UBC Graduate Research

Willard Park Eco-Community University of British Columbia. School of Community and Regional Planning 2007-12

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WILLARD PARK ECO-COMMUNITY  Sustainable Living in Southeast Burnaby Research & Designs by Urban Design Students  School of Community and Regional Planning College for Interdisciplinary Studies University of British Columbia  December 2007  TABLE OF CONTENTS Urban Design Studio (PLAN 587B) Final Report Introduction .............................................. pg. 3 Client’s Vision .......................................... pg. 3  Principles of Sustainable Design  Eco-Revelatory Design ......................... Interdependent Adjacencies .................. Centres .................................................. Resilient Form ...................................... Particularness ......................................... Adaptive Reuse .................................... Permaculture .........................................  pg. 4 pg. 4 pg. 4 pg. 5 pg. 5 pg. 5 pg. 6  Earthen Berms ....................................... Geothermal Energy ............................... Combined Heat & Power ...................... Composting ........................................... Passive Solar Hot Water ........................ Composting Toilets ............................... Micro-Hydro ......................................... Photovoltaic Energy ............................. Biological Filtration .............................. Waste Water Use and Reuse .................. Crop Yields ............................................  pg. 8 pg. 8 pg. 8 pg. 8 pg. 9 pg. 9 pg. 9 pg. 9 pg. 10 pg. 10 pg. 10  Green Technologies  Site Designs  Fenwick Village Site Analysis .................................................... Design Approach and Principles ..................... Agriculture ...................................................... Residential Area & Community Amenities .... Energy and Hydrological Systems ................. Site Features ...................................................  pg. 11 pg. 12 pg. 15 pg. 16 pg. 17 pg. 18 pg. 19  Willard’s Eco-Village Design Philosophy ......................................... Site Analysis .................................................. Site Plan ......................................................... Site Features ................................................... Site Detail: Thorn Square ...............................  pg. 24 pg. 25 pg. 26 pg. 28 pg. 29 pg. 30  Sprout: the City is the Country Willard Park ..................................................... Vision and Values ........................................... Experimental Site Analysis ............................ Site and Context Responsiveness ................... Site Plan .......................................................... Layout and Architectural Form ....................... Movement ....................................................... Site Detail: Neighbourhood Square .................. Site Detail: Treehouse Square ......................... Site Detail: Knot Garden ................................. Green Technologies ......................................... Agriculture and Education ...............................  pg. 33 pg. 34 pg. 35 pg. 36 pg. 37 pg. 38 pg. 39 pg. 40 pg. 41 pg. 42 pg. 43 pg. 44 pg. 45  Pg. 2  Notes and Reference  Appendices 1: Geothermal Efficiency and Generating Potential .... 2: Living Machines: Case Studies ............................... 3: Microhydro: Estimating Potential and Demand ...... 4: Crop Yields in BC .................................................... 5: Humanure for Fuel ................................................... 6: Wind Generating Potential ....................................... References References .................................................................... Figure References .........................................................  pg. 47 pg. 47 pg. 47 pg. 48 pg. 49 pg. 50 pg. 50 pg. 51 pg. 51 pg. 52  Urban Design Studio PLAN 587B Final Report, December 2007  Willard Park Ecological Development Introduction  F  or 6 weeks during the fall of 2007, the students of PLAN 587B Introductory Urban Design Studio, under the instruction of Dr. Maged Senbel, worked in collaboration with developer Wayne Allen to create 3 sustainable designs for the redevelopment of an amalgamated site in the Big Bend area of Burnaby BC adjacent to Willard Park. Concurrently, through a research-based directed study project Jeca Glor-Bell conducted research on green design principles and technologies to aid the design students in achieving a high level of sustainability in design. This book brings together the research on green design principles and application of green technologies with the final designs. The purpose of this effort is to offer a resource for the developer, other urban planning students as well as interested practitioners seeking to apply green design principles and technologies to future sites. The book begins by explaining the green principles and features which have informed and influenced these designs and then presents the three completed site designs. The first site design, Fenwick Village, was created by Jennifer Fix, Bronwyn Jarvis and Chani Joseph. The second design, Willard’s Eco-Village, was created by Brian Gregg, Lang Lang and Sawngjai Manityakul, and finally the Sprout: The City is the Country Design which was created by Kaitlin Kazmierowski, Jeff Deby and Andrew Merrill. Each of these designs sought to combines three elements: the client’s vision, ecological development principles, and green design features. Finally the book includes several appendices with greater detail on the application of green energy technologies, including calculations for the capacity of different green technologies. Appendices 5 & 6 are technologies which were investigated but found to be inappropriate for this site. Some initial findings have been included to provide a starting point for further research. We hope that this book will provide a useful starting point for future students interested in pushing the boundaries of sustainable urban design and that these designs and research will provide a foundation for further research and advances in ecological urban design.  Client’s Vision This collaboration with the Wayne Allen (the client) began with a tour of the site and a discussion with the client about his vision for the site’s development. The client envisioned creating a seniors’ active living facility integrating several elements of sustainable community living in a picturesque pastoral setting. The driving vision of community-based living, where active and able-bodied seniors would work and live together. Higher levels of care would be available as needed, but the target market would be able-bodied seniors seeking to stay active. This would be a grandchild friendly development. The client was interested in developing several income streams on the site, which could include renting out some of the site for weddings and special events. Potentially, a culinary school could be included on the site, which would use produce grown grown on-site. The client is still trying to amalgamate the full site, which currently owned by several small land holders.  Marshland Avenue Bog Forest  Figure 1: Willard Park Site Map (Fix, Jarvis and Joseph, 2007)  Financing Ecological Development  The client had already considered several financing options/models to allow for longer-term economic payback of upfront investments in ecological design. One possibility was for residents to buy into the development and then get back a large percentage (75-80%) of their investment when they leave (whether to seek other accommodation or if they pass away). In this model the developer would retain ownership of the units. To support the financing of this project the client is currently seeking a development partner. Potential partners could include a pension fund, a culinary school or other options.  The City of Burnaby is responsible for providing sewage infrastructure for all new developments, which costs approximately $45,000 per lot. If alternative water and sewage treatment could be arranged, perhaps the City could be engaged as an investor in the project.  Urban Design Studio PLAN 587B Final Report, December 2007  Pg. 3  Principles of Sustainable Design The class began by identifying key principles of sustainable urban design which guided creation of our site designs. Design principles inform best practice for sustainable development and can be used to assess existing systems or as a guide for developing new designs and/or regulations (Punter, 2007). The principles below informed the design approaches adopted for Willard Park site designs which follow.  Eco-Revelatory Design  Interdependent Adjacencies  Centres  Resilient Form  Regulation Court  Dream Court  Figure 2: Sidewalk runnel in Freiburg Germany (Humberd, 2008)  The term Eco-Revelatory Design was coined with an architectural exibition by the same name which took place at the University of Illinois in 1998. It is derived from 3 concepts: ECO(LOGY) - the dynamic relationship of organisms and their environment. REVELATORY - serving to reveal hidden meaning or processes, to make them visible. DESIGN - the process of ordering form and content in our physical environment, an expression of human intentions, desires and hopes.  This approach aims to make visible and comprehensible any environmental processes or technologies at work in a building or streetscape. This may involve signage, but ideally goes a step farther, to offer views of the technology(s) at work. It should both explain and reveal how the development is making a positive contribution to the environment. For example, sidewalk runnels in Freiburg Germany make drainage part of the streetscape. They reveal how storm water connects to the water table and may encourage better stewardship of our water supply.  Pg. 4  Figure 3: Interdependent Adjacencies in Action - basketball court example (Hester, 2006 p.51)  Creating interdependent adjacencies involves bringing together uses which compliment, reinforce and improve the quality of both by their proximity. Most city centres built before the 20th century embody this principle. Before the widespread implementation of single-use zoning in the post World War II era, life, work and play happened in the same place. As we see in Figure 2, the regulation basketball court is less useful because it exists in isolation, while the dream court brings together complimentary activities - seating, corner store, music with the basketball court to create a vibrant social space. Implementing the principle of interdependent adjacencies can breathe life into public spaces. It can also encourage certain desirable behaviours, for example creating separate receptacles for separating recyclables and biodegradable materials from other waste will encourage waste reduction behaviour. There is a need to separate certain conflicting functions to protect health and sanitation, but this can be accomplished through thoughtful foresight rather than segregated zoning. For example, the well for drinking water needs to be several hundred feet from the septic field (Hester, 2006).  Figure 4: Glasgow pedestrian mall, Scotland UK (Glor-Bell, 2007)  Centres are activity nodes within cities or towns where people gather together for a variety of activities and purposes. With high density, a single neighbourhood may support several vibrant centres within short walking distance of residents’ homes. Centres are essential for economic complexity, local identity, and rootedness. Good centres: • Are easily accessible (walking, transit, car) • Encourage frequent & diverse use • Provide a place for formal and less formal community interaction • Provide settings for new ideas to incubate, transform & spread (develop local knowledge) • Are spaces which encourage the development of shared interests • Provide a sense of orientation – to local ecology, regional building materials, cardinal directions, sun patterns, rainfall, topography, etc. • Reflect their ecological context through built form – responding to topography & the natural landscape • Creates a unified whole through consistent building form (Hester, 2006)  Figure 5: Shavin House in Chattanooga, TN designed by Frank Lloyd Wright (bbs.keyhole.com, 2007)  Resilient form draws inspiration for its materials, building form and placement/orientation from natural systems and the natural environment. Often resilient form is designed to mimic nature in order to make buildings and designed landscapes more efficient, dynamic and compatible with their surrounding environment(s). By understanding and responding to the climate, hydrology, vegetation, slope, soils, and materials, buildings can be designed to heat and cool themselves naturally, fit visually with the landscape, or evolve and change as the needs or residents and local conditions change over time. Ideally, resilient form will contribute to the biological and cultural diversity of the site (Hester, 2006).  Urban Design Studio PLAN 587B Final Report, December 2007  Principles of Sustainable Design Particularness 1  2  Adaptive Reuse  Ecosystem Services  3  4  Figure 6: Adaptations for Yoshino flooding (Hester, 2006 p.152)  Particularness is the distinctive adaptation of human settlements/habitation which have developed with and in response to their local ecosystem. Particularness has most often been found in the adaptations of aboriginal peoples’ traditional housing forms to their local environments, which develop over hundreds and thousands of years. In this case, form follows bioregional vegetation, wind/ solar potential, and watershed (water supply, wastewater treatment, flood management). Creating buildings and housing which derive their design from local topography and hydrological patterns require intensive observation and engagement with the site, since often the most important, particular patterns are not immediately obvious. Usually it is through the synthesis and understanding of multiple factors that essential patterns for resilience become apparent. The application of particularness is likely to reduce waste, energy use, demand for nonrenewable resources and to be more resilient and long-lasting (Hester, 2006).  Figure 7: The Tate Modern Art Gallery, London UK (Kevin, 2007)  Adaptive Reuse involves re-using and/or continuing to use existing buildings and/or their materials so as to maximize the energy embodied in the materials and labour which already created that stock. Preserving existing buildings not only maintains heritage and continuity, but is also highly energy efficient (Todd and Todd, 1993). The greenest building is one that is already built, so preserving and reusing buildings promotes ecologically sustainability and historic continuity. Embodied energy is the energy consumed by in the production of a building, from the extraction and refining of natural resources to product delivery, including mining, manufacturing of materials and equipment, transport and administrative functions. By continuing to use existing building stock and by reusing materials it is possible to save or capture up to 95% of the embodied energy, depending on the materials (brick and tile usually suffer up to a 30% loss in reuse). Recycling of materials for reuse is less energy efficient, especially when it involves long transport distances (CSIRO, 2007). For example the Tate Modern Art Gallery was a renovated and reused power station which closed in 1982. The facade and turbine hall have been retained in the gallery.  Figure 8: Catskill Mountains provide clean water to New York City (Keeley, 2006)  Ecosystem Services include all benefits supplied to human society by the natural environment. Some examples of essential ecosystem services which have not been valued in our traditional economic system (externalized) include carbon storage, flood control, forage for livestock, outdoor recreation, crop pollination, and water supply (Chan, Shaw, Cameron, Underwood, and Daily, 2006). Recognizing and valuing the benefit of these services to human society means becoming more aware of our dependence on these services for survival. This awareness highlights our intimate connection with the natural environment and encourages conservation and more sustainable consumption. For example, New York City was provided with high quality drinking water until the water source was contaminated by agricultural and sewage runoff. The estimated cost of an articifial water filtration plant was $6-8 billion plus $300 million/year operating costs. Given the high cost, the City invested $660 million in restoring the Catskill watershed (Action Bioscience, 2000).  Urban Design Studio PLAN 587B Final Report, December 2007  Pg. 5  Principles of Sustainable Design Permaculture  The concept of Permaculture was co-created by David Holmgren and Bill Mollison in 1978. The term permaculture was derived from permanent agriculture as well as from permanent culture.  Holmgren and Mollison identified 12 principles of permaculture which, can be applied to development to create “[c]onsciously designed landscapes which mimic the patterns and relationships found in nature, while yielding an abundance of food, fiber and energy for provision of local needs” (Holmgren, 2002, p.xix).  Permaculture is an applied science concerned with improving the long-term material well-being of people while simultaneously seeking to create holistic integration with the natural systems on which we depend. It is also a set of beliefs and approaches to development which could reasonably be classfied as a philosophy or ideology.  12 Principles of Permaculture (Holmgren, 2002) 1. Observe and Interact Permaculture based design depends on creating a respectful and harmonious relationships between nature and people. Design inspiration should be drawn from careful observation and thoughtful interaction with the natural environment to develop a locally appropriate set of techniques and approaches based on existing natural patterns. This type of design is not generated in isolation, but through continuous and reciprocal interaction with the subject.  2. Catch and Store Energy Modern human societies need to identify and pursue opportunities to invest our current energy and resource wealth into cleaner, efficient infrastructure which will meet our immediate needs. while investing in long term sustainability. Currently we consume and/or waste most of the natural wealth of our planet. We need to learn how to save and reinvest most of these resources, so that our children and future generations might live reasonable, even a good, lives.  3. Obtain a Yield Any system we design should be self-reliant at all levels. A self-reliant system can capture and store energy effectively in order to both keep the system running and continue to capture more energy. This points to the fact that we need to develop self-sufficiency in our food systems by building on decency, flexibility and creativity to find new ways to obtain a yield.  4. Apply SelfRegulation and Accept Feedback Permaculture limits or discourages inappropriate growth behaviour by noticing and responding to negative feedback loops - the indicators that we are living beyond our natural carrying capacity. With better understanding of these positive and negative feedbacks in nature, we can design systems that respond to new information and change based on this information through small, frequent adjustments rather than infrequent and drastic readjustments.  5. Use And Value Renewable Resources and Services Renewable resources can be renewed and replaced through natural processes over reasonable human time scale. They do not require significant non-renewable inputs to continue to function. Permaculture design aims to make optimal use of renewable natural resources to manage and maintain yields. The design may require some non-renewable resources to establish the systems, but these should be only a short-term input.  6. Produce No Waste This principle is based on the values of 1) frugality and care for material goods, 2) concerns about pollution, and 3) a new perspective that reframes wastes as useful resources and opportunities. Adopting this approach involves a shift away from planned obsolescence of products and consumer culture and toward a culture of repair, restoration and waste prevention.  Figure 9: Natural forest succession is a modes self-regulation in nature (Alaska, 2007)  Pg. 6  Urban Design Studio PLAN 587B Final Report, December 2007  Principles of Sustainable Design Three ethics are at the heart of permaculture: 1. Earth Care - care for all living and non-living things 2. People Care - striving for permanent culture means caring for and valuing  all people 3. Fair Shares - recognizing that we have only one Earth for all species and  future generations, the need for equitable distribution of  access. This is a synthesis of the first two ethics.  12 Principles of Permaculture (Holmgren, 2002) 7. Design from Patterns to Details Some patterns observed in nature are also present in or relevant to human society. Noticing and understanding these patters can help designers to make sense of what we see in the natural world and to apply a pattern from one context and scale, to the design of another. Pattern recognition is a likely result of following the first Principle: Observe and Interact, and is the a key first step in permaculturebased design. For example, many permaculture principles and designs used forests as a model for agriculture. Forest gardens take this obsevation to another level by self-renewing, self-fertilizing, and self-maintaining by using the native habitat as a model for placebased sustainable agriculture.  8. Integrate rather than Segregate This principle sees the whole as being more than the sum of its parts. The focus is on the connections between design elements, which together form a system, rather than on the elements in isolation, as in teh reductionist scientific method. In creating an integrated design each element must serve multiple purposes. In a self-regulating system each design element operates effectively without the need for constant human input or corrective management. For example, rotationally grazed livestock can often control weedy species and transform them into valuable manure/fertilizer.  10. Use and Value Diversity  9. Use Small and Slow Solutions This principle arises from a critique of the fast pace and global scale of modern human societies. As an alternative, permaculturebased design seeks optimal scale and speed of a system to meet our needs, not too fast, not too slow. A permaculture ethic, based on earth/people care and fair shares tends to encourage slow and small solutions that operate within the physical and energy limits of our local environments - “live simply so that others may simply live” (Holmgren, 2002, p.185). This principle encourages us to slow down, look more closely and recognize how small is beautiful.  By drawing on and responding to the particularness of the local ecology it is possible to develop forms, functions and interactions which are locally appropriate and which evolve greater complexity and diversity over time. Human systems which respond to the unique nature of site, situation and cultural context will integrate these particular characteristics into living systems (cultivated any community) and built environment on-site. This diversity is dynamic and needs to be continually evolving in response to the continually changing local context.  Urban Design Studio PLAN 587B Final Report, December 2007  11. Use Edges and Value the Marginal This principle values edges on a variety of levels. First, it encourages us to pus the boundaries of the mainstream, well-beaten path of development. There are countless edges in nature - the boundary between grassland and forest, between river and bank, between ocean and shore, between land and air, between topsoil and bedrock. At each of these edges a greater diversty of life can live than in either one alone. This principle pushes us to pay attention to the marginal and invisible aspects of any system to conserved and expand these aspects which can increase system productivity and stability. E.g. Increasing the edge between a field and pond can increase the health and productivity of both.  12. Creatively Use and Respond to Change Permaculture is about creating natural living systems and human culture which last over the long term. However, this durability depends on flexibility and adaptability within those systems. To navigate this paradox this principle encourages us to both 1. design to incorporate and embrace small scale changes and 2. creatively respond to and/or adapt to large-scale, systemic changes which are beyond our control or influence.  Pg. 7  Green Technologies The following green technologies were integrated into the 3 class designs for Willard Park. Each of these technologies reduces the impact of the proposed development on the local ecology generating clean energy, reducing waste production, maximizing the usefulness of waste, striving for food self-sufficiency, and improving the livability of the site.  Earthen Berms For noise control the two primary options are high, vertical walls or earthen berms. Earthen berms can be natural looking and attractive, but often require a large area of land to be effective. Effective noise barriers can reduce noise pollution by 10-15 decibels, however they only work effectively in certain conditions. The height of the wall or berm will usually not exceed 25 feet (7.6 metres) and must fully block the view of a road. Openings in the noise barrier will reduce the effectiveness. If buildings are located on a hill above the barrier will not benefit from noise reduction (U.S. Department of Transportation, 2007). Some examples of earthen berms buffering sound exist in Charleson Park, Vancouver BC and Century City in Cape Town, South Africa.  Geothermal Energy  Century City, Cape Town  Charleson Park, Vancouver BC  Heat pumps transport heat from earth to the surface, they do not produce heat. Geothermal heat pumps can be used for both heating in the winter and cooling in the summer, based on the relative temperature of the earth compared to the ambient air and surface temperature. Heat pumps are based on basic refrigeration technology (changing state from liquid to gas and gas to liquid absorbs and releases heat), but the refrigerant utilized vary in terms of their environmental impact and global warming potential. From that perspective, the lowest impact refrigerant is ammonia. They operate using highdensity polyethylene pipe (filled with a refrigerant which acts as a heat transporter) which is buried in the ground and laid out in a U Configuration – either vertically or horizontally (Natural Resources Canada, 2004). See Appendix 1 for energy generating potential and emissions reduction calculations.  Combined Heat & Power  Composting  Combined Heat and Power (CHP) facilities use gas turbines, reciprocating engines, industrial boilers or fuel cells to provide significant improvements in energy efficiency. This efficiency is achieved by producing multiple energy products from the same fuel source and the same combustion process. Benefits can include a 30% -40% fuel savings, as well as reduced greenhouse gas emissions & air pollutants. Figure 11: Combustion Turbine with Heat Recovery Steam Generator (Cornell University, 2006)  Pg. 8  Figure 10: Horizontal and Vertical Geothermal Heating Systems  Figure 12: Composting Layers (City of Richmond, 2007)  Composting naturally breaks down organic materials (yard waste, food scraps, etc.) to create a nutrient rich, soillike product called humus. This natural decomposition is achieved through a combination of moisture and bacterial inoculants. It is estimated that up to 50% of waste that goes to landfill could be composted (Composting Council of Canada, 2007). Compost also provides useful and salable organic fertilizer.  Urban Design Studio PLAN 587B Final Report, December 2007  Green Technologies Some green technologies researched were found to be inappropriate for this site, informatin on these technologies and why they were not included are found in Appendices 5 and 6.  Passive Solar Hot Water  Composting Toilets • • •  Figure 14: Evacuated Tube Collector (GreenSpec, 2006)  Uni-Directional Check Valve  Figure 13: Flat Bed Collector (adapted from  Olson, 2001)  Micro-Hydro  Figure 16: Micro-hydro Generation  An average of 26% of all energy used in BC homes is for heating water (NRCAN, 2005). By capturing the sun’s energy to heat water, rather than using natural gas or electric heaters, we can significantly reduce energy bills and greenhouse gas emissions. Flat bed collectors are cheaper and easier to install, but are also less efficient at converting solar energy to heat. Conversely, evaluated tube collectors maximize solar collection through the day, allowing for year round hot water heating in Vancouver, but are significantly more expensive to purchase and install. In a typical system the power generating process is 1. Water leaves a stream through an intake ditch or canal 2. Water is brought to a forebay & intake screens remove debris that could clog the jets of the turbine 3. Water flows to the intake through the penstock to the turbine & generator unit 4. Power is generated (DC) 5. Power is transmitted to a battery/inverter subsystem near the point of use  Microhydro electric systems generate power from small water powered alternators. These systems require very little infrastructure and have a minimal impact on the environment. Microhydro results in almost zero emissions of SO2, CO2, NOx, and does not acidify the water. It is one of the cleanest and lowest ecological impact energy Figure 17: Water Baby hydro generator (Heller, 2007) generation technologies (Davis, 2003).  • • • •  Pros Water Use Reduction (20-50%) Does not require connection to municipal sewage system End product is returned to the natural system Reduced greywater loading Initial problems with odour have been improved through technological advances Independence Flexibility in estate planning (not limited by sewage pipe capacity)  Cons Large pharmaceutical load with elderly clientele that does not break down naturally Some types of units need to be emptied Improper maintenance can attract flies & create odour Potential exists for composting toilets to become a habitat to vectors for disease Success depends on regular maintenance and a commitment by users to follow instructions  • • • • •  Figure 15: Composting Toilet vs. Conventional Sewage System (Sunfrost, 2004)  Composting Toilets break down human waste into organic compost/usable soil and compost tea, a nutrient rich, concentrated liquid fertilizer. By avoiding dilution with water, as in conventional waste water treatment, human waste can provide a useful fertilizer and defer the energy required for treatment.  Photovoltaic Energy  The generating capacity of a stream is measured in Continuous watts = flow (gpm) x net head ÷ 10  Net head = distance water falls to drive the turbine. See Appendix 3 to calculate generating capacity & net head.  Sunlight is converted to electricity using photovoltaic or solar cells. Photovoltaic (PV) cells are semiconductor devices, usually made of silicon. They produce electricity as long as light shines on them, which can then be stored in batteries for future use. An inverter is then used to convert the direct current (DC) energy to standard electricity which is alternating current (AC) (New Energy, 2007). Some photovoltaic technology can capture solar energy even through cloud cover.  Figure 18: UniSolar Roof Shingles (SolarDepot, 2007)  Urban Design Studio PLAN 587B Final Report, December 2007  Pg. 9  Green Technologies Biological Filtration  Living machines are devices made up of living organisms of all types and materials. They can be Natural sewage treatment using biological designed to produce food or fuels, treat wastes, filtration involves 3 key steps: purify air, regulate climates, or even to do all 1. Preliminary treatment of sewage 2. Pump into special ponds inside a solar greenhouse of these simultaneously. Their primary energy source is sunlight. Water that has been filtered 3. Aeration then exposure to bacteria, algae, through a living machine can be as clean or microscopic animals, and higher aquatic plants – which remove toxins, organic mat- cleaner than water cleaned through conventional water treatment processes. For case studies of ter, and heavy metals from the water biological filtration see the Appendix 2.  Figure 20: Living Machines (Todd and Todd, 1993)  Waste Water Use and Reuse Greywater Septic Systems separate greywater (from sinks, showers, laundry, sump pump effluents, etc.) and blackwater (from toilets) so that waste water can be treated differently depending on the level of contamination. Figure 22: Greywater filtration using Figure 21: Greywater filtration using a constructed wetland (Dan’s Public Greywater re-use for garden irrigation or a Leaching Pit Gallery, 2007) flushing toilets utilizes a valuable on-site resource, conserves precious drinking water and reduces the load on wastewater disposal systems (both on-site and centralized). The key to appropriate greywater re-use is user-awareness about the treatment processes, plus and understanding of the health and environmental aspects and any legal constraints. For examples of greywater filtration and effectiveness see the Appendix.  Figure 19: Process of Biological Filtration (Todd and Todd, 1993)  Crop Yields  Many factors affect crop yields, including soil type and fertility, moisture and drainage, agricultural practices, and much more. Experience with farming and cultivation as well as knowledge of your site are all essential elements in successful cultivation, but it is an art and a skill honed over years and generations. The importance of regional distinction cannot be overemphasized, and so we first considered current cultivation in the Big Bend area - primarily market gardens and greenhouse vegetables. For more information on yields see Appendix 4.  Pg. 10  Soils  There are two types of soils on the site. The first is the low lying peat soils, which are very wet, deep, and fertile. The second is on the slope and upper portion of the site, which are less fertile, shallow mineral soils. Risks to soil quality include: • Soil compaction and water ponding • Erosion, especially on sloping land • Soils deterioration and lost productivity • Agrochemical contamination of surface water and groundwater (AAFC, 2006)  Crops  Both soil types offers advantages for different types of cultivation.  Peat  Mineral  Wet peat soils are conducive to cultivating blueberries, cranberries, carrots, root vegetables, salad crops, and oriental vegetables. Dryer mineral soils are better suited to cultivate fruit trees, raspberries, cauliflower, kale, cabbage, and may offer a more secure foundation for greenhouses (Bomke, 2007).  Self-Sufficiency  1.3 acres of farmland (0.524 ha) is needed to produce the food for one BC resident for one year (BC Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, 2006).  Although this 20 acre site will strive to be as food self-sufficient as possible, there is not enough land to support 150-200 units.  Urban Design Studio PLAN 587B Final Report, December 2007    Fenwick Village  Using Nature’s Design to Bring Forth the Beauty and Bounty of the Land  UBC - SCARP Urban Design Studio  Jennifer Fix Bronwyn Jarvis Chani Joseph  Pg. 11  Site Analysis  Fenwick Village: Site Analysis Context  Located in the heart of Metro Vancouver, between the primary business district of downtown Vancouver and the rapidly growing business district of North Surrey, the Fenwick Village site is ideally located for a progressively-minded urban development which will set a precedent for the future of this region. Surrounded by parks and agricultural land, and adjacent to the Fraser River, the development should reflect the beauty of the local ecology and agricultural setting, and seek to bring forth the bounty of the Fraser Valley’s fertile alluvial soils. The site can be directly accessed by bus and is a 10 minute walk from the 22nd Street Skytrain Station, allowing the site to draw local pedestrian visitors, as well as skytrain travellers from throughout Metro Vancouver. Depending on the development of local amenities, there is the potential for future residents of Fenwick Village to pursue a predominantly car-free lifestyle, and  grow a significant proportion of their food on-site, making this site attractive to environmentally- and health-conscious Metro Vancouver residents.  Existing Buildings  The goal with the development of this site is to transfer the housing density from the lower portion of the site to the upslope portion. In doing so, this project is addressing major environmental and societal issues of our time, through seeking to preserve local agricultural lands, coordinate urban development with Fraser River flooding patterns, and mediate potentially disastrous future ramifications of global warming and subsequent sea level rise. While the proposed future development would dramatically alter the site (i.e. through the phasing out of several existing buildings, many of which lack proper foundations for the wet substrate), the construction of new buildings and infrastructure would incorporate old building materials wherever possible.  Proposed Future Development  Marshland Avenue Bog Forest  Fenwick Village Pg. 12  UBC -- SCARP SCARP Urban Urban Design Design Studio Studio UBC  Fenwick Village: Site SiteAnalysis Analysis North Entrance The corner of Marine Dr and Fenwick St is the most appropriate location for a non-agricultural mixed-use development. This existing entrance is clearly visible from three directions, is the most direct route from the skytrain, and lies on the #100 bus line.  Interpreting the Details The design of Fenwick Village springs directly from an understanding and appreciation of the physical realities of the site. Each revealing view is colour-coded to its corresponding view corridor on the larger context map below.  View from Highway Though a source of noise inside the site, it is important to maintain the low vegatation in the southern corner in the site as it affords the best views into the site from the highway. Without this corridor, passing motorists would be unaware of the development within, unduly isolating the community.  South of this corner commands the best views of the Fraser, and as such, clustering activity in this general location would provide for the most opportunity to take advantage of the views.  Looking Inward  Natural Flagship  Inwards from the corner is the undeniable heart of the site. Though close to the road, it is the most intimate of the high plateaus, and its size makes it ideal for a communal gathering space. Large trees guard from the blight of the highway and focus attention back into the site.  Noise  A visual corridor passes through the orchard and over the agricultural fields to the tall treetops of Willard Park forest. To the east, an underground spring surfaces in the wet season, which provides direction for on-site water management strategies.  UBC - SCARPVillage Urban Design Studio Fenwick  Situating residences or commercial areas off of eastbounding Trapp Road - though accessible and gradually graded - would likely fail because of the overpowering audio and visual pollution of the highway.  Context Map with Views  River Vantage Point  In the Heart  Highway Experience  Significant noise from the adjacent highway penetrates the eastern portion of the site, and creates a distracting and hostile environment for the user.  The entrance to the site’s internal right-of-way also suits mixed-use. Easily visible from the highway, commercial space can advertise for the activities taking place on the site. A passive triangle buffers the entrance from the worst effects of the highway, making it a more peaceful setting for mingling and working.  Natural Market Fronting the flatlands, the entrance would be especially convenient for storing and processing produce. This could also serve to attract and engage the eclectic long-time residents that live along Willard St.  13 UBC - SCARP Urban Design Pg. Studio  Fenwick Village: Design Approach & Principles  Site Analysis  Physical Design Permaculture Design, which mimics the functions and patterns found in nature, has strongly informed the proposed design at the Fenwick Village site. Materials - such as water and nutrients - are cycled within natural systems, whereas energy - which always originates from the sun - flows through systems. Design approaches at Fenwick Village should utilize and recycle resources within the site wherever possible, and seek to capture and slow energy as it moves through the site.  Design Goal for Materials:  Design Goal for Energy:  Gastronomy Institute: Localized Nutrient Cycle  Governance and Community Design Sustainable community developments projects in North America and Europe have successfully employed systems of joint ownership and governance to ensure that their communities are not only built with good intentions, but can evolve to fulfill their rhetoric in the future. Following this effective model, it is recommended that the Fenwick Village community be owned in trust by a co-operatively owned management company. Related design approaches include incremental development, which involves phasing to fully take advantage of the energy and materials embodied in the existing buildings and infrastructure (e.g. roads, ditches, streams). Applying the principle of utilizing the “free services of nature,” such as maximizing solar orientation to take advantage of passive heating, is one way to capture and slow energy as it moves through the site. Functional design in the context of energy and resource conservation requires that design components - wherever possible - function in many ways to serve the needs and accept the products or wastes of other components. The Gastronomy Institute - a mixed-use building that includes a culinary school and restaurant - which is proposed for the Fenwick Village development, demonstrates this principle in its use of food grown on the site for both its educational and commercial functions, and its composting of organic waste to be returned to the soil. In this way, the nutrient cycle is localized.  Fenwick Village Pg. 14  Those who own property in the community automatically becomes members of this co-op and have equal voting rights and rights to engage in the consensus-based decision making process which determines the direction of the co-op. The day-to-day concerns of development and maintenance are managed by employees of the co-op. The major decisions of co-ops are not constrained by the financial bottom line of distant shareholders, but instead dictated by priorities and concerns of its members. After a certain minimum length of stay in the community, residents, whether or not they are land owners, are also able to participate in the community council, which makes decisions on general principles of the community and “standards to live by.” This evolutionary approach to decision making and ownership is essential for sustainable living to be “built in” the community. This engaging approach ensures that practices do not become antiquated and defunct, and that community members themselves stay engaged and invested in the process rather than being passive receptors of a way of life that they neither respect nor understand.  UBC--SCARP SCARPUrban UrbanDesign DesignStudio Studio UBC   Entering the Site  Fenwick Village: Site Site Analysis Plan Fenwick Street  An important goal for the Fenwick Village site design is to condense the built environment onto the upper hillside and preserve the fertile soils at the bottom of the site for agricultural use. The two primary entrance points are (1) at Fenwick Street and Marine Drive and (2) at Willard Street and Thorne Avenue. Pedestrian corridors connecting these two entrance points allow visitors to enjoy views of the Fraser River, the agricultural fields and terraces, the green roofs, the historic orchard, and the Willard Park forest. The site includes a restaurant, culinary school, community centre, market, daycare, playground, as well as workshop space and processing/storage space for the site’s agricultural harvest.  At Fenwick and Marine, at the top of the hillside, visitors arriving from the skytrain enter through the central breezeway of the Gastronomy Institute, a three-story building with a culinary school on the bottom floor, student and visitor accommodations on the second floor, and a restaurant on the third floor. The restaurant is associated with the culinary school and has a menu which incorporates the seasonal harvest from Fenwick Village’s fields, terraces, green roofs, orchard and domestic livestock. The building itself is tiered and provides a significant amount of green roof and balcony space, allowing for useful herbs, vegetables and produce to be grown meters from the school and restaurant’s kitchens.  e  e Driv  Marin  Gastronomy Institute  LEGEND Residential Gastronomy Institute Public Market Community Centre Living Machine Agriculture Forest and Park Wetland/Fen Orchard Ducks Goats Retention Pond and Ditch Children’s Playground Pathway and Road Network Parking  25m  50m  UBC - SCARPVillage Urban Design Studio Fenwick  Community Centre  Thorne Avenue  From the Gastronomy Institute’s breezeway, the circular Fenwick Village community centre is visible and only a short stroll down the hillside. A small ramp allows access to the roof of this building, which boasts panoramic views of the site. Below, the community centre offers residents a variety of amenities, including a common room, community kitchen, and theatre space.  100m  Fenwick Village Market From the roof of the community centre, the Fenwick Village Market is also visible, at the base of the site just beyond the agricultural fields. Residents and visitors can reach the market by walking either through the fields (centre path), the Willard Park forest (western path), or the Fen Walk (eastern path). Fenwick Village Market is also easily accessed by car or bus along Willard Street.  Willard Street  Pg. 15 UBC - SCARP Urban Design Studio  Fenwick Village: Agriculture  Site Analysis  Agricultural Landscape  Central Fields and Terraces  A large proportion of the site is dedicated to agriculture. The vision for this agricultural land is a diversity of organically produced crops, including: seasonal vegetables, fruit trees and vines, nut trees, berry bushes, culinary herbs, grains, native food plants, and domestic livestock, poultry and/or waterfowl. The central portion of the site would be highly managed, while the perimeter would have harvestable components incorporated into landscapes serving complementary ecological and aesthetic roles. In tune with this concept, the central portion of the site would host more seasonal crops, while the perimeter would contain longer-term plantings.  The highly managed centre of the site has both a sloped, well-drained component and a flat, moist, nutrient-rich component. The slope faces south-east and has excellent solar exposure, while also containing many tall trees which could be retained as needed for shade. The combination of these factors allows the site to accommodate a wide range of crops. Many specialty crops could be experimented with and potentially provide significant commercial revenues, such as: heritage varieties of fruits and vegetables, wasabi, medlar, figs, grapes, kiwis, persimmons, native food plants (e.g. camas bulbs, licorice root, huckleberry and highbush cranberry bushes), and flavoured honey (bees nourished on specific pollen). Seasonal crops would vary year-to-year, and would rotate throughout suitable portions of the site.  Well-drained Slope, Fertile Plain  Seasonal Crops  Developing Local Expertise An important factor in the success of such a system is the development of local expertise and the provision of classroom space to teach the associated farming and food processing skills and techniques. The primary location for these activities is in the Fenwick Village Market at the base of the site. There would also be workspace for the cleaning, processing and packaging of the farm produce, and storage space for the harvest, seeds, and farming equipment. Classes on additional topics, such as art and ecology, could also be provided here, while culinary classes would be provided at the top of the site in the Gastronomy Institute; these two educational spaces would complement each other and further unify the upper and lower portions of the site. Young Fig Trees  Fenwick Village Pg. 16  100m  Beekeeping  UBC - SCARP Urban Design Studio    Fenwick Village: Residential Area & CommunitySite Amenities Analysis Built Environment The placement and orientation of residences maximize solar exposure by exploiting the steepest and most southerly face topography on the site. At the same time, embedding the units into the existing slope maximizes passive geothermal heating and cooling. Clustering units together, and planting trees against their western elevations also serves to minimize heat loss. The three story buildings at the very rear (north) of the site lose the protection of berming but gain passive solar efficiency because of their shallower depths. The exception is the existing building - retained for residential use which does not have a southern orientation. The community centre and living machines are also well-placed to derive the benefits of passive solar access and passive geothermal heating/cooling.  Residential Area with Amenities and Living Machines  UBC - SCARPVillage Urban Design Studio Fenwick  Pg. 17 UBC - SCARP Urban Design Studio  Fenwick Village: Energy and HydrologicalEnergy Systems & Hydrological Systems Materials Cycle and Energy Flows Water and energy are two central features of the site that strongly inform overall and specific design. In an effort to mimic the natural phenomenon of cycling materials, water and other types of infrastructure are designed to utilize and conserve water entering the site, recycle it, and ensure it re-enters the larger hydrological centre clean. Energy and other types of infrastructure are designed to utilize and “slow down” as much as possible the energy flowing through the site.  1 2 3 4  Water Cycles 1 5  6  7 7  5 4  6  3 8 2 1 - Precipitation enters the site and is captured in ditches, retention ponds, and rainbarrells that are situated adjacent to residential units. 2 - Water collected in rainbarrels from the roof runoff is used in residences. 3 - Excess water from the rainbarrels is directed to the retention ponds. 4 - Waste water is transported to on-site “living machines”, which use plants and natural processes to remove toxins and purify water. 5 and 6- Treated water leaves the living machines and is re-used in residences and/or on agricultural land. 7 - Water in retention ponds is utilized on agricultural land. 8 - Water leaves the site in the form of evaporation or run-off to the Fraser River.  Fenwick Village Pg. 18  Energy Flows  1 - Incoming solar energy is captured by solar hot water heaters for use in the residences. This is one example of the utilization of passive solar energy, which is a “free service” of nature as there are no energy inputs or complex technological devices required to acquire it. 2 - Incoming solar energy is harnessed by photovoltaic panels, which provides electricity for residents. This is one example of the utilization of active solar energy. 3 - Incoming solar energy passively heats residences. All units on the site are oriented to maximize sun exposure as much as possible. Proper glazing and indoor thermal massing ensures effective heat capture and release. 4 - Greenhouses, which capture energy in the form of food production, may be attached to residential units to assist in passive solar heating. 5 - A small amount of electricity generated by basic micro-hydroelectric technology is captured through the development of retention ponds and small dams. While the amount of electricity produced is unlikely to be significant, it nonetheless provides educational opportunities for residents and visitors, and supplements other sources of electricity. 6 - A horizontal geothermal system uses the ambient temperatures in the earth to provide heating and cooling, and requires only an electric pump to operate. 7 - Partially embedding residences in the slope - or “earth-berming” - serves to passively heat and cool residential units by protecting surfaces from the elements, and by utilizing the earth’s ambient temperatures. This is another example of passively utilizing the “free services” of nature.  UBC - SCARP Urban Design Studio   Streetscape To enhance a sense of place and respond to environmental and health objectives, the site design is intended to treat the pedestrian as the primary user of the circulation network. However it is also recognized that emergency vehicular access must be accommodated, and several residents and visitors are likely to make regular use of vehicles. As such, a road network is provided to accommodate vehicular movement through residential areas, while also creating a safe, efficient and pedestrian experience. Sidewalks are provided on both sides of all streets, and are buffered from the traffic by trees to the south, and on-street parking to the north. In addition to creating a pleasant experience, locating trees to the north of residential units along the south side of the street provides some protection from the elements. The planting of trees is avoided on the north side of the streets where solar access is required  Fenwick Village: Site Site Features Analysis  for passive heating or photovoltaics. Short setbacks and visual access to active rooftops with nearby edible landscaping provide for an engaging and interesting experience for pedestrians, while strategically-placed trellises and landscaping create a sense of privacy for residents.  on Trapp Road, adjacent to Marine Way, where significant noise and visual pollution diminishes suitability for other uses). Surface parking, like the streets, would employ permeable pavers to allow for water infiltration.  Some underground parking is provided in the multi-use building (“Gastronomy Institute”) at the rear of the site; a car co-op would be the Street width varies in order to respond to the placement of residential primary use for this parking area. Underground parking is not provided underneath the residential buildings as this would negate the potential to buildings on an irregular slope. In cases where available space utilize geothermal heating for these buildings. In addition, the expense is minimal (i.e. 10 metres) the parking lane is removed, leaving sufficient space for the rest of the right-of-way. Given the pedestrian- of such parking would likely prove to be prohibitive, as well as reduce the adaptibility of the residential structures to changing societal needs oriented nature of the site, the impact of parking is minimized as (i.e. to remove the underground parking in the future would generally much as possible. Narrow parking lanes are able to accommodate mean the destruction of the buildings above or, at the very least, reduce horizontal parking for small cars, thus providing additional on-street parking, which accounts for the majority of parking stalls on the site. their capacity to suit a transformation into a predominantly car-free Other parking areas include small, discrete, surface parking lots (e.g. community).  SOUTH  NORTH  Sidewalk - 1.5 m Boulevard - 1.0 m  Traffic Lane - 4.0 m  Parking Lane - 3.5 m  Sidewalk - 1.5 m Front Yard Setback - 2.0 m  Typical Street Section  Fenwick UBC - SCARPVillage Urban Design Studio  19 UBC - SCARP Urban Design Pg. Studio  Fenwick Village: Site Features  Site Analysis  Fenwick Village Market The goal for Fenwick Village Market is to provide a functional yet unique and aesthetic interface between the site’s agricultural space and the surrounding community. It also serves a smaller function of buffering noise from the nearby freeway. These buildings are raised on piers due to the high water table, while appearing to be built into the earth because of their green roofs which, at the rear, slope down to the level of the fields behind.  Market Plan  The central buildings contain a public market square and cafe, while their roofs are home to the site’s domestic goats. Such features are likely to attract outside visitors, and provide a unique identity for the site. The neighboring buildings along Willard Street house a daycare and Willard Forest Interpretive Center, and the slope of their roofs is incorporated into the adjacent children’s playground. 10m  A  B Market Section  Fenwick Village Pg. 20  UBC - SCARP Urban Design Studio    Fenwick Village: Site Site Features Analysis  Fenwick Village Market: A Public/Private Interface Throughout the Village Market buildings there is space for the cleaning, processing and storage of farm produce from the site, as well as tool and equipment storage, seed cleaning and packaging, and general workshop space.  To Willard Forest  Agricultural Fields Thorne Avenue  To Playground  These buildings encourage visitors to interact with the agricultural and ecological features of the site, provide a visual and noise buffer for those working in the agricultural fields behind, yet allow views into the site from Willard Street and Marine Way.  To Fen Walk  Solarium  Picnic Area  Cafe  The Fenwick Village Market also serves the local agricultural community, by providing easily accessible recreational space, market space, and workshop space to facilitate and promote the farming activities of this community.  Street Market  Goat Pasture  Covered Market  Boardwalk  UBC - SCARPVillage Urban Design Studio Fenwick  Market Plan  Pg. 21 UBC - SCARP Urban Design Studio  Fenwick Village: Site Features  Site Analysis Ecological & Agricultural Interfaces  The Fen Walk The Fen Walk runs along the southeastern edge of the site, between the perimeter of the agricultural fields and the southeastern wetland, or “fen.” The fen is located in the wettest portion of the site, where surface water flows out under Marine Way in storm-water pipes, into the Fraser River. It serves as a visual and noise buffer from Marine Way for farmers working in the fields and for visitors strolling along the Fen Walk. In addition, the fen’s vegetation filters and retains high-nutrient run-off from the agricultural fields prior to releasing this water into the Fraser River.  The fen is managed to some extent in that tall trees are removed to retain views into the site for vehicles passing by on Marine Way. Invasive plants are also kept under control, while native plants which enhance the wildlife potential of this ecosystem are encouraged. The western edge of the fen bordering the Fen Walk is planted with native fruit-bearing bushes, such as red and blue huckleberries, highbush cranberries and salal; the Fen Walk allows the ripening fruit to be easily harvested from these bushes, throughout the season, both by farmers as well as by visitors strolling past.  Fen Walk  Agricultural Land Ditch  The Fen Walk is an example of the paths which meander around the outer edges of the agricultural land. These paths generally have highly managed agricultural fields on one side and moderately managed ecological communities on the other. The latter vary in their management techniques, from interpretive signage, to strategic planting of indigenous plants, to the incorporation of niche agricultural crops, such as water- and shade-loving wasabi.  This example of the natural and managed (i.e. agricultural) interface perfectly embodies the general vision for the Fenwick Village site, which seeks to bring forth the beauty and bounty of the land.  Trapp Road Native Berry Bushes  Fen Ecosystem  Fen Walk Section  Fenwick Village Pg. 22  UBC--SCARP SCARPUrban UrbanDesign DesignStudio Studio UBC  Fenwick Village Fenwick Street  e Marin  Drive  LEGEND Residential Gastronomy Institute Public Market Community Centre Living Machine  Thorne Avenue  Agriculture Forest and Park Wetland/Fen Orchard Ducks Goats Retention Pond and Ditch Children’s Playground Pathway and Road Network Parking  100m  UBC - SCARP Urban Design Studio  Willard Street  Pg. 23  Willard Eco-Village  Healthy, Diverse, Sustainable Seniors’ Living    Pg. 24  Brian Gregg, Lang Lang & Sawngjai Manityakul  UBC - SCARP urban design  Design Philosphy Accommodating Diversity  Our Vision  To promote healthy, active and diverse senior’s living in a sustainable setting in which the elderly can happily age in place.  Achieving Our Vision  Encouraging Healthy, Active Senior’s Living  Our design will promote physical activity for individuals of all abilities. It will also encourage on-site food production which has the potential to enhance the quality of food for the residents and, in turn, their health. Finally, we will create an environment in which seniors of all levels of health can age in place.  UBC - SCARP urban design    We have aimed to provide a variety of building types in order to accommodate the diverse range of preferences found in potential senior residents. We have also made it our goal to create several distinct neighborhood types on the site, each with a unique character and associated lifestyle.  Promoting Sustainability Amongst Seniors  We have made it a priority to push the limits of sustainability through the use of a variety of green design features and preservation of agricultural land. We believe that individuals of all age groups should live ecologically sustainable lifestyles.  Brian Gregg, Lang Lang & Sawngjai Manityakul  Pg. 25  Site Analysis - Linking the Site’s Existing Features to Our Design Figure 1. Context Map (left) This map locates the site within its local region, showing its location and proximity to other features, services and amenities  Community Allotment Gardens  22nd St.Skytrain  Figure 2. Accessibility Map (above) This map shows the site’s main access points (red stars), pedestrian and automobile pathways (in orange) as well as areas of limited walkability (crossed out arrows)  Willard Park Ma  Shopping Complex  Cemetery  rin  eD  r.  ill W ar d  .  The site’s proximity to the skytrain station and other major roads such as Marine Hwy, Marine Dr., Thorne Ave., Willard St., and Trapp Ave. connects it to a larger regional network of other services and amenities. However, connectivity to different areas within the site is currently not as evident (Figure 2), and is an element we address and hope to promote in our design. Marine Drive runs along the top of the site, providing convenient vehicle and pedestrian access between the residence units that are concentrated within the upper portion of the site and sky train station. Thorne Avenue runs through the centre of the site, and is currently the main path allowing access to different areas within the site. Its location and prominence has been a key consideration in our design response. prominence has been a key consideration in our design response.  Pg. 26  .  Connectivity  St  Marine  Highw  p  ap Tr  ay  e Av  We see Thorne Avenue as a link that connects the lower agricultural areas and central portion of the site to the upper slopes. However, the lack of clearly defined paths running perpendicular to Thorne, and laterally across the site does not promote the same sense connectivity and access to the rest of the area. Our site design will aim to create more pathways within and to the site from other preexisting roads such as Marine Drive and Trapp Avenue.  Accessibility The lack of clearly defined paths in several areas of the site also restricts direct pedestrian and automobile routes. Accessibility is seen as a key issue as we are designing a community for senior residents who may have mobility limitations.  Fraser River The steepness of the slope in the upper portion of the site also affects accessibility and calls for implementation of ramps and other wheelchair accessible paths within the design.  Traffic Noise Although proximity to roads and Marine Hwy. generates convenient entry points to the site and connectivity to the larger region, excessive traffic noise is a major concern that our design hopes to mitigate. Rows of trees can be planted on small berms along Willard St. and Trapp Ave (Figure 1). Traffic noise, on the other hand, is mitigated through the creation of a “white noise” falling water feature as well as a treecovered berm which surrounds the edge of the site.  Brian Gregg, Lang Lang & Sawngjai Manityakul  Fraser River An important consideration to our site’s location is the Fraser River, a prominant natural feature approximately 0.70km away. The site lies within its flood plain, producing the fertile soils on the flat portion as previously mentioned .  Shopping Mall The new shopping complex has been recently built approximately 5 blocks away from the site. We have therefore not considered the need to create infrastructure on our site to accomodate more retail uses.  UBC - SCARP urban design  Site Analysis Figure 2 - Buildable and Arable Land  Figure 1 - Section Elevation  The diagram below marks the distinction between the more buildable lands on the upper slope and the arable lands on the flat portion of the site  This diagram highlights existing site features, including houses, irrigation ditches, and the general topography of the area (the flat agricultural land and the upper slope)  Figure 3 - Soil Profiles  These sketches highlight the different soil profiles found on the site’s flat agricultural land and the upper slope  Flat, Agricultural Land (southern part of site)  Upper Slope (nothern part of site)  Soil (3 foot depth)  Nutrient Rich Soil (60 foot depth)  UBC - SCARP urban design  Hardpan    Figure 4 - Accessibility Map  This map shows the site’s main access points (red stars), pedestrian and automobile pathways (in orange) as well as areas of limited walkabiility (crossed out arrows)  Linking the Site’s Existing Features to our Design The existing features of the Willard Park site have strongly influenced our final design proposal. Figures 1, 2, and 3 clearly highlight the fact that there are two distinct areas within the site, including (1) the flat, nutrient rich, agricultural lands in the southern portion of the site, and (2) the more solid, buildable land on the upper slope in the northern portion of the site. Our final design schemes work well with these existing landscapes as the great majority of the buildings in our proposal are located on the upper slope, whereas the low lying arable lands are preserved for agricultural uses. In refraining from building on the flat, productive lands, our design has the potential to maximize on-site food production and reduce flood risk from the nearby Fraser River. Our design ideas also address several existing problems on the site, including accessibility issues (see figure 4) and excessive traffic noise from nearby highways. Addressing accessibility problems is of paramount importance for our redesign, as we are proposing the creation of a senior’s retirement community. We have tackled the lack of on-site automobile access by adding several access roads and have also added a variety of wheelchair-accessible pathways. Traffic noise, on the other hand, is mitigated through the creation of a “white noise” falling water feature as well as a tree-covered berm which surrounds the edge of the site.  Brian Gregg, Lang Lang & Sawngjai Manityakul  Pg. 27  Site Plan Willard Eco Village Sustainable Senior’s Living  Site Features Buildings  We designed our buildings to achieve both high density living and a diversity of housing options. As such, the site contains 150 units of housing in three different building types (see legend). The buildings are generally three stories or shorter as this will help to preserve views. In the central area of the site, there is a mixed use building (marked with a star) containing a fitness center, an office, a community center and a ground-level cafe which is adjacent to the public plaza. Next to the plaza are a number of “village center” living options. On the upper portion of the site, on the other hand, we have designed a variety of view homes.  Legend  1  2 *  Plaza  Another unique feature of our design is the cozy public square The square is adjacent to a variety of features, including a mixed-use building and a number of residential units.  (each 1000 sqft) townhouses      three storey, three unit (2 x 1000 sqft and 1 x 1700 sqft) townhouses (note: * marks mixed use building)  Accessibility & Mobility    orchard and community garden  Parking        We have allocated space for a green design education center, a local produce market, a culinary school and a restaurant.  Roads  We added three new roads within the site in order to enhance ease of mobility for the one unit, one storey (1000 sqft) houses residents. These new roads will also ensure that all residents can park as close to their biological waste filtration systems homes as possible.  produce market and education center culinary school and restaurant  Land Uses  agricultural land    Public Spaces    2  Pg. 28  Few new buildings are located on the agricultural land in order to enhance on-site food production. We have also revitalized the existing orchard and allocated spaces for livestock.  Attractions  1  50 Meters  Food Producing Lands  Building Types  three storey, twelve unit       N  Key Land Uses  livestock area plaza switchback, wheelchair accesible path  Every resident has their own parking space. The three storey, twelve unit townhouses contain underground parking and the three storey, three unit townhouses contain basement parking. The residents of the single unit houses, on the other hand, have roadside parking spaces in “bulb outs.”  Paths  The site contains a highly interconnected system of wheelchair accessible paths in order to increase on-site walkability for individuals of all physical abilities.  Brian Gregg, Lang Lang & Sawngjai Manityakul  UBC - SCARP urban design  Site Analysis Section 1: Full Site Section Elevation  Section 2: Detailed Section Elevation  Section 1:  This section elevation cuts through the entire site from Willard Street in the south to Marine Drive in the north. It not only highlights the general massing of the three proposed building types, but it also shows the preservation of the flat, agricultural land and the allocation of buildings on the upper slope.  UBC - SCARP urban design    Section 2:  This section provides a more detailed view of the central portion of the site in which there is a mixed use building and a townhouse adjacent to a cozy public square. It also highlights the unique “village center” atmosphere of the area.  section 1 Section 2  Brian Gregg, Lang Lang & Sawngjai Manityakul  Pg. 29  Thorne Square New Street  The Town Square  Thorne Ave  Approximately 20m x 25m, Thorne Square is envisioned as the heart of the community where residents can get together to appreciate the activities and environment around them. It is designed to be a welcoming and pleasant open space where people may pass time in an outdoor urban room, or traverse through paths that lead them to other enjoyable destinations. Centrally located immediately between the residences upslope and the farmland, the square provides an interface that connects the two portions. It is bordered by Thorne Avenue on the west, a new road along the north, and enveloped by buildings on the east and south. The café, fitness centre, a library/work space, and community meeting rooms are located within the southern buildings, while the culinary school and restaurant  Diverse Seating Options  Figure 1. Thorne Square  N  An assortment of seating options is provided, including five tables covered by umbrellas, each with four seats, to accommodate varying weather conditions. Planters surround five other benches, while four chess tables have two smaller seats each. Seating is also available along the edge of the stone fountain. The café patio that is fronted by the square is underneath an awning, providing even more covered seating.  Ecological Feature The treated water from the living machines across the other side of Thorne Ave is piped and pumped underground towards the square. It is reused as it reappears above ground in a very small channel that feeds into the fountain in the square. From then, it flows from the fountain’s edge, continuing back towards the ground through another small channel that eventually disappears underground again. The water continues to flow towards the irrigation ditches on the agricultural land. The reuse of treated water is a sustainable practice that applies to the green design principles of this site.  A River Motif  Less than a kilometer away from our site lies the Fraser River. The presence of water running through the square simulates its presence within the community and connects the users of the space to their greater surroundings. It also serves to help subdue unwanted traffic noise, but it also serves to, helping to strike a balance between built and un-built features. The visible flow of the water from the living machine to the fountain and ditches, much like that of a river’s, adds to the peacefulness of the space. Rocks and stones have been used for the fountain and within the paving of the square to help simulate a river’s natural setting. (See Figure 3)  Figure 2. Cross Section of Living Machine Treated Water Fountain  Surrounding Activities People can easily cross the street to the other side of Thorne Avenue where the market, education centre and living machines are located. Residents who live in the building across the new street directly north of the square have the best access to this space. However, residents who live further up the slope can still easily access the square and its surrounding amenities via the gently winding “garden path” that feeds directly into Thorne Avenue intersection. The path that runs through the square leads travelers to the other side of the restaurant where a deck patio opens into a small herb garden directly on the agricultural land.  Figure 3. Square’s paving pattern  10 m    Pg. 30  Brian Gregg, Lang Lang & Sawngjai Manityakul  UBC - SCARP urban design  Detailed Site Plan : Thorne Intersection A Lively Intersection  10  This 1:200 detailed site plan (Figure 1) highlights the intersection between Thorne Ave. and the new street on the central area of our site. A integral part of our design philosophy is to encourage interaction between the upper slope residential areas and the low land farm areas, as well as between the site and its surrounding region. By concentrating our services and amenities along Thorne Ave, between the two portions of the site, we hope to create an area with centralized activities that is inviting for the residents and any visitors to the site.  9 2  1 3  8  4  6 Thorne Ave.  7  10 m  11 5 12  Figure 1. Plan of Thorne Intersection  Centralized Services and Amenities  The edges of this intersection partly envelop the public plaza, “Thorne Square” (3). The square is also surrounded by other buildings that provide a variety of services that express our design principles. A one-story culinary school and restaurant that uses fresh produce grown on-site from the farm (4) sits on the north east corner. The restaurant is fronted by a deck patio that opens into a herb garden (12) directly on the agricultural land. It also serves to support on site food production for residents, as well the culinary school and restaurant. The three –storey multi-functional building (5) which sits on Connectivity the southwestern side of the plaza, contains a café and patio on the ground floor, a fitness The new street (1) connects the top of Thorne centre, library and meeting rooms. Ave. to Trapp Ave, increasing the accessibility of the site to outside visitors. Currently, the On the other side of Thorne Ave is a complex top of Thorne Ave does not continue all the which contains a produce market (6), an way up the site as the slope is very steep (Fi- agricultural and sustainability education gire 2). To mitigate this disconnect , a path (2) center (7), and a living machine (8). The is created along the slope at the top of Thorne produce market will sell produce from Ave in order to allow direct access between the the farm for residents and the public. The residential areas and the intersection, public education center is designed to engage plaza, and farm land. The path is designed to people in sustainable farming practices and be switch-back in order to mitigate the steep- the green features on our site. ness of this area. This winding “garden path” contains planters along the sides intended One of the living machines is directly for beautiful, ornamental flowers, providing connected to the education centre so that a unique and positive experience as it is tra- it can be showcased. The treated water versed. it is also ramped for wheelchair ac- will be piped underground to the water cessibility and is restricted to pedestrian use. fountain in the square and finally to the irrigation canals on the other side of the site.  Legend  1. New road 2. Switch-back garden path 3. Plaza 4. Restaurant and culinary school 5. Mixed-use building 6. Market 7. Education center 8. Living machine 9 & 10. Residential building 11. Restaurant Patio 12. Herb Garden  UBC - SCARP urban design    Figure 2 . Exisiting Condition of Thorne Ave  Brian Gregg, Lang Lang & Sawngjai Manityakul  Pg. 31  The 3-D View A 3-D View of the Public Square at the Intersection of Thorne Avenue  What are we looking at? The image to the left depicts the public square located at the intersection of Thorne Avenue and the new road located in the central portion of the site.  Why is this a significant space? This portion of the site embodies many of the key elements of our design proposal and, as such, it is useful to touch upon this section of the site as a part of our concluding remarks.  How does this portion of the site Reflect our Vision?  Ne  w  r  Ro  Tho ad    Pg. 32  e. v A ne  This portion of the site is tied to our vision of creating a healthy, active and sustainable senior’s community as it contains a variety of features that support this general vision. It encourages activity, for example, as it is linked to the other sections of the site via a system of highly interconnected paths. It is also home to a number of services and amenities which support an active senior’s lifestyle. It embodies sustainability, on the other hand, because it contains a variety of green features including a living machine fed pond and green roofs. It also provides an interface between the agricultural land and the upper residential portions of the site, bridging the gap between these two otherwise disconnected realms.  Brian Gregg, Lang Lang & Sawngjai Manityakul  UBC - SCARP urban design  sprout: the city is the country  Kaitlin Kazmierowski Jeff Deby Andrew Merrill  UBC - SCARP urban design  sprout  Pg. 33  willard park  Willard Park Located in the Big Bend area of south Burnaby, near the border of New Westminister and adjacent to Marine Way. The site is 22 acres and is currently being used for a mix of large-lot residential, small scale agriculture and home based businesses.  Pg. 34  sprout  UBC - SCARP urban design  Kaitlin Kazmierowski Jeff Deby Andrew Merrill  vision & values sprout: the city is the country  two main principles Reduce ecological footprint: minimize consumption and waste • Use of simple design solutions to make living at sprout more sustainable • The incorporation of green technology solutions to reduce resource use • Natural treatment of wastes • Strong sense of community and place • Sprout is green by-design — by living there one reduces their ecological footprint  Kaitlin Kazmierowski Jeff Deby Andrew Merrill  UBC - SCARP urban design  Be a showcase of community integrated urban agriculture • • • •  Localization of food production Education/outreach to the wider community Access to fresh local produce Community building through the shared production of food • Food production in tune with nature  sprout  Pg. 35  experiential site analysis A country enclave in the city  First steps: experiential design concept  Upon entering the site, one immediately feels that this is a unique place, a rareity in the city. This feeling comes from various sources; the open ditches brimming with life, the delicate interplay between the fertile lowlands and the outward looking slope, and the trees of the park, standing taller than most urban trees ever could. These features, mixed with housing and land-uses, leave visitors with the impression that this is a secret special place.  willard park site photos  Experience and design Sprout’s design concept stems from these initial frist impressions and thus strives to maintain a holistic theme, intertwining landuse and natural systems while ensuring that future residents tread lightly on the land. At the heart of the design is the fostering of the interactions between residents, farmland, forest and the surrounding community. These interactions are enabled by creating private, semi-private and public spaces which are all supported by living systems, green technologies and aesthetically pleasing yet functional design. The design concept for Sprout aims to provide residents with an inherent “greeness”, a sense of tranquility and responsibility and the priviledge of living in close contact with nature while being in a major city. Here, the city truly is the country. Pg. 36  sprout  UBC - SCARP urban design  Kaitlin Kazmierowski Jeff Deby Andrew Merrill  site and context responsiveness  Use the site contours  Reconfirm urban agriculture  The northern section of the site is on a steep hill, giving southfacing views to the Fraser and Mount Baker, and a sunny aspect. The southern part of the site is flat and well suited to agricultural uses, but flood dangers warn against residential use.  Agricultural zoning predominates east of the site, although residential and light industrial uses also feature prominently. The proposed development integrates higher density residential with community shared agriculture to preserve threatened farmable land.  Densify near transit The 22nd Street SkyTrain station nearby is currently surrounded by very low density residential. By densifying near a transit hub, Sprout will help fulfil the Metro Vancouver Livable Region Plan, while embracing meaningful sustainable principles and preserving the agricultural character and use of the area.  Preserve woodlands The proposed plan retains a stand of second-growth forest that is continuous with the larger wooded areas in Willard Park. These woods provide wildlife habitat, ecological services, and neighbourhood character.  Kaitlin Kazmierowski Jeff Deby Andrew Merrill  Re-use structures  Harness water power  Localize water management  Several existing residences and outbuildings are scattered across the site. To minimize resource use and waste, the proposed development reuses buildings and building materials as much as possible.  Groundwater exiting near the top of the slope results in a flow of about 200 gallons per minute, dropping over 20 metres. The current proposal takes advantage of the flow for microhydro power generation.  The site currently is not on the municipal sewer system. Sprout uses a living machine to biologically process greywater, reusing it for toilets and then similarly treating blackwater before releasing it harmlessly on-site. A system of bioswales absorbs the water on site rather than dumping it in city storm drains.  UBC - SCARP urban design  sprout  Pg. 37  site plan Street-oriented townhouses  Neighbourhood square  Turn around bulb/dog park  Pond  Pedestrian lane  Typical housing units  Stairs  Living machine (Solar Aquatics)  Treehouse square  Micro-hydro building  “Country Lane”  Education centre and residences  Pedestrian trail network  Orchard  Wheelchair ramp  Thorne Road  Knot garden and outdoor kitchen  Re-use existing buildings for farm buildings  Willard Park  Field agriculture  Field agriculture  Pg. 38  Livestock area  sprout  UBC - SCARP urban design  Kaitlin Kazmierowski Jeff Deby Andrew Merrill  layout and architectural form A  A  View to the east showing the use of the site’s natural topography  Housing Types  Isometric view of the entire site showing the distribution of 120 housing units.  Section A - A  33 Townhouses at 1500 sq.ft. 22 Neighbourhood Square apartments at 1000 sq.ft. 12 Modular units at 625 sq.ft 14 Modular units at 1250 sq.ft 32 Modular units at 1875 sq.ft. 7 Modular units at 2500 sq.ft.  Commercial/ Community Space 9000 sq.ft of space for commercial or community uses  Kaitlin Kazmierowski Jeff Deby Andrew Merrill  UBC - SCARP urban design  sprout  Pg. 39  movement be provided at intersections or other high-traffic locations to minimise light pollution. Lighted bollards on the pedestrian path will provide low-level lighting and mark the edge of the pathway. The street trees will be either fruit or nut bearing and the yard spaces and green roofs will be used for urban agriculture and container gardening.  2  4  7  8  6 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  Pedestrian path with permeable paving Bioswale Lighted bollard Country lane with permeable paving Energy efficient street lighting at junctions and high traffic locations 6. Edible fruit and nut trees 7. Yard spaces used for urban agriculture and container gardening 8. Green roof with urban agriculture and container gardening Pg. 40  Periamable Paving  5  Road with bioswales  6  3 1 7  sprout  2  Country Lane  8  Pedestrian Path  Laneways and pathways The narrow country lanes are designed to be pedestrian-focused and to minimize vehicular traffic. Street lighting is only to  UBC - SCARP urban design  Kaitlin Kazmierowski Jeff Deby Andrew Merrill  site detail: neighbourhood square The heart of the neighbourhood The neighbourhood square is the commercial and social heart of the community. It also functions as the main pedestrian entrance, with a foot and bicycle path linking the square to the treehouse square at the opposite end.  Vibrant mixed use Surrounding the square are mixed-use buildings with approximately 9,000 square feet for commercial or community uses at ground level, with 22,000 square feet of residential above. Buildings have been massed to allow plentiful sunlight and spectacular views. Underground parking is accessed from the road below.  Outdoor gathering space The square itself is designed for flexible use, including a farmers’ market, outdoor dining, informal gathering or play space, or an open-air performance venue.  Kaitlin Kazmierowski Jeff Deby Andrew Merrill  UBC - SCARP urban design  sprout  Pg. 41  site detail: treehouse square  A unique community experience  4  6  Mirroring the neighbourhood square at the northern end of the site, Treehouse Square provides a peaceful venue for residents and visitors alike. Native plants flourish while residents enjoy the sun and the views from elevated patios and hammocks strung from the trees. Children play in the central treehouse or discover nature in tree village.  3  5  Concept: central treehouse  Treehouse Square also serves as an evening venue with solar lanterns lighting the night.  Vision in sketch: entrance way  2  7  1  Linking sprout and Willard Park 8  Plan view: woodland square 1. Storage shed 2. Tree house 3. Elevated patio 4. Childrens’ tree village  Pg. 42  5. Picnic and hammock area 6. Interpretive kiosk 7. Native plant garden 8. Living fence  Treehouse Square acts as an important interface between the Sprout community and the natural habitat of Willard Park. While the square showcases native plants, and allows children to play in the trees, it also provides valuable interpretive information for those venturing into the park. This gateway at the far end of the square leads residents to a series of trails which connect the park and farmland with housing and community space. Providing a means of connecting the various features of the site allows residents to experience their environment and live holistically.  sprout  UBC - SCARP urban design  Kaitlin Kazmierowski Jeff Deby Andrew Merrill  site detail: knot garden Community gathering  The knot garden The knot garden area provides a public gathering space. In addition to the formal public herb and berry garden, the site also has an outdoor kitchen area for family gatherings or community dinners. At the southern portion of the platform is a viewing area overlooking the farm landscape below.  1 Outdoor kitchen  2  3 7 8  Herb and berry garden  6 12  5  11  10 7  Outdoor eating  Kaitlin Kazmierowski Jeff Deby Andrew Merrill  UBC - SCARP urban design  4  1. 2. 3. 4.  Lane Bioswale Residential unit - typical Farm vehicles and emergency access lane. 5. Outdoor kitchen 6. Outdoor oven/BBQ 7. Stairs 8. Wheelchair ramp 9. Existing road 10. Viewing area 11. Public herb and berry knot garden 12. Seating area  9  sprout  Pg. 43  green technologies  The modular difference  Modular homes are a greener and higher quality alternative to stickbuilt homes due to their production processes. Factory built homes ensure higher quality, less waste, fewer mistakes and less construction site theft. They can be assembled faster and walls are structurally superior because of the strength needed for transportation to the site. Most importantly, modular homes can be built from recycled and local materials, and are flexible in their design and placement in order to ensure optimal insluation efficiency. Most homes are Energy Star certified, and their placement upon a site allows them to tread lightly on the earth.  Recycled building materials  Living roof and walls These areas provide private space for residents, natural insulation and sound mitigation, and can be used for urban agriculture  Reclaimed from pre-existing units or local sources, such materials are used for flooring, walls and other features. Sustainably managed lumber is incorporated into construction when necessary.  Modular home  Orientation and estration  Passive solar gain and natural ventilation are maximized. Triple glazing insulated and mitigates noise.  Micro-hydro Power can be generated from onsite flows to help pump filteredgreywater back into units.  Bioswale  Sprout living machine and  water filtration system  fen-  Photovoltaics Solar panels make use of southfacing orientation to enable increased self-sufficiency.  Low-flow/ low-energy appliances Each unit contains the most energy efficient appliances  Grey and blackwater recycling Permeable pavement and bioswales These features promote the capture, filtration and slow release of storm water into the soil through surficial vegetation under-lain with permeable materials such as gravel and sand. Bioswales are planted with native vegetation and serve as habitat. Pg. 44  sprout  Water filtration takes place in and outside the unit. Household grey-water is captured and gravity fed into a living machine system where it is pumped back to units to be used as toilet water. This blackwater is then gravity fed into a secondary living machine where it is filtered, cleaned and tested. It can then be used for irrigation or as a future source of drinking water.  Geothermal district heating This system uses the earth’s natural insulating effects by circulating air between the unit and the ground via a network of pipes. This cuts heating and cooling costs and can be installed to benefit several units in close proximity.  UBC - SCARP urban design  Kaitlin Kazmierowski Jeff Deby Andrew Merrill  agriculture and education  The CSA model  Community Shared Agriculture (CSA) is a system by which a farmer sells “shares” of their crop up front to the local community before the season starts. This provides the farmer with funds to invest in the coming season, while the local community benefits from a season’s worth of fresh food, valuable knowledge about where their food is coming from, and the practices employed in its production, as well as the chance to participate in agriculture.  Willard park  CSA is an example of true community-driven food systems, trust-building between farmer and consumer and the strong relationships which tend to form around good food.  Organic agriculture The practice of growing food in tune with nature ensures that local production enhances the environment while supporting healthy local economies. More than simply pesticide-free growing, organic agriculture embodies and makes use of the free service of nature to ensure that our food systems tread lightly upon the earth. By fostering the natural interactions between plants, animals and the environment, healthy local crops can be produced and consumed with the knowledge that their embodied energy will be returned to the soil and water, thus continuing a rich cycle of growth, sharing and stewardship. Ignatius farm photos: a successful CSA model  Education and outreach Organic agriculture is inherently educational, as its success requires the ability to constantly observe and learn from natural systems and interactions. The CSA model also provides a strong venue for education through consumer-farmer relationships and hands-on experiences. Formalizing the educational aspects of organic urban agriculture via an on-site education facility will provide a larger demographic with the opportunity to live and learn at Sprout. Participating in food production activities and workshops will allow learners of all ages to engage in their own local food systems. Kaitlin Kazmierowski Jeff Deby Andrew Merrill  UBC - SCARP urban design  sprout  Pg. 45  sprout: the city is the country  Pg. 46  sprout  UBC - SCARP urban design  Kaitlin Kazmierowski Jeff Deby Andrew Merrill  Appendices APPENDIX 1 Geothermal Energy: Efficiency and Generating Potential The size of a heat pump is measured by tonnage according to the size of the home. For example, a 5 ton unit in a 3, 600 sq. ft. (334. 5 m 2 ) home provides 62, 600 Btus of heating and 54, 700 Btus of cooling. A 2 ton unit in a 1, 500 sq. ft. (139. 4 m 2 ) home provides 22, 000 Btus of heating and 24, 000 Btus of cooling. In Vancouver the average earth energy costs per year are $225, which is a significant savings as the average electrical energy costs per year are $695 (Natural Resources Canada, 1993). Relevant Conversions 1 ton = 200 Btu/minute of energy 1 Btu /min = 0.01757 kilowatts 1 Btu = 0.0002928 kilowatt-hrs Btu = 1055.056 joules  Energy Demand Residential "central air" systems are usually from 1 to 5 tons (3 to 20 kW) in capacity while large commercial or industrial air conditioners are regulated to have a capacity between 19 kW (65,000 Btu/h or 68,575 kJ/h) and 73 kW (250,000 Btu/h or 263,750 kJ/h) (Canada Border Services Agency, 1999).  APPENDIX 2 Living Machine: Case Studies Beausoleil Solar Aquatics Living Machine  Bear River Wastewater Treatment Facility  Figure 23: Inside the Beausoleil Water Reclamation Greenhouse (Eco-Tek in GBBC, 2006)  Figure 24: Bear River Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facility (Tammemagi, 2004)  Beausoleil is the first natural sewage treatment project in BC  First natural sewage treatment facility in Canada  Location: Errington, BC Input: Septic Tank Effluent Collection: Gravity & pumped Average Flow: 38m3/day Service Area: 46 homes Hydraulic Detention Time: 2.5 days Floor Space: 210 m3 Budget: $200,000 Maintenance: $14,000 Completed: 1996  Errington community members grow bedding plants within the greenhouse space for their own use and tropical and wetland plants are sold to local nurseries.  Location: Bear River, NS Input: Sewage Filtration Collection: 12 solar tanks, solar pond, swirl separator, rotarydrum filter, UV filtration Average Flow: 68m3/day Service Area: 60-100 homes Hydraulic Detention Time: 5.3 days Floor Space: 2,400 ft2 Budget: $400,000 (cost was shared by the federal and provincial government) Maintenance: minimal Completed: 1995  Vertical Flow Recycled Wetland  Figure 25: Residential constructed wetland in Israel (Gross et al, 2007)  (A) vertical flow constructed wetland, (B) reservoir, (C) recycling pump, (D) demonstration of filter media layers (peat, turf or high surface area plastic media, and lime pebbles in top, middle and bottom layers)  This system was installed in a residential household as part of a 12 month study. Location: Midreshet Ben Gurion, Israel Input: Septic Tank Effluent Collection: Gravity & centrifuge pump Average Flow: 450L/day Service Area: 1 household (5 person) Hydraulic Detention Time: 8-24 hours Floor Space: ~ 1m x 0.5m or 500L Budget: US$600 Maintenance: US$100 Completed: 2006  Effectively removed virtually all of the suspended solids and biological oxygen demand, and about 80% of the chemical oxygen demand (Gross et al, 2007).  Urban Design Studio PLAN 587B Final Report, December 2007  Pg. 47  Appendices Generators  APPENDIX 3 - Microhydro: Estimating Generating Potential and Energy Demand Estimating Energy Demand  Before you begin assessing your generating potential, it is important to assess your energy needs. More efficient appliances, lighting, heating/cooling will reduce the power required to fulfill your base-load needs. When you are generating power you pay for capacity as well as consumption (different from on-grid), therefore fitting your system size to your needs will reduce your costs and maximize your energy use. Microhydro can be supplemented with a battery & inverter subsystem to meet demand at peak output. When assessing your energy demand it is important to divide that demand into into low grade (heating) and high grade (electricity) energy needs and to then fit the energy source to the grade (for e.g. it is more efficient to use solar power for heating than to use electricity).  Estimating Generating Potential  Continuous watts = flow (gpm) x net head ÷ 10  To assess the generating potential of your site you must estimate both the stream flow in gallons per minute (gpm) and the net head (elevation change between top and the bottom of your system MINUS (-) the friction) (Davis, 2003). ACCURACY IS ESSENTIAL. Although estimating flow can offer a general direction in selecting a generator, before installing your generator it is necessary to gather precise flow and head measurements. Step 1: Assessing Stream Flow Estimate stream flow using two methods: visual observation and the container method. Step 2: Measure Pressure To measure pressure you must measure the vertical drop that will be included in your penstock or leat (the piping distance to your generator). Most microhydro generators measure this drop in feet and the amount is equal to what the pressure gauge will read in pounds/ square inch. Accuracy in measurement is important! If you have a margin of error of over 5-10% you will not accurately assess your site’s generating potential. The most effective and simple way to measure pressure is to use the mark and pole method.  Step 3: Create a Stream Profile Document variations in your stream path (e.g. first 100’ drops 20’, second 100’ not steep, drops 16’) in this way you will identify which places are steeper and better suited for generator placement. Intake should be accessible, as most work will be done there. Step 4: Calculate Allowable Frictional Loss Rate Calculate allowable frictional loss rate – a long pipe delivers less water to your turbine than a short pipeline at the same pressure. There are standard measures of friction loss for different piping materials (Davis, 2003).  Pg. 48  Estimating Energy Demand - Calculations  One 100-watt light bulb on for an hour, is 0.1 kWh (100/1000) One 100-watt light bulb on for ten hours is 1 kWh (1 bulbs x 100W x 10h= 1000Wh = 1 kWh) Running a 3500-watt air conditioner for an hour is 3.5 kWh A typical desktop computer uses 65 watts/h 60 Watt Incandescent: kWh of electricity used over 6,000 hrs is 360 kWh 15 Watt Compact Fluorescent kWh of electricity used over 6,000 hrs is 90 kWh A modern Energy Saver Refrigerator (typical power consumption) is 1.2kWh/day = 36kWh/month An early Energy Saver Refrigerator from the late 1980’s, early 90’s (typically) is 1.8 kWh/day = 54kWh/month Older refrigerator models (typically) = 2.4 to 3.5 kWh/day = 72 to 105 kWh/month Step 1: Estimating Flow  Option 1: Visual Observation  25 letres per second  Visual observation at Willard Park led to the conclusion that the site has limited generating capacity. For this reason, only the smallest capacity microhydro generators are presented here.  Figure 29: Water Baby hydro generator (Heller, 2007)  Option 2: Container Method  Water Baby For heads under 10-12 feet Designed to work with very small flows of water. Will produce 25-300 Watts (approximate demand for an average household)  PowerPal For heads under 10-12 feet Ideal for low cost, low power generation. Will produce from 200 Watts to 1 MW  100 letres per second  Figure 30: PowerPal (Davis, 2003) 500 letres per second  LH-1000 For heads under 10-12 feet Produce power from as little as 2 feet of head Rated for 1,000 watts  Container Method  1 metre cubed per second  Figure 26: Estimating Flow through Visual Observation (HydroGeneration, 2008)  Figure 27: Estimate Flow using a Bucket (Davis, 2003)  Step 2: Measureing Pressure with the Mark and Pole Method  Figure 28: Estimate Head using Mark and Pole (Davis, 2003)  Figure 31: LH-1000 (Savoia, 2008)  Urban Design Studio PLAN 587B Final Report, December 2007  Appendices APPENDIX 4 - Crop Yields in BC When expanding agricultural productivity on the site it is worthwhile to be aware what crops are productively grown in the province. Soil quality and type will significantly impact crop selection, and for that reason soil testing on site is recommended. The data provided in Table 1 is useful, since it offers an overview of which crops are most productive in the province, which could help to inform crop selection on site. Table 2 highlights how much area of land is under cultivation for each crop being grown in the province. This is useful information as it offers an indication of which crops are in greatest demand and/or are most well adapted to the BC climate. The data used is from 2003, as this was the most recent data available for analysis at the time of this study.  Table 1: Average Crop Productivity in BC 2003 Asparagus Garlic Peas, Shelled Peas, Pod Radishes Beans Broccoli Cauliflower Corn Brussels Sprouts Peppers Zucchini Beets, Bunched Cucumbers Onions, Bunched Other Vegetables Melons Chinese Vegetables Parsley Parsnips Spinach Carrots, Bunched Carrots (Topped) Lettuce, Leaf Types Potatoes Beets, Topped Tomatoes Rhubarb Squash, Marrow, Pumpkin Cabbage, Red Cabbage, Green Lettuce, Head Celery Onions, Dry Bulb Rutabagas  Average  Table 2: Total Area Under Cultivation in BC  Area  Quantity  Value  Productivity  (Acres)  ('000 lb)  ($'000)  (lbs/acre)  240 55 2,184 108 105 2,265 982 368 2,790 515 275 125 30 240 85 321 125 235 46 51 145 245 600 500 5,641 144 187 110 755 92 531 45 33 195 131  498 184 9,218 728 716 15,450 6,840 2,923 24,376 4,763 2,590 1,197 429 3,670 1301 4,962 1,970 3,792 753 847 2,478 4,599 12,394 10,388 121,663 3,141 4,255 2,745 22,700 2,961 18,140 1741 1390 8513 6,128  994 470 2,028 868 280 5,510 3,081 1,361 4,784 1,995 1,567 644 256 2,667 644 1,920 881 1,622 1,148 682 1,690 3,597 3,061 2,806 29,053 1,137 2,289 1,437 6,784 942 4,253 1,016 400 2,117 2,169  2003  2.1 3.3 4.2 6.7 6.8 6.8 7.0 7.9 8.7 9.2 9.4 9.6 14.3 15.3 15.3 15.5 15.8 16.1 16.4 16.6 17.1 18.8 20.7 20.8 21.6 21.8 22.8 25.0 30.1 32.2 34.2 38.7 42.1 43.7 46.8  Beets, Bunched Celery Lettuce, Head Parsley Parsnips Garlic Onions, Bunched Cabbage, Red Radishes Peas, Pod Rhubarb Zucchini Melons Rutabagas Beets, Topped Spinach Tomatoes Onions, Dry Bulb Chinese Vegetables Asparagus Cucumbers Carrots, Bunched Peppers Other Vegetables Cauliflower Lettuce, Leaf Types Brussels Sprouts Cabbage, Green Carrots (Topped) Squash, Marrow, Pumpkin Broccoli Peas, Shelled Beans Corn Potatoes  18.4  Total  (Adapted from BC Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, 2003)  Urban Design Studio PLAN 587B Final Report, December 2007  Area  Quantity  Value  Productivity  (Acres)  ('000 lb)  ($'000)  (lbs/acre)  30 33 45 46 51 55 85 92 105 108 110 125 125 131 144 145 187 195 235 240 240 245 275 321 368 500 515 531 600 755 982 2,184 2,265 2,790 5,641  429 1390 1741 753 847 184 1301 2,961 716 728 2,745 1,197 1,970 6,128 3,141 2,478 4,255 8513 3,792 498 3,670 4,599 2,590 4,962 2,923 10,388 4,763 18,140 12,394 22,700 6,840 9,218 15,450 24,376 121,663  256 400 1,016 1,148 682 470 644 942 280 868 1,437 644 881 2,169 1,137 1,690 2,289 2,117 1,622 994 2,667 3,597 1,567 1,920 1,361 2,806 1,995 4,253 3,061 6,784 3,081 2,028 5,510 4,784 29,053  20,499  310,443  96,151  14.3 42.1 38.7 16.4 16.6 3.3 15.3 32.2 6.8 6.7 25.0 9.6 15.8 46.8 21.8 17.1 22.8 43.7 16.1 2.1 15.3 18.8 9.4 15.5 7.9 20.8 9.2 34.2 20.7 30.1 7.0 4.2 6.8 8.7 21.6  (Adapted from BC Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, 2003)  Pg. 49  Appendices: Discarded Options APPENDIX 5 - Humanure for Fuel: Methane Production through Anaerobic Digestion APPENDIX 6 - Wind Power Generating Potential Fuel Methane from manure is most commonly dirived from livestock waste. Anaerobic digestion can reduced odor by 97% compared to fresh manure.  Case Study: Cow Power  To achieve effective anaerobic digestion, some environmental conditions are required: • Constant temperature of 35 °C • Pump for maintaining flow • Regular addition of manure slurry (manure diluted with water) – frequency depends on the system • Significant area for the digester (approx. size of 60 fifty gallon drums for all human waste from 300 people) • Disposal method for residual scum & liquid (low/no odour, high nutrient value) • Regular maintenance 2 Types of Anaerobic Manure Digesters  1. Displacement  2. Vertical  Figure 32: Displacement and Vertical Methane Digesters (Fry, 1973)  Figure 33: Methane Generator (Pellett, 2006) Cow Power, a program of the State of Vermont, gives customers the option to pay higher rates to subsidize farm-generated, poop-powered electricity. Key Steps in Methane Generation from Cow Manure: 1. Farmers use anaerobic digesters which extract methane from cow pies and generate power using a methane generator. 2. Farmers sell the energy they produce to the electric company for 95% of the wholesale price of power plus 4 cents per kilowatt-hour. 3. Dry, soft, odourless sediment, which is the by-product of the methane extraction process, is used as bedding for cattle and sold as garden fertilizer. 4. Liquid, which is the second by-product of methane extraction, is pumped into existing manure lagoons and spread on fields as fertilizer. This liquid has quicker absorption times than unprocessed manure, less run-off and no odour (Pellett, 2006).  Power Generating Potential for the Human Waste from 300 people = 2.7 lbs per person/day = 750-1250 cubic feet of biogas/day = 25-35 KWh of electricity per day + significant heat from the engine (Results derived from Frame & Madison, 2001 and Fry, 1973) The power generating potential for human waste on the Willard Park site was not found to be sufficient to warrant establishing the necessary infrastructure or training programmes. Methane from animal waste (cow power) is suggested as a more viable option for as a power source.  Pg. 50  To accurately estimate wind power potential on any site requires systematic measurements of wind velocities at the planned turbine site for a minimum of 1 year. Since wind speeds vary by season, altitude and topography, on-site measurements are the most accurate assessment method. The wind generating potential of the Willard Park Site was estimated using the Canadian Wind Atlas. The closest Wind Observation Station to the site is located on the Annacis Island Bridge, 2.83km South-East of the site (Canadian Wind Energy Atlas, 2003). The measured wind generating potential at the Annacis Island Wind Observation Station is: • Mean Wind Speed: 2.33 (m/s) • Power Output: 0.82 kW • Energy Output: 7.21 MWh/year • Use factor: 41.11 % These values are significantly below “good” (wind speed 6.5 - 7 m/sec) and “very good” (above 7 m/sec) wind classifications as defined by the Canadian Wind Energy Association (2005). Although an accurate assessment of the Willard Park site would require on-site measurements, our class designs did not pusue wind power as an option given the low generating potential of the nearby observation station.  ^  N  2.83 km  Figure 34: Distance from Willard Park to Annacis Island Wind Observation Station  Urban Design Studio PLAN 587B Final Report, December 2007  References Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. 2006. Development and Effects of Farming in Canada. Retrieved November 12, 2007 from the World Wide Web at: http://www.agr.gc.ca/nlwis-snite/index_e.cfm?s1=pub&s2=hs_ss&page=8  Frame, Dennis and Fred Madison. 2001. Anaerobic Digestion and Methane Production... Discovery Farms: Wisconsin. Retrieved November 17, 2007 from the World Wide Web at: http://www.uwdiscoveryfarms.org/special/methanepubbw.pdf  BC Ministry of Agriculture and Lands. 2006. B.C.’s Food Self Reliance: Can B.C. Farmers Feed Our Growing Population. Retrieved November 12, 2007 from the World Wide Web at http://www.ffcf. bc.ca/PDFs%20&%20Linked%20Documents/BCfoodselfreliance.pdf  Fry, L. John. 1973. Methane Digesters For Fuel Gas and Fertilizer: With Complete Instructions For Two Working Models. Retrieved from the World Wide Web on November 17, 2007 from http://journeytoforever.org/biofuel_library/MethaneDigesters/MD3.html  BC Ministry of Agriculture and Lands. 2003. Agriculture Statistics: British Columbia Vegetable Production Quantities and Values. Retrieved November 15, 2007 from the World Wide Web: http://www.agf.gov.bc.ca/stats/vegetables/33-03.htm  Gross, A., O. Shmueli, Z. Ronen, and E. Raveh. 2007. Recycled vertical flow constructed wetland (RVFCW)—a novel method of recycling greywater for irrigation in small communities and households. Chemosphere, Vol. 66, pp.916–923. Hester, Randolph T. 2006. Design for Ecological Democracy. Cambridge Massachusetts: the MIT Press.  Bomke, Art, Associate Professor, Agroecology UBC. 2007, November 19. Personal Interview. Canada Border Services Agency. 1999. Amendments to the Energy Efficiency Regulations, Effective December 31, 1998, Retrieved November 10, 2007 from the World Wide Web at: http://cbsa-asfc.gc.ca/publications/cn-ad/cn270-eng.html) Canadian Wind Energy Association. 2005. Submission to the Ontario Power Authority’s Supply Mix Consultation. Retrieved November 1, 2007 from the World Wide Web at: http://www.canwea.ca/images/uploads/File/Wind_Energy_Policy/OPA_Supply_Mix_Consulta tion_-_Final_Submission.pdf Canadian Wind Energy Atlas. 2003. Maps. Retrieved November 1, 2007 from the World Wide Web at: http://www.windatlas.ca/en/maps.php Chan, Kai M., M. Rebecca Shaw, David R. Cameron, Emma C. Underwood, and Gretchen C. Daily. 2006. Conservation Planning for Ecosystem Services. PLoS Biology, Vol. 4, No. 11, pp. 2138-2152. Composting Council of Canada. 2007. COMPOST! The Natural Way To Recycle. Retrieved November 1, 2007 from the World Wide Web at: http://www.compost.org/natural.html CSIRO Materials Science & Engineering. 2007. Sustainable Built Environment: Embodied Energy. Retrieved October 25, 2007 from the World Wide Web at: http://www.cmmt.csiro.au/brochures/tech/embodied/index.cfm Davis, Scott. 2003. Microhydro : clean power from water. Gabriola Island, B.C. : New Society Publishers. Ecological Society of America. 2000. Ecosystem Services: A Primer. Reprinted in Action Bioscience, Summer 2000. Retrieved January 15, 2008 from the World Wide Web at http://www.actionbioscience.org/environment/esa.html  Holgren, David. 2002. Permaculture: Principles & Pathways Beyond Sustainability. Victoria, Australia: Holmgren Design Services. NRCAN (Natural Resources Canada). 2005. Historical Database, OEE, from Energy Efficiency for Homeowners by the Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources BC. Natural Resources Canada. 2004. Ground Source Heat Pumps – Heating and Cooling your Home from the Ground Up. Retrieved October 25, 2007 from the World Wide Web at: http://www.canren.gc.ca/prod_serv/index.asp?CaId=150&PgId=769 Natural Resources Canada. 1993. Technologies & Applications: Saving money with Earthen Energy. Retrieved October 25, 2007 from the World Wide Web at: http://www.canren.gc.ca/tech_appl/index.asp?CaID=3&PgID=337 New Energy. 2007. Photovoltaic Solar Energy. Retrieved October 26, 2007 from the World Wide Web at: http://www.newenergy.org/sesci/publications/pamphlets/photovoltaic.html Punter, John. 2007. Developing Urban Design as Public Policy: Best Practice Principles for Design Review and Development Management. Journal of Urban Design, Vol. 12, No. 2, pp.167-202. Saving Electricity. 2007. What the heck is a kilowatt hour? Retrieved December 10, 2007 from the World Wide Web at: http://michaelbluejay.com/electricity/cost.html Todd, Nancy Jack and John Todd. 1993. From Eco-Cities to Living Machines: Principles of Ecological Design. Berkeley, California: North Atlantic Books. U.S. Department of Transportation. 2007. Federal Highway Administration: Traffic Noise. Retrieved October 25, 2007 from the World Wide Web at: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/htnoise.htm  Urban Design Studio PLAN 587B Final Report, December 2007  Pg. 51  References Figure References  Figure 1: Willard Park Site Map. Fix, Jennifer, Bronwyn Jarvis and Chani Joseph. 2007. Fenwick Village Design. Urban Design Studio (PLAN 587B) Final Report.  Figure 14: GreenSpec, 2006. Evacuated Tube Collector. Retrieved November 25, 2007 from the World Wide Web at http://www.greenspec.co.uk/html/energy/solarcollectors.html  Figure 2: Sidewalk runnel in Freiburg Germany. Humberd, Jim and Emmy. 2008. Street with a runnel. Retrieved February 1, 2008 from the World Wide Web at http://www.travel-tidbits.com/tidbits/002670.shtml  Figure 15: Sun Frost. 2004. Composting Toilet vs. Conventional Sewage System. Retrieved November 25, 2007 from the World Wide Web at http://www.sunfrost.com/images/compost_toilet.jpg  Figure 3: Interdependent Adjacencies in Action - basketball court example. Hester, Randolph T. 2006. Design for Ecological Democracy. Cambridge Massachusetts: the MIT Press. Figure 4: Glasgow pedestrian mall, Scotland UK. Glor-Bell, Jeca. 2007. Figure 5: Shavin House in Chattanooga, TN designed by Frank Lloyd Wright. Retrieved December 6, 2007 from the World Wide Web at bbs.keyhole.com/ubb/download.php?Number=841496 Figure 6: Adaptations for Yoshino flooding. Hester, Randolph T. 2006. Design for Ecological Democracy. Cambridge Massachusetts: the MIT Press. Figure 7: Tate Modern Art Gallery, London, GB. Kevin Picasa Web Gallery. Retrieved December 6, 2007 from the World Wide Web at http://picasaweb.google.com/khartma1/LondonEngland/photo#5075757586507734674  Figure 17: Heller, Frank J. 2007. Water Baby hydro generator. Retrived November 10, 2007 from the World Wide Web at: http://alternativeenergy.meetup.com/215/messages/boards/view/viewthread?thread=3740187 Figure 18: SolarDepot. 2007. UniSolar Roof Shingles. Retrieved December 2, 2007 from the World Wide Web at http://www.solardepot.com/dealer-gallery/UniSolarRoof%20Shingles.jpg Figure 19: Process of Bilogical Filtration. Todd, Nancy Jack and John Todd. 1993. From Eco-Cities to Living Machines: Principles of Ecological Design. Berkeley, California: North Atlantic Books. Figure 20: Living Machines. Todd, Nancy Jack and John Todd. 1993. From Eco-Cities to Living Machines: Principles of Ecological Design. Berkeley, California: North Atlantic Books. Figure 21: Greywater filtration using a Leaching Pit.  Figure 8: Catskill Mountains provide clean water to New York City. Keeley, 2006. Retrieved January 15, 2008 from the World Wide Web at http://tunlaw.org/upstream/index.html Figure 9: Natural forest succession is a modes self-regulation in nature. Alaska Region, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Serivice. 2007. Role of Fire in Alaska. Retrieved November 1, 2007 from the World Wide Web at http://alaska.fws.gov/fire/role/unit1/boreal_forest_succession.cfm Figure 10: Horizontal and Vertical Geothermal Heating Systems. Figure 11: Cornell University. 2006. Combustion Turbine with Heat Recovery Steam Generator. Retrieved November 15, 2007 from the World Wide Web at: http://www.utilities.cornell.edu/utl_cchp_how_graphic.html#plant Figure 12: City of Richmond. 2007. Home Composting. Retrieved November 1, 2007 from the World Wide Web at: http://www.richmond.ca/services/recycling/composting/compost.htm Figure 13: Olson, Ken. 2001. Solar Water: A Primer from The Arizona Solar Center Retrieved June 10, 2007 from the World Wide Web at http://www.azsolarcenter.com/technology/solarh20.html  Pg. 52  Figure 16: Micro-hydro Generation  Figure 22: Dan’s Public Gallery. 2007. Greywater filtration using a constructed wetland. Retrieved November 25, 2007 at http://lh3.google.com/danielrosen928/RoB6WVatOII/AAAAAAAAAJc/dHdltXRef_I/extra3.jpg?imgdl=1 Figure 23: Eco-Tek in Green Buildings BC (GBBC). 2006. Inside the Beausoleil Water Reclamation Greenhouse. Green Buildings in British Columbia Case Study Series. Retrieved November 25, 2007 from the World Wide Web at http://www.greenbuildingsbc.com/Home/NewBuildings/WhatisaGreenBuilding/BCCaseStudies.aspx Figure 24: Tammemagi, Hans. 2004. Bear River Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facility. Retrieved November 20, 2007 from the World Wide Web at: http://www.esemag.com/0904/bearriver.html Figure 25: Residential constructed wetland in Israel from Gross, A., O. Shmueli, Z. Ronen, and E. Raveh. 2007. Recycled vertical flow constructed wetland (RVFCW)—a novel method of recycling greywater for irrigation in small communities and households. Chemosphere, Vol. 66, pp.916–923. Figure 26: HydroGeneration. 2008. Estimating Flow through Visual Observation. Retrieved from the World Wide Web on January 12, 2008 from http://www.hydrogeneration.co.uk/estimating.htm  Urban Design Studio PLAN 587B Final Report, December 2007  References Figure 27: Estimating Flow Using a Bucket. Davis, Scott. 2003. Microhydro : clean power from water. Gabriola Island, B.C. : New Society Publishers. Figure 28: Estimate Head using Mark and Pole. Davis, Scott. 2003. Microhydro : clean power from water. Gabriola Island, B.C. : New Society Publishers. Figure 29: Heller, Frank J. 2007. Water Baby hydro generator. Retrived November 10, 2007 from the World Wide Web at: http://alternativeenergy.meetup.com/215/messages/boards/view/viewthread?thread=3740187 Figure 30: PowerPal. Davis, Scott. 2003. Microhydro : clean power from water. Gabriola Island, B.C. : New Society Publishers. Figure 31: Savoia Renewable Equipment. 2008. LH-1000. Retrived from the World Wide Web on January 12, 2008 from http://www.savoiapower.com/grupos3-en.html Figure 32: Displacement and Vertical Methane Digesters. Fry, L. John. 1973. Methane Digesters For Fuel Gas and Fertilizer: With Complete Instructions For Two Working Models. Retrieved from the World Wide Web on November 17, 2007 from http://journeytoforever.org/biofuel_library/MethaneDigesters/MD3.html Figure 33: Methane Generator. Pellett, Alden. in Martha T. Moore. 2006, December 3. Cows Power Plan for Alternative Fuel. USA Today. Retrieved November 18, 2007 from the world Wide Web at: http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2006-12-03-cow-power_x.htm Figure 34: Distance from Willard Park to Annacis Island Wind Observation Station  Urban Design Studio PLAN 587B Final Report, December 2007  Pg. 53  

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