UBC Graduate Research

Grade one word recognition : a multimodal approach Cozens, Meghan Beth 2010

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GRADE ONE WORD RECOGNITION:A MULTIMODAL APPROACH byMEGHAN BETH COZENSB. Ed (Elem.) The University o f British Columbia, 2003 B. A. Simon Fraser University, 2002 A GRADUATING PAPER SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF EDUCATION inTHE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Language and Literacy EducationDr. Marilyn Chapman THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIADecember 2010 ©M . COZENS, 2010AbstractThe purpose o f  this paper is to apply what I have been learned in studying the benefits o f  integrating the arts into a literacy unit plan for prim ary students. The unit I developed uses a multimodal approach to teach students to recognize high frequency words that they encounter in songs introduced each week as part o f  their Language Arts curriculum. Fine A rts activities are integrated into the daily schedule in m anageable and authentic ways. The high frequency words are used to create art work, dram a and movement. The song is then reviewed each day in new and engaging ways. By the end o f  the week the students are fam iliar w ith the new words so they can read and incorporate them  into their literacy activities. A fter implementing the unit in my own classroom , I could see the positive reaction the students had to the Fine Arts activities. All students, even those o f  lower abilities, were excited and engaged and seemed to be able to recognise the target words more easily.Multimodal Unit Plan iiMultimodal Unit Plan 111TABLE OF CONTENTSAbstract.................................................................................................................................................iiTable o f  C ontents............................................................................................................................... iiiA cknow ledgements........................................................................................................................... ivIN TRODU CT IO N ........................................................................................................................... 1L IT ERA TU RE  R EV IEW ................................................................. ....................... .................... 3M y Purpose............................................................................................................................3My Guiding Q uestions....................................................................................................... 4The M erits o f  an Arts-based Literacy P rogram ........................................................... 4CONNECT ION S  TO  PR A C T IC E .............................................................................................9Purpose o f  the Unit P lan ..................................................................................................... 9Unit -  Ants Go M arching ................................................................................................... 10CONCLU S ION S ............................................................................................................................... 17R E FER EN C E S ................................................................................................................................. 29A PPEND IC ES .................................................................................................................................... 20Appendix A: Unit P lan ........................................................................................................20Appendix B: Fine Arts A ctiv ities...................................................................................... 22Appendix C: Unit Resources............................................................................................. 25AcknowledgementsCompleting this M aster’s Degree is a life goal which I am still in d isbelief that I have actually accomplished. I could not have done it w ithout the support and encouragement from  a few key people. First, I would like to thank my colleagues and fellow  students who started me on this journey  w ith a little coaxing and prodding, then stood by  me through the ups and downs o f  the program . Carpooling back and forth to classes, lam enting summers lost to studying, and daily rem inders o f  the end goal were my lifeline over the last two years.To the teachers I have learned so much from over the course o f  the program , I have found your dedication and passion to education inspiring. I hope the seeds that you have planted in me continue to flourish and I can inspire my students in the same way.I would also like to thank Kim  and the women at the P.E.O. for the financial support. You are a blessing that fell into my lap and I could not have completed the program  w ithout your help.Finally, thank you to my friends, fam ily and partner for the ceaseless encouragement, the compassionate ear when I complained and complained some more, and for helping life continue when I couldn’t jugg le  any more. You have helped me accomplish m y dream . I am indebted to you always.This paper is dedicated to any student who has felt that they were not good enough in the regular school system but knew there was a painter/ photographer/ dancer/ actor/ musician hiding inside with enough talent to blow everyone’s socks off!Multimodal Unit Plan ivSECTION 1: INTRODUCTION“Art is literacy o f  the heart” (Elliot Eisner)While w riting this paper I hoped to find a solution to two problems: How to create a Language Arts program  that addresses the ways young children learn, and how  to meet the needs o f  the diverse student population in a prim ary classroom. I believe that incorporating Fine Arts into the Language A rts curriculum  is the way this can be accomplished. As an educator, I would like to move away from the verbocentric way o f  teaching literacy to young students and move to a more authentic way o f  learning which allows for different kinds o f  literacy and modes o f  representation.A lthough I am relatively new to the teaching profession, I come with m any ideas about how  I would like to teach, what a classroom  should look, should move, and should sound like. These ideas m ainly come from what I have experienced in school, and my own interests and talents that I have developed over the years while studying education and working w ith children.When I was in my first years o f  school, m y fam ily moved so I was placed in a new school. 1 started receiving extra help w ith the learning assistance teacher because 1 was told I needed to catch up with the other students. Right away I felt that I must be “stupid” to have to go this special class and my identity  as a learner was shaped for m any years to come. A lthough I did not continue going for extra help I felt that I would not succeed at school and had lower expectations for m yself in most subject areas. Despite my low self-confidence there were some areas, specifically the Fine Arts, that I did feel comfortable with, and these were the areas that I tended to m igrate towards, especially  in high school elective courses. I enrolled in as m any Fine A rts classes as possible,Multimodal Unit Plan 1including sculpture, draw ing, drama and art history. I also jo ined  the school choir and participated in all the school musicals. Outside o f  school I took piano lessons and dance classes. W hen I was in these classes I felt that I was successful in what I was doing and I enjoyed expressing my true self. These were the avenues that I used to learn about the world and about myself.Because o f  this experience I hope to give students o f  all different ability levels a chance to feel successful and engaged in learning. By integrating Fine Arts into a word- recognition unit plan, I give students a chance to begin their educational careers w ith a sense o f  imagination, self-confidence, and playfulness that is needed in the prim ary grades. I would hope that this will ignite their love for learning and will lead to a more open-m inded way o f  looking at the world around them.In the following sections I outline some o f  the findings about the benefits o f  an arts-integration program , including increased motivation, use o f  m ultiple literacies and multimodality, enriched understanding, and music as an entry point for learning. I then describe the unit plan I created that tries to follow what 1 learned in the literature review. This includes four simple Fine Arts activities based on a song and vocabulary taken from the song which can be completed in a week. The unit can then be adapted to use w ith any song or theme for future use. I conclude with some reflections on implem enting the unit in my own grade one classroom  and implications this will have on my future teaching choices.Multimodal Unit Plan 2SECTION 2: LITERATURE REVIEW  My PurposeFrom m y personal experience as a student I know that being involved in the arts was, and still is, beneficial to my learning and m y overall achievement in life. In the classroom  I enjoyed any activities that had to do with creating or presenting visual arts, music, or dance. Throughout my childhood I enrolled in extra-curricular art activities and eventually completed a degree in visual arts and contemporary dance in post-secondary education. I was drawn to these experiences because I felt comfortable and most able to successfully express m yse lf when involved in them.Now  as a prim ary teacher, I have observed that when teaching younger children, they seem to react positively when we use dance, drama, visual arts and music in the classroom , whether it is an art lesson or i f  the arts are incorporated into another part o f  the curriculum. 1 taught a French Immersion K indergarten class and used movement and music to teach language everyday. I was always amazed at how quickly they learned new words when they were introduced using this approach. Also, I observed that when the class was involved in emergent w riting activities, m ost students felt very com fortable draw ing pictures to express their ideas, before attempting to write letters and words.These experiences have led me to believe that the arts are an important part o f  the school curriculum  and should be taught explicitly, as well as incorporated into other areas.My goal in compiling the follow ing literature is to find out if, in fact, there is validity to my ideas about incorporating art into literacy for young learners and whether there are methods, programs, or techniques that have been researched and used successfully in prim ary classrooms and w ith second-language learners. There appears toMultimodal Unit Plan 3be a great deal o f  literature that discusses arts-integration into school programs. For m y purposes o f  finding general information in the area o f  arts integration, and particularly music, the follow ing literature proved useful and provided the needed information.My Guiding Questions When compiling the follow ing literature review  I set out to find out the following: Does using singing, m ovement and visual arts help prim ary students acquire new oral vocabulary? The purpose o f  the follow ing unit is therefore to explore i f  using the fine arts, including music, movement, and visual images will be a successful tool in helping young students learn vocabulary. Another component is to explore the students’ levels o f  m otivation and engagement during the lessons.The Merits of an Arts-based Literacy Program  There are m any purported benefits to including the arts in the school curriculum , including academic gains and cognitive, affective, and social contributions (Cornett, 2006). There is a great deal o f  research that has focused on this topic, and I will try to summarize some o f  the main themes that run through the literature.MotivationThe arts are said to serve as a “motivational en try-poinf ’ as many children become engaged through the arts and continue that interest into whatever follows (Andrzejczak, Trainin, & Poldberg, p. 2, 2005; W ilhelm , 2008). For some students draw ing can be a com fortable gateway to writing or a better understanding o f  the text (Andrzejczak et al., 2005; Dyson, 2003). O ther students find excitement in drama or cartoons which ignites a confidence in literature that had long since disappeared. (W ilhelm , 2008)Multimodal Unit Plan 4Multiple Literacies/ MultimodalityElliot W. Eisner, a top researcher in the field o f  art education is quoted by  Leigh and Heid (2008) as saying “helping children express themselves through m ultiple forms is one o f  the most important practices o f  teaching” (p. 5). Some researchers explain that children come to school with an open m ind and varied ways o f  expressing themselves.W e could also describe this as many different kinds o f  literacies or modalities (Anning, 1999; Dyson, 2003). M any times school literacy is lim ited to print and linguistic forms o f  representation, but this can lim it the means o f  communication students are able to use. Outside and in school children must learn to not only:negotiate meanings from more varied types o f  print (e.g. through internet use, books, non-fiction texts, magazines, advertising, newspapers, picturebooks), but they are also required to transact across a variety o f  contexts, for example through film, web-based texts, television, music, oral narratives, graphs, numeracy, performance, and many others. M erely having the ability to comprehend and compose the printed word is no longer adequate” (W inters, 2004, p. 17).Therefore using multimodal teaching strategies and incorporating students’ own literacies into the classroom  makes for a more authentic and well-rounded learning environment. Enriched UnderstandingThe type o f  communication that the arts allows is perhaps a more meaningful experience, as learners describe their aesthetic responses or connect to background know ledge and culture. (Carger, 2004; Leigh & Heid, 2008). Their cognitive abilities in language also improve allow ing for enriched story m aking and an enhanced finished product (Andrzejczak et al, 2005; O lshansky, 1995). There is also evidence o f  higherMultimodal Unit Plan 5order thinking, which is something that is needed today in our image-inundated and business-m inded society (Cornett, 2006). Most notably, the arts, when integrated into different subject areas, are shown to help different kinds o f  learners, especially those from high poverty  areas and second language learners (Carger, 2004; Cornett, 2006; Olshansky, 1995).Reading and w riting seem to be a good fit for incorporating art into teaching. As described by  Cornett (2006) they involve parallel processes o f  creating meaning with purposeful “problem  solving through data gathering, experimentation, drafting, revising, editing, and publication or “public sharing” o f  ideas in a variety o f  form s” (p. 236). Researcher and educator, Jeffrey W ilhelm  (2008), found that when he incorporated draw ing and drama into reading lessons w ith his remedial English class their engagement, self-confidence as readers, and ability to use reading comprehension skills improved. Music as a Entry Point to Learning LanguageAs a large part o f  m y research involves music, the follow ing literature focuses on how this particular area o f  the arts can help students learn language and literacy. There is a great deal o f  research which correlates learning music and learning language. M any argue that young children have a natural connection with music (Harp, 1988; Kolb,1996). The development in musical abilities begins as babies from exposure to many different kinds o f  childhood musical experiences such as lullabies, interactive songs, and baby talk (Power-Piercey & Murphy, 2005). Students come to school with this musical know ledge which is “a powerful vehicle for teachers” to use when it can be integrated into language and literacy learning (McParland 2000, p. 3 cited by Power-Piercey & Murphy, 2005, p .2)Multimodal Unit Plan 6These skills can be transferred to Language Arts classes in a number o f  different ways. Harp (1988) and Kolb (1996) suggest teaching a song, then introducing the lyrics and working w ith the words on chart stories, recorded versions, games, and class-made books. Kersten (1996) used different instruments to represent different characters in a story. Collett (1991) explained a program  where music, along w ith other fine arts are used as the main stimulus for all learning. In this specialized program , Learning to Read Through the Arts (LTRTA) experts help integrate the arts into different curriculum  areas, as well as teach the arts on their own. The results o f  the LTRTA program  over 20 years showed “ improved attitude toward reading, the arts, and learning in general, as well as substantial gains in achievement, sustaining grow th for several years” (Collett, 1991, p. 45).More specific skills that music combined w ith literacy can facilitate are book concepts, sight vocabulary, reading comprehension and fluency (Kolb, 1996). M usic also helps teach strategies for analyzing, synthesizing, and evaluation skills ( Collett, 1991). Singing can provide authentic experiences and learning in context (Harp, 1988; Power- P iercey & Murphy, 2005). Not only does music promote these skills but it also keeps students engaged. As Medina (2002, cited by Power-Piercey & Murphy, 2005, p .3) explains music and singing often evokes positive emotions, produces a sense o f  community, and increases student confidence. The children’s love o f  singing fosters a love o f  reading. It is also very memorable as we replay the songs in our heads over and over, reinforcing skills being taught (Power-Piercey & Murphy, 2005).The multimodal aspect o f  integrating music and movement is also key to its success. As Collett’s (1991) research indicates we retain 24 % o f  what is heard, 40%  o fMultimodal Unit Plan 7what is seen, and 70%  learned through “multisensory experiences” (p. 42). It is beneficial for all different kinds o f  students including at-risk learners, different learning styles and second language learners (Collett, 1991; Power-Piercey & Murphy, 2005).The “perform ing arts provide children with the concrete, hands-on experiences that are essential to developing each child’s ability to reason, think, solve problem s, analyze, and evaluate, and to enhancing his or her creativity” (Collett, 1991, p. 45).Music, along w ith the other arts, seems like a good way to hook students attention, keep them  engaged so they can learn the crucial skills needed to be literate in today’s world full o f  m ultiple texts which they must navigate inside and outside school. Musical abilities can transfer to language learning, reading comprehension, and an understanding o f  print. Young children need to learn these skills in order to have a successful education and career ahead o f  them. If students have a positive and meaningful experience with literacy early on, this enjoyment will follow them  as they continue to learn for life.In summation I will use some key points that another Masters o f  Education student outlines in her thesis, which also centred on arts-integration with literacy. Kari Lynn-W inters (2004) very aptly describes how  arts-integration is authentic, active, and motivating. It allows for multiple ways o f  expressing, and “provides process-oriented instruction and evaluation” (p. 30). In the next section I use the previous literature to describe a unit plan which integrates arts with literacy for a primary classroom.Multimodal Unit Plan 8Multimodal Unit Plan 9SECTION 3: CONNECTIONS TO PRACTICE  Purpose of Unit PlanThe purpose for creating this unit plan for a grade one classroom  is to integrate simple fine arts activities into a language arts program . As an advocate for fine arts in education I wanted to create a user friendly unit that engaged students and gave opportunities for different kinds o f  learners to access language and literacy with a deeper understanding. (See Appendix A)This unit is intended to supplement an already existing grade one Language Arts program . M any teachers have sight words and theme-related vocabulary words that they focus on each week. This program will add to those words and give students meaningful and fun ways to engage with the new vocabulary.The unit also includes many activities which will add to a grade one classroom ’s fine arts curriculum. Many teachers find it difficult to teach the fine arts because they don’t have the expertise or don’t have time due to the overwhelm ing amount o f  required curriculum  they need to cover throughout the year. These activities give teachers the opportunity to incorporate drama, dance, music and visual art into their daily Language Arts lessons in a simplified and easy to follow  fashion. There is little or no preparation needed for most lessons and no specialized training required to lead the activities.The proposed arts-integrated unit is meant to take approximately one week with lessons each day, making it a short program  that can be repeated each week with new vocabulary. Because this is meant to supplement an existing program  and is directed towards younger children, the lessons are short and concepts are simple. I would hopethat teachers would find it m anageable to access and easy to incorporate into their busy schedules. A fter completing the first unit, the teacher would choose new songs and vocabulary that can be m atched with the same activities or introduce new  activities (see Appendix B and C) and this can be part o f  the regular grade one program  each week.Unit Plan -  Ants Go Marching Before the Unit Plan BeginsBefore beginning the unit students would need to have a basic know ledge in music, drama, dance and visual arts. Some o f  the concepts may be taught during the unit but this would extend the length beyond one week.To fam iliarize students and allow them  to feel com fortable in all areas o f  the Fine A rts there are short exercises which teachers can take their students through. For example, in music students can find the rhythm  using percussion instruments, move their bodies or hands in reaction to slow/fast or high/low  sounds, and draw ing to music and sharing their thoughts after listening to music. In drama students could use visualization (this can work for other areas too), practice expressing emotion with body and voice and participate in any type o f  cooperation or get-to-know  you games (see Appendix B). In visual arts teachers can teach about shape, line, texture and pattern, discuss different artists’ works, set up Learning Centres where they can explore with different m ediums such as paint, clay, pastels, paper and craft supplies and also look at things from  different angles or magnification. Finally, in dance, students could move freely to music, participate in teacher-directed movement w ith themes (size, animals, colors, shapes, etc.), m ake movement that represents feelings, artwork, weather, colors and use m irror gamesMultimodal Unit Plan 10(see Appendix B). When students feel comfortable expressing themselves through these subject areas then they will be ready to participate in the follow ing unit plan.Integrating the Unit Plan into the Overall CurriculumUltimately this unit could be adapted to work w ith any song, in different languages and different grade levels. A fter choosing a song and the vocabulary words the teacher wants to focus on, the teacher can use a number o f  different fine arts activities for an number o f  short lessons in one week. Each week there is a new  song and a new set o f  vocabulary words, (see Appendix C)At the end o f  the week the teacher can assess the students’ know ledge by having them  read the words o ff  flash cards and have students use the words in a sentence. The students can also reflect on the activities in a journal where they can write and/or draw about their reactions, new concepts they were introduced to during the week, or do some creative writing. Each student could have a binder o f  all the songs along with their artwork and reflections which could be kept in the classroom  or be sent home each weekend and returned to school on Monday. There could also be ongoing assessment by taking photos, videos, and notes as students work through each activity which can be used as evidence o f  learning in the students’ portfolio.Activity #1: Introduce the SongThe unit begins by introducing a song, in this case, “Ants Go M arching” (See Appendix C). I deliberately started with a song because singing is a fam iliar activity for children and songs are memorable and engaging (Harp, 1988; Kolb, 1996; Power-Piercey & Murphy, 2005). The vocabulary words are taken from  the song as it more authentic to find a song that relates to the themes currently being taught or interests o f  the students,Multimodal Unit Plan 11rather than start with vocabulary words and try to find a song with those particular words in it. The words that I chose are words that are prominent in the song and are not too difficult for the grade one level. I also kept in mind that the words couldn’t be too abstract as it would be more difficult to represent through movement, visual arts, or drama. Therefore we started with nouns and verbs, such as: thumb, shoe, tree, door, dive. More challenging words can be chosen in future weeks once the students are familiar with the program. The goal o f the unit is that students will have sight recognition o f  the chosen words and show understanding o f their meaning by using them in context.Multimodal Unit Plan 12Figure 2. Student putting picture next to wordAs soon as the song is introduced there are other modes o f representation that are added with movement and visual images. For example, having a student place a picture o f the word next to the text or having the class make up actions to go with the words (see Figure 1 and 2). Multimodal representation allows for different kinds o f  learners to access the concepts being taught and also gives a deeper understanding (Carger, 2004; Cornett, 2006; Leigh & Heid, 2008; Olshansky, 1995; Wilhelm, 2008). Using a wand or the wordFigure 7. Students doing actions to songcatcher (a fly-swatter with a hole cut in middle) also gives students a physical and visual interaction with the new vocabulary words (see Figure 3). Throughout the week the song will be repeated in different ways. Students can chant or sing the song in parts, such as by rows or girls and boys taking turns. They will also sing it in different voices such as characters (baby, witch, cowboy, monster, grandma, teacher, etc.) or at different pitches or speeds. The words to the song are always available either on chart paper or in a student duotang. The point is to make it engaging and relevant to different kinds o f learners. (Winters, 2004; Wilhelm, 2008)Multimodal Unit Plan 13Figure 3. Student pointing to words as they singActiv ity  #2: V isual A rtsThe second part o f the unit is a drawing activity called Squiggles where students use an abstract line to inspire an idea for a drawing o f one o f the vocabulary words (see Figure 4 and 5). For example, a wavy line can become the top part o f a shoe and the bottom can be added along with shoelaces and a soccer ball for the shoe to kick. The student might write a sentence about how the shoe kicks the ball to score a goal in a gameo f soccer. Again, the lesson allows students to interact with reading and writing in a different mode. By starting with drawing, students' imaginations can be broadened and their writing will be influenced by this (Cornett, 2006; McParland cited by Power-Piercey and Murphy, 2005). This activity will also continue throughout the week, either as an entry activity or as an early-fmisher activity. The drawings can be displayed on the wall, sent home in a duotang, glued into a journal, or shared with classmates.Multimodal Unit Plan 14fag" ;t h e  ' N V t  - . ’ f  ' m 3  Vi 1Figure 5. Squiggle (This is me tying my shoelace.)Activities #3 and  #4: D ram a  and  DanceThe next activities are drama and movement-based, which involve working with others in small groups and creating something, such as a “machine” or “tableau” based on one the vocabulary words. A machine is something students create with their bodies and actions to make whatever their imaginations can come up with. For example, students could make a machine that plants trees or opens the door for people. A tableau is a frozen scene that represents either part o f a story or an object (see Figure 6, 7, 8, 9). For example, students could represent a diving board and someone diving into a pool withFigure 4. Squiggle (The tree is growing.)their bodies. By representing their word with their bodies and incorporating movement the students are using many different sign systems than the usual classroom literacy activities. This transmediation will lead to a deeper understanding and help learners o f different ability levels (Leigh and Heid, 2008, Carger, 2004, Cornett, 2006, Olshansky,1995). The students could possibly perform their “machines” and “tableaux” for their classmates or for another class making their motivation level to create a successful final product much higher.Multimodal Unit Plan 15Figure 6. Tableau o f “dive” Figure 7. Tableau o f  “shoe”Figure 8. Tableau o f “tree”Figure 9. Tableau o f  “door”As m entioned above, these activities would add to an existing Language Arts program . The teacher could look for evidence o f  understanding in the ch ild’s reading and in ongoing assessment. A more formal assessment, using flashcards could also be given at the end o f  the week. As this is meant to complement an ongoing program  and not add extra work for the teacher it would depend on how  they would wish to incorporate the new vocabulary into their program.The final outcome will be  that the students’ engagement and understanding level in learning new vocabulary will increase and therefore their confidence in reading and writing will also increase. As a teacher that values the Fine Arts and believes art- integration has a great deal to offer young children, I greatly enjoyed implementing the “Ants Go M arching” unit into my classroom  and noticed that my students learning and motivation not only improved in Language Arts but also in the area o f  Fine Arts. In the follow ing section I will detail some o f  my observations and reflections o f  teaching this unit to group o f  lower prim ary students.Multimodal Unit Plan 16SECTION 4: CONCLUSIONS“I hear and I forget.I see and I remember.I do and I understand.”Chinese proverbBy creating an arts-integrated unit plan I believe I was able to address some o f  the dilemmas I have found teaching a prim ary classroom . These dilemmas include m eeting a w ide range o f  needs and being able to help students w ith different ability levels. A fter implementing the unit in my own classroom  I was able to see a positive reaction in many o f  my students. By having students participate in creative, interactive, and engaging arts- based activities they were each able to learn in a way that worked for them. Seeing their excitement and positive reactions to what they were creating led me to believe that they were learning in a more natural way and with a broader understanding o f  the topic.When using the unit in my lower prim ary classroom , I found that I was able to adapt the unit to whichever theme or curriculum  focus 1 was working on at the time, which made it more relevant to the students. For example when we were learning about plants we sang “The Green Grass G rows” or around M other’s Day we sang “Four Hugs a Day” . I was also able simplify or extend the unit depending on the changing schedule o f  the school year. When, at the end o f  the year there were many events and field trips, we only had time to sing the song and not do the o ther activities.When introducing the songs and the vocabulary words, the students were very excited to find actions to go w ith the words and then try them out while singing. Most hands would shoot up in the air when I asked for suggestions for the actions and thenMultimodal Unit Plan 17whenever they heard or saw the word they automatically did the action. The draw ings and accompanying writing that the students did w ith their Squiggles were very impressive. A t first, some students needed encouragement to use their im agination to find an image, but they soon got the hang o f  it, and created some interesting draw ings.For instance, m aking a curved line into a shoe and then putting a ball in front and describing scoring a goal at a soccer game in their writing. During the drama and movement activities students did not hesitate to participate and were eager to share their work w ith the class. For example, when making their tableaux the students did not want to go out for recess break, and wanted to stay in the class to finish presenting. During these activities, I found I did need to circulate and assist them  in clarifying their ideas or work cooperatively but working in groups creatively seemed to be one o f  the highlights o f  the program . Follow ing the activities, when using flashcards and reading the song I could see that students were able to read the words we had worked on all week, and even words from previous weeks.Reflecting on my experiences, I could see the same results that the authors in the literature review  had suggested. The students’ motivation level for participating in literacy was evident, as suggested in the examples above. Students were also able to represent their learning in multiple ways, whether they had previously excelled or struggled in literacy, as the research for multimodal learning has indicated. When transferring their learning from one fonn  o f  representation to another, they were able to deepen and extend their understanding. For example, when doing the tableaux the students needed to think about the different parts o f  a tree and what surrounded the tree and what animals m ight live in a tree in order to represent the tree to the class. StartingMultimodal Unit Plan 18the unit o ff  w ith a song gave the students a fam iliar and comfortable place to begin their learning. The songs would become class favourites, often be requested later in the school year. Based on the students’ enjoyment, it was evident to me that the positive effects o f  arts-integration, as m entioned in the literature review , was being replicated in my classroom .The next step for me will be expanding and continuing to modify the unit I have created. I look forward to extending arts-integration into other areas o f  literacy besides word recognition, such as reading comprehension and writing. I also hope to incorporate other theories into my classroom  that embrace Fine Arts as a way to learn for prim ary students, such as Reggio Em ilia, project based learning, and new media-based learning. Eventually I hope to share the Fine A rts activities that I have put together in this unit with my colleagues, possibly in a workshop setting, but for now I am continuing to explore and research in my own classroom.Multimodal Unit Plan 19Appendix A: Unit PlanMultimodal Unit Plan 20mAnt sGoAM nts Go Marching archi oAg deog1M Grade 1, L.A., Fine ArtsConcept Activity #1: Song/Poem:Learning “Ants Go Marching” songActivity #2: Visual ArtSquiggles - drawing Squiggles withvocabulary wordsVocabulary 1. thumb2. shoe3. tree4. door5. dive1. thumb2. shoe3. tree4. door5. diveObjectives (IRP connections)• create movement for words• willingness to sing the song• connect words with images• follow text in choral singing• create image from Squiggle• write a simple sentence which includes a vocabulary word• willingness to share and display their workProcedure:(Introduction,Development,Closure)( approx. 30 minutes)1. Introduce the song by singing it then getting them to repeat the lines one by one.2. Show the lyrics and sing it again pointing to the words.3. Have students come and place a picture next to each vocabulary word.4. Come up with an action for each vocabulary word with help from students.5. Sing again with actions this time6. Show pictures or words only and see if they remember the action.7. Have students come up and use word catcher as they sing.8. Sing the song everyday with actions and different activities.*1. Students receive a Squiggle (an abstract line on a paper with lines at the bottom).2. Students decide which vocabulary word their Squiggle will be and they draw a picture and colour it in.3. They write a sentence about their Squiggle using the vocabulary word. (This will happen 3-4 times throughout the week either as a morning activity or an early finishing activity.)4. Squiggles will be displayed in the classroom and can be shared with the class.Assessment(Summative/Formative)Participation in singing and activitiesconnecting image and movement with text- create images of a vocabulary word using squiggles- compose a simple sentence that goes with the squiggleMaterials ❖ Words on chart paper❖ Drawings of the words❖ Tape❖ Word catcher (fly swatter with hole in the middle)❖ Vocabulary words displayed❖ Squiggles (4-5)❖ Drawing and writing tools❖ Display boardNotes: . Make sure to have different students participate throughout the week. * Sing in choral parts, different voices or speedsStudents should create at least three squiggles throughout the week.Multimodal Unit Plan 21mAnt sGoAM nts Go Marching archi oAg deog1M Grade 1, L.A., Fine ArtsConcept Activity #3: DanceMachines -  create a moving objectwith a groupActivity #4: DramaTableaux -  act out a scene from thesongVocabulary 1. thumb 1. thumb2. shoe 2. shoe3. tree 3. tree4. door 4. door5. dive 5. diveObjectives (IRP • work with others to create a • work with others to create a sceneconnections) movement from song• willingness to share creation with • include relevant detailsothers• be part of an audience• incorporate song with dramaProcedure: 1. Demonstrate by preparing 1. Show a book that is based on a(Introduction, movement with two students and song students know.Development, have class what you are portraying 2. Explain that students will be likeClosure) (not a vocab. word) pages in book and represent each2. Explain that students need to part of the song.( approx. 30 work together to represent one of the 3. Students work in groups of 4-5 tominutes) vocabulary words using everyone in create a frozen scene depicting onetheir group and it needs to move, (no part of the song (around a vocab.props) word)3. Break class up into groups of 3 to 4 4. Each member needs to have a roleand give them a word on a folded (can represent an object orpiece of paper. character)4. Give them 5 to 10 minutes to come 5. Show tableaux to group and giveup with their machine positive feedback5. Have students present their 6. Sing song and have students standmachines and the class can guess in their tableaux a the correct part ofwhat word they were representing. the song6. Have students give positive feedback to each group6. Perform for another class.Assessment work cooperatively to create work cooperatively to create a(Summative/ machine tableauFormative) demonstrate appropriate demonstrate appropriateaudience behaviour audience behaviour- willingness to perform willingness to performMaterials ❖ Vocabulary words on piece of ❖ Book based on songpaper ❖ Performance space❖ Performance spaceNotes: Students will need help working Students will need help workingtogether so having extra adult support together so having extra adult supportwould be useful would be usefulAppendix B: Fine Arts Activities ,hinc Lctn.ntn1iMultimodal Unit Plan 22Lctn.ntF C1icenptnrA vyo#pG1 :ntS /LAti dr , oecSnAP“Playing with InstrumentsUsing percussion instruments find the beat and rhythmsWhile marching students use shakers to find the beatSinging in PartsDivide the class up in different ways (rows, corners, boys and girls) and have them sing different parts of the songHave the children in five rows and start with the last row singing first verse, then other rows join in with each verseSinging with Different Kinds of VoicesHave fun using different voices to sing the song (baby, cavem an, teacher, grandm a/grandpa, witch, monster, surfer dude)Brainstorm members of the “Ant Family” then sing the song in each voice (Dad, mom, grandm a, the littlest one)RemoteControlSing the song at different speeds and different pitchesHave student control the remote and tell the class how to singSoundscape Using voices and instruments to create a soundscapeCreate a rainstorm with groups representing the wind, the rain, and others the thunder. Have half the group perform while the others listen and then reverse”nihoG Leti Lctn.ntn1iLctn.ntF C1icenptnrA vyo#pG1 :ntS /LAti dr , oecSnAP“Squiggles Students use an abstract line on a page to create a drawingUse the squiggle to create a drawing of one of vocabulary words and then write a sentence to accom pany it.Collages Use found images to create drawingsUse ripped pieces of magazines and paper to create images of vocabulary wordsDrawings Draw parts of song or vocabulary wordsDraw the littlest ant in all the different situations like a cartoon with a talking bubble of what the ant is sayingPaintings Use paint to create im age of song or vocabulary wordsCreate a rainstorm with water color paints and crayon resist drawings of antsPhotography Take photos of found or created objects or scenes from song or poemsTake pictures of tableaux students create with added  props and costumesSculpture Create sculpture using clay, playdough or found objectsMake vocabulary words with playdoughSockPuppetsMake puppets of characters in song or poemMake puppet of the “ the littlest one” with propsCeo#o Lctn.ntn1iMultimodal Unit Plan 23Lctn.ntF C1icenptnrA vyo#pG1 :ntS /LAti dr , oecSnAP“What are you doing?” gam eIn a circle one person does an action and his neighbour asks “what are you doing?" The actor gives a new actionAsk what is “ the littlest one do ing” and then use that as the theme for the gam e“What is it?” gam ePass an ob ject and each person has to com e up with a new use for the objectUse an ob ject from the vocabulary words and com e up with new uses (e.g. shoe)Say Yes! gam e Leader calls out action for everyone to do and in response everyone yells “Yes!” and does actionActions could be things to do in a rainstorm like jum p in puddles.VocabularyParadeStudents choose a vocabulary word and dress up like that word and go on paradeHave students make hats and then parade the school as the vocabulary wordsExquisite Corps Tell a story in a group. Give a top ic or genre and then take turns telling the storyMake up a story about how the ants got out in the rainTeacher in RoleTeacher dresses up and takes on role of character related to song or storyTeacher could be queen of the ants and direct the students in an activityTableau Students make frozen scenes of ■ different parts of songMake tableaux related to vocabulary words and go into poses during that part of the songFruit Salad Stand in a circle and assign everyone one of 5 different fruits (or other theme). When leader calls out one fruit all of those fruit need to find another spot in the circleUse vocabulary words to call outPuppet Show/ Symbolic Representation InterviewStudents ac t out parts of song using puppets. They can also explain song or story to teacher using puppets (SRI)Use sock puppets to ac t out the littlest one and all his actionsMachines In small groups students create a moving ob ject that represents something or makes somethingStudents represent different vocabulary wordsVisualization While student close their eyes and relax the teacher describes a setting and /o r a story that students visualize in the headsVisualize being very small and following a long line of ants back the ant hillMultimodal Unit Plan 24CoAc1 Lctn.ntn1iLctn.ntF C1icenptnrA vyo#pG1 :ntS /LAti dr , oecSnAP“Actions to songs Make actions to songs Students help make actions for each vocabulary wordMuseum and Artists gam eHalf the class are artists and the rest are the sculptures. Artist sculpt into one the vocabulary words and then switch role.Artists sculpt into a vocabulary word and others have to guess which word it is. Then switch rolesChoreographedpiecesStudents com e up with m ovement and teacher puts together in a dance  piece to teach to the class.Use movements from each vocabulary word with different music and make a danceCultural dance  studyFind origins of song or other songs that relate to same topicFind marching songs and try marching togetherImprovisation Teacher gives different themes and students move to music. Have students freeze and describe their movementPut on “ Flight of fhe Bumble Bee’’ and have students pretend to be different insects.Follow the leaderOne leader moves and the rest of the class followsLeader uses movement from vocabulary words to different songMirror Partners face each other and take turns following each others movementsUse movement from vocabulary words in different order and make big and small2oe# hp do#1iActivity .DescriptionBean Bag Pass Students stand in a circle and pass one bean bag around to someone across from them, so that everyone gets the bean bag. Add more bean bagsPulse gam e Close eyes and hold hands in a circle. The teacher starts the pulse be squeezing her neighbours hand. See how long it takes to go around the circleHand/Foot stomp gam eHand: Sit in a circle and put hands on the ground. Cross arms with neighbours. Leader slaps hand down and circle continues around until someone does a double slap to make it change direction. Foot stomp the same except you are standing and not crossing overAnimals in 3 Leader stands inside the circle, points to someone and says an animal. The person and two neighbours need to form thaf animal. If someone is late or does not do it they go in the middle, (theme can change)Zip, Zap, Zop Stand in a circle. Leader starts by pointing to someone and saying “zip” , that person points to another and says “zap” and the next says “zop” . Keep on passing faster and faster, (theme can change)Appendix C: Unit Resources1) Squiggle samplesMultimodal Unit Plan 25Multimodal Unit Plan2) Im ages to go w ith  v o cabu la rythumbshoedoordive3) Other suggested songs and vocabulary:Multimodal Unit Plan 27Song VocabularyThe Green Grass Grew All Around hole, branch, tw ig, leaf, nestFour Hugs a Day four, hugs, eye, nose, armsDown By the Bay grow, home, dare, mother, sayNursery Rhyme Rap hill, water, wall, fall, whoFive Little Frogs green, frogs, log, bugs, pool4) Words to “Ants Go Marching”The ants go m arching one by one, hurrah, hurrah The ants go m arching one by one, hurrah, hurrah The ants go marching one by one,The little one stops to suck his thumbAnd they all go marching down around the townBOOM! BOOM! BOOM!The ants go m arching two by two, hurrah, hurrah The ants go m arching two by  two, hurrah, hurrah The ants go marching two by two,The little one stops to tie his shoeAnd they all go m arching down around the townBOOM! BOOM! BOOM!The ants go m arching three by three, hurrah, hurrah The ants go marching three by three, hurrah, hurrah The ants go m arching three by three,The little one stops to climb a treeAnd they all go marching down around the townBOOM! BOOM! BOOM!The ants go m arching four by four, hurrah, hurrah The ants go marching four by four, hurrah, hurrah The ants go m arching four by four,The little one stops to shut the doorAnd they all go marching down around the townBOOM! BOOM! BOOM!Multimodal Unit PlanThe ants go m arching five by five, hurrah, hurrah The ants go marching five by five, hurrah, hurrah The ants go m arching five by five,The little one stops to take a diveAnd they all go marching down around the townBOOM! BOOM! BOOM!The ants go m arching six by six, hurrah, hurrah The ants go marching six by six, hurrah, hurrah The ants go m arching six by six,The little one stops to p ick  up sticksAnd they all go m arching down around the townBOOM! BOOM! BOOM!The ants go m arching seven by seven, hurrah, hurrah The ants go m arching seven by seven, hurrah, hurrah The ants go marching seven by seven,The little one stops to go to heavenAnd they all go m arching down around the townBOOM! BOOM! BOOM!The ants go marching eight by  eight, hurrah, hurrahThe ants go m arching eight by eight, hurrah, hurrahThe ants go marching eight by eight,The little one stops to shut the gateAnd they all go m arching down around the townBOOM! BOOM! BOOM!The ants go marching nine by nine, hurrah, hurrah The ants go marching nine by nine, hurrah, hurrah The ants go m arching nine by nine,The little one stops to scratch his spineAnd they all go m arching down around the townBOOM! BOOM! BOOM!The ants go marching ten by ten, hurrah, hurrah The ants go marching ten by ten, hurrah, hurrah The ants go marching ten by ten,The little one stops to say "THE END"And they all go m arching down around the town BOOM! BOOM! BOOM!Multimodal Unit Plan 29REFERENCESAndrzejczak, N., Trainin, G., & Poldberg, M. (2005). From image to text: U sing images in the w riting process. International Journal o f  Education & the Arts, 6 (12) 1-17.Anning, A. (1999). Learning to draw  and draw ing to learn. International Journal o f  Art & Design Education, 18 (2) 163-172.Carger, C. L. (2004). Art and literacy with bilingual children. Language Arts, 81 (4), 283- 292.Collett, M. J. (1991). Read between the lines: Music as a Basis for Learning. Music Educators Journal, 78 (3) 42-45.Cornett, C. E. (2006). Centre stage: A rts-based read-alouds. The Reading Teacher, 60 (3), 234-240.Dyson, A. (2003). The brothers and sisters learn to write: Popular literacies in childhood and school cultures. New York: Teachers’ College Press.Harp, B. (1988). When the principal asks: “Why are your kids singing during reading tim e?” The Reading Teacher, 41 (4) 454-456Kersten, F. (1996). Enhancing stories through the use o f  musical sound. The Reading Teacher, 49 (8) 670-671.Kolb, G. R. (1996). Read with a beat: Developing literacy through music and song. The Reading Teacher, 50 (1) 16-11.Leigh, S. R., & Heid, K. A. (2008) First graders constructing m eaning through draw ing and writing. Journal fo r  Learning through the Arts, 4 (1), 1-12, article 3.Olshansky, B. (1995) P icture this: An arts-based literacy program. Educational Leadership, 53 (1) 44-47.Power-Piercey, S. & Murphy, E. (2005). Teaching French through music in the French- immersion kindergarten classroom. The Morning Watch: Educational and Social Analysis. M emorial University o f  Newfoundland, 32 (3-4).W ilhelm , J. (2008) "You gotta be the book": Teaching engaged and reflective reading with adolescents. New  York: Teachers’ College Press.W inters, K. F. (2004). Developing an Arts-Integratecl Narrative Reading Comprehension Program fo r  Less Proficient Grade 3 and 4 Students. Unpublished m asters’ thesis, University o f  British Columbia, B.C. Retrieved August 14, 2009, from , http:// kariw inters.com /thesis/thesis/index.htm l.Multimodal Unit Plan 30

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