UBC Graduate Research

Shadowing as an effective learning tool Sheppard, Chelsea; Todhunter, Natasha; Redfearn, Kjersti; Mercado, Melissa 2011-08

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SHADOWING AS AN EFFECTIVE LEARNING TOOL Chelsea Sheppard, Natasha Todhunter, Kjersti Redfearn, Melissa Mercado The Team ? Chelsea Sheppard - MPT Student ? Natasha Todhunter - MPT Student ? Kjersti Redfearn - MPT Student ? Melissa Mercado - MPT Student ? Lesley Bainbridge ? Assistant Professor (Department of Physical Therapy), Director, Interprofessional Education (Faculty of Medicine) & Associate Principal (College of Health Disciplines) Shadowing  ?a work experience option where students learn about a job by walking through the workday as a shadow to a competent worker. It is a temporary, unpaid exposure to the workplace in an occupational area of interest to the student. Job shadowing is designed to increase career awareness, model student behaviour through examples and reinforce in the student link between classroom learning and work requirements? Cho, C. & Gao, F. (2009) Literature Support ? Studies examining shadowing in medical students, high school students and nursing, dentistry and library cataloging revealed that shadowing: ? Is a beneficial learning tool ? Increases student knowledge and awareness ? Eliminates misperceptions  Student Experiences ?I had no idea that physio?s even worked in ICU, so it exposed me to a field of physio that I was completely unaware of.  It was great to get the exposure so early on in a low stress environment where there was no expectations other than to watch.  It really helped to have a context to put future knowledge into?  ?it was good to experience a ?physio? setting and learn what it may be like for placement. I found that everyone?s experience varied depending on where they were placed for shadowing?  ?I found that my shadow placement was only useful in helping me realize what type of role I do not want to be in as a physiotherapist.  In that sense it was helpful. Other than that, I don?t feel the shadow placement was a helpful tool in the physio program and I don?t think it should be a mandatory part of the program?     What is a model?  ?Systematic guidelines instructional designers follow in order to create a workshop, course, curriculum, instructional program, or a training session   Such models state what should happen during instructions, what kinds activities teachers and learners are involved in?      Shambaugh, N., & Magliaro, S. G. (2005).  Structured models & Learning ? Allows preceptors to be better informed ? Outlines key characteristics ? Students & preceptors learning objectives stated allowing both to be better prepared ? Less variability in students? learning outcomes ? Emphasizes the importance of collaboration & support between preceptors, health care agencies, students UBC?s Current Scheme ? Students: a short presentation on responsibilities, general objectives, and assignment outlines  ? Preceptors: 2 page document regarding the objectives of the placement, the students? objectives, and the students? assignments Our Objective ? Identify areas of improvement in the current UBC MPT shadow program ? Develop a preliminary model that guides planning and implementation ? This model is meant to serve as a tool to improve the quality of the UBC MPT shadowing program Study Design  Phase 1a: Literature Review of existing models Phase 1b: Creation & administration of survey to current MPT students Phase 2: -Interviews of representatives from identified stakeholders -Analysis of interviews to identify themes and concepts Phase 3: Creation of a preliminary model of  Shadowing for UBC MPT program Ethics  ? This study was reviewed and approved by the UBC Behavioural Research Ethics Board  Participants/Inclusion Criteria ?There were no restrictions to age, gender, or ethnicity ?All participants were informed of the study details and agreed to participate ? Convenience sample from group of consenting and included individuals from all three groups  ? Exact number of participants were not predetermined ? Interviewed individuals from each group until point of saturation ? Saturation: the point where new information is no longer being shared and one hears the same points and statements shared repeatedly  Sampling Sample Size Recruitment Strategies ? Following initial recruitment method all groups were given a letter of intent to participate  Data Collection: Tools to be used ? Semi Structured Survey ? Guided Interviews  Semi Structured Survey ? Included both quantitative and qualitative questions ? Developed and administered to all MPT students ? To aid in the identification of the strengths and weaknesses  of UBC?s current shadowing scheme Interviews ? Allowed researchers to gain another?s perspective ? Gained more specific and in-depth information ? Allowed for key stakeholders to share their thoughts and feelings of the issues surrounding shadowing and the current model Data Collection   Phase 1b   Electronic survey provided to  Current UBC MPT Students          Phase 2  Using information  from phase 1:  1. Guided interviews        of current UBC MPT  students    2. Guided interviews of preceptors   Data Analysis ? Phase 1 ? Round table discussion to analyse survey responses ? Phase 2 ? Transcription of audio recorded interviews ? Round table discussion to identify themes from interviews Survey Findings Survey Findings Survey Findings Survey Findings ? Themes identified from open-ended question ? Exposure to the physical therapy practice ? Exposure to the hospital setting ? Structure ? Bridging the gap from classroom knowledge to practice ? Solidify and acquire knowledge ? Transition from classroom to placement Interview Findings: Students ? Themes identified from interview analysis: ? Preparation ? Exposure to Practice ?Qualities of a Preceptor ? Structure of the Placement Interview Findings: Preceptor ? Themes identified from interview analysis: ? Clear Information ? Environment ? Reflections on self and profession ? Structure ? Facilitators/Barriers Our Model Discussion/Recommendations Discussion/Recommendations Limitations ? No UBC faculty involvement in creation or design of model ? Small sample size of students and preceptors ? Varying years since participation of preceptors with the shadow placements Future Directions ? Test model with future UBC MPT students to address dependability and effectiveness ? Further develop model to include all stakeholders (students, preceptors, and faculty) ? Advance model?s scope in order for translation and application into other health care disciplines 


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