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Green technology in Vancouver : demonstrated strengths & industry challenges Rup, Jeetesh; Vancouver Economic Development Commission Jun 30, 2009

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Green TechnoloGyVancouver Economic Development Commission  |  British Columbia, Canadain vancouver: DemonstrateD strengths & inDustry challengesInDUSTry ProFIle » Green Tech2ContentsintroDuction/overall Project BackgrounDi.  .................. 3the veDc & an economic Development strategy for the city of vancouver ............................. 3Project Background ............................................................................................................ 3Purpose of the study ........................................................................................................... 3spatial map ........................................................................................................................ 3methoDology anD challengesii.  ........................................ 4methodology ....................................................................................................................... 4challenges ......................................................................................................................... 4green technology in the lower mainlanDiii.  .................... 5hydrogen & Fuel cells  ........................................................................................................ 6renewable energy: wind and water energy conversion ........................................................ 7Battery storage technologies .............................................................................................. 8Biomass conversion ............................................................................................................ 8green Buildings .................................................................................................................. 9sustainable urban Planning .............................................................................................. 10energy management & conservation technologies  ............................................................ 11green roofs  ..................................................................................................................... 12environmental technologies .............................................................................................. 12summary oF FinDingsiv.  .................................................... 13Green TechnoloGy in VancouVer:DemonstrateD strengths & inDustry challengesJune 2009By Jeetesh Rup (B.A., J.D., M.B.A.)Report produced for the Vancouver Economic Development CommissionProject Supervisors: Jonathan Kassian, Vancouver Economic Development Commission, and Dr. James Tansey, Centre for Sustainability and Social Innovation, Sauder School of Business, University of British Columbia.VEDCSuite 1620 - 1075 West Georgia StreetVancouver, BC   CanadaToll Free: 1 866 632 9668www.vancouvereconomic.comWe acknowledge the financial support of the Province of British Columbia through the Ministry of Small Business, Technology and Economic Development and the NCE Program and NSERC provided via the Industrial Research & Development Internship Program Fund.This project was undertaken in conjunction with the Centre for Sustainability and Social Innovation, Sauder School of Business, University of British Columbia.InDUSTry ProFIle » Green Tech3introDuction/overall Project i. BackgrounDthe veDc & an economic Development strategy for the city of vancouverThe Vancouver Economic Development Commission is currently in the process of developing an Economic Development Strategy (EDS) for the City of Vancouver. This report has been commissioned as background research as part of the EDS project. Further information is available at  http://www.vancouvereconomic.com/page/economic-development-strategy.Project BackgroundThe City of Vancouver is known as an environmentally progressive municipality. However, Vancouver’s strongly-held environmental beliefs have not yet translated into the ‘take- off’ of our green technology industry (see Appendix A for discussion on defining “Green Technology”). Environmental technology, green buildings, clean energy technology and power management technology are all small but growing sectors globally. Vancouver has a large number of innovative firms in a variety of sectors, many of which are world leaders in their field.It has been recognized that the city’s small domestic market creates an added challenge for firms in an industry that already faces an uphill battle. Building the local market for these technologies could benefit firms trying to get a foothold in an emerging global market, particularly in demonstrating and/or marketing the effectiveness of individual components or entire suites of solutions. While there is no clear evidence that Vancouver’s green technology industry is any more regulated than in other regions, it is still very important that, in our small market, we overcome any barriers that do exist so that our companies can demonstrate their technology. Building the local Vancouver market for green technology will require several steps, including bringing the industry together to articulate a long-term strategy, fostering cooperation in a competitive environment, and possibly modifying by-laws, building codes and standards.However, in order to bring about such changes, it is first necessary to have an understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of the industry. Unfortunately, such a full understanding does not exist. While there are companies and projects that are active in the Vancouver market, there is no master list that can provide such information. Further, there is no clear understanding of what the actual barriers, gaps or opportunities relating to the sector are. Purpose of the studyThe purpose of this study is to provide the foundations for understanding what role Vancouver’s municipal government can play in building a local market for green technology. This study attempts to establish the foundations of that understanding by identifying:the industry: the companies and the technologies they 1. have deployedthe strengths of and areas that need improvement in the 2. industry, andthe municipal and regulatory barriers that industry sectors 3. face in deploying technologyspatial mapAccompanying this report are two spatial maps:A map of ›› green technology projects in and near the Lower Mainland that provides the user with an easily-accessible interface to obtain details about technologies and technology providers that have projects in the region, including links to the projects and firms where applicableA map of ›› green technology companies in and near the Lower Mainland that allows the user to quickly locate relevant providers, with links to the companies where applicableAdditions to either list are welcome, inquiries and additions can be made by contacting info@vancouvereconomic.com with the subject line “Green Technology Map”.pHoTo: SnApSHoT oF GREEn TECHnoLoGY MApInDUSTry ProFIle » Green Tech4methoDology anD challengesii. methodologyThe first step was to compile a list of companies from available industry and sector reports and association membership lists.1 The compiled list of companies can be found in Appendix B. These companies were then solicited for information regarding deployment of their technology locally. The second step was to identify green projects and buildings through research. Then, an effort was made to determine the type of technology installed in those projects or buildings from building operators, architects, engineers, and any other relevant resources. A list of all projects and deployed technologies can be found in Appendix c. The companies and the projects of deployed of technology were then each mapped separately. These two maps are companion pieces to this report.At all times the focus was on local companies deploying technologies locally. While there was a focus on the dense Metro core area of the City of Vancouver, where many high-profile demonstration projects and green buildings are located, projects across the Lower Mainland and a select few beyond were also included. This made the most sense for the Vancouver region, which despite having a large number of individual municipalities is a regional economy.The exploration of municipal and regulatory barriers proceeded in two phases. The first phase involved a desk-based review of barriers that have been identified by other studies. This included an analysis of academic, industry, and sector based reports as well as newspaper articles. The second phase involved contacting companies with known deployed technologies within the sector and asking them to identify the barriers they faced. The next logical step in this study is to establish a series of roundtable events with the industry.challengesIdentifying the CompaniesA significant challenge in identifying the companies (and their technologies) was the expansive scope and compressed time frame for the project. Because of the large number of emerging companies, shifting business models (more providers “going green”), rapidly-changing industry, and quick push to deploy technologies before the 2010 olympics, there may be some projects or companies that were missed. Also, with the rapid arrival of the olympics in the region, companies are much more focused on delivery than on networking and communications, which meant that opportunities for in-depth contact with many companies was limited.1 Including: BC Technology Industry Association, the Biodiesel Association of Canada, Canadian Wind Energy Association, Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Canada, GeoExchange BC, Independent Power Producers of BC, National Research Council of Canada, Ocean Renewable Energy Group, Sustainable Technology Development Canada, and Vancouver Fuel Cell Vehicle Program.Identifying Deployed TechnologyThe goal of identifying technologies that have been deployed posed a greater challenge. Technology companies were generally very eager to provide information about their technology and where it had been deployed, as the showcase opportunity of the map provided an incentive. Those deploying their technology for the first time or still in the process of finding a demonstration project were even more eager to provide their time and information. However, not all companies who were contacted made an effort to respond.Working backwards from green buildings and green projects to identify local companies and technology deployed proved very difficult. The most readily available documentation focuses on efficiency factors and/or results, but such documentation neither provided information with regard to the actual type of technology nor identified which companies provided the technology. Contacting building operators directly was problematic, as they generally did not know where to find the specific information. In the process, one would get passed onto several different people until someone either recommended contacting the architect or engaged in various stall tactics to get out of having to find the information. Finally, the engineers and architects were contacted.  While they appeared to possess the information or knew how to access it, it became apparent that it would be too taxing to produce this information without revenue in return.The challenges faced in the process of working backwards from projects to technology and companies reveal that information must be gathered either during the construction or implementation of technology. While companies whose technology was implemented are willing to provide the information, the actual names of the companies are often the missing link. once a building or project is completed, the memory of the specific project details disappears.Identifying Municipal & Regulatory BarriersThe research on barriers was significantly constrained by time. The challenges in identifying the companies and pHoTo: BALLARDInDUSTry ProFIle » Green Tech5technology deployed meant that more time was spent on creating those inventories. Unfortunately this meant that truly comprehensive research on the barriers could not be completed within the project period. Another challenge was that while many companies were quick to provide general barriers, very few were capable of providing the specific information sought. The best example is that some would identify ‘zoning bylaws’ as a problem. However, when called upon to provide exactly what the barrier or obstacle was, a specific answer was rarely provided. The inability to elicit specifics from companies may be revealing in itself in that it is possible that various barriers may not even exist. They may instead be perceptual or may not actually be a code or regulatory barrier at all.green technology in the lower iii. mainlanDVancouver’s reputation as a green city on the global stage has helped make it a centre for research and innovation across the broad spectrum of the green technology industry. British Columbia’s vast resources also create a strong foundation for this kind of activity within the province, from site remediation to bioenergy. Vancouver also acts as a business hub for head offices of companies that carry out their activities elsewhere in the province. numerous academic institutions, industry associations, and government programs within the Lower Mainland provide further support for the industry. While the region is the natural breeding ground for green technology companies, the province was not a major location for technology installations until very recently.The surge in deployed projects within the region is a result of several factors including government policy, the economic environment, and general awareness of the importance of the industry. Many of the deployed technologies occur in areas where there are few bylaws that address those types of technologies specifically. These first-time projects therefore face municipal and regulatory barriers because of the lack of familiarity and experience at the various government levels. Companies implementing these projects bear the burden of ‘proof of concept’ and the added costs associated with delays in the approval process. While the lack of familiarity with these technologies at the governmental levels has slowed deployment, governmental bodies will gain experience that will speed the process for future projects.Another common barrier for the deployment of green technology is the notion of risk and liability. Municipalities especially are averse to the adoption of new technologies or make requirements that may hinder deployment for fear of liabilities that may result from any risks taken. public opposition to some types of technology, especially in urban settings, can become politically charged topics that sometimes hinder the adoption or deployment of technology. The politicization in some sectors is so pronounced that companies start by looking elsewhere to deploy their first projects.An overarching issue is that a great number of the municipal and regulatory codes and by-laws identified are prescriptive and structural. While they are in place to reach a certain level of performance, the actual codes and bylaws are not performance-based. This means that industry is restricted from innovating to reach the same goals. However, local authorities have consistently indicated a willingness to exempt industry from code violations to accommodate technologies that achieve mandated performance goals. This means that the barriers identified may only be a matter of perception. Companies facing barriers, if they go far enough along in the process, will in most part find municipalities like the City of Vancouver to be flexible in adapting codes and bylaws to accommodate new technologies. But from an industry perspective, years of obstacles to projects at the municipal level has led firms to look to other jurisdictions that are perceived as more “business friendly” to implement their projects. Some respondents indicated that the biggest code barriers concerned not implementing technology, but basic permitting that would be faced in the course of any development.Market and economic barriers remain the biggest obstacles for companies in the deployment of green technology. Different sectors have discrete market issues, but one common challenge that permeates them all is the lack of incentives for developers and the general public to adopt and implement technology. The relatively low cost of energy in British Columbia makes alternative energy sources and more efficient technologies relatively less competitive. While companies do face municipal and regulatory barriers, the general consensus is that if one wants to adopt technology, one can in most circumstances do so. However, the relatively low cost of energy in British Columbia provides little incentive for companies to expend the additional effort necessary to overcome the barriers that do exist. The greatest challenge therefore is the lack of incentive.pHoTo: VAnCoUVER ConVEnTIon CEnTREInDUSTry ProFIle » Green Tech6In recent years there has been recognition that the deployment of technologies provides a crucial demonstration function. Since the Lower Mainland’s market is too small to support the widespread commercial sales necessary to sustain companies, these companies need opportunities to prove the viability of their technologies to potential clients or investors. This identification of the Lower Mainland’s role as a demonstration zone, combined with the global showcase opportunity provided by the 2010 olympic and paralympic Games, has created an incentive and an impetus for companies to overcome barriers to limited-scale deployment within the region.hydrogen & Fuel cells Hydrogen & Fuel Cells refers to the conversion of natural gas, methanol or hydrogen into electricity. Much of the development in this sector focuses on efforts by the automobile industry to replace dependency on oil, especially in the context of declining conventional oil supplies, climate change and local air pollution. The BC Hydrogen Highway represents British Columbia’s first significant set of deployed technology in this sector in vehicles, refuelling facilities and hydrogen collection and production facilities. The Integrated Waste Hydrogen Utilization project makes use of captured hydrogen from a vented waste stream in north Vancouver while hydrogen is produced by electrolysis in Surrey.Despite the heavy focus on the automobile sector, fuel cells also have stationary applications for producing energy. The EasyWash Car Wash (see text box) in north Vancouver is a novel example of the use of fuel cells and waste hydrogen in such a stationary application.While deployment of hydrogen and fuel cell technology is increasing, demonstration projects in this sector are a relatively recent phenomenon. Historically, the sector’s strength in the Lower Mainland and Vancouver has been research expertise, making Vancouver the global research hub for fuel cell technology. Led by Ballard power Systems, British Columbia is home to several world-leading research organizations and companies in fuel cell and related technologies.2 Fuel Cells Canada is a BC-based cluster that combines corporate research and development and government programming with respect to fuel cells. Both the national Research Council Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation and the Clean Energy Research Centre are based out of the University of British Columbia’s point Grey campus. The Lower Mainland also boasts upwards of twenty local companies that have leading technologies including micro hydrogen and proton exchange membrane fuel cells, hydrogen supply, humidification products for fuel cell systems, hydrogen fuelling, and magnesium-air fuel cells.This sector faces relatively few municipal or regulatory barriers. The most significant barriers facing the fuel-cell sector remain market and infrastructure barriers. There is a considerable cost disadvantage of fuel cells and hydrogen storage and distribution against established alternatives in the market. Cost issues include materials, hydrogen transport, storage and compression, and volume manufacturing, as well as the cost of implementing fuelling infrastructure along a transportation route. However, the BC Hydrogen Highway will be an important for finding solutions to the various infrastructure and market barriers that permeate this sector.The BC Hydrogen Highway has set the stage for fuel cell demonstration within the Lower Mainland and the world. BC’s Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Strategy envisions BC as the world’s pre-eminent hydrogen economy by 2020. Moving into the future, British Columbia’s Lower Mainland could become 2 http://www.wd-deo.gc.ca/eng/4838.asp Un-Mapped›projectsnot all applications of fuel cell technology are map-friendly. The following is a list of projects within this sector that do not appear on the map that accompanies this report. Ballard Power Systems has teamed up with Bc • Transit, the provincial government and others to champion the world’s first hydrogen hybrid fuel cell bus fleet for urban mass transit in revenue service. This project will operate a fleet of twenty buses to demonstrate the integration of fuel cell buses into the regular operational services of an urban transit system.Westport Innovations and Sacre-Davey have a similar • project in Port coquitlam with heavy-Duty hydrogen and compressed natural Gas (hcnG) transit buses.In north Vancouver, Sacre-Davey is working with • Powertech labs to convert eight light-duty GMc Sierra Trucks to run on hcnG in modified combustion engines.The Vancouver Fuel cell Vehicle Program with Ford • Motor company will use state-of-the-art Ford Focus Fuel cell Vehicles for real daily driving conditions as part of a three-year hydrogen fuel technology demonstration program.project›HigHligHt:easyWasH›car›WasH›(nortH›VancoUVer)The easyWash car Wash demonstrates the use of hydrogen and fuel cell technology in an application outside vehicles and fuelling.  In an attempt to reduce water consumption, the car wash treats and filters water sourced from 180 foot water well and uses this water to wash cars. A 150KW combined heat and power fuel cell produces enough electricity to power the site and heat the water that is used to wash car. Any extra energy produced is sent to the Bc hydro power grid. This is currently one of the largest net metering projects. The type of fuel cell installed at easyWash is modular and space efficient and can be used for residential, commercial, and other applications. easyWash is part of the Integrated Waste hydrogen Utilization Project (IWhUP) and uses waste hydrogen from north Vancouver.InDUSTry ProFIle » Green Tech7a global centre for fuel-cell development, demonstration, and commercialization as fuel cells move from an emerging technology to a commercial electrical power product.Renewable Energy: Solar TechnologySolar Technology refers to the capture and use of energy from the sun, usually in the form of photovoltaic panels or solar tubes. Solar technologies are probably the most widely-deployed green technology within the Lower Mainland. The main applications have been for non-electricity passive solar applications for space and water heating. However, the British Columbia Institute of Technology has several projects that demonstrate the possibility for the use of solar beyond this narrow scope (see text box).Local companies engage in the production and sale of solar modules, controls, specialized water pumps, and solar lighting systems. Because of the highly commercialized nature of this sector, there are a string of companies that focus on innovation, research and development, while a separate group of companies specialize in the sales of solar technology of both local and foreign companies. Xantrex Technology and Day4 Energy are good examples of local solar product manufacturers while Vancouver Renewable Energy Co-op and Taylor Munro Energy Systems are prominent sales and installation companies. Vancouver’s solar sector is characterized by more sales and installation companies than research, development, and manufacturing companies. The municipal and regulatory barriers for the deployment of solar technologies are minimal. Solar panels and systems can generally be installed on demand. The most significant technical barrier identified by the industry relates to inconsistent engineering standards and interconnection guidelines. nonetheless, solar technologies have yet to be installed in a significant percentage of homes, largely due to cost barriers. While the low cost of energy in BC is a barrier, local companies, such as Day4Energy, are innovating to reduce the costs associated with solar panel production.Solar is a variable-energy resource, providing electricity only when the sun shines. The low level of sun the Lower Mainland receives compared to regions in the United States down south is another barrier. This increases the length of time it takes to recover initial capital costs, but also means that the weather requires grid-tied solar electric systems as opposed to off-grid systems, having the grid as a back-up when there is insufficient solar-produced electricity. Advancement in battery storage technologies and capabilities would significantly reduce the need for grid-tied systems. Despite these limitations, solar power is a strong area in terms of technology deployment in the Lower Mainland.renewable energy: wind and water energy conversionWind and water energy conversion refers to the capture of energy from oceans, rivers, and wind. British Columbia’s Bcit’s›applications›of›solar›tecHnologyThe British columbia Institute of Technology is a leading researcher and installer of solar technologies. The deployed technology is different from conventional uses of solar technology for heat and water purposes. There are four grid-tied PV systems on the BcIT Burnaby campus.  Three are grid-connected Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) systems that act as mini power plants.  There is a 2 kW array on the home 2000, a 3 kW array on the Discovery Parks – Technology Place building, and 1KW array on the Institute’s Technology centre (ne25). The fourth System is a 15-meter tall Power Tower with two kilowatts of rainbow-coloured solar cells that provides an ideal base for research and training.  BcIT also has a Solar canopy System that brings daylight inside multi-floor buildings, slashing electricity needs and green house gas emissions.geographic make-up of mountains, rivers, strong tidal currents, offshore waves, and rich wind corridors provides the natural environmental for companies within this sector to both deploy and test their technologies. Despite the general strength of demonstration projects in this sector throughout BC, much of the deployment of wind and water technologies has occurred outside the Lower Mainland. This is hardly surprising because these types of technologies are generally located outside of urban centres. There are a number of deployed run-of-the-river projects outside the Lower Mainland, while wind turbine deployment has yet to find an operational industrial-scale project in the province. Those wind projects that are under construction are stand-alone turbines. While these projects represent useful demonstrations, it would take large-scale wind-farms to generate any significant amount of power.Even so, the sector has a strong business presence within the Lower Mainland. Vancouver is increasingly becoming the business centre for the renewable energy sector. The region boasts upwards of 35 companies, all of whom only have projects outside the Lower Mainland. The hydroelectric energy sub-sector is stronger than the wind energy sub-sector in terms of number of both local companies and project›HigHligHt:Wind›tUrBine›installation›at›groUseThe construction of a single wind turbine on Grouse Mountain is slated to be complete in August 2009. The turbine will reach 65 meters high and consist of 37.5 meter blades with the final result being an operating power generator producing 2,000,000kw. The wind turbine will generate 20 percent of Grouse Mountain’s electricity needs. The turbine represents British columbia’s first viable wind energy solution. The project was approved in october 2008, after Grouse Mountain conducted three years of study and followed the prescribed application process set out by the north Vancouver District. none of the components for the wind turbine were sourced locally.InDUSTry ProFIle » Green Tech8projects deployed. More than 25 companies specialize in hydroelectric energy technologies while more than ten specialize in wind energy technologies.Wind- and water-based renewable energy technologies face a multitude of regulatory barriers. projects are often located on remote Crown lands, requiring the use of rivers or waters that entails extensive Environmental Assessment processes. Recently, the BC government published a Guidebook on the extensive permitting and public consultation process for wind and water projects. The guidebook highlights the technical, commercial, and permitting requirements that these types of projects must meet to successfully deploy technology within the sector.The barriers for this sector are even higher in urban settings. While wind projects are somewhat better suited for urban settings than water projects, restrictions on height and size of collectors and sounds of spinning blades are all obstacles to wind-turbine projects. Further, the revenue stream does not exist in most circumstances to justify the costs for the adoption of these technologies at a large scale because of the cheap cost of electricity in BC. The use of wind and especially water energy within the province is also a significant political issue because most large-scale projects require a connection to the publicly-owned and regulated grid and distribution system. Wind and water energy producers have one truly viable client: the provincial utility, BC Hydro. Therefore it is the political environment that will shape the future of this sector.Battery storage technologiesBattery Storage Technologies refers to the ability to convert electricity from various sources into a storable form for later reconversion and use. Battery storage technologies are closely linked with other sub sectors in the green technology industry. They are seen as significant enablers to more effective use of clean energy by being able to store solar, tidal, and wind energy in electrical form. Battery storage technologies also expand the reach of clean energy to the automobile industry.British Columbia has a 30 year history of advanced battery development, and has built up a solid core of expertise, development, and commercial activities in this area. Maple Ridge houses E-Moki Energy, north America’s only manufacturer of cylindrical Li-ion rechargeable batteries which were developed locally. Cadex Electronics has a long history of innovative development in batteries, specialized battery packs, battery analyzers, charges, and rapid testers. While the sector continues to focus on research and development for greater energy storage capabilities, various projects have been deployed around the lower mainland. However, these projects mostly relate to transportation applications. E-Moli Energy is making use of batteries to run Electric Scooters and Bikes while Delta-Q’s batteries are being used in various hybrid cars.The deployment of battery technologies is not directly hindered by any significant municipal or regulatory barriers. Barriers, if they exist, generally result from the way in which batteries are deployed. Batteries used for harnessing and storing solar energy, for example, face few challenges.The actual challenges are associated with the deployment of the solar panels themselves. Batteries used for electric vehicles however face significant challenges. For example, the City of Vancouver does not allow low speed cars – cars that usually run on battery technology – to travel on major municipal roads.Though this may change as a result of pilot projects currently underway with electric car manufacturers. Further the cars that these batteries are used in are frequently designed in a way that cannot be crash tested. The deployment and adoption of battery technology therefore is hindered by these indirect barriers.Biomass conversionBiomass Conversion refers to green hydrocarbons that can be combusted or gasified to produce heat or converted into liquid fuels, derived from wood and other forms of solid or liquid waste. While British Columbia has a rich history of deriving energy from biomass sources, the sector only recently deployed advanced technologies in areas of gasification and waste-to-energy conversion. Several projects, both within and outside the lower mainland, are in the planning process, breaking ground or nearing completion. paradigm Environmental Technologies’ Lulu Island Waste Water Treatment Facility in Richmond will produce electricity from wastewater sludge. nexterra Energy Corporation has installed a direct-fired boiler biomass gasification system in new Westminster.Some examples of this technology deployed in the province are not of local origin although they have been installed by local companies.tecHnology›HigHligHt:›nexterra›gasification›systeM›(neW›WestMinster)nexterra energy corporation will be installing a Gasification System – Direct Fired Boiler Application at Kruger Products Tissue Mill in new Westminster.  nexterra will supply the complete gasification system from fuel metering bins to the existing eSP.  The system will convert wood residue into clean burning “syngas” that will be fired directly into a boiler in place of natural gas. The process will produce steam for multiple uses at the Kruger mill. The existing eSP further cleans flue gas before releasing it out the stacks.  The Kruger installation will produce 40,000 lbs/hour of process steam and displace approximately 445,000 GJs of natural gas annually. The entire system is estimated to reduce both greenhouse gases by approximately 22,000 tonnes per year and costs by millions of dollars per year.  Kruger, nexterra and FPInnovations have formed a consortium to build the new system. The project received support from natural resources canada, the Bc Innovative clean energy Fund and ethanol Bc. The Kruger project will be the first commercial demonstration of nexterra’s direct fired gasification solution.  InDUSTry ProFIle » Green Tech9For example, Catalyst power’s anaerobic digester, which is being installed in Abbotsford, is of European origin. While there were options to install Canadian technology, Catalyst power chose a European model because of the advanced level of European technology in this sector due to Europe’s long history of advanced biomass applications.Despite the potential technology gap, British Columbia has a strong and growing bio energy sector. nexterra is a good example of a local company with significant expertise and local projects. There are more than twenty local companies within the Lower Mainland involved in the research, development and manufacture of various components and technologies within the sector. Local wood-pellet companies are the furthest along in terms of commercialization, though most of the markets for their products remain overseas. British Columbia has yet to provide a true wood-pellet market for these companies, although the province has significant capacity in pellet production and research, development and testing of biomass systems. Several local companies in BC are also converting organic waste products such as vegetable oils, fisheries by-products and rendered animal fats into biodiesel.This sector faces significant barriers at the municipal and regulatory levels. While zoning and fire code restrictions are two areas that were consistently identified as barriers, the main challenges seem to stem from that the fact that there are usually very few regulations or bylaws that speak directly to the industry. Therefore, the greatest obstacle appears to be the lack of knowledge and/or experience in the approval process placing an enormous burden on local companies.The increasing number of projects in this sector indicates the growing application potential within the province. Indeed, a high proportion of the projects approved by BC’s Innovative Clean Energy Fund have been bio-energy projects, and in its second call for proposals, the ICE Fund put out a separate call for projects relating to liquid fuels from biomass. This trend is indicative of the positive outlook for the bio-energy sector.green BuildingsGreen Buildings refers to those parts of the real estate development industry that specialize in construction of buildings that leave a smaller environmental footprint through reduced energy and/or water consumption. These performance improvements come as a result of both design features and integration of relevant green technology within buildings. ‘Green’ features of a building can range from the type of paints used to state-of-the-art energy systems and technologies. Various rating systems are used to label buildings ‘green,’ – LEED and GoGreen being some of the most prominent – but not all buildings go through a formal certification process because certification can be burdensome and expensive.Green buildings are establishing a strong presence within the Lower Mainland, with a large cluster of them in or near the downtown Vancouver core. While the Lower Mainland boasts strengths in all areas of the sector, design appears to be Vancouver’s particular area of green building expertise. The technologies in a majority of these buildings seem to extend largely to heat recovery and storm-water runoff systems. The Lower Mainland has a large number of individuals and organizations skilled in energy-efficient design, engineering, and architecture. Stantec, Bunting Coady Architects, Busby perkins + Will, Bing Thom Architects, and omicron have significant experience in this area. Supporting organizations such as Light House Sustainable Building Centre and the Cascadia Green Building Council also provide local support in terms of both resources and education. Much of the success of the green buildings sector within the region can be attributed to municipal leadership, exemplified by Vancouver’s globally-recognized planning and recent greening of its building code. Gaps, however, still remain on several levels. Industry consistently identified three in particular. First, little allowance is made in terms of the large amounts of space that mechanical equipment and systems – such as recovery heat ventilators – take up. This is space that developers are generally reluctant to give up in terms of saleable space. Currently, those involved in the architectural and engineering design process are not necessarily the same people who actually build and operate buildings. This disconnect is in some cases being overcome by an integrated design process that seamlessly incorporates low profile systems into a largely passive building and therefore reduces the need for large mechanical equipment.Second, mandatory costs such as development cost charges (DCCs) have to be paid despite the fact that technology installed may limit or even eliminate the use of infrastructure such as sewage systems. Third, it is difficult to secure approval for the design and implementation of storm water/grey water reuse systems since there is little guidance in Vancouver’s building code that speaks directly to whether the systems can be used, even for non-potable purposes.pHoTo: BUSBY pERKInS + WILLInDUSTry ProFIle » Green Tech10This requires a case-by-case approval process that can be cumbersome and delay the approval process. Industry indicated that while these municipal barriers exist, they are not too difficult to overcome. More important than these regulatory barriers are the lack of incentives in place for developers or homeowners to build green.Despite these specific references and other barriers that may exist at the municipal or regulatory level, the current Mayor of Vancouver has set a goal of making Vancouver the Greenest City in the world. While this bodes well for all sectors, it is especially significant for the green buildings because the City of Vancouver has direct control over the laws that govern green buildings. The future outlook for green buildings in Vancouver is therefore positive in all fronts.sustainable urban PlanningSustainable Urban planning refers to settlements that integrate the principles of density, mixed use with supportive resources, human-scale transportation, diverse open spaces, healthy environments and ecosystems, and efficient use of energy and resources. There are numerous examples of sustainable urban planning throughout the Lower Mainland including the South East False Creek development in Vancouver, UniverCity at Simon Fraser University in Burnaby, and the northeast Coquitlam Area plan in Coquitlam.Sustainable planning, like green buildings, incorporates green technologies in order to meet its objectives.  Building codes, zoning and neighbourhood planning and design standards have the possibility of restricting the ability of private developers to provide higher-density and more pedestrian-friendly forms of development that could support efficient transit service and pedestrian based interaction. As urban centres become home to more and more residents and the focus of the world shifts towards sustainability, sustainable urban planning will become increasingly important to municipal governments, with urban centres like Vancouver becoming a model for progressive planning principles. The City of Vancouver has made significant progress in “greening” its bylaws, including the relaxation of density restrictions and required parking-to-building ratios. Metro Vancouver adopted the Liveable Region Strategic plan in 1996 as its framework for decision-making at the regional level, and municipal governments are increasingly making sustainable development the focus of their planning, especially in the light of the region’s focus on sustainability.energy management & conservation technologies Energy Management & Conservation Technologies or power Electronics Technologies refers to a set of hardware, software, and power electronics that serve to improve the way electricity is generated, transported, and used. Enhanced grid and delivery technologies make systems smarter, cost effective and more reliable. End-use technologies make buildings, transportation, and equipment more efficient and provide tools to manage energy use. Energy management and conservation technologies have been widely deployed throughout British Columbia, especially as a result of various incentives and programs by BC Hydro. Energy Aware’s powerTab at the Millennium Water Development in the Athletes village will provide project›HigHligHt:soUtH›east›false›creek›The transformation of South east False creek (SeFc) is a prime example of sustainable urban planning in north America, incorporating forward-thinking infrastructure, strategic energy reduction, high-performance buildings and easy transit access. SeFc will be a mixed-use community with a focus on residential use, developed at the highest density possible while meeting liveability and sustainability objectives. The SeFc development is built on the last remaining large tract of undeveloped waterfront land near downtown Vancouver.  It will be the future site of the olympic Village, and, after the 2010 Winter Games, SeFc will become home to 16,000 people in the form of more than 5,000 residential units. The SeFc development will have a 30,000 square foot community centre, several child care centres, an elementary school, community garden, public plaza, mid-size grocery store and community serving retail/services, interfaith spiritual centre, restoration of five heritage buildings, and 10 hectares of park land, including habitat, playgrounds and opportunities for urban agriculture. The SeFc development will also make use of a community energy system – the neighbourhood energy Utility waste heat recovery system.  SeFc will be home to the Athletes Village and will be showcased to the world during the 2010 olympics.  projects›outside›the›lower›Mainlandlower Mainland firms are increasingly exporting their expertise to other jurisdictions. In some cases, such as Dockside Green in Victoria or northern Bc “smart” street lighting project, these projects are occurring around the Province. others involve projects as far away as Dubai.project›HigHligHt:dockside›greenDockside Green is one of the most famous developments in the western hemisphere. Dockside combined many sustainable features in an entire neighbourhood: green roof, recycled building materials, renewable energy, energy efficiency, low-Voc finishes, day lighting, natural ventilation and more. Dockside green is also the first example of district waste treatment and energy in canada, incorporating a nexterra gasification system. This is the major accomplishment at Dockside. This project is of even more signficance because of the way the development sits within its urban context with attention to land use, density, transportation and the like. The residential units at Dockside sold at a premium and the project set the world record for leeD Platinum points.InDUSTry ProFIle » Green Tech11residents with real time energy usage data. projects on a larger scale include the City of Vancouver’s neighbourhood Energy Utility and port Metro Vancouver’ shore power for cruise ships at Canada place. Shore power will help reduce marine diesel air emissions by enabling ships to shut down their engines and connect to BC Hydro’s electrical grid in order to provide necessary power while docked.The energy management and conservation technology sector is another area of significant commercial advancement in the region. The region possesses expertise embedded both in local firms and academic and research institutions. Local companies such as Legend power Systems and Tantalus Systems Corp pioneered power technology globally and continue to be a leader in the field. This sector has a number of local companies that are very active in terms of technologies both demonstrated and sold. This sector faces struggles that other technology sectors have yet to face. Despite having reached commercial viability, British Columbia’s small market poses a challenge as it does not represent the volume of sales that is required for these companies to remain profitable. In order to earn sufficient revenue to succeed, local companies in this sector need access to export markets. Further, the province is not best suited for low-cost manufacturing for large volume sales. Therefore while the expertise and actual technology are home-grown, outsourcing manufacturing may occur at the commercialization stage.Generally, energy management and conservation technologies do not face significant municipal or regulatory barriers in terms of the ability to deploy their technologies. Technologies in this sub sector face little in the way of proof of concept, risks or liabilities, or even resistance from governments or neighbourhoods. In fact, programs are in place to incentivize the use of these technologies generally. The most significant challenges in this area are potentially the lack of market awareness of the benefits of technologies and the lack of capital for local companies.The outlook for the sector is promising. It is expected that there will be a five-fold increase in revenues and jobs within the sectors in the next decade. The premier’s Technology Council and the Alternative Energy and power Technology Task Force have recommended four strategies in leadership, commercialization, growth, and innovation to make British Columbia a world leader in power technology.The current trend for clean and green is most promising for this sector because unlike many other sectors, the energy conservation and management sector does not face significant regulatory and municipal barriers and there is little or no opposition from the public.green roofsGreen Roofs are an extension of the existing roof which involves a high quality water proofing and root repellent system, a drainage system, filter cloth, and a lightweight growing medium and plants. Green roofs reduce storm water runoff, energy consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions. They also represent opportunities for significant social, economic and environmental benefits, particularly in urban settings.Until recently, applications of green roofs had been limited in north America. While green roofs are slowly gaining traction in the Lower Mainland, applications within the region are mainly limited to industrial, commercial and institutional buildings. Most of these applications have occurred in urban settings, with Vancouver setting the standard with the green roof atop the Vancouver Convention Centre. This green roof has been billed the largest in Canada and brings a new level of ecology and habitat to the urban landscape.tecHnology›HigHligHt:energy›aWare’s›poWertaBenergy Aware’s patented PowerTab is being installed at the Millennium Water Development in the Athlete’s Village at the SeFc development. The PowerTab is an in-home display designed to help the utilities industry meet their need for increased communication and feedback to their customers. The PowerTab receives real time consumption data on electricity, heating & cooling, and water consumption wirelessly from a residential smart meter.  The display indicates electricity use in monetary or kWh units and text message alerts from the service provider.  The PowerTab is slated to be installed in two phases. In the first phase, the technology will be installed in public buildings. After testing in these units and troubleshooting any problems identified during initial deployment, the PowerTab will then be installed in private buildings.  The proposal for and installation of the PowerTab technology faced few obstacles municipally. The real challenge was demonstrating value relative to competing technologies.project›HigHligHt:neigHBoUrHood›energy›Utility›at›sefcAmong the many innovative green features of the SeFc development is the neighbourhood energy Utility (neU), a community energy system that will provide space heating and domestic hot water to all buildings within SeFc.  neU makes use of sewage waste heat recovery technology, a renewable and locally available source of energy.  Thermal energy is captured using a heat exchange process integrated with a new municipal sewage pump station.  heat pumps transfer thermal energy for residential space heating and domestic hot water.  heat will also be utilized from solar modules on the rooftops of several SeFc buildings that will return solar energy to the neU distribution system.  high efficiency natural gas boilers will provide backup and supplemental heat on the coldest days of the year.  A network of pipes and heat exchangers will share thermal energy amongst buildings.  The centralization of energy production will result in significant efficiency benefits.  InDUSTry ProFIle » Green Tech12The expertise of the sector generally falls to the architects and engineers who design custom green roof systems on a building-by-building basis. Many of the large firms have built expertise around this area, but a good number of small local firms have also developed significant experience with green roofs. The Lower Mainland generally boasts expertise in terms of the number of both experienced companies and support institutions. The British Columbia Institute of Technology is leading the way with its Centre for the Advancement of Green Roof Technology and the Centre for Architectural Ecology – Collaborations in Green Roofs and Living Walls.Significant municipal and regulatory barriers exist in the implementation of green roofs. These include structural concerns, insufficient standards, and lack of information, skills, and experience in the approval process. provincially, the Homeowner protection office has been identified as an obstacle because of the legacy of the leaky condos in BC’s past. Green roof developments may not qualify for the warranty, though the industry has seen indications that the province may consider a more accommodating policy in the future. Currently the Hpo will not insure green roofs atop condo-strata buildings because of issues around maintenance.Also significant are the economic and market barriers that pose challenges in the deployment of green roofs. Lack of market understanding of the benefits of green roofs – particularly the energy savings that accrue from the natural insulating and cooling properties of the roofs – is the primary challenge. Further, much deployment in the private sector is occurring on commercial buildings. Developers often do not consider the extra expense of green roofs to be justified as the benefits flow to future occupants not the developer.As the market begins to understand the benefits of green roof technology, people may be willing to pay premiums for buildings with green roofs. Indeed, local governments are very interested in green roofs and this interest is growing due to the perceived benefits of green roofs for municipal infrastructure in reducing storm water flows, especially in Vancouver where there is not a city wide storm water system. The City of Vancouver is working towards modifying its by-laws and building code to accommodate green roof construction. Therefore, with greater awareness, government support, and significant incentives, green roofs have the potential for success within Vancouver and the Lower Mainland.environmental technologiesEnvironmental Technologies refers to those technologies that measure, prevent, limit or correct environmental damage to water, air, and soil, and which deal with problems of waste, noise reduction and ecosystem protection. The sector does not just focus on end-of-pipe solutions to treat pollutants. Technologies that reduce material inputs and energy consumption or recover useful by-products are also considered environmental sector offerings. This sector therefore greatly overlaps with others including green building, sustainable urban planning, and energy (and water) management and conservation. paradigm Environmental’s installation at the Lulu Island Waste Water Facility to convert waste into energy is a prime example of how environmental technologies overlap with the bio energy sector. Deployed projects include water and wastewater treatment systems, storm water management, soil and groundwater remediation and water reuse applications. Generally though, demonstration projects involving large scale, real-world urban demonstration sites (within the Lower Mainland) where environmental technologies, products and services can be tested and showcased in order to attract international customers have been lacking until recently.The broad breadth of environmental technologies within BC is indicative of the sector’s strength within the Lower Mainland and the province generally.tecHnology›HigHligHt:VancoUVer›conVention›centre›green›roofThe custom six-acre green roof atop the Vancouver convention centre is the largest of its kind in canada. In fact, it is the biggest non-industrial living roof in north America. The six-acre roof is covered with more than 400,000 indigenous plants and grasses from the Gulf Islands, providing natural habitat to birds, insects and small mammals. The roof is designed to act as an insulator and is projected to reduce summer heat gains by up to 95 percent and winter heat losses by up to 26 percent. The vegetated roof is only one of many environmental innovations included in the project.  The convention centre will serve as the international broadcast and media centre for the 2010 olympic and Paralympic Winter games. The environmental features of the centre, including the living roof, will be given a global showcase and will add to Vancouver’s brand as an environmentally progressive city.project›HigHligHt:lUlU›island›WasteWater›treatMent›facilityParadigm environmental Technologies has installed MicroSludgeTM at the lulu Island Waste Water Treatment Facility in richmond, British columbia. MicroSludgeTM is the company’s patented technology for waste water treatment plants that significantly enhances the anaerobic digestion process.  The technology can reduce the total quantity of biosolids for disposal by an additional 60% and enables anaerobic digesters to generate increased volumes of methane gas, which will then readily be converted into electricity and heat with the co-generation equipment at lulu Island to turn wastewater sludge into a clean, renewable source of electricity. This enhancement also reduces operating costs and increases plant capacity.  InDUSTry ProFIle » Green Tech13The industry is predominantly characterized by small to medium-sized firms. Bioteq Environmental Technologies and Air phaser are examples of strong local companies within the sector. The largest and strongest sub sectors within the Lower Mainland include environmental construction, recycling, water and wastewater technologies including solid waste management, co-generation systems, and environmental instrumentation technologies. There are also a number of larger organizations with expertise in site remediation, including the port of Vancouver which has developed capacity in this area by undertaking restoration projects on its significant land holdings around the region.A major weakness for the sector is the absence of a strong cluster and an industry-based environmental business association which can influence the sector with respect to shaping regulatory regimes and government practices. This is in part due to a number of firms with very different practices, from enzyme-based remediation to air pollution control. However, as with other sectors covered in this report, the lack of a strong unified cluster impedes the international recognition of the full breadth of BC’s environmental excellence.The industry generally identified the need for the removal of regulatory and municipal barriers created by rigid adherence to standards. Indeed, the regulatory constraints are the reasons cited for why environmental technologies have not been readily deployed throughout the Lower Mainland. The core of the problem seems to be the risk aversion tendencies of regulators prompting the use of traditional old technologies for urban environmental application. While provincial legislation does permit the use of innovative technologies for water reuse, these technologies are often met with apprehension at the municipal level. Adoption of innovative solutions for water and waste water treatment are often avoided because of the direct impact of infrastructure on human health.While comments relating to the regulatory barriers are well founded, the success of current projects underway at Lulu Island and Lions Gate Wastewater facilities will facilitate the implementation of more technologies within this area. Further, because of the large breadth of the sector there are several emerging opportunities including contaminated sites and brownfield site reclamation, green building design, technologies, and products, sustainable communities and integrated environmental solutions, and water and wastewater technologies, services, and solutions.summary oF FinDingsiv. The Vancouver region has demonstrated strengths in a wide variety of green technology sectors and types. While specific barriers do exist in a number of these sectors, market barriers remain the single greatest obstacle to the deployment of these technologies around the region. While widespread deployment of certain technology suites like passive solar applications or green roofs is possible, for many of the advanced technologies successful commercialization will require accessing markets beyond the Lower Mainland. This creates an impetus for local companies to demonstrate their technologies locally, making the region a demonstration zone for the region’s wide swath of innovative offerings. Where this involves overcoming regulatory barriers, it is important that municipalities take proactive steps overcome these barriers. numerous barriers were identified by industry as regulatory and/or municipal. These include permit applications to approval of new types of technology. However, a number of these barriers identified do not seem to be actual barriers. Local authorities have consistently indicated a willingness to exempt industry from code violations to accommodate technologies that achieve mandated performance goals. This means that the barriers identified may only be a matter of perception. Market and economic barriers remain the biggest obstacles for companies in the deployment of green technology. The broader issue therefore will be creating the right set of incentives that overcome the market barrier to initial deployment.pHoTo: poRT oF VAnCoUVERInDUSTry ProFIle » Green Tech14appendix›a:›defining›green›tecHnologyA significant determining factor for the success of any study is its scope. In the current context, this means defining what ‘green technology’ encapsulates. Research indicates that ‘green technology’ has narrow to broad definitions that could include methods, materials, and techniques for generating energy to producing non-toxic cleaning products.3 The expansive definition that includes cleaning products is impractical given the purpose and objective of the project. As a result, green technology should be defined within the context of its application in British Columbia.The British Columbia Technology Industry Association (BCTIA) uses the term “Clean Technology” instead of Green Technology. The BCTIA identifies “Clean Technology” as one of the major industry sectors in British Columbia. BCTIA includes the following areas as “clean technology:”4 Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, power Electronics, Energy Storage, Wind, ocean and Solar power, and, Environmental Technologies. This is also the definition used by the British Columbia Ministry of Small Business, Trade and Economic Development to describe the “Sustainable Technology Sector.”5  Also of significance is what is excluded. none of these definitions include the Green Building sector. The following areas fall within the Green Building sector: Architecture and Urban planning, Engineering, Development Management, Landscape Architecture, Finance, and Green Building Material Supply. Generally speaking, the great majority of green technology is installed in buildings. Therefore, projects in the green building sector have been included in this project.There is no one single definition of green technology. While this project’s focus was ‘green technology’ in name, the actual objectives were broader. Second, few want to leave any category or sector out of studies and reports by narrowing scope. Because the industry is so fragmented, few really understand the scope of the sector. The industry only recently gained prominence and therefore there is a tendency towards flexibility in terms of definitions. Third, the majority of green technology is deployed in buildings. Therefore, to locate technology and identify deployment barriers, one must also look to green buildings.3 http://www.green-technology.org/what.htm 4 http://www.bctia.org/files/White_Paper/BCTIA_SRED_Consultation_Paper_-_Nov_30_07.pdf (page 21)5 http://investbc.com/Documents/AssetMaps/SectorProfile_SusTech.pdf The Ministry identified 20 of the largest BC companies in this sector to include companies spanning all the categories of the BCTIA definition of “Clean Technology.” InDUSTry ProFIle » Green Tech15appendix›B:›coMpiled›list›of›local›coMpaniesCompany Name City Sector WebsiteArmstrong Pellets Armstrong Biomass Conversion www.armstrongpellets.comCanada U-Grow Chilliwack Biomass ConversionCanadian Bioenergy Corp North Vancouver Biomass Conversion www.canadianbioenergy.com/Cascade International Sales Corp White Rock Biomass ConversionCity Farm Biofuel Delta Biomass Conversion www.cityfarmbiofuel.com/Dynamotive Vancouver Biomass Conversion www.dynamotive.comEnEco Industries Ltd. Vancouver Biomass Conversion www.eneco.ca/Entropic Energy Corp White Rock Biomass Conversion www.entropicenergy.com/Enviro 2000 Pelletizer Ltd Surrey Biomass ConversionGaian Bioenergy Mission Biomass Conversion www.gaianbioenergy.com/Green Island Energy Vancouver Biomass Conversion www.greenislandenergy.comGreen Machine Biofuels Delta Biomass Conversion www.greenmachine-biofuels.comJF Bioenergy Abbotsford Biomass Conversion www.jfwasteenergysystems.comLignol Energy Corp Burnaby Biomass Conversion www.lignol.caLinnaeus Plant Science Vancouver Biomass Conversion www.linnaeus.net/Nexterra Energy Corporation Vancouver Biomass Conversion www.nexterra.caPacific BioEnergy Corporation Vancouver Biomass Conversion www.pacificbioenergy.caParadigm Environmental Technologies Vancouver Biomass Conversion www.paradigmenvironmental.com/Pinnacle Pellet Inc Quesnel Biomass Conversion www.pinnaclepellet.com/Premium Pellet Ltd Vanderhoof Biomass Conversion www.premiumpellet.com/Princeton Co-Generation Princeton Biomass Conversion www.eaglevalleyabm.com/QuestAir Technologies Inc. Burnaby Biomass Conversion www.questairinc.comSyntec Biofuel Vancouver Biomass Conversion www.syntecbiofuel.com/Alpha Technologies Burnaby Energy Conservation & Management www.alpha.comAnalytical Systems Delta Energy Conservation & Management www.analyticsystems.comArgus Technologies Burnaby Energy Conservation & Management www.argusdcpower.comCarmanah Technologies Corp Victoria Energy Conservation & Management www.carmanah.comCoda Research Corp West Vancouver Energy Conservation & Management www.codaresearch.comEnergex Inc Richmond Energy Conservation & Management www.energexinc.com/Energy Aware Technology Vancouver Energy Conservation & Management www.energy-aware.comEnviromech Industries West Vancouver Energy Conservation & Management www.exro.comGas Protection Systems Inc Maple Ridge Energy Conservation & ManagementIFD Corporation Vancouver Energy Conservation & Management www.ifdcorporation.comInnovative Circuit Technology Langley Energy Conservation & Management www.ictcorporate.com/Legend Power System Burnaby Energy Conservation & Management www.legendpower.comLeister Blake Enterprises Port Coquitlam Energy Conservation & Management www.lbe.caMP2 Mobile Power Corp Port Moody Energy Conservation & Management www.mp2inc.comNxtPhase T&D Corporation Burnaby Energy Conservation & Management www.nxtphase.comPower Measurement (Sneider Electric) Saanichton Energy Conservation & Management www.pwrm.comRainforest Automation Vancouver Energy Conservation & Management www.rainforestautomation.comReliable Controls Victoria Energy Conservation & Management www.reliablecontrols.comSmall Energy Group Inc West Vancouver Energy Conservation & Management www.smallenergygroup.comTantalus Systems Corp. Burnaby Energy Conservation & Management www.tantalus.comThompson Technology Langley Energy Conservation & Management www.tti.bc.caInDUSTry ProFIle » Green Tech16Company Name City Sector WebsiteBusby, Perkins + Will Vancouver Energy Planning & Sustainable Design www.busby.caCobalt Engineering Vancouver Energy Planning & Sustainable Design www.cobaltengineering.comEnergovironment Consulting Ltd West Vancouver Energy Planning & Sustainable DesignHammera Envirochem Inc. Vancouver Energy Planning & Sustainable Design www.hemmera.comPhilips Lighting Burnaby Energy Planning & Sustainable Design www.tirsys.comPowertech Labs Inc. Surrey Energy Planning & Sustainable Design www.powertechlabs.comStantec Inc Vancouver Energy Planning & Sustainable Design www.stantec.comStreetlight Intelligence Inc Victoria Energy Planning & Sustainable Design www.streetlightiq.comSwitch Materials Inc. Burnaby Energy Planning & Sustainable Design www.switchmaterials.comThe Sheltair Group Vancouver Energy Planning & Sustainable Design www.sheltair.comAzure Dynamics Detriot/Burnaby Engines & Automotives www.azuredynamics.comDynasty Electric Car Corp Delta Engines & Automotives www.itiselectric.comECO Fuel Systems Inc. Langley Engines & Automotives www.ecofuel.comEnviromech Industries Kelowna Engines & Automotives www.enviromech.netNxtGen Emissions Controls Inc Burnaby Engines & Automotives www.nxtgen.comTechnocarb Equipment Ltd. Abbotsford Engines & Automotives www.technocarb.comWestport Innovations Vancouver Engines & Automotives www.westport.comACDEG International West Vancouver Environmental TechnologiesAir Phaser Surrey Environmental Technologies www.airphaser.comAquavive Technologies Vancouver Environmental Technologies www.aquavivetechnologies.comAqua-Guard Spill Responses North Vancouver Environmental Technologies www.aquaguard.com/EPI Environmental Technologies Vancouver Environmental Technologies www.epi-global.comHAZCO Environmental Services Richmond Environmental Technologies www.hazcoenv.com/International Bio Recovery North Vancouver Environmental Technologies www.ibrcorp.com/Positive Results Environmental Management Delta Environmental TechnologiesRichway Environmental Technologies Richmond Environmental Technologies www.richway.ca/Sonic Environmental Solutions Vancouver Environmental Technologies www.sonictsi.com/Smartcool Systems Inc. Vancouver Environmental Technologies www.smartcool.net/Transfrom Compost Systems Abbotsford Environmental Technologies www.transformcompost.com/Tri-Arrow Industrial Recovery Surrey Environmental Technologies www.tri-arrow.com/Bioteq Environemtnal Technologies Vancouver Environmental Technologies www.bioteq.caEcoTECH Waste Management Systems Inc. Vancouver Environmental Technologies www.etwm.ca/Hoskin Scientific Ltd Vancouver Environmental Technologies www.hoskin.caAngstrom North Vancouver Fuel Cell Technology www.angstrompower.comBallard Power Systems Burnaby Fuel Cell Technology www.ballard.comCellex Power Products Richmond Fuel Cell TechnologyD-Point Technologies Vancouver Fuel Cell Technology www.dpoint.caGen-X Power Corp (subsidiary) Vancouver Fuel Cell Technology /www.whitefox.comGeneral Fusion Inc. Burnaby Fuel Cell Technology www.generalfusion.com/Green Light Innovation Corp Burnaby Fuel Cell Technology www.greenlightinnovation.comH3 Energy Ltd. Vancouver Fuel Cell TechnologyHeuristic Engineering Inc. Vancouver Fuel Cell Technology www.heuristicengineering.com/Hydrogenics Test Systems Burnaby Fuel Cell Technology www.hydrogenics.comMagPower Systems White Rock Fuel Cell Technology www.magpowersystems.comAppendix B continued...InDUSTry ProFIle » Green Tech17Company Name City Sector WebsitePalcan Power Systems Inc. Vancouver Fuel Cell Technology www.palcan.comPower Air Corp Vancouver Fuel Cell Technology www.poweraircorp.comPowerDisc Development Corp Richmond Fuel Cell Technology www.powerdisc.caSweet Power Inc Victoria Fuel Cell Technology www.sweetpower.comTekion Solutions Burnaby Fuel Cell Technology www.tekion.comGeneral Hydrogen RIchmond Fuel Cell TechnologyZongshen PEM Power Systems Inc Vancouver Fuel Cell Technology www.zongshenpem.comAdnavance Technologies Vancouver Hydrogen Supply Technologies www.adnavance.comGlobal Hydrofuel Technologies Inc. Richmond Hydrogen Supply TechnologiesHTEC Vancouver Hydrogen Supply Technologies www.htec.caMembrane Reactor Technology Vancouver Hydrogen Supply Technologies www.membranereactor.comMethanex Vancouver Hydrogen Supply Technologies www.methanex.comPlug Power Richmond Hydrogen Supply Technologies www.plugpower.com/Sacre-Davey Innovations North Vancouver Hydrogen Supply Technologies www.sacre-davey.comAccelerate Power Systems Vancouver Power Storage & Conversion Systems www.accelrate.comAdvanced Lithium Power Inc Vancouver Power Storage & Conversion Systems www.advancedlithium.comAlten Energy Solutions Surrey Power Storage & Conversion Systems www.altenes.comCadex Electronics Richmond Power Storage & Conversion Systems www.cadex.comDelaware Power Systems Richmond Power Storage & Conversion Systems www.delpowersys.comDelta Q Technologies Burnaby Power Storage & Conversion Systems www.delta-q.comEagle Picher Energy Products Corp Surrey Power Storage & Conversion Systems www.eaglepicher.comE-One Moli Energy Maple Ridge Power Storage & Conversion Systems www.molienergy.comVRB Power Systems Richmond Power Storage & Conversion Systems www.vrbpower.comXantrex Technology Inc Burnaby Power Storage & Conversion Systems www.xantrex.comAdvanced Energy Systems Ltd. Maple Ridge Renewable Energy ConversionAirsource Power West Vancouver Renewable Energy ConversionAlta Energy Vancouver Renewable Energy Conversion www.atlaenergy.comAltaqua Renewable Energy Corp Vancouver Renewable Energy ConversionBlue Energy Vancouver Renewable Energy Conversion www.bluenergy.com/Canadian Solar Technologies Delta Renewable Energy Conversion www.canadiansolartechnologies.ca/Chinook Power Corp North Vancouver Renewable Energy Conversion www.chinookpower.comClean Current Power Systems Inc. Vancouver Renewable Energy Conversion www.cleancurrent.comCloudworks Energy Inc Vancouver Renewable Energy Conversion www.cloudworksenergy.comDay4 Energy Burnaby Renewable Energy Conversion www.day4energy.comearthRight Solar - Solareagle Vancouver Renewable Energy Conversion www.solareagle.comElemental Energy Inc. Vancouver Renewable Energy ConversionEnergy Alternatives Ltd Victoria Renewable Energy Conversion www.energyalternatives.caEnglish Bay Energy Inc. West Vancouver Renewable Energy Conversion www.englishbayenergy.com/Finavera Renewables Vancouver Renewable Energy Conversion www.finavera.comFosthall Creek Power Ltd. Vancouver Renewable Energy ConversionFred Olsen Renewables (Canada) Vancouver Renewable Energy Conversion www.fredolsen-renewables.comGreen Wing Energy Vancouver Renewable Energy Conversion www.greenwingenergy.comHolbert Wind Energy GP Inc. West Vancouver Renewable Energy ConversionHydromax Energy Ltd Vancouver Renewable Energy Conversion www.hydromaxenergy.com/Appendix B continued...InDUSTry ProFIle » Green Tech18Company Name City Sector WebsiteINNERGEX Renewable Energy North Vancouver Renewable Energy Conversion www.innergex.comInnovative Air Solutions Vancouver Renewable Energy Conversion www.evergreentechnologies.caIsland Energy Victoria Renewable Energy Conversion www.islandenergyinc.comKatabatic Power Corp Vancouver Renewable Energy Conversion www.katabaticpower.comMSR Innovations Burnaby Renewable Energy Conversion www.msrinnovations.comNaiKun Wind Development Inc Vancouver Renewable Energy Conversion www.naikun.ca/Nevada Geothermal Power Inc. Vancouver Renewable Energy Conversion www.nevadageothermal.comPemberton Power Vancouver Renewable Energy Conversion www.pembertonpower.comPlutonic Power Corp Inc. Vancouver Renewable Energy Conversion www.plutonic.caQuantum Wind Power Corporation Peachland Renewable Energy Conversion www.quantumwind.com/Resolution Electric Kelowna Renewable Energy Conversion www.resolutionelectric.ca/Run of River Power Inc Delta Renewable Energy Conversion www.runofriverpower.com/Rupert Peace Power Corp Vancouver Renewable Energy Conversion www.rupertpeacepowercorp.comRutherford Creek Power Ltd. Vancouver Renewable Energy ConversionSea Breeze Power Corp Vancouver Renewable Energy Conversion www.seabreezepower.com/Sierra Geothermal Power Corp Vancouver Renewable Energy Conversion www.sierrageopower.comSummit Power Corp. Vancouver Renewable Energy ConversionSunCentral Inc. Vancouver Renewable Energy Conversion www.suncentralinc.com/Swift Power Corp. Vancouver Renewable Energy Conversion www.swiftpower.caSwiss Solar Tech Ltd Summerland Renewable Energy Conversion www.swisssolartech.comSyncWave Energy Pemberton Renewable Energy Conversion www.syncwaveenergy.com/Synex Energy Resources Ltd. Vancouver Renewable Energy Conversion www.synex.comSyntaris Power Vancouver Renewable Energy Conversion www.syntaris.comTaylor Munro Energy Systems Delta Renewable Energy Conversion www.taylormunro.com/Vancouver Renewable Energy Vancouver Renewable Energy Conversion www.recov.orgWelwind Energy International Maple Ridge Renewable Energy Conversion www.welwind.comAppendix B continued...InDUSTry ProFIle » Green Tech19appendix›c:›coMpiled›list›of›deployed›projectsProject Name CityCatalyst 1 Agricultural Project AbbotsfordGreenhouse Wood-Fired Heat and CO2 Recovery Plant AldergroveBCIT - Solar Canopy Illumination System Demonstration Project BurnabyAdera Green Ltd. Bldg #1 BurnabyAdera Green Ltd. Bldg #2 BurnabyCranberry Commons Grounds BurnabyTaylor Park Elementary School BurnabyBCIT PV Power Tower BurnabyThe Cornerstone BurnabyBCIT Cellulosic Ethanol Pilot Plant BurnabyGVRD Waste-to-Energy Facility BurnabyMetrotown, Metropolis BurnabySFU - The Verdant BurnabyOaklands Development Condos BurnabyGreen Roof at Electronics Art Motion Capture Studio BurnabyBurnaby Mountain Secondary School BurnabyKerr Wood Leidal Associates Office BurnabyUniverCity BurnabyBrentwood Skytrain Station BurnabyAPEG BC Headquarters Burnaby Cottonwood Lodge CoquitlumHyde Creek Integrated Watershed management Plan CoquitlumCorporation of Delta City Hall DeltaVancouver Landfill Cogeneration Project DeltaTilbury Eco-Industrial Partnership DeltaPrincess and the Pea B&B LangleyWalnut Grove Community Ctr LangleyEnvision Financial Services Willoughby Branch LangleyFH - CareLife Maple Ridge Maple RidgeAll Saints Anglican Church MissionKruger Gasification System New WestminsterGreen Roof at Woodlands Assisted Living Development New WestminsterNortheast Coquitlam Area Plan North East CoquitlamEast Clayton North SurreyThe Brook Development North VancouverNorth Vancouver Library North VancouverHoliday Inn North Vancouver North VancouverQuayside Village Cohousing North VancouverLonsdale Energy Corporation North VancouverVancity Lynn Creek Community Branch North VancouverIWHUP - North Vancouver HTEC H2 Recovery Project North VancouverIWHUP - EasyWash Car Was Fuel Cell Installation North VancouverInDUSTry ProFIle » Green Tech20Project Name CityIWHUP - Light Duty Hydrogen Fuelling Station North VancouverThe Silva North VancouverIWHUP - Compressed Hydrogen Distribution North VancouverLight Duty Hydrogen Vehicles North VancouverHeavy-Duty HCNG Transit Buses Port CoquitlamHyde Creek Community Centre Port CoquitlumTranslink Bus Depot: Heavy Duty Fuelling Station Port CoquitlumGleneagles Public Safety Building Port MoodyPort Moody Recreation Centre Port MoodyHeritage Woods Secondary School Port Moody Garry Point Park Solar/Wind Powered LED Lights RichmondYVR Domestic Terminal Solar Hot Water System RichmondYVR International Terminal Solar Hot Water System RichmondIKEA - Electrical Harmonizer RichmondCrestwood Corporate Centre - Building 8 RichmondRichmond City Hall RichmondBCIT Aerospace Tech Geo-Exchange System RichmondLulu Island Wastewater Facility RichmondRiver Rock Casino Resort RichmondPEM Fuel Cell Stacks with patented PowerWedge(TM) RichmondVANOC - Richmond Olympic Oval RichmondYVR International Terminal Carbon Dioxide Sensors RichmondRevenue Canada Building SurreyTerasen Gas Coastal Facility SurreyKwantlen University College Trades & Tech Centre SurreyGabrielle Roy K-12 School SurreyHH - Surrey Hydrogen Fuelling Station SurreySemiahmoo Library & RCMP District Office SurreySurrey Transfer Station SurreyHH - Electrolysis of Water for Hydrogen Production SurreyOliva TsawwassenChildren’s Hospital Solar/Wind Powered LED Lights Vancouver Solar Canopy Illuminations System Demonstration Project VancouverStrata Corporation VR 1397 VancouverCity of Vancouver National Works Yard VancouverKitsun Co-op VancouverVANOC -Millennium Water Development (Athlete’s Village) VancouverUBC Hospital VancouverVANOC - Vancouver Convention & Exhibition Centre Expansion Project VancouverMole Hill VancouverPomaria VancouverCapers Multi-Use Development VancouverVancouver Aquarium VancouverAppendix C continued...InDUSTry ProFIle » Green Tech21Project Name CityBC Cancer Research Centre VancouverKoo’s Korner VancouverArdencraig VancouverVANOC - Killarney Centre VancouverUBC Thunderbird Arena VancouverVANOC - Vancouver Olympic/Paralympic Centre Vancouver ICICS/CS Expansion Vancouver In-Vessel Composter at UBC VancouverSustainable Building Centre Vancouver Liu Institute for the Study of Global Issues Vancouver1 Kingsway Community Facility VancouverCentre for Interactive Research on Sustainability Vancouver Technology Enterprise Facility III VancouverHughes Condon Marler: Architects Office Renovation Vancouver Michael Smith Laboratories VancouverVANOC 2010 Offices VancouverVancity Centre VancouverFive VancouverThe Federal Building VancouverCanada Green Building Council - Pender Street Office VancouverMCW Consultant Ltd VancouverSt. Paul’s Hospital 9A Mental Health Unit Vancouver National Research Council Canada Institute VancouverNovel Gas Reformer VancouverMembrane Electrode Assembly (MEA), Fuel Cell Stacks, Hydrogen Storage VancouverAquaquest - The Marilyn Blusson Learning Centre VancouverCentre for the Advancement of Green Roof Technology VancouverGreen Roof at Vancouver Public Library VancouverEvergreen Building VancouverStanley Park Popcorn Stand VancouverAquatic Ecosystems Research Laboratory VancouverLife Sciences Centre VancouverMaterials Testing Facility VancouverSpanish Bank Creek Daylighting VancouverUrban Search and Rescue Emergency Lighting High-Powered Head Lamps VancouverHydrogen Fuel Cell Powered PDA’s @ Hospitals VancouverMerchant Hydrogen Supply Using Tube Trailer Delivery VancouverVancouver Fuel Cell Vehicle Program VancouverNeighbourhood Energy Utility - Olympic Village VancouverNet-Zero Energy Building pilot project - Olympic Village VancouverGranville Island Vancouver University Town VancouverCountry Lanes VancouverAppendix C continued...InDUSTry ProFIle » Green Tech22Project Name CityCountry Lanes Vancouver Sustainability Street Project Vancouver Stormwater Management Vancouver Fred Kaiser Building Vancouver HH/ Pacific Spirit Hydrogen Fuelling Station @ NRC Vancouver Hotels Solution - Pan Pacific Hotel Vancouver Electrical Harmonizer @ BC Hydro Vancouver Electrical Harmonizer at Science World Vancouver Guinness Tower Vancouver Buchanan Towers (UBC) Vancouver Busby Perkins + Will Head Office Vancouver Listen Hotel Downtown Vancouver Solar & Heat Recovery System Vancouver SEFC Energy Centre & Sewage Pump Station Vancouver City Farmer’s Vancouver Compost Demonstration Garden Vancouver Stantec Vancouver Office Vancouver Omicron Head Office Vancouver C.K. Choi Institute for Asian Research Vancouver AIBC Headquarters Vancouver Vancouver Port Authority Office Vancouver Dockside Green Development VictoriaBC Transit Victoria Hydrogen Fuelling Station VictoriaUVic Hydrogen Flashlight Project VictoriaGleneagles Community Centre West VancouverLions Gate Wastewater Treatment Plant Biomethane project West VancouverWest Vancouver Aquatic Ctr. West VancouverEagle Lake Micro Hydro Facility West Vancouver City of White Rock Green Operations Buildings White RockMagnesium Air Fuel Cell White RockAppendix C continued...

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