 towards	achieving	NZE	design.	Until	 RE	 technologies	 become	 cost	 competitive	 and	 prices	meet	market	 parity	 an					78	emphasis	 should	 be	 placed	 on	 energy	 conservation	 measures	 and	 near-net	 -zero	energy	design.			Temperature	Temperature	 setback	 from	 22˚C	 to	 18˚C	 has	 been	 applied	 as	 a	 control	 strategy.	Statistics	 Canada	 indicates	 that	 40%	 of	 households	 in	 BC	 utilize	 a	 programmable	thermostat	 [69].	 HOT2000	 applies	 the	 time	 weighted	 average	 formula	 to	 adjust	emission	 rates,	 in	 turn	 accounting	 for	 thermal	 energy	 savings	 associated	 with	temperature	setbacks	[70].				𝑇!"#$%&'# =  (!!!!)!(!!!!)!⋯ !!"!#$ 	[1.15]		 The	 existing	 thermostat	 is	 programmable	 but	 as	 mentioned	 earlier,	 it	 has	been	bypassed	for	occupant’s	perceived	thermal	comfort.	Control	measures	should	be	applied	to	the	thermostat	to	set	and	lock	at	a	lower	internal	temperature	during	the	unoccupied	hours	–	nights	and	weekends;	in	turn,	minimizing	heat	loss	through	unmitigated	areas	of	infiltration	or	from	openings	for	natural	ventilation.		Comparing	Energy	Footprint:	HOT2000		The	 information	 to	 follow	 compares	 the	 base	 case	 and	 upgrades	 applied	 to	HOT2000	 for	 the	 two	houses	 in	 the	 study	 to	 the	average	energy	consumption	per	household	in	BC.		The	BC	Building	Code	implies	minimum	standards	for	housing	construction.	In	 general,	 most	 companies	 build	 20%	 above	 the	 BC	 Building	 Code.	 Table	 18					79	highlights	 the	 changes	 in	 energy	 consumption	 for	 the	 conventional	 on-reserve	house.		Table	18.	Summarizes	the	total	energy	consumption	for	the	conventional	on-reserve	house’s	base	case,	upgrades	and	calculates	the	savings	associated	with	retrofits	(GJ/m2).	Data	acquired	through	HOT2000.	System	 Base	Case	(GJ/m2)	Upgrade	(GJ/m2)	Savings	(GJ/m2)	Contributes	(%)	Air	Leakage	and	Ventilation	Systems	 0.65	 0.53	 0.12	 12%	Annual	Space	Heating	and	DHW		 4.36	 1.17	 3.19	 83%	Annual	Space	Cooling		 -	 -	 -	 0%	Annual	Lights,	Appliances	and	Fans		 0.24	 0.23	 0.00	 5%	Total	 5.25	 1.92	 3.31	 1.00		The	 greatest	 savings	 realized	 are	 in	 the	 annual	 space	 heating	 and	 DHW	sector	and	are	likely	associated	to	the	upgrades	applied	to	the	thermal	performance	in	 the	building	envelope	 (minimizing	 thermal	bridging	and	 infiltration)	and	 to	 the	conventional	wood	stove.		The	last	column	calculates	the	percentage	that	each	system	contributes	to	the	total	energy	consumption.	Note	the	annual	space	heating	and	DHW	account	for	83%	of	 the	 total	 energy	 consumption,	 in	 contrast	 to	 the	 average	 Canadian	 household	heating	and	cooling	load	of	65%	[71].		Table	19	highlights	the	changes	in	energy	consumption	for	the	RH.								80	Table	19.	Summarizes	the	RH’s	total	energy	consumption	for	base	case,	upgrades	and	calculates	the	savings	associated	with	retrofits	(GJ/m2).	Data	acquired	through	HOT2000.	System	 Base	Case	(GJ/m2)	Upgrade	(GJ/m2)	Savings	(GJ/m2)	Contributes	(%)	Air	Leakage	and	Ventilation	Systems		 0.21	 0.20	 0.03	 24%	Annual	Space	Heating	and	DHW		 0.34	 0.33	 0.02	 39%	Annual	Space	Cooling		 0.021	 0.038	 -0.02	 2%	Annual	Lights,	Appliances	and	Fans		 0.30	 0.22	 0.08	 35%	Total	 0.88	 0.80	 0.08	 1.00		 The	negative	savings	from	the	annual	space-cooling	load	could	be	linked	with	the	increase	in	internal	gains	associated	with	the	improved	thermal	performance	in	the	 building	 envelope.	 A	 second	 postulation	 is	 that	 there	 appears	 to	 be	 a	 slight	preference	 to	 heat	 rejection	 through	 the	 geothermal	 unit.	 In	 turn,	 a	 marginal	increase	in	cooling	is	implied,	however	further	validation	is	outside	of	the	scope	of	this	 project.	 The	 savings	 associated	with	 the	 annual	 space-heating	 load	 are	 likely	associated	 with	 the	 improved	 thermal	 performance	 of	 the	 building	 envelope,	implementation	of	the	HRV	unit	and	temperature	setback	control	strategy.				 Note	the	annual	space	heating	and	DHW	account	for	39%	of	the	total	energy	consumption	 (Table	 19).	 This	 is	 comparatively	 less	 than	 the	 conventional	 on-reserve	house	(83%)	and	the	average	Canadian	household	heating	and	cooling	load	of	65%.	The	proceeding	information	compares	base	case	and	upgrade	energy	consumption	of	 both	 houses	 to	 the	 average	 BC	 household	 energy	 consumption	 using	 heated					81	area28	(GJ/m2).	 Although	 the	 RH	 is	 currently	 being	 used	 as	 a	 classroom,	 it	 is	assumed	 for	 the	 purpose	 of	 this	 paper	 that	 it	 has	 a	 similar	 energy	 intensity	 of	 a	home,	 as	 future	 builds	 on-reserve	 will	 be	 geared	 towards	 residential	 dwellings.	Statistics	 Canada	 categorizes	 households	 according	 to	 a	 range	 of	 areas	 (m2).	 The	area	of	the	conventional	on-reserve	house	fits	in	the	second	range	(141	-	185	m2)	while	the	 adjusted	 area	 of	 the	 RH	 (106m2)	 fits	 in	 the	 first	 range	 (96	-	140	m2)	 [72].	 The	difference	column	indicates	if	the	study	households	consume	more	(positive	value)	or	less	(negative	value)	energy	than	the	average	household	in	BC	(Table	20).		Table	20.	Compares	the	average	household	energy	use	by	heated	area	(GJ/m2)	of	the	conventional	on-reserve	house	and	RH	for	the	base	case	and	upgrade	to	the	average	household	in	BC	[72].			Average	household	energy	use,	by	size	of	heated	area	(GJ/m2	of	heated	area)	RH	(96	-	140	m2)	 CH	(141	-	185	m2)	 Difference	(%)	Canada	 0.94	 0.75		British	Columbia	 0.90	 0.62		Conventional	On-reserve	House	(Base	Case)	 N/A	 5.25	 746%	Conventional	On-reserve	House	(Upgrade)	 N/A	 1.97	 210%	Round	House	(Base	Case)	 0.88	 N/A	 -2%	Round	House	(Upgrade)	 0.80	 N/A	 -12%			 The	 differential	 value	 of	 746%	 allocated	 to	 the	 base	 case	 conventional	 on-reserve	house	demonstrates	that	this	building	consumes	~7.5	times	the	amount	of																																																									28	Habitable	space:	garages,	unheated	attics	and	crawlspaces	are	not	included.						82	energy	than	the	average	BC	household	(Table	20).	This	negates	the	ability	to	make	a	fair	comparison	to	the	average	household	in	BC	and	supports	the	extreme	upgrades	applied.	Moreover,	with	on-reserve	birth	rates	being	double	the	Canadian	average,	these	 findings	 further	 validate	 the	housing	 crisis	 in	 First	Nation	 communities	 and	indicate	the	dire	need	for	affordable,	safe	and	culturally	appropriate	housing.	After	upgrades	 have	 applied,	 the	 differential	 value	 of	 210%	 demonstrates	 that	 the	building	 would	 consume	 ~2.1	 times	 the	 amount	 of	 energy	 than	 the	 average	 BC	household,	further	supporting	the	notion	that	houses	in	BC	are	built	20%	above	the	BC	Building	Code	standards.		Currently	the	RH	consumes	2%	less	energy	than	the	average	BC	home.	Due	to	the	 high	 performance	 of	 the	 building	 envelope,	 a	 greater	 energy	 savings	 was	anticipated	 (Table	 20).	 This	 could	 be	 attributed	 to	 the	 number	 of	 occupants	 (18)	compared	 to	an	average	BC	household.	An	 increase	of	occupants	creates	a	greater	demand	on	the	DHW	system.	As	well	during	cooling	periods,	the	increase	in	internal	gains	from	body	heat	places	a	greater	demand	on	the	cooling	system.	Additionally,	the	 less	than	anticipated	savings	could	be	associated	with	the	assumption	that	 the	geothermal	unit	 is	not	 functioning	at	 full	capacity,	 in	turn	placing	a	 larger	demand	on	 electricity	 to	 provide	 heating	 and	 cooling	 needs.	 After	 upgrades	 have	 been	applied,	 the	 differential	 value	 of	 -12%	 indicates	 that	 the	 building	would	 consume	less	energy	than	the	average	BC	household.	Finally,	 in	 reference	 to	 the	 fourth	 objective	 of	 this	 report	 i.e.	 to	 compare	energy	efficiencies	of	 a	 conventional	home	 to	a	 traditional	 style	RH,	 the	HOT2000					83	simulation	 suggests	 that	 the	base	 case	 conventional	 on-reserve	house	 is	 83%	 less	efficient	per	square-meter	than	the	base	case	RH.	In	other	words,	the	conventional	on-reserve	house	 is	17%	as	efficient	as	 the	RH.	After	upgrades	have	been	applied,	the	 conventional	on-reserve	house	 is	59%	 less	energy	efficient	 than	 the	upgraded	RH	or	41%	as	efficient	as	the	RH.		 These	findings	are	in	favour	of	implementing	the	RH	into	future	phases	of	on-reserve	housing	development.	Not	only	is	the	RH	design	energy	efficient	but	also	it	is	culturally	appropriate	through	the	incorporation	of	circular	design.	Furthermore,	the	 airtight	 building	 envelope	 discourages	 the	 formation	 of	 condensation	 and	deposition,	 essentially	 eliminating	 growth	 conditions	 for	 mould	 contamination.	These	findings	coupled	with	the	relatively	low	cost	per	heated	area	make	the	RH	an	excellent	choice	for	on-reserve	housing.		A	 recent	 study	 indicated	 that	 for	 every	 1M	£	 invested	 into	 energy	 efficient	building	 retrofits	 on	 average	 17	 jobs	 are	 generated,	 building	 capacity	[73].	 In	 turn,	investing	 in	 sustainable	building	 infrastructure	correlates	 to	direct	energy	savings	and	indirectly	by	enhancing	capacity.	Recommendations	The	 following	 recommendations	 are	 organized	 according	 to	 the	 two	 parts	 of	 the	paper	 i.e.	 initiating	 a	 community	 energy	 plan	 and	 comparing	 the	 energy	consumption	of	the	conventional	on-reserve	house	and	the	traditional	style	RH.						84	Part	I		 Future	considerations	for	the	Energy	Awareness	questionnaire	and/or	future	quantitative	 data	 collection	 methods	 should	 ensure	 adequate	 time	 to	 prepare	documentation.	 This	 could	 enable	 a	more	 thorough	 statistical	 analysis,	 to	 include	such	 things	 as	 age,	 sex	 and	 education,	 which	 could	 identify	 knowledge	 gaps	 and	support	future	planning	endeavours.	 	In	addition,	off-reserve	community	members	should	have	 the	option	 to	be	 included	to	 further	garner	an	understanding	of	what	issues	 are	 most	 important	 to	 those	 members.	 Off-reserve	 population	 could	 be	contacted	 via	 mail	 outs,	 social	 media	 (Facebook)	 and	 through	 invitation	 to	 on-reserve	family	dinners.			 Given	 band	 members	 are	 responsible	 for	 their	 utility	 bills,	 families	 can	manage	 their	 BC	 Hydro	 accounts	 on-line,	 following	 the	 “Manage	 your	 utility	consumption	by	creating	a	MyHydro	profile…”	 article	 submitted	 to	 the	OWL,	March	2016.	 Monitoring	 energy	 consumption	 will	 enable	 families	 to	 become	 more	cognizant	 of	 energy	 consumption	 patterns	 open	 the	 door	 to	 energy	 conservation	discussions	and	avoid	entering	tier-2	rates29.	Finally,	a	community	garden	could	reduce	the	community’s	carbon	footprint;	support	 self-sufficiency	 through	 food	 security;	 and	 improve	 access	 to	 clean	 food	sources	such	as	vegetables.	It	will	also	support	waste	facilities	through	a	composting	program,	as	well	as	enhance	academic	success.																																																											29	BC	Hydro	(or	other	utility	companies)	charge	energy	in	two	steps	or	tiers.	Tier-2	rates	are	in	place	to	promote	energy	conservation.						85	The	energy	objectives	in	this	report	are	in	draft	format.	In	the	interim,	they	could	be	posted	 in	 the	 OWL	 and	 shared	 with	 off-reserve	 population.	 This	 will	 give	 other	community	 members,	 both	 on	 and	 off-reserve,	 an	 opportunity	 to	 process	 and	contribute	 to	 the	 final	 version	 once	 the	 CEP	 process	 commences.	 To	 continue	momentum,	it	is	suggested	that	a	contest	be	held	to	encourage	community	members	(all	ages)	to	design	a	logo	for	the	CEP.	Options	for	the	logo	placement	are	numerous	from	T-shirts	to	stick-on	tattoos.	This	logo	will	remind	community	members	of	their	collective	 objective	 of	 transitioning	 towards	 a	 low-carbon	 society	 through	 self-reliance.	Once	 the	CEP	commences	 the	energy	objectives	can	be	 finalized	during	a	community	engagement	“Dotrination”	workshop.	This	entails	posting	each	objective	on	a	 large	poster,	attaching	markers	 to	 the	poster	and	handing	out	dot	stickers	 to	participants	 to	 stick	 the	 objectives	 important	 to	 them.	 This	will	 enable	 less	 vocal	participants	to	be	heard.	Part	II	In	 today’s	 growing	 market	 of	 sustainable	 design	 there	 appears	 to	 be	 a	 growing	number	of	best	practices	to	achieve	NZE	design.	Several	key	design	considerations	were	 discussed	 in	 the	 paper:	 building	 envelope	 and	 airtightness,	 passive	 solar	design,	 mechanical	 system	 or	 more	 specifically	 HRV	 unit,	 PV	 generation	 and	 a	temperature	 setback	 control	 strategy.	 	 As	 evidence	 suggests,	 designing	 and	maintaining	the	integrity	of	the	building	envelope	is	key	to	achieving	and	sustaining	high	 thermal	 performance.	 In	 addition,	 incorporating	 an	 HRV	 unit	 is	 ideal	 for	 an	airtight	building	envelope.	If	the	HRV	unit	is	being	installed	as	a	retrofit,	maintaining					86	the	 integrity	 of	 the	 building	 envelope	 by	 taking	 care	 to	 properly	 seal	 after	installment	is	pertinent	to	minimizing	heat	loss.				 At	present,	the	capital	cost	of	investing	in	RE	technologies,	such	as	solar,	are	high.	This	 coupled	with	 the	 low	efficiency	of	 the	solar	panel	means	committing	 to	NZE	 for	 most	 communities	 may	 be	 financially	 unfeasible.	 In	 the	 short-term,	investing	 in	 PV	 generation	 to	 deliver	 a	 portion	 of	 the	 electricity	 generation	 or	 to	achieve	near-NZE	is	possible.	The	top-pole	PV	array	should	be	considered	over	the	rooftop	 PV	 array.	 Having	 the	 PV	 array	 visible	 to	 the	 community	 and	 passing-by	vehicles	 could	 strengthen	 community	 buy-in,	 foster	 a	 sense	 of	 pride	 in	 the	community	and	promote	efforts	towards	self-reliance.		After	 simulating	 the	 energy	 consumption	 of	 the	 two	 houses	 it	 appears	 that	 the	conventional	on-reserve	house	consumes	~7.5	time	more	energy	than	the	RH.	It	is	recommended	 that	 the	 modeled	 upgrades	 be	 applied.	 The	 condition	 of	 the	conventional	on-reserve	house	as	outlined	by	the	analysis	is	unacceptable	not	only	from	an	energy	perspective	but	also	 from	a	health	perspective.	The	 level	of	mould	contamination	 is	 severe;	 the	occupants’	deteriorating	health	and	wellbeing	 should	be	 evidence	 enough	 to	 qualify	 for	 renovations.	 Due	 to	 the	 significant	 level	 of	contamination	 and	 unacceptable	 inefficiency	 of	 the	 building,	 the	 house	 should	 be	gutted	 to	 the	 studs.	 Furthermore,	 adequate	 ventilation	 should	 be	 placed	 under	glazing	to	avoid	build-up	of	condensation	and	deposition.						87		 The	RH	currently	consumes	2%	less	energy	than	the	average	BC	household.	Skeetchestn’s	 Natural	 Resources	 Corp,	 RH’s	 proprietor,	 should	 seriously	 consider	upgrading	 the	 building	 and	 system	 standards	 to	 align	 with	 Lstiburek’s	recommendations	to	achieve	NZE	(Table	15).	In	addition,	installing	a	HRV	unit	will	ensure	 adequate	 airflow	 and	 maximize	 indoor	 air	 quality.	 To	 further	 strengthen	market	competiveness	of	the	RH,	a	blower	door	test	should	be	performed.	This	will	act	 as	 a	 preventative	 measure	 to	 ensure	 no	 air	 leakages	 occur	 in	 the	 building	envelope,	 in	 turn	 improving	 the	 overall	 thermal	 performance	 of	 the	 building	envelope.	 After	 construction,	 the	 building	 should	 be	 monitored	 to	 maintain	 the	integrity	 of	 the	 building	 envelope.	 Heat	 losses,	 missing	 or	 damaged	 thermal	insulation	in	walls	and	roofs,	thermal	bridges,	air	leakage	and	moisture	sources	can	be	detected	using	thermal	IR	imaging.	Further,	it	is	suggested	to	include	a	boot	room	into	the	design,	attached	to	the	front	 entrance	with	 adequate	 ventilation.	 Benefits	 of	 incorporating	 this	 transition	space	 include:	 providing	 space	 for	 wet	 clothing	 and	 shoes	 to	 dry,	 minimizing	moisture	build-up	in	the	house	and	reducing	heat	loss.	In	addition,	incorporating	a	food	 preparation	 and	 storage	 room	 should	 be	 considered	[74].	 One	 design	 concept	applicable	to	the	Ske’lep	design	would	be	to	have	the	central	causeway	double	as	an	outdoor	 kitchen,	 food	 preparation	 and	 storage	 area.	 Finally,	 to	 garner	 further	interest	 from	other	 communities	 to	adapt	 the	RH	as	a	 solution	 to	 the	First	Nation	housing	crisis,	a	separate	research	project	should	be	carried	out	to	design	and	test	the	RH	in	varying	climates.	The	findings	will	likely	foster	higher	standards	of	living					88	by	 minimizing	 the	 effects	 of	 harsh	 weather	 events	 on	 the	 building	 envelope.	Building	a	research	partnership	with	a	university	can	prove	to	be	cost	effective	as	well	as	generates	positive	publicity	among	academia	and	research	circles.			The	final	research	question	was	to	determine	if	the	HOT2000	software	would	be	a	useful	application	 for	 the	DSM	portion	of	 the	CEP	process.	After	modeling	 the	 two	houses,	 it	 appears	 that	 this	 tool	 would	 be	 best	 suited	 for	 new	 builds	 versus	renovation,	to	determine	potential	energy	savings	associated	with	specific	building	components	 or	mechanical	 systems.	 In	 addition,	 there	were	 several	 limitations	 to	this	software.	Limitations	include	but	not	limited	to:	• Fuel	data	restricted	to	Ontario		• Weather	data	biased	to	urban	centres	• Occupancy	maximum	limited	to	18		• Continuous	speed	settings	available	for	fans,	and	• Relative	 humidity	 factors	 cannot	 account	 for	 seasonal	 fluctuations	 and	extreme	weather	events.		This	 recommendation	 is	 perhaps	 biased	 to	 this	 paper,	 as	 one	 of	 the	 limiting	factors	 to	 this	analysis	was	 the	 lack	of	available	 information	on	 the	 two	buildings,	for	example	no	plan	drawings,	which	led	to	numerous	assumptions.					89	Conclusion	The	Skeetchestn	First	Nation	has	resided	in	their	traditional,	unceded	territory	since	time	immemorial.	Despite	pressures	to	assimilate	the	community	has	experienced	a	recent	resurgence.	The	intention	of	this	paper	was	to	initiate	the	CEP	process	and	to	compare	 the	 energy	 consumption	 of	 a	 conventional	 on-reserve	 house	 to	 the	traditional	style	RH.	Recent	engagement	endeavours,	such	as	a	35%	response	rate	from	 the	 Energy	 Awareness	 questionnaire	 and	 31%	 participation	 rate	 to	 the	community	energy	planning	breakfast	demonstrate	SFN’s	commitment	to	fostering	a	CEP	and	future	energy	related	endeavours.	The	HOT2000	analysis	demonstrated	that	 the	 conventional	 on-reserve	 house	 consumes	 83%	 more	 energy	 than	 the	traditional	style	RH.	Implementing	the	RH	into	future	housing	development	will	not	only	 provide	 direct	 benefits	 associated	with	 energy	 savings	 but	 will	 also	 provide	indirect	 benefits	 such	 as	 affordable,	 safe	 and	 culturally	 appropriate	 housing	 and	builds	 capacity	 for	 the	people	of	 the	SFN.	 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Retrieved	from	MIT	School	of	Engineering:	http://engineering.mit.edu/ask/how-many-solar-panels-do-i-need-my-house-become-energy-independent	[57]	Schaeffer,	J.	(2014).	From	Panel	to	Plug:	Grid-tied	Systems.	In	J.	Schaeffer,	Everything	Under	the	Sun	-	Real	Goods:	Solar	Living	Source	Book	(14th	ed.,	pp.	131-135).	New	Society.	[58]	Cenergy	Power	(2014).	The	Solar	Report	-	String	vs.	Central	Inverters:	Choosing	the	Right	Inverter	for	your	Solar	System.		[59]	BC	Hydro	(n.d.).	GENERATE	YOUR	OWN	ELECTRICITY	AND	LOWER	YOUR	HYDRO	BILL.		[60]	United	Nations	(n.d.).	Buildings.	Retrieved	from	United	Nations	Environment	Programme	:	http://www.unep.org/sbci/AboutSBCI/Background.asp					95	[61]	HPO	Technical	Research	&	Education.	(2015).	Energy	Efficiency	Requirements	for	Houses	in	British	Columbia.	Burnaby.	[62]	C-Sky.	(2016).	Window	Quote.		[63]	U.S.	Green	Building	Council.	(2015,	02	23).	Green	Building	Facts.	Retrieved	from	U.S.	Green	Building	Council	-	Articles:	http://www.usgbc.org/articles/green-building-facts	[64]	Castle.	(2014).	Operator's	Manual	-	Serenity	Pellet	Stove.		[65]	Government	of	BC	(2016).	Provincial	Wood	Stove	Exchange	Program:	2015-2016	Guidelines	.	Retrieved	from	BC	Air	Quality	:	http://www.bcairquality.ca/topics/wood-stove-exchange-program/2015-2016_guidelines.html	[66]	Lstiburek,	J.	W.	(2014,	10).	Building	Science:	Zeroing	In,	Net	House.	ASHRAE	.	[67]	LifeBreath.	(2016).	Engineering	Data	-	95MAX	HEAT	RECOVERY	VENTILATOR.		[68]	Moynihan,	A.	E.	(2014).	Tools	for	Designing	with	and	Evaluating	the	Benefits	of	Structural	Insulated	Panels.	University	of	Massachusetts	,	Environmental	Conservation,	Amherst.	[69]	Statistics	Canada	(2015,	11	27).	Energy-saving	practice	use,	by	province,	2011.	Retrieved	from	Statistics	Canada:	Households	and	the	Environment	-	Energy	Use	:	http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/11-526-s/2013002/t013-eng.htm	[70]	Dietz,	R.	N.,	Goodrich,	R.	W.,	Cote,	E.	A.,	&	Wieser,	R.	F.	(1986).	Detailed	Description	and	Performance	of	a	Passive	Perfluorcarbon	Tracer	System	for	Building	Ventilation	and	Air	Exchange	Measurements.	In	Measured	Air	Leakage	of	Buildings:	A	symposium	(Vol.	904,	pp.	203-264).	Philadelphia,	IL,	USA.	[71]	Natural	Resources	Canada.	(2016,	01	20).	Water	Heaters.	Retrieved	from	Natural	Resources	Canada:	http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/energy/products/categories/water-heaters/13735	[72]	Statistics	Canada	(2015,	11	27).	Average	household	energy	use,	by	household	and	dwelling	characteristics,	2011	—	Size	of	heated	area.	Retrieved	from	Statistics	Canada:	http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/11-526-s/2013002/t006-eng.htm	[73]	Institute	for	European	Environmental	Policy.	(2013).	REVIEW	OF	COSTS	AND	BENEFITS	OF	ENERGY	SAVINGS	Task	1	Report	‘Energy	Savings	2030’	.	London.					96	[74]	Tracey	MacTavish,	Marie-Odile	Marceau,	Michael	Optis,	Kara	Shaw,	Peter	Stephenson	and	Peter	Wild	(2012).	A	participatory	process	for	the	design	of	housing	for	a	First	Nations	Community	.	Housing	and	the	Built	Environment	,	27	(2),	207-224	.	[75]	Solar	Panel	Store.	(2016).	GTE	6.84	KW.	Retrieved	from	Solar	Panel	Store:	http://www.solarpanelstore.com/solar-power-packages.cse-medium-grid-tie.enphase_m250_grid_tie_packages.gte_m250_6840.info.1.html			 					97	Appendix	I	Excerpt	 from	 Skeetchestn	 First	 Nation’s	 Comprehensive	 Community	 Plan,	highlighting	important	historical	dates	[1].							98					 					99	Appendix	II	Displays	source	energy	conservation	factors	[14].		Energy	Form		 Source	Energy	Conversion	Factor	(r)		Imported	Electricity		 3.15		Exported	Renewable	Electricity		 3.15		Natural	Gas		 1.09		Fuel	Oil	(1,2,4,5,6,Diesel,	Kerosene)		 1.19		Propane	&	Liquid	Propane		 1.15		Steam		 1.45		Hot	Water		 1.35		Chilled	Water		 1.04		Coal	or	Other		 1.05				 					100	Appendix	III	Fill-out	Questionnaire	to	be	entered	in	raffle!	This	questionnaire	will	help	gauge	the	level	of	energy	awareness	in	the	community	and	 later	 contribute	 to	 creating	 energy	 goals	 and	 objectives.	 Please	 rank:	 one	being	the	most	important	and	five	being	the	least	important.	1. How	 concerned	 are	 you	 with	 the	 current	 amount	 of	 energy	 used	 in	 your	community?	1-Highest	 	 2	 	 3	 	 4	 	 5-Lowest	2. How	important	is	achieving	energy	independence	(generating	energy	on-site	to	avoid	utility,	oil	and	gas	costs)	to	you?	1-Highest	 	 2	 	 3	 	 4	 	 5-Lowest	3. British	 Columbia	 has	 created	 short-term	 goal	 to	 reduce	 GHG	 emissions	 by	33%	below	the	2007	GHG	emission	levels	by	2020.	Would	you	prefer	to	see	Skeetchestn	create	similar	energy	reduction	targets?	1-Highest	 	 2	 	 3	 	 4	 	 5-Lowest	4. What	areas	of	 energy	use	and	GHG	emissions	are	most	 concerning	 to	you?	(Rank	1	being	most	important	and	five	being	the	least	important)		Residential	energy	use	(cost	of	utility	bills	and	broken	infrastructure)		Renewable	or	alternative	energy	projects	(solar,	wind,	geothermal	etc.)		Waste	facilities	(garbage,	recycling	or	composting)		Transportation	(access	to	public	transit	or	safe	bike	routes)		Climate	change	action	plan			Please	submit	to	band	office	(Rochelle	Porter)	or	email	pwadmin@skeetchestn.ca	Name(s):	Phone	number:	**Raffle	will	be	drawn	February	26th,	2016**		 					101	Appendix	IV	Represents	the	poster	used	to	advertise	the	community	energy	planning	breakfast.			 					102		Appendix	V	Retrieved	 from	 Skeetchestn	 First	 Nation’s	 Comprehensive	 Community	 Plan,	highlighting	the	community’s	vision	[1].							103	Appendix	VI	Excerpted	 from	 Skeetchestn	 First	 Nation’s	 Comprehensive	 Community	 Plan,	highlighting	the	community’s	principles	[1].							104	Appendix	VII		Displays	the	statistics	used	in	calculating	the	two-tail	T-test.							 	Likert'Scale Question'1: Question'2: Question'3:1"#"Highest 24 35 282 23 22 213 15 10 154 4 1 15"#"Lowest 2 2No"Response 1Response'Rate'(n) 68 68 67CommunityMean 2.07 1.66 1.99Standard'Deviation 1.04 0.79 0.99Variance 1.08 0.62 0.98Likert'Scale Question'1: Question'2: Question'3:1"#"Highest 6 10 112 6 6 53 9 6 54 3 2 25"#"Lowest 1 1 2No"ResponseResponse'Rate'(n) 25 25 25SchoolMean 2.48 2.12 2.16Standard'Deviation 1.12 1.17 1.31Variance 1.26 1.36 1.72				105	Appendix	VIII	Demonstrates	average	package	price,	including	transport	and	mount	estimates	to	accommodate	10	solar	panels	[74].	Mounting	and	transport	costs	estimated	from	PVsyst	software.					 	Brand Model Quantity Efficiency	(%)Cost	per	Watt	($/W)Peak	Power	Output(W)Sized	to	Module	(W)Continuous	Rating	(W) GEC	Required Cost	(CAD)Total	Cost	(CAD)Enphase M250	 9 96.5 2.6 250 300 240 No 210.00$					 1,920.01$				Enphase Engage	240V	Portrait	Cable 9 27.00$								 243.00$							Enphase Enphase	Engage	Branch	Terminator 1 475.00$					 475.00$							Enphase Disconnect	Tool 1 20.00$								 20.00$									Enphase Micro	Inverter	Cable	Clip	10	PK 1 10.00$								 10.00$									Square	D	 QO200TR	60A	AC 2 10.00$								 20.00$									SnapNrack 162	Inch	Rail	Clear	Finish	2PC 1 34.00$								 34.00$									SnapNrack Bonding	L	Foot	w	Flashing	Kit	Clear 13.5 140.00$					 1,890.00$				Hex	Head	 Lag	Bolt	SS	5	16	3.5	in	with	Washer 13.5 12.75$								 172.13$							SnapNrack Bonding	Mid	Clamp	1.20	-	1.4		Clear 16 2.30$										 36.80$									SnapNrack Universal	End	Clamp 4 3.50$										 14.00$									SnapNrack Black	Rail	End	clamp 4 6.25$										 25.00$									SnapNrack Ground	Lug	Assembly	6-12	AWG 2 5.50$										 11.00$									Transport/Mounting 6,100.00$				10,970.94$	Total	(incl.	panels) 12,909.24$					106	Appendix	IX	Highlights	ASHRAE	Clear	Sky	Model	parameters	[29].	(A)	June	21	 (B)	December	21	Latitude	(L)	=	50.46	 Latitude	(L)	=	50.46	Declination	(δ)	=	23.45°	 Declination	(δ)	=	-23.45°	Hour	angle	(h)		=	0	 Hour	angle	(h)		=	0	Measured	from	South-	Surface	azimuth	(𝜓) = 0°	 Measured	from	South-	Surface	azimuth		(𝜓) = 0°	Tilt	angle	(𝛼) = 33°	 Tilt	angle	(𝛼) = 33°	Foreground	surface	=	dry	grassland	 Foreground	surface	=	snow	covered	–	rural	Reflectance	(𝜌)	=	0.25		 Reflectance	(𝜌)	=	0.50		Clearness	factor	=	0.95	 Clearness	factor	=	0.90	Calculations	Solar	altitude	(β)		𝑠𝑖𝑛β = cos 𝐿 × cos ℎ × cos δ + sin (L)×sin (δ)	[1.5]	A) β = 65.40° B) β = 16.09° Solar	azimuth	(ϕ)	 	cos ϕ = !"# ! × !"# ! !!"# (!)×!"# (!)×!"# (!)!"# (!) 1.6 , however at solar noon ϕ = 0°  A) ϕ = 0°  B) ϕ = 0° 				107	Surface solar azimuth angle (𝛾)	 𝛾 = 𝜙 − 𝜓	[1.7]	A) 𝛾 = 0°	B) 𝛾 = 0°	Angle	of	Incidence	 𝜃 	cos (𝜃) = cos (𝛽)×cos (𝛾)× sin 𝛼 + sin (𝛽)×𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝛼)	[1.8]	A) 𝜃 = 8.40°	B) 𝜃 = 40.91°	Nominal	diffuse	irradiation	(𝐺!")	𝐺!" = !!( !!"#$)×𝐶𝑁	[1.9]	A) 𝐺!" =	846.40	W/m2	B) 𝐺!" =	651.51	W/m2	Indirect/diffuse	irradiation	(𝐺! )	𝐺! = 𝐶×𝐺!"× 1+ cos (𝛼)2  [1.10]	A) 𝐺! = 106.55 W/m2	B) 𝐺! = 95.25 W/m2	Direct/beam	irradiation	(𝐺! )	𝐺! = 𝐺!" × cos (𝜃)	[1.11]	A) 𝐺!  =	837.32	W/m2		B) 𝐺!  =	492.37	W/m2							108	Reflective	irradiation	(𝐺! )	 𝐺! = 𝐺!" ∗ 𝜌 ∗ 𝐹!"  [1.12]	𝐺!" = 𝐺! + 𝐺!" ∗ sin𝛽 = 𝐺!" ∗ (𝐶 + sin𝛽)		A) 𝐺! = 128.55W/m2	B) 𝐺! =71.91W/m2	Total	irradiation	(𝐺! )	 𝐺! =  𝐺! + 𝐺! + 𝐺! 	[1.13]	A) 𝐺! = 1072.42	W/m2	B) 𝐺! =659.53W/m2	Insolation	(I)	 𝐼 = 𝐺! ×1ℎ𝑟	[1.14]	𝐼 = 1072.42Wh/m2	A) 𝐼 = 1.0724 kWh/m2	B) 𝐼 = 0.6595 kWh/m2	∴ 𝑝𝑒𝑎𝑘 𝑠𝑢𝑛𝑙𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟𝑠 𝑜𝑛 𝐽𝑢𝑛𝑒 21 𝑎𝑡 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑎𝑟 𝑛𝑜𝑜𝑛 = 1.0724	Assuming	this	value	is	in	close	proximity	to	the	average	insolation	over	the	four	months	of	summer,	it	can	be	assumed	that	the	peak	sunlight	hours	=	~4.28	This	assumption	method	works	for	the	summer	months	as	summer	months	typically	have	more	clear	sky	days	than	winter	months.	Therefore,	this	assumption	cannot	be	allocated	to	the	winter	model,	in	turn	supporting	the	accuracy	of	commercial	models	as	they	are	able	to	account	varying	degrees	of	radiation	according	to	historical	weather	patterns.						109	Appendix	X		Displays	the	RH’s	electrical	energy	consumption	from	2014	to	2015.	Note	RH	is	occupied	from	March	to	November.		2014	to	2015	Electricity	Consumption	(kWh)	Year	 Billing	Period		Electricity	Consumption	(kWh)	Average	Electricity	Consumption	During	Low	Occupancy		2014	Mar	21	to	Mar	31	 223	 558	Apr	01	to	May	22	 1057	 558	May	23	to	Jul	21	 604	 558	Jul	22	to	Sep	23	 533	 558	Sep	24	to	Nov	20	 3337	 558	2014	to	2015	 Nov	21	to	Jan	20		 3536	 558	2015	Jan	21	to	Mar	20	 2220	 558	Mar	21	to	Mar	31	 164	 558	Apr	01	to	May	21	 765	 558	May	22	to	Jul	21	 1348	 558	Jul	22	to	Sep	21	 2656	 558	Sept.	22	to	Nov	20	 1679	 558	Total	(Occupied	from	March	to	November)			 		9061	 3346			 				 					110	Appendix	XI	Photos	depict	seriousness	of	mould	contamination	in	the	conventional	on-reserve	house.	The	top	left	was	the	old	bathroom	floor	that	has	recently	been	replaced.	The	top	right	is	black	mould	build	up	in	the	slide	glass	door.	The	bottom	left	is	mould	contamination	in	a	bathroom	wall	and	bottom	right	is	basement	wall	below	bathroom,	pronouncing	a	convex-shape	due	to	interior	mould	contamination	most-likely	initiated	from	a	bathroom	flood.	Photos	supplied	by	occupants.													111	Appendix	XII	Exhibits	the	2015	solar	scorecard	ranking	for	a	variety	of	companies	based	on	their	ethics	and	 integration	of	 sustainable	practices	 into	production.	Canadian	company	Trina	ranks	highest	[26].																									112	Appendix	XIII	Highlights	pros	and	cons	associated	to	PV	system	cost.	Excerpted	from	CEnergy	Power’s	Solar	Report	[57].			 	Inverter	Type	 Pros	 Cons	Central	Inverters	 • Lower	DC	watt	unit	cost	• Fewer	component	connections.	• Higher	installation	cost	(e.g.,	inverter	pad	work)	• Higher	DC	wiring	and	combiner	costs	• Larger	inverter	pad	footprint.	String	Inverters	 • Lower	balance	of	systems	costs	• Lower	ongoing	maintenance	costs	(e.g.,	no	fans	or	air	filters)	• Simpler	design	and	modularity;	ideal	for	limited	inverter	pad	spaces.	• Higher	DC	watt	unit	cost	• More	inverter	connections	• Requires	more	distributed	space	to	mount	inverters.					113	Appendix	XIV	Highlights	pros	and	cons	associated	to	total	energy	production.	Excerpted	from	CEnergy	Power’s	Solar	Report	[57].		Inverter Type Pros Cons Central Inverters • Optimal for large systems where production is consistent across arrays • Proven field reliability. • Less optimal for systems with different array angles and/or orientations since they default to highest producing strings within a range and block the production of lower producing strings outside of that range. String Inverters • Modularity of string inverters is better for systems with different array angles and/or orientations • Fewer arrays are impacted with one inverter failure. • Newer and less field-tested product. 		 					114	Appendix	XV	Showcases	effective	insulation	requirements	in	accordance	to	section	9.36	of	BC	Building	Code	[61].				 					115	Appendix	XVI		 					116									117			

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