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The changing role of the teacher-librarian in the 21st century and an investigation of information literacy… Hunger, S. A. Apr 30, 2009

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THE CHANGING ROLE OF THE TEACHER-LIBRARIAN IN THE 21st CENTURY AND AN INVESTIGATION OF INFORMATION LITERACY INSTRUCTION PRACTICES IN SCHOOLSbyTH EH CANGIRB.Ed (Elem.) The University of British Columbia, 1994 B.A. The University of British Columbia, 1992 A GRADUATING PAPER SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF OETLIR F- IBA2EL1FN  inLCI -E2AsLt F- GREBAELI TLAB1ITBUYDVSMUPS  sDP DU DP! s"SUVD#$ I! #DS"PWe accept this major paper as conforming to the required standardLCI AN1%IRT1Lt F- &R1L1TC 2FsAO&1EApril 2009 © S.A. Hunger, 2009E&TLRE2LThis paper examines the changing role of the teacher-librarian in the 21st century, and what focus the role is taking today. This paper also seeks to determine which information literacy skills teacher-librarians instruct in elementary and secondary schools, and which techniques are successful for teaching these skills to students.The research shows that researchers are currently divided into four groups regarding what focus the role of the teacher-librarian should take. These groups emphasize the roles of leader, a promoter of a love of reading and lifelong learning, information literacy specialist, and guide.The literature also reveals that teacher-librarians instruct an extensive list of information literacy skills in schools. These skills fall into one or more of six main categories.To demonstrate a link between the research and my practice, I created a teaching unit that integrates science with the development of information literacy skills. The curriculum addresses many of the required Grade 7 student learning outcomes for information literacy.The traditional role of the teacher-librarian is evolving in the 21st century and he or she must adapt to the changing needs of the patrons in order to provide valuable services for them. Today’s teacher-librarian needs to be an information and resource manager, a multimedia specialist, and an instructor of information literacy skills.LE&sI F- 2FNLINLTAbstract................................................................................................................ .......... iiTable of Contents........................................................................................................... iiiAcknowledgments..........................................................................................................v1NLRFBA2L1FN   ............................................................................................2Significance of the Project...................................... ........................................  3Questions for the Project...................................................................................3Theoretical Framework..................................................................... ...............4Conclusion.........................................................................................................  5s1LIRELARI RI%1I' HHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH(Part One: The Role of the Teacher-librarian.............................  7The Teacher-librarian as Leader...................................................................... 8The Teacher-librarian as a Promoter of a Love of Reading and LifelongLearning............................................. ..................................................  9The Teacher-librarian as an Information Media Specialist............................ 10The Teacher-librarian as Guide.........................................................................The Role of the Librarian According to the Canadian Association ofSchool Libraries....................................................................................12The Information Technology Resource Document (K-7).............................. 13Discussion..........................................................................................................  13Conclusions Regarding the Literature in Part One......................................... 14Part Two: Information Literacy Strategies..................................................... 15Conclusions Regarding the Literature in Part Two........................................ 19Final Conclusions............................................................................................... 192FNNI2L1FNT LF )RE2L12I HHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH*+An Integrated Research Unit: Human Impacts on Local Ecosystems 21Rationale...........................................................................................................  21Focus Questions..................................................................................   22The Integrated Unit: An Overview................................................................  22Learning Resources............................................................................................23Assessment and Evaluation............................................................................. 23Teaching the Unit............................................................................................... 24Conclusion......................................................................................................... 242FN2sAT1FNT HHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH*,Appendix A: Integrated Research Unit: Human Impacts on Local Ecosystems 27Appendix B: Evaluated Learning Resources..............................................................  36Appendix C: Sample Lesson Plan............................................................  41RI-IRIN2IT HHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH  --RITFAR2I RI-IRIN2IT HHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH  -.E2/NF'sIBGIOINLTI would like to thank my family for their immense support while I pursued my studies; I could not have accomplished my goals without their help. I am also very grateful for the many kind words of assistance and encouragement from friends and colleagues who were there for me when I needed them. I would particularly like to thank my advisors, Dr. Margot Filipenko and Dr. Marlene Asselin, who provided me with a great deal of positive feedback and encouragement, and who shared many creative ideas with me.vTI2L1FN 01 1NLRFBA2L1FNI am an elementary school teacher and I am pursuing graduate studies to become qualified as a teacher-librarian. In this project, I researched the various roles that these professionals assume in the course of their daily activities. I was interested in investigating this topic because I have never worked in a library, and I hoped to discover the role (or roles) that will suit me best and that will be of most benefit to the school community where I am employed.I was also motivated to embark upon this project because I would like to revitalize the library in my school. This facility is under-utilized in the following ways:— Students are often channelled to the computer lab instead of to the library to find information;— Students do not receive instruction on identifying resources (in this case electronic resources) and consequently may use one search engine to satisfy their information needs;— Finally, students receive little or no instruction on the evaluation of websites.I would like to develop the library into a more dynamic, social place where students can interact, create knowledge together, and have fun as well as find authoritative information and good quality reading material.In addition to this, I wanted to focus on teaching information literacy skills. These skills (identifying resources, evaluating resources, taking information from resources and presentation skills) are often hard concepts to teach primarily because of the lack of appropriate resources for teachers. I have created many of my own materials and I have shared these with other staff members in my school. Because these skills are complex and may be difficult for many students to grasp, instruction must be carefully planned. I examined what the research has to say about:• Appropriate instructional approaches for teaching information literacy skills to elementary school children; and2• The role of the teacher-librarian in facilitating the learning of information literacy skills to students with differing abilities in the elementary grades.T"P""#DP#U  S2U )V3U#SThe role of the teacher-librarian is changing rapidly with the advent of the 21st century. Many factors such as technology and an increased demand for collaboration and information literacy instruction contribute to this process of transformation. This role change is vital if librarians are to remain relevant. Unfortunately, in many school districts the elementary teacher- librarians are under-utilized and continue to function in a very traditional role (e.g., facilitating weekly book exchanges). The purpose of this paper is to examine what the research has to say about the role of the teacher-librarian as a media specialist and specifically the way in which the teacher-librarian in collaboration with the classroom teacher can teach information literacy skills.4 U5S"P5 V S2U )V3U#SI address the following questions in the literature review:1. According to current research, what are some of the roles that teacher-librarians occupy in the school, and what is the most common role for the teacher-librarian to function as?2. What information literacy skills do teacher-librarians instruct in public schools?What are some successful techniques for teaching information literacy skills to elementary school students?3L2UVUS"#D6 -VDMU7V8I examine the literature through the theoretical framework of cognitive constructivism. I am particularly influenced by Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development (Piaget, 1950) in which he maintains that children progress through four stages of cognitive development as they mature from an infant to an adolescent. During these stages, children create knowledge from their experiences and increase their cognitive ability when they are motivated to perform an action such as dealing with an unfamiliar situation. Children then use what Piaget called the processes of assimilation and accommodation to process this new information and increase their understanding of the world. Pulaski (1980) contends that Piaget meant that children simply cannot think in the same way that an adult does because the child “does not yet have the logical structures, the organizations of thought, and the methods of reasoning that would enable him to deal with adult problems” (Pulaski, 1980, p. 12). The child must pass logically through each stage of cognitive development before attaining the ability to cope with and solve problems that require higher level thinking skills.I am interested in this theory because I have often witnessed this phenomenon in the classroom. Some children have difficulty understanding a new concept; these students need extra help (and a different method of instruction) learning a skill before they can build upon this knowledge. In other words, these children cannot learn further strategies or concepts until they understand the first one. In contrast, other students grasp these concepts immediately and are ready to move on. In addition, Richmond states that there are also those who will never attain the final stage of cognitive development (Richmond, 1970).42P#6 5"PThis scenario of differing abilities can be a challenge for teachers who have thirty students, but it is the reality in elementary classrooms in my school district today. I am aware of this situation; are there teaching strategies that work well in this case in terms of information literacy instruction? A knowledge of these strategies and of the many roles of the teacher- librarian will help to prepare me for my future position as a librarian.5TI2L1FN *1 s1LIRELARI RI%1I'This literature review is comprised of two sections. Part One discusses the various roles of teacher-librarians today, and which role is the most frequently performed in public schools. At the end of this section there are comments about these roles. Part Two of the review examines research pertaining to information literacy skills taught by the teacher-librarian, as well as describing some techniques for facilitating the instruction of these skills.The role of the teacher-librarian can take many forms, and researchers are divided into four main groups as to what focus this position should take in the 21st century. Some scholars argue that the most important function of this person is to be a leader within the institution, while others state that promoting a love of reading and lifelong learning is the most critical aspect. Still others declare that giving instruction in information literacy skills and collaborating with teachers are the main goals, while some researchers say that the librarian must act as a guide for new information technologies. The Canadian Association for School Libraries also asserts its views with a comprehensive list of competencies for teacher-librarians found on its website.In contrast to this literature stands the Information Technology Resource Document (K-7) that is published by the British Columbia Ministry of Education. This document outlines some of the specific information literacy skills that students must successfully demonstrate at each grade level from Kindergarten to Grade 7. Information literacy is defined by the American Library Association (2006, Tfl) as “the set of skills needed to find, retrieve, analyze, and use information”. The Canadian Association for School Libraries describes a person as being information literate when that person is able to demonstrate a list of nine skills, such as being able to apply “information strategically to solve personal and social problems” (Asselin, Oberg,6and Branch, 2003, p. 5). In this province, the Ministry of Education states that in elementary school these skills should be integrated across the curriculum rather than being taught in a separate course as they are in the secondary school grades. In the latter, separate classes are taught for information technology which incorporate information literacy skills. In elementary school this goal of integration can be hard to achieve in a classroom that has only one or two computers and a teacher that is not a highly skilled information media specialist. In this case, the librarian often delivers the instruction because this might be one of his or her areas of specialization for which he or she attends in-service meetings and professional development seminars to remain up-to-date.But exactly which information literacy skills do these teacher-librarians instruct? This topic will be explored in Part Two of this paper, along with a discussion of successful strategies that teacher-librarians use.)DVS FPU1 L2U R6U  S2U LUD#2UV96":VDV"DPThe research articles reviewed in this first section are examples of critical conceptional analysis that examine and interpret concepts and existing literature. Many of the writers of this literature are leading scholars in their field, such as Asselin, Doiron, Branch, Kapitzke, Bruce, Brown, Crowley, and Murray. Several of these researchers, including Kapitzke and Bruce, draw heavily upon Foucault’s theory of the relationship among knowledge, power, and discourse as they “explore the tension” (Kapitzke and Bruce, 2007, p. xxvi) that exists between the concept of the library as it was to how it is changing along with today’s society and the use of technology. Certainly there is also a tension amongst school librarians as they struggle to adapt to this changing demand. The role of the librarian is in a state of flux; researchers have many views as to the most effective roles for teacher-librarians to pursue. Four main categories emerge from the7literature: the roles of leader, promoter of a love of reading and lifelong learning, information media specialist, and guide.L2U LUD#2UV96":VDV"DP D5 D sUD!UVA perspective that repeatedly emerges in research articles is the concept of the teacher- librarian as instructional leader (Branch and Oberg, 2001) or educational leader (G.R. Brown, 2001). A variation on this theme is the belief that the librarian should provide “learning leadership” (Sykes, 2001, p. 5) for the school by applying recent advances in brain research to information literacy instruction.According to Branch and Oberg, the role of instructional leader is the most essential component of the librarian’s job. However, in their view this position involves planning leadership activities at both the school and at the district level, as well as collaborating with teachers and instructing students. This belief is also shared by G.R. Brown (2001), Asselin (2003, 2004), and Doiron (1999) as they postulate that the most effective teacher-librarians are those who serve as the leaders of curriculum change in their schools. All three of these scholars state that this is an exciting time in the field of education worldwide, and that librarians must be at the vanguard of curriculum design to help students develop into successful and skilled learners. Another researcher, J. Brown (1998), echoes this philosophy and declares that teacher- librarians must “place a priority on staff development and school-wide improvement initiatives”(p. 20).Sykes (2001) goes one step further with her hypothesis that the librarian should also be knowledgeable about the latest brain research and how it can be applied to learning. By demonstrating leadership in the school regarding curriculum development and learning techniques, the librarian can transmit his or her knowledge to students and staff.8This knowledge is important because it may include the latest aspects of communication and information technology and, at the very least, a thorough understanding of research and study skills. Classroom teachers are not all specialists in the area of computer technology, and yet children in British Columbia are expected to be proficient users of information technology tools by the time they get to secondary school. Teachers often need support to facilitate this goal. Today’s teacher-librarians are adapting to the new challenges posed by the electronic age and the most recent graduates of librarianship programs are well versed in information literacy skills.It only makes sense to encourage these professionals to take a leadership role if they are able to provide an improved learning environment for students without sacrificing basic library services. These services include helping children and teachers find books and other media for informational and recreational purposes. It is worth noting that at the time their articles were published Branch (2001), Brown (1998), and Sykes (2001) were administrators and did not work in a school library. Their emphasis on the role of leader, with the many time-consuming duties that this entails, may come at the expense of serving the needs of the main patrons: the students.L2U LUD#2UV96":VDV"DP D5 D )VMSUV  D s;U  RUD!"P DP! s"U6P sUDVP"P Throughout the history of school libraries in North America, one of the main duties of the librarian has been to amass, organize, and maintain an up-to-date collection of books. Although more and more of these institutions are beginning to add virtual collections (multimedia in electronic form), for the most part these libraries still contain shelves filled with literature.A growing trend amongst some researchers in this digital era is to declare that even though the physical dimensions of the building may change, the primary goal of the librarian should be to promote a love of reading and of lifelong learning. Buzzeo (2007) states that the library must reflect this goal and it should transform into a center to assist students with reading skills. She9declares that children sometimes need help rediscovering the joy of reading for entertainment when they are constantly being tested on their reading skills as a result of the accountability measures currently in place. Crowley (2008) goes a step further and argues that librarians can remain relevant by “giving up the information illusion” (p. 46) and concentrating on promoting a passion for reading instead of technology education.While Buzzeo’s objective is admirable, it downplays the importance of information literacy skills and Crowley’s theory is almost detrimental to the prescribed Student Learning Outcomes mandated by the Ministry of Education in British Columbia. If librarians do not incorporate some of these skills into the library setting, they risk losing a sense of relevance for their patrons. Students already turn in increasing numbers to the Internet instead of to the library to find information for homework. Teacher-librarians need to develop a complex role that blends many abilities to best serve their community.L2U LUD#2UV96":VDV"DP D5 DP 1PVMDS"P OU!"D TYU#"D6"5S The majority of research discussed in this paper stresses the philosophy that information literacy skills are vital for today’s students, and that the librarian is the best teacher to disseminate this knowledge. Indeed, more than half of these articles (as well as the entire book edited by Kapitzke and Bruce) claim that this is the primary role of the librarian, with the exception of the piece by Crowley.According to Starkman (2007), teacher-librarians are “multitasking information managers -  part teachers, part technologists” (p. 22). They teach, collaborate with staff, and network with other librarians to stay informed of the latest technical developments. Murray (2000), Simpson (1996), and Boardman (1994) insist that collaboration is a vital aspect of the position of information media specialist so that knowledge and skills are disseminated throughout the10school. This combination of roles is the best approach for public schools in British Columbia so that students and staff can use technology to find information, make sense of it, and create new knowledge. Starkman posits that this is one way in which to help educators integrate technology across the curriculum. In fact, the British Columbia Ministry of Education (1996) states that this method of integration is the preferred approach for ensuring that students in the province meet the Kindergarten -  Grade 7 Learning Outcomes that are published in the Information Technology Integrated Resource Document.Other researchers, Murray (2000), Rader (1997), and Williams and Zald (1997) claim that librarians must take on a combination of no less than four equal roles: teacher, collaborator, information specialist, and program administrator (p. 26). Simpson (1996) favours the same arrangement, while Boardman (1994) agrees with only the first three aspects. Lehmann (2007) merely stresses the position of information specialist, but adds that librarians must serve as guides for students as they seek and interpret information (p. 20). He cites the declining support for these roles in the United States as school boards are forced to emphasize accountability measures in the wake of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. Since librarians do not have their own class set of students whom they can test in terms of reading improvement, the value of library instruction and activities are hard to assess and thus risk losing support from the government (p. 20).Although this law is not applicable in Canada, there is also a very strong drive towards accountability in this province. As a teacher in the Burnaby School District, I have had to administer the Foundation Skills Assessment tests to my students on behalf of the Ministry of Education. This activity takes the place of valuable instruction time and the tests are often held in the library, effectively also cancelling library classes.11L2U LUD#2UV96":VDV"DP D5 D G "!UThe final role advocated by the researchers discussed here is that of a guide. Barack(2006) reviewed comments by teacher-librarians and notes that they endorse the concept of guiding students as the primary task of their profession. These librarians see their workplace as a gathering site for people and that the librarian should act more like a friend than an instructor. The location must change in appearance and function in order to remain relevant for the demands and desires of today’s members of society. Lehmann (2007) also alluded to this idea in his article even though he definitely envisions the librarian as more of an instructor.Ensuring the survival of the library to accommodate the needs of society are essential goals for the teacher-librarian, but more structured interaction with students and staff members is necessary to provide the delivery of a comprehensive information literacy program. The role of guide is too casual to guarantee that the requirements of all students will be met in this regard.L2U R6U  S2U s":VDV"DP D##V!"P S S2U 2DPD!"DP E55#"DS"P  T#26 s":VDV"U5The needs of students in Canada are recognised as the top priority for the Ontario-based Canadian Association of School Libraries. To this end, the association publishes a list of competencies for teacher-librarians on its website. The list is divided into two sections: personal and professional competencies. The first section asserts that the librarian must perform no less than ten roles (including that of instructional leader, information media specialist, teacher, manager, and curriculum developer) in his or her professional capacity. Each of these roles is mentioned as either a primary or a secondary goal in the above research articles. The second part of the list gives an account of eleven personal attributes that the ideal teacher-librarian should have. These include flexibility, commitment, and an ability to work effectively with staff. The12website gives a detailed description of each item and can be used as a template for librarians to aspire to.L2U 1PVMDS"P LU#2P6$ RU5 V#U B# MUPS </9=>In 1996 the Ministry of Education published the Information Technology Resource Document which prescribed student learning outcomes for children in Grades K-7. This document states that by Grade 7, students should be able to use information technology tools (such as computers and software) to find, save, analyse, and organize information. They should also be able to solve problems using this technology, and know how to use different search tools. Students must demonstrate their effective usage of these tools through multimedia presentations that combine information from various electronic sources. The Ministry has not updated this document since 1996 but has mandated specific learning outcomes at each grade level for students in secondary school. Although the document outlines some of the information literacy skills that children should demonstrate in grades K to 7, it does not list all of these skills. The rest are included as student learning outcomes in the Integrated Resource Packages for the Language Arts curriculum for those grades.B"5# 55"PThe role of leader can be a difficult one to fulfil in conjunction with daily library tasks and budget cuts. As a teacher in an elementary school in this province, I am very aware of just how much assistance students (especially young ones) require from the librarian during visits to the library. In my school district, these professionals are victims of budget cuts and are assigned for limited hours each week to a school. Students are able to visit the library for only one weekly scheduled period but if the librarian is busy with leadership activities it is possible that even this service might cease (unless the library has a flexible schedule). If this staff member also has tofunction as an instructional leader, I recommend that the profession be fully funded by the school district and the provincial government to enable each school to have a fulltime librarian.The role of a promoter of a love of reading and lifelong learning is an admirable one and teacher-librarians may reflect that one of the aims of a school library is to supply material for recreational purposes. These professionals must also bear in mind the mandates of their school districts and governments regarding the prescribed Student Learning Outcomes and information literacy instruction by teacher-librarians.Almost all of the researchers quoted in this literature review agree that the role of information media specialist is an important one for teacher-librarians today. If governments were to concentrate less on standardized testing and more on supporting the information literacy and technology curriculum, students would become better prepared for their future careers in the digital era.2P#6 5"P5 RUDV!"P S2U s"SUVDS VU "P )DVS FPUThe four differing viewpoints of the changing role of the teacher-librarian may serve to weaken the support for the profession by the various school boards. This is problematic because if librarians cannot agree on what their role should entail and their educational value is not clearly voiced to the school district, the staffing level of librarians will decrease. This is a very real concern in British Columbia and it has occurred for years in the Burnaby School District. Most of the forty elementary schools in this district do not have a fulltime librarian and some libraries are closed for two days a week. Even the high schools employ some part-time staff. As a result, the children receive limited instruction and attention from the librarian for reading and information literacy instruction. These subjects are crucial for teaching students how to find, evaluate, organize, and communicate information effectively.14Other controversies in the field of school librarianship include a lack of consensus about what services libraries should offer and what these institutions should look like in this era of changing values. Some of these places allow students to use Facebook, play games and check their email, while others only allow patrons to use the computers for research purposes. Some secondary schools encourage students to gather, drink coffee and have discussions (Starkman, 2007) but this is not the case at the moment in the Burnaby School District. The library environment in this school district is evolving to deliver more information literacy instruction but the social networking aspect is not yet a focus.)DVS L71 1PVMDS"P s"SUVD#$ TSVDSU"U5 The literature reveals that teacher-librarians instruct a wide variety of information literacy skills in both elementary and secondary public schools. These skills fall into one or more of six main categories. With his Big 6 Skills model, Eisenberg (1997, 1998) succinctly classifies these abilities as task definition, information seeking strategies, the finding and retrieving of information, the usage of information (which includes taking notes), synthesis (the organizing and presenting stage), and evaluation of the process and the products. Eisenberg’s concept is interesting because he bases his six steps on Bloom’s taxonomy in addition to Piaget’s developmental theories. Milam asserts that “every two steps in the Big 6 model roughly relate to one of Piaget’s three stages of cognitive development: pre-operational, concrete-operational, and formal operational” (Milam, 2004).Milam presents additional information literacy models in her article Destination Information: a Roadmap for the Journey (2004). She notes that other educators, such as Kuhlthau, configure the categories into seven steps by separating the synthesis stage into two parts: organizing and then presenting the information. She quotes another library professional,15McKenzie, as using seven categories to divide up the research process. Milam lists these stages as using the abilities of “questioning, planning, gathering, sorting and sifting, synthesizing, evaluating, and reporting” (Milam, 2004). Stripling and Pitts create a total of ten groups of information literacy skills, by adding steps involving topic selection, creating an overview of the topic, and refining the topic. These school library media professors base their model on constructivist learning theory as well as Bloom’s taxonomy (Milam, 2004). Still other teacher- librarians such as Yucht use a problem-solving model (with six steps) or an inquiry-based one (developed in i997 by Pappas and Tepe). Milam favours the latter approach in her own model which consists of the four steps of inquiring, searching, organizing, and sharing.The British Columbia Teacher-Librarians’ Association (2001) created a research model that uses a five step process. The Research Quest Student Guide classifies these stages as follows: focus, find and filter, work with the information, communicate, and reflect. These correspond directly with Eisenberg’s model with the exception of Eisenberg’s stages three and four which the BCTLA has combined.Teacher-librarians in elementary schools utilize many techniques and tools when giving information literacy lessons. An analysis of some of the most successful of these can be shown to include the following strategies. These are grouped into six categories using Eisenberg’s model.The first category is task definition. Brown and Dotson (2007) state that they concentrate on helping their students develop and improve their research questions during this stage of the information literacy process. Murray (1999) uses a concept mapping strategy to help students accomplish this feat. Eisenberg (1997) declares that students should first determine the nature of the problem that needs to be solved, and then work out what information is required to solve the16problem. He asks students to keep a “task definition log” for this purpose, which enables class members to revisit and discuss their attempts at refining research questions as time goes by.Strategies that involve determining possible sources of information and their relevance to the research question comprise the second group of information literacy skills. Eisenberg (1997) maintains that brainstorming is the quintessential technique here, in addition to narrowing down the list of sources. He also maintains that it is important for children to widen their concept of sources to include interviews with people and visiting local landmarks and landforms.The third category concerns the finding and retrieving of information. For this group Eisenberg (1998) advises the use of indexes as a way to save time and locate information effectively. He demonstrates to students how indexes are commonly used in everyday life situations, especially the World Wide Web. He also gives lessons regarding keyword search strategies and Boolean search terms in which students utilize graphic organizers such as charts and mind maps. Murray (1999) advocates instruction of keyword search strategies and Boolean search terms “in order to use Internet search engines effectively”.The next category is the usage of information which includes deciding which facts are relevant and then extracting these using note-taking skills. Reading comprehension and critical thinking skills play a crucial role in this part of the information literacy process because the ability to use information effectively is not possible without first understanding it. Teacher- librarians such as Jansen (1996) and Murray (1999) agree that students need a lot of instruction and guidance when it comes to recognising which pieces of text are relevant and how to evaluate material. Jansen (1996) devised her Trash’n ’Treasure method of note-taking which emphasizes the skill of skimming for information first before extracting the needed facts. She states that the process of note-taking can be classified into four groups: citation, summary, paraphrase, and17quotation. She discusses the difference between these four types and the need to give students assistance when teaching them how to take notes correctly. Eisenberg (1998) stresses the complexity of this stage as being one where students must “engage the information in a source” before they can extract and use information. Brown and Dotson (2007) concentrate on discriminating between fact, point of view, and opinion in a collaboration project with teachers, teacher-librarians, and students.Eisenberg (1998) names the fifth category of information literacy techniques synthesis. Using these skills, students organize information into a shape that makes sense and present the result. He suggests activities such as putting information into categories or onto a continuum, arranging it alphabetically or in units of time, or writing it into a story. Eisenberg also mentions a number of ways to present finished products, such as projects, tests, essays, posters, Web pages, and multimedia presentations. He notes that the process of making and sharing decisions is a form of presentation too. Murray (1999), Leer, (2003), and Troutner (1999) recommend using Web Quests as a method for students to synthesize information and Leer proposes that students create their own Web Quests as a way to demonstrate their knowledge. Lamb and Johnson(2007) advocate the use of wikis to enable students to “apply essential information skills to authentic activities.” Using this tool, children can easily save their notes, share them, collaborate on group projects, and present their findings.The final category of techniques involves the evaluation of the process as a whole, and of the products that the students create. Eisenberg (1998) notes that students often do not carry out this step, in part because they are not accustomed to assess their own performance. He cautions that this is a vital part of the information literacy process because students become responsible for their work and thus “become active participants in their learning” (Eisenberg, 1998). Here18students learn to check the accuracy of the facts that they use, and whether the data is appropriate. They also learn to look back on their research question, and see whether they have collected enough information (or the appropriate type) in order to answer that question thoroughly.2P#6 5"P5 RUDV!"P S2U s"SUVDS VU "P )DVS L7The literature demonstrates that teacher-librarians actively promote many information literacy skills in public schools today, other than what Eisenberg (1998) calls evaluation (self- assessment). This latter technique is not discussed often in the literature; perhaps fewer librarians are delivering this type of instruction. The first five categories of strategies are very well represented in articles, books, and web sites published by teacher-librarians. Scholarly articles as well as comments posted on blogs, forums, and online book purchasing sites attest to the success of these techniques.School districts in British Columbia are recognising that these skills are crucial for students to succeed in life today as we are surrounded by ever-increasing amounts of information. Because of this, some districts have developed criteria for information literacy programs within the library resource centers. Others rely on Ministry of Education documents such as the Language Arts I.R.P., which lists student learning outcomes that encompass information literacy skills.-"PD6 2P#6 5"P5As students turn to the Internet instead of books to find information, the role of the teacher-librarian must change in order to serve the needs of the students and their classroom teachers in a more effective manner. The librarian is evolving from an organizer of books to an information and resource manager, a multimedia specialist, and an instructor of information19literacy skills. Teacher-librarians that have a repertoire of successful strategies for the instruction of these skills can facilitate valuable learning in their school.20TI2L1FN ?1 2FNNI2L1FNT LF )RE2L12IAfter examining the literature, I find that I make several links between the theory and my practice. The first entails an understanding of the role that I see myself performing in my position as a new librarian. I addition to this, I have a better awareness of the steps required for achieving information literacy and a knowledge of effective teaching strategies to facilitate this goal. I demonstrate this learning with the creation of a research unit that integrates science with the development of information literacy skills.In order to assist me in the task of selecting a role, I examine the guidelines set out in a document prepared by my employer, the Burnaby School District, in 2001. The document is titled Library Resource Centers in Burnaby Schools and it outlines the library program, its collection, its partnerships, and its technology goals. The text also includes a list of teacher- librarian competencies that are similar to those stated by the Canadian Association of School Libraries. The competences for this school district involve qualities of leadership, a commitment to lifelong learning, support for students and teachers, library management, and effective instruction techniques (particularly in the area of information literacy). I therefore see my role as a combination of the first three roles from the literature review: a leader as well as a promoter of a love of reading and lifelong learning, and as an information media specialist.In today’s increasingly digital world, the information and expertise that I gain regarding educational applications for current technology and multimedia tools may be of some value to future students and colleagues. I will be able to pass on my skills to these groups and collaborate with them in school-wide learning initiatives such as literacy programs. Another way in which I may share knowledge is in the development of curriculum to support learning objectives.21The student learning outcomes for information literacy is spread throughout four separate Integrated Resource Packages: Language Arts, Science, Social Studies, and Fine Arts. Because of this distribution, educators may have a difficult task ensuring that they address the entire required student learning outcomes for information literacy. One solution to this dilemma is to develop curriculum specifically to fulfil this aim; it is for this reason that fuse the strategies from the literature review and create an integrated research unit. This unit is for Grade 7 teachers in British Columbia who already plan to instruct a Life Science unit on ecosystems, and who wish to add a student research project to their lessons.EP 1PSUVDSU! RU5UDV#2 AP"S1 C MDP 1MYD#S5 P s#D6 I#5$5SUM5 Although this unit includes lesson plans for each stage of the process required for achieving information literacy, it focuses on categories two through five from Eisenberg’s Big 6 Skills model. These are also known as steps two through four of the Research Quest Student Guide published by the British Columbia Teacher-Librarians’ Association (2001). The literature review discusses the six categories that Eisenberg (1997, 1998) classifies as the stages of information literacy skill acquisition. These are the stages of task definition, information seeking strategies, the finding and retrieving of information, the usage of information, synthesis, and evaluation of the process and the products. I base my Science unit upon Eisenberg’s model because these are the same steps that I find work well with my Grade 7 classes. His model includes one extra step than the BCTLA’s Research Quest, which allows for more in-depth lessons for students. In addition to this, I subscribe to his concept that the skill development ties in with the stages of Bloom’s taxonomy and to Piaget’s developmental theories. Eisenberg’s model is not just practical, but it is theoretically sound as well.22RDS"PD6UThe Ministry of Education in British Columbia mandates that educators of Grade 7 students in the province teach a Life Science unit on ecosystems. The Science K to 7 Integrated Resource Package (I.R.P.) provides a long list of the vocabulary items, knowledge, skills and attitudes that the students must learn during the course of study of this complex Science unit.One of the prescribed learning outcomes states that students must investigate the impact of humans on local ecosystems and determine ways to protect the ecosystem. My unit that follows addresses this learning outcome, and is intended to complement a larger Science unit that meets the demands of the other learning outcomes.This unit also meets nine prescribed student-learning outcomes for information literacy. I have selected at least one outcome from the Language Arts, Fine Arts, Science, or Social Studies Integrated Resource Package for each lesson. Some lessons have more than one prescribed learning outcome and I include these next to the specific lesson objectives. I have included two prescribed learning outcomes at the Grade 6 level because although the students should already know these, the outcomes are highly relevant and the topic is continued throughout the Grade 7 year.-# 5 4 U5S"P5I begin by posing two questions that serve as an overall objective to frame the unit: In what ways do humans have an impact on local ecosystems? What are some ways in which humans can protect these ecosystems? The students will be conducting research in groups, and each group will modify these questions slightly so that the queries are focused upon a specific local ecosystem.23L2U 1PSUVDSU! AP"S1 DP F;UV;"U7This unit encompasses fourteen lessons, and has an extension activity, which could add at least one more lesson. This plan integrates the development of information literacy skills along with skills in the areas of language arts, science, fine arts, and social studies. A vital component of this unit is the creation of a wiki by students; students use this wiki for collaborating within their group, and for presenting their research. I designed the lessons so that they follow Eisenberg’s Big 6 Skills model in the same order as his stages, except for the insertion of the creation of the wiki (task level four) in between two of the stage three tasks so that students have somewhere to start organizing their notes. Each lesson has activities that support the learning objectives for that tutorial. The overview is located in Appendix A.sUDVP"P RU5 V#U5Most of the resources for this unit are available on the Internet on the World Wide Web and from databases accessible within the Burnaby School District and the public library system. I have listed specific web sites with the lessons on the overview. Students may also use print resources from libraries. A list of five evaluated learning resources is located in Appendix B.E55U55MUPS DP! I;D6 DS"PThroughout this unit, students perform self-assessment surveys to help them complete various tasks and complete the research project. They also reflect upon the learning process as a whole, and on what they have learned about local ecosystems. The students’ assessment in this case is authentic assessment because the project that they create is an example of a meaningful task.I will use these student assessments to determine whether my teaching strategies are effective, and to explore ways in which I can improve my practice. I can also use the assessments24to see whether the classroom activities enable the students to meet the specific lesson objectives. In this latter task I will also have the benefit of the results of my evaluations of the group projects (the wikis). I will use the Performance Task Assessment Criteria sheet that students help to create in Lesson 1 as a basis for evaluating the wikis.LUD#2"P S2U AP"SThis unit is designed to be used by the teacher-librarian with Grade 7 classes that are already studying ecosystems, and who are already proficient in note-taking skills. Alternatively, Grade 7 classroom teachers could add this unit to their curriculum if the teacher-librarian is only available on a part-time basis. A sample lesson plan is located in Appendix C.2P#6 5"PInformation literacy is becoming an increasingly important skill for today’s students to have and to maintain. Many children are digital natives and yet they still need a great deal of instruction to be able to locate and use authoritative information in an effective manner. I created this unit to help address this problem and to give students a virtual toolkit of resources to use when solving information questions. The logical progression of the tasks in the overview demonstrates my connection from the literature in Section Two to my own practice.25TI2L1FN -1 2FN2sAT1FNTAt the beginning of this paper, I asked a number of questions about the roles that teacher- librarians occupy in schools, and what information literacy skills they instruct. I also wanted to ascertain which techniques could be considered as the most successful methods of teaching these skills to elementary school students.I then explored the literature through the theoretical framework of cognitive constructivism and discovered that in general, researchers fall into one of four groups regarding what focus the role of the teacher-librarian should take today. These groups stress the roles of leader, a promoter of a love of reading and lifelong learning, information literacy specialist, and guide.The literature also revealed that teacher-librarians instruct a wide variety of information literacy skills in both elementary and secondary public schools. These skills fall into one or more of six main categories, which can be classified according to Eisenberg’s Big 6 Skills model (1997, 1998) as task definition, information seeking strategies, the finding and retrieving of information, the usage of information, synthesis, and evaluation of the process and the products.In order to synthesize my own learning from the research, I examined guidelines for teacher-librarians published in a document by my school district. I also scrutinized the list of teacher-librarian competencies issued by the Canadian Association of School Libraries. With this knowledge I created a teaching unit that integrates science with the development of information literacy skills. I developed the curriculum to address as many of the required Grade 7 student learning outcomes for information literacy as possible. The result is a product that I can use when I begin my new career as a teacher-librarian: a unit overview of fourteen lessons that looks at human impacts on local ecosystems.26The traditional role of the teacher-librarian is evolving in the 21st century as students are able to create and access more information through the use of new technologies. In order for the teacher-librarian to stay relevant and to be able to provide valuable services for the students and staff, this professional must adapt to the changing needs of the patrons and become aware of effective information literacy instruction strategies. The librarian is not just a staff member who performs book exchanges with classes; he or she needs to be an information and resource manager, a multimedia specialist, and an instructor of information literacy skills (particularly those that involve digital media). Teacher-librarians with a thorough knowledge of these skills can facilitate valuable learning and collaborating within their school.27E))INB1@ E1EP 1PSUVDSU! RU5UDV#2 AP"S1 C MDP 1MYD#S5 P s#D6 I#5$5SUM5GVD!U =T#"UP#U DP! 1PVMDS"P s"SUVD#$ sU55P528sITToN#sU55PLY"#&" (T8"66<5"A5SDU6U;U65>GVD!U = 1HRH)H)VU5#V":U! sUDVP"P F S#MU5 VM S2U &H2H O"P"5SV$  I! #DS"P 7U: 5"SU <5UU VUUVUP#U5>TYU#""# sU55P F:3U#S";U5TS !UPS5 7"66 :U D:6U S1E#S";"S$ V LD58S OUUS F:3U#S";U50 Introduction to local ecosystems and ways in which humans impact theseecosystemstaskdefinitionT#"D6 TS !"U51-apply criticalthinking skills -includingcomparing,classifying,inferring,imagining,verifying,using analogies,identifyingrelationships,summarizing,and drawingconclusions -to a range ofproblemsand issues-define vocabulary related to project -list local ecosystems -select one local ecosystem to research-watch YouTube video about Exxon Valdez oil spill athttp://www.voutube.eom/w atch?v=G 1 U-iWUPO Y A: discuss impact on environment-define vocabulary related to project e.g.: impact -brainstorm list o f local ecosystems e.g.: Bums Bog -introduce group research projects and discuss performance task assessment criteria. Use template for web pages shown on httD://www.bcps.ore/offices /lis/models/tiDs/Assessment s/visual.htm as example. Work together with class to fine-tune the criteria to suit this project, -explain that purpose of research project is to answer 2 questions: In what ways do humans have an impact on local ecosystems? What are some ways in which humans can protect these ecosystems?-students form groups and select a local ecosystem to research* Determining the range of sources to use to find informationinformationseekingstrategiesT#"D6 TS !"U51-apply criticalthinking skills -includingcomparing,classifying,inferring,imagining,verifying,-identify range of possible sources of information-evaluate these sources to establish which are the most relevant and useful-use brainstorm and narrow technique to list possible sources of information -identify criteria forjudging which information is most useful-apply criteria to information sources found -hand out the final version29using analogies, identifying relationships, summarizing, and drawing conclusions -  to a range of problems and issues Fine Arts: -demonstrate leadership and responsibility within the groupof the Performance Task Assessment Criteria sheet that students gave input on in lesson 1. This constitutes the criteria for the final group project; discuss with the class, -students decide within their groups which pieces o f information they are responsible for finding to meet the criteria o f the group project.3 How toevaluatewebsitesinformationseekingstrategiesSocial Studies:-apply critical thinking skills -  including comparing, classifying, inferring, imagining, verifying, using analogies, identifying relationships, summarizing, anddrawing conclusions -  to a range of problems and issues -evaluate the credibility and reliability of selected sources (Gr.6)-determine criteria for establishing what makes a web site relevant -analyse web sites for authority, accuracy, currency, and ease of use-brainstorm what attributes would make a web site (URL) useful for this research project -discuss what makes a web site a reliable source of information, view lessons httt>://old.oslis.ore/elementa rv/index.nhn?nage=evaluate -analyse fake web site: Pacific Northwest Tree Octopus athttn:// zanatoDi.net/treeocton us/-analyse authentic web site: B.C. Ministry o f Environment, Ecosystems www.env.20v.bc.ca/sei/van gulf/ecosvstems.html -direct students’ attention to the wealth o f information on this site, and explore the links with the class. Demonstrate layout of information regarding ecosystems; class research project criteria is similar4 Internetsearchstrategiesand use ofindexes,Booleanoperators,andkeywordsfindingandretrievinginformationLanguage Arts:-read fluently and demonstrate comprehension of grade-appropriate information texts with some specialized language and some complex ideas, including -visual or graphic materials -reports and articles -appropriate web-find sources of information using indexes, Boolean operators, and keyword searches-access information within these sources-discuss indexes; explain that Google is an index and describe how it works. Demonstrate cached pages, -discuss keyword searching and importance o f correct spelling; do activities from htto ://www. kidsc lick.ore/'w ows/index.html -explain Boolean operators and give handouts with Venn diagrams to demonstrate what information is captured from searches using30sites “AND” vs. “OR” vs. “NOT”; do class activity online using www.eooale.com -compare and contrast results o f  online searches using various terms5 Using a wiki for taking notes and organizing informationuse of informationSocial Studies:-compile a body o f information from a range o f sources Science: -evaluate human impacts on local ecosystems Fine Arts: -demonstrate leadership and responsibility within the group-create and use an online tool to store, organize, and present information found during research process-divide up group tasks and define their own area o f responsibility for research project-introduce wiki format for note-taking and organising information for group research projects -demonstrate Wikipedia web site as example of wikihttn://www.wikroedia.ora/ and alsohttD:// www. wikiforkids. co m-view Common Craft video: Wikis in Plain English htto://www.commoncraft.c om/video-wikis-Dlain- enalish and YouTube video: pbwiki- Getting StartedhttD://www.voutube.com/w atch? v=A204JcGOiY 0 -discuss privacy settings and my criteria regarding membership, and then have each group create a wiki on httD:/'/Dbwiki.com/ and name it. Group members must each create a linked page on the wiki.-remind class about project criteria and the need for a bibliography. Discuss organization o f  notes on each linked page to satisfy research questions; students in group each pick one focus and all contribute to bibliography -discuss how to set goals for project completion; have students complete Research Helper handout httn://www3 .svnroatico.ca/s andra.huahes/sandra.huahes /research/task.html6 DatabasesearchstrategiesfindingandretrievinginformationLanguage Arts:-read fluently and demonstrate comprehension of grade-appropriate-understand what a database is and why they exist-realize that reliable and authoritative-discuss difference between indexes and databases, and explain situation when using a database to locate information is an efficient31information texts with some specialized language and some complex ideas, including -visual or graphic materials -reference materials -appropriate web sitesinformation can be found on databases -locate information quickly and easily on a databasesearch strategy -demonstrate how to access list o f databases for children that Burnaby School District subscribes to, as well as the ones available from the Burnaby Public Library httn://www.bDl.bc.ca/-in computer lab, have class follow my instruction and access:a) World Book Kids: Science/Math—> Life Science—> Ecology (lots o f information here)b) EBSCO Kids Search - Elementary: do a scavenger hunt for information herec) Atlas o f Canada—► Environment—* Ecology httD://atlas.nrcan.ec.ca/site/ enelish/maDs/environment/ ecoloev#comt>onentsd) Encyclopedia o f ESC—> Fraser River (estuary is wetland), Bums Bog (wetland), Burrard Inlet (shoreline is riparian zone), Lynn Creek (riparian zone), Boundary Bay (wetland), Grouse Mountain (second growth forest), and Maplewood Flats (wetland). httr>://sd41.bc.ca/ebsco/e) Canadian Encyclopedia —i► Pacific Marine Ecozone article has info on human activitieshttD://www.thecanadianenc vclooedia.com/index.cfm?P eNm=TCESubiects&Param s—J 1= Locatingrelevantinformationfrom printsourcesusingonlinecataloguesfindingandretrievinginformationsDP DU Arts:-read fluently and demonstrate comprehension of grade-appropriate information texts with some specialized language and some complex ideas, including -non-fiction books-use the Dewey Decimal System and various online library catalogue systems to find relevant information in libraries for their research projects-review main Dewey Decimal concepts with class using Do We Really Know Dewey web site httn://librarv.thi nkauest.org /5002/index.shtml or show Dewey Decimal Classification multimedia tour (first two sections only)httn:/7www.oclc.org/dewev/ resources/tour/ddc 1 .html32-textbooks and other instructional materials -visual or graphic materials -reports and articles -reference materials -appropriate web sites-discuss online library catalogues and explain how the Dewey Decimal System is used within these systems. Teach students how to do title, author, and subject searches; have students practice these searches and record results on worksheet, -discuss reference section and demonstrate how to find information in encyclopaedias, atlases, indexes, directories, and almanacs. Have students do a scavenger hunt for 3 pieces o f information and record on worksheet.8 Document­ing sources correctly: how to create a bibliographyuse of informationSocial Studies:-compile a body o f information from a range o f sources-document all sources o f information correctly using MLA style, and create a bibliography -recognise importance o f citing text and images accurately and avoiding plagiarism-introduce vocabulary: plagiarism, copyright, paraphrase, summarize -introduce concept of plagiarism and discuss ways to avoid it; view httD://elementarv.oslis.org/r esearch/citesource/'nlaaiaris m?searchterm=Dla2iarism -discuss format for citing sources; have students follow along and create a citation for each type of source onhttr>://elementarv.oslis.ora/r esources/cm/mlacitationse (e.g. book, webpage, etc.). Students may use this tool when creating their bibliographies.-explain alphabetical organization for final bibliography; students will need to edit wiki as citations are added to project9 Skimming,scanning,andextractingrelevantinformationuse of informationLanguage Arts:-read fluently and demonstrate comprehension of grade-appropriate information texts with some specialized language and some complex ideas, including-perform scanning and skimming techniques when reading in order to search for relevant information within a source-extract relevant information from sources using note- taking techniques -store extracted-explain difference between scanning and skimming for information, and the technique involved. Show www.onen.ac.uk/skillsforstudv/ fast-readina- techniaues.Dho web site for comparison.-brainstorm ways in which people use both techniques in everyday life (e.g. skim33-non-fiction books -textbooks and other instructional materials -visual or graphic materials-reports and articles reference materials -appropriate web sitesinformation on graphic organizers such as htto://www.<zreece.k 12.n v.us/instruction/ela/6- 12/T ools/classificationno tes.odf to use as a basis o f creating the linked pages on the wikia book cover, scan the TV schedule, scan headlines in a newspaper or magazine) -do skimming and scanning activities from htto://'www.basic-skills- wales.ora/bsastrateev/resou rces/How%20to%20Skim.S can.UK.ndf -review note-taking and paraphrasing skills -stress that good organisation o f notes is essential; provide graphic organizers and review how to classify notes. Information for research project should be stored on graphic organizers such as http://www.2reece.kl 2.nv.u s/i ns truction/ e 0 a/6- 02/T ools/'classificationnotes .pdf or on a separate folder on the computer’s hard drive before transferring it to the wiki. This will enable students to reorganize information and have a back-up file in case o f a problem with the wiki.0+ Organiza­tion of informationSynthesis T#"D6 TS !"U51-compile a body o f information from a range o f sources sDP DU EVS51 -read and view to improve and extend thinking, by:-analysing and evaluating ideas and information -summarizing and synthesiz­ing to create new ideas T#"UP#U1 -evaluate human impacts on local ecosystems-organize all information gathered from various sources for this project so far-self-assess how well the student has addressed the criteria o f this project, how well the research is going, and what steps still need to be completed-teach an information sorting activity to help students classify their notes into appropriate categories for the research project -revisit the Research Helper sheet from Lesson 5, and have each student perform a self-assessment o f how well the student has addressed the criteria of this project, how well the research is going, and what steps still need to be completed-revisit original criteria sheet for project and use the checklist Present/Publish Your Project available at http://sec0ndarv.0slis.0r2/pr esentnublish/nresentnublish p ro jec t; have students check off what parts they’ve completed and set goals to finish the rest3411 Adding information to the wiki andrefining itSynthesis -"PU EVS51-demonstrate an awareness that there are ethicalconsiderations involved in copying images -make 2-D and 3-D images: -using a variety o f  media -to communicate ideas-to illustrate and decorate-add notes from graphic organizers and saved files to the appropriate page or folder on the wiki-organize notes with titles and subtitles on the wiki-add graphics and images to the wiki-customize the template of the wiki and change the font or font colour-view pbwiki 2.0 for Education video at httn ://nb wiki .conV’content/v iewdemo and then give a teacher demonstration of how to add information to a wiki by creating folders, editing and saving pages, copying images in the public domain (or one’s own images), adding graphics and titles to the wiki, and changing fonts and templates. Have students practice and master each skill before proceeding to demonstrate the next one.-discuss the Creative Commons and copyright law regarding the copying o f text and images12 Preparationforpresentation and self- assessmentsSynthesisandevaluationT#"D6 TS !"U51-deliver a formal presentation on a selected issue or inquiry using two or more forms of representation-start the written self- assessment process of this project using the Performance Task Assessment Criteria sheet-rehearse oral presentation component along with multimedia demonstration o f project-use the Performance Task Assessment Criteria sheet from Lesson 2 to review the specific elements o f the project that will be marked. Students should use this sheet to rehearse the oral presentation o f the project, and to double-check that the entire project is completed.-students are to fill in their self-assessment o f the content and format sections o f their projects by next class-allow students to use the rest o f the class time to rehearse their presentations13 Grouppresenta­tions,student self- assessments, andreflectionsSynthesisandevaluationT#"D6 TS !"U51-deliver a formal presentation on a selected issue or inquiry using two or more forms of representation -defend a position on a contemporary or historical issue-"PU EVS51-express ideas-give multimedia presentation and self- assess their role and contribution to the group research project -reflect upon what they did well and how they could improve their skills or output in the future-listen to and view information about local ecosystems other than the one they researched-have students give group presentations o f finished research projects -ask students to complete their self-assessment o f the performance section of their projects on the Performance Task Assessment Criteria sheet, and hand it in -ask students to comment upon what they’ve learned about local ecosystems; have a class discussion about ways to conserve35and emotions using verbal and non-verbal communication <GVH(>these areas0- ReflectionsanddebriefingEvaluation T#"UP#U1-evaluate human impacts on local ecosystems T#"D6 TS !"U51 -reflect on and assess their speaking and listening, by -referring to class-generated criteria -considering and incorporating peer and adult feedback -setting goals and creating a plan for improvement -taking steps towardachieving goals-discuss information about local ecosystems -reflect upon what they did well and how they could improve their skills or output in the future-have students meet in groups and reflect upon:a) how well they think they did as a groupb) whether their wiki answered the research questionsc) the degree to which their presentation was able to inform the classd) whether the group’s research strategy worked welle) what they could do better for a similar project or if they have to make a wiki as a project-management tool when they are an adult -ask students to write an individual reflection about theresearch process -final wrap-up: class discussion and comments about the research process in general -extension activity: compare/contrast human impact in the 7 or 8 local ecosystems represented in these group wikis36E))INB1@ &1 I;D6 DSU! sUDVP"P RU5 V#U537I have evaluated these five digital resources using pages 59-60 of the British Columbia Ministry of Education guide for Evaluating, Selecting, and Managing Learning Resources. The guide is available online at http://www.bced.gov.bc.ca/irp/resdocs/esm guide.pdf.Answer key for this page:SA -  Strongly Agree D -  DisagreeA -  Agree SD -  Strongly DisagreeNA -  Not Applicable385* ■ S w h ih kNS  -  Nm  stuiAiHe f*r \ '7A  -  N<:<) app licab le\ \ t r  ea ch  o r  th e  ti ill-awing su ite rneu iv  e a n s h k r  whet bet th e  tes* m ice siddi'csses th e  htllowmg iss iie s  upproprfcMely. U ih e  st c em e n t  is not app lic jM v. check  tint ew cte im irkcd >*VA on  0 te righ t bamJ side. U se  {he sp ac e  fnlktwiMg each  item  H *  •v»witiwnt* am i p ag e  rc k ttre co s , c«r inc lude  comm en ts  »nwi m ilt's  m i <i scpiisatc sheet-Answer key for this page:S -  Suitable or appropriate NS -  Not Suitable or appropriate NA -  Not Applicable39B""SD6 sUDVP"P RU5 V#U51 My I;D6 DS"P51. KidsClick! Worlds of Web Searching http://www.kidsclick.org/wows/index.html Contentl.A 2.SA 3.SA 4.SA5.D 6.SA 7.SAInstructional DesignDl.A 8.D D2.D D3.SD D4.SA 12.D 13.D 14.SA15.SA 17.SA 18.SA 19.SA D5.SA D6.SA D7.SA D8.D23.SA 24.SA 25.D 26.D D9.D D10.NA Dll.NA D12.NAechnical Design29.SA 30.SA. 31. A D13.D D14.NA D15.NAD16.A 32.SA 33.SA 34.SA D17.NA 36.ASocial Considerations37.NA 38.NA 39.NA 40.NA 41.NA 42.NA 43 .N A44.NA 45 .N A 46.NA 47.NA 48.S 49.NA 50.NA2. Do We Really Know Dewey?http ://library.thinkquest. or si5002/index. shtml Contentl.SA 2.SA 3.SA 4.SA5.D 6.SA 7.SAInstructional DesignDl.A 8. A D2.D D3.SD D4.SA 12.D 13.D 14.D15.A 17.SA 18.SA 19.SA D5.SA D6.SA D7.SA D8.D23.SA 24.SA 25.A 26.A D9.D D10.NA D ll.NA D12.NAechnical Design29.SA 30.SA 3 l.A D13.D D14.NA D15.NAD16.A 32.SA 33.SA 34.SA D17.NA 36.ASocial Considerations37.NA 38.NA 39.NA 40.NA 41.NA 42.NA 43 .N A44.NA 45 .NA 46.NA 47.NA 48.S 49.NA 50.NA3. World Book Kids (Database) http://sd41.bc.ca/ebsco/ Contentl.SA 2.SA 3.SA 4.SA5.SA 6.SA 7.SAInstructional DesignDl.D 8.D D2.A D3.A D4.SA 12.A 13.D 14.D15.A 17.SA 18.SA 19.SA D5.SA D6.SA D7.SA D8.A23.SA 24.SA 25.A 26.NA D9.D D10.NA Dll.NA D12.NA40Technical Design29.SA 30.SA 31.SA D13.A D14. A D15.AD16.A 32.SA 33.SA 34.SA D17.NA 36.ASocial Considerations37.S 38.NA 39.S 40. S 41.S 42.S 43 .N A44.S 45.S 46.NA 47.NA 48.S 49.NA 50.NA4. EBSCO Kids Search (Database) http://sd41 .bc.ca/ebsco/ Contentl.SA 2.SA 3.SA 4.SA5.SA 6.SA 7.SAInstructional DesignDl.D 8.D D2.A D3.A D4.SA 12.A 13.D 14.D15.A 17.SA 18.SA 19.SA D5.SA D6.SA D7.SA D8.A23.SA 24.SA 25.A 26.NA D9.D D10.NA Dll.NA D12.NAechnical Design29.SA 30.SA 3 l.SA D13.A D14. A D15.AD16.A 32.SA 33.SA 34.SA D17.NA 36.ASocial Considerations37.S 38.NA 39.S 40. S 41.S 42.S 43 .N A44. S 45.S 46.NA 47.NA 48.S 49.NA 50.NA5. Wikis for Kidshttp://www.wikiforkids.comContent1.A 2. A 3. A 4. A5.D 6.SA 7.SAInstructional DesignDl.D 8.D D2.A D3.A D4.SA 12.SA 13.SA 14.SA15.SA 17.A 18.A 19.A D5.D D6.A D7.A D8.A23.A 24.D 25.SA 26.D D9.A D10.NA Dll.NA D12.NATechnical Design29.A 30.A 3 l.A D13.D D14.A D15.AD16.SA 32.SA 33.SA 34.SA D17.NA 36.ASocial Considerations37.NA 38.NA 39.NA 40.NA 41.NA 42.NA 43 .N A44.NA 45 .NA 46.NA 47.NA 48.S 49.NA 50.NASummary of EvaluationsEach of these websites is useful for students in British Columbia today even though these sites were created in the United States. The first two selections are static; the content does not41change but the web sites are valuable teaching tools nonetheless. Items three and four include current material which is essential to some student research projects, while the final resource is mainly static but has updates from time to time. By evaluating these tools, I discovered that a combination of static and non-static resources can work quite well for research purposes, depending upon the topic. One recommendation that I have is to try and include Canadian resources or at least Canadian content wherever possible in the curriculum in this province.42E))INB1@ 21 TDMY6U sU55P )6DP sU55P 0431PSV! #S"P S 6#D6 U#5$5SUM5 DP! 7D$5 "P 72"#2 2 MDP5 "MYD#S S2U5U U#5$5SUM5GVD!U sU;U61 = T :3U#S1 T#"UP#U ) VY5U1Students learn how to use various tools to develop information literacy skills and to investigate the impact of humans on local ecosystems. They compile a research project about one particular local ecosystem, and determine ways to protect it.)VU5#V":U! sUDVP"P F S#MU51-apply critical thinking skills -  including comparing, classifying, inferring, imagining, verifying, using analogies, identifying relationships, summarizing, and drawing conclusions -  to a range of problems and issuesTYU#""# sU55P F:3U#S";U51Students will be able to:-define vocabulary related to project-list local ecosystems-select one local ecosystem to researchsU55P )V#U! VU <OUS2!>11. Introduction (the hook)-watch YouTube video about Exxon Valdez oil spill at http://www.voutube.com/watch?v=GlU-iWUPOYA: have a class discussion about what they gather the impact to the environment was like, based on the film’s information. Ask if anyone remembers an oil spill that happened within the last few years in Bumaby (one on Hastings St. and one in Burrard Inlet); what were the consequences?2. Development-explain that we will be starting a research project that looks at the impact of people on ecosystems in the Lower Mainland-define vocabulary related to project e.g.: impact, pollution, ecosystem, wetland, riparian zone, bog, estuary, second growth forest, woodlands, grasslands, sub-alpine woodlands, marine ecosystem, ecozone-brainstorm list of local ecosystems e.g.: Bums Bog, Fraser River estuary, Burrard Inlet, Maplewood Flats, Lynn Canyon, Grouse Mountain, Boundary Bay, and the Capilano River.-introduce group research projects and explain that purpose of this project is to become more information literate (explain) and to answer two research questions: In what ways do humans have an impact on local ecosystems? What are some ways in which humans can protect these ecosystems?-discuss performance task assessment criteria. Use template for web pages shown on http://www.bcps.org/offices/lis/models/tips/Assessments/visual.htm as example. Work together with class to alter the criteria to suit this project.44-students form groups and select a local ecosystem to research. Explain to class that they must pick an ecosystem that the group members will be able to find enough information about.3. Closure-review definition of ecosystem. Remind students that they must pick an ecosystem to study as soon as possible so that they can sign up for their first choice of topic. Two groups cannot choose the same ecosystem to study. Sign up by sending the teacher-librarian an email. This task is due before the next lesson.E55U55MUPS-use template of performance task assessment criteria for web pages on http://www.bcps.org/offices/lis/models/tips/Assessments/visual.htm and modify it with the class in Lesson 2 to suit this research project-read student emails for research project sign-up task; monitor and remind those groups that have not signed up by the start of Lesson 2.ODSUV"D65-YouTube video about Exxon Valdez oil spill http.7/www.voutube.com/watch‘?v=:G 1 U-iWUPOYA-British Columbia Ministry of Environment: Sensitive Ecosystems Inventories http://www.env.gov.bc.ca/sei/van gulf/ecosvstems.html -Environment Canada: Ecosystems and Habitats http://www.ee. gc.ca/default.asp?lang=En&n=B3E05FF3-l -Environment Canada: Pacific Marine Ecozonehttp://www.ec.gc.ca/soer-ree/English/vignettes/Marine/pacific/default.cfin45RI-IRIN2ITAmerican Library Association. (2006). Introduction to information literacy. Retrieved November 25, 2008, fromhttp://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/acrl/issues/infolit/infolitoverview/introtoinfolit/introinfolit.cfmAsselin, M. (2003). Improving literacy education through professional study: The leadership role of the teacher-librarian. Teacher Librarian, 3/(1), 53-54.Asselin, M. (2004). New literacies: Towards a renewed role of school libraries. Teacher Librarian, 3/(5), 52-53.Asselin, M., Oberg, D., & Branch, J. (2003). Achieving Information Literacy. Ottawa: Canadian School Library Association.Barack, L. (2006). Libraries obsolete? School Library Journal, 52(9), 26.Boardman, E. M. (1994). Turn, turn, turn...but still finding the answers. The Book Report, 13(2), 11 -Branch, J. L. & Oberg, D. (2001). The teacher-librarian in the 21st century: The teacher-librarian as instructional leader. School Libraries in Canada, 21(2), 9.British Columbia Ministry of Education. (1996). Information technology resource document (K -  7). Retrieved November 1, 2008, from http://www.bced.gov.bc.ca/irp/resdocs/itk7.pdfBritish Columbia Ministry of Education. (1998). Fine Arts Kindergarten to Grade 7: Integrated Resource Package. Retrieved March 4, 2009 from http://www.bced.gov.bc.ca/irp/fak7.pdf46British Columbia Ministry of Education. (2002). Evaluating, Selecting, and Managing Learning Resources: A Guide. Retrieved March 8, 2009 from http://www.bced.gov.bc.ca/irp/resdocs/esm guide.pdf.British Columbia Ministry of Education. (2005). Science Kindergarten to Grade 7:Integrated Resource Package. Retrieved March 4, 2009 from http://www.bced.gov.bc.ca/irp/scik7.pdf British Columbia Ministry of Education. (2006). English Language Arts Kindergarten to Grade 7: Integrated Resource Package. Retrieved March 4, 2009 from http://www.bced.gov.bc.ca/irp/ela k7 2006.pdf British Columbia Ministry of Education. (2006). Social Studies Kindergarten to Grade 7: Integrated Resource Package. Retrieved March 4, 2009 from http://www.bced.gov.bc.ca/irp/ssk7.pdf British Columbia Teacher-Librarians’ Association. (2001). The Research Quest: A Student Guide. Retrieved March 31, 2009 from http://www.bctf.ca/bctla/documents/ResearchOuest.pdf Brown, C. A. & Dotson, K. (2007). Using digital primary sources: A success story in collaboration. Teacher Librarian, 35(2), 29.Brown, G. R. (2001). The teacher-librarian in the 21st century: An international perspective.School Libraries in Canada, 21(2), 12.Brown, J. (1998). Teacher-librarians: Mirror images the spark. Emergency Librarian, 25, 20-28. Buzzeo, T. (2007). Literacy and the changing role of the elementary library media specialist.Library Media Connection, 25(1), 18.Crowley, B. (2008). Lifecycle librarianship. Library Journal, 133(6), 46.47District Library Committee. (2001). Library Resource Centers in Burnaby Schools. Burnaby: Bumaby School District.Doiron, R. (1999). Beyond the frontline: Activating new partnerships in support of school libraries. Teacher Librarian, 26(3), 9-15.Eisenberg, M. B. (1997). Big 6 TIPS: Teaching information problem solving. Emergency Librarian, 25Eisenberg, M. B. (1997). Big 6 TIPS: Teaching information problem solving. Emergency Librarian, 25, 22.Eisenberg, M. B. (1998). Big 6 TIPS: Teaching information problem solving. Emergency Librarian, 25, 28.Eisenberg, M. B. (1998). Big 6 TIPS: Teaching information problem solving. Emergency Librarian, 25(A), 43.Eisenberg, M. B. (1998). Big 6 TIPS: Teaching information problem solving. Emergency Librarian, 25(5)Eisenberg, M. B. (1998). Big 6 TIPS: Teaching information problem solving. Teacher Librarian, 26(1)Jansen, B. A. (1996). Reading for information: The trash-'n-treasure method of teaching note taking. School Library Media Activities Monthly, 12, 29.Kapitzke, C. & Bruce, B. (Eds.). (2006). Libr@ries : Changing information space and practice. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Lamb, A. & Johnson, L. (2007). An information skills workout: Wikis and collaborative writing. Teacher Librarian, 34(5), 57.48Leer, J. (2003). Teaching information and technology literacy through student-created webquests. Multimedia Schools, 10 (2), 42.Lehmann, C. (2007). High stakes for school librarians. School Library Journal, 53(7), 20.Milam, P. (2004). A road map for the journey. Library Media Connection, 22(1), 20.Murray, J. (1999). From school librarian to "information TeAchnician": A challenge for the information age. Library Talk, 12(3), 10.Murray, J. (2000). Librarians evolving into cybrarians. MultiMedia Schools, 7(2), 26-28.Piaget, Jean. The psychology o f intelligence. [Translated from the French by Malcolm Piercy and D. E. Berlyne] (1950). London: Routledge & Paul.Pulaski, M. (1980). Understanding Piaget. San Francisco: Harper & Row.Rader, H.B. (1997). Educating students for the information age: The role of the librarian. Reference Services Review, 25(2), 47-52.Richmond, P., (1970). An Introduction to Piaget. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.Simpson, C. (1996). The school librarian's role in the electronic age. (ERIC Digest). Syracuse, NY: ERIC Clearinghouse on Information and Technology. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED402928)Starkman, N. (2007). The new librarians. THE Journal, 34(8), 22-24.Sykes, J. A. (2001). The role of the teacher-librarian in the 21st century. School Libraries in Canada, 21(2), 5.Troutner, J. (1999). Web wonders. Teacher Librarian, 27(1), 43.Van Leer, J. (2003). Teaching information and technology literacy through student-created WebQuests. MultiMedia Schools, 10(2), 42.49Williams, H. & Zald, A. (1997). Redefining roles: Librarians as partners in information literacy education. Information Research, 3(1). Retrieved June 10, 2008 from http://informationr.net/ir/3-l/infres31 .html50RITFAR2I RI-IRIN2ITAtlas of Canada. (2007). Ecology. 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Retrieved March 5, 2009 from http://www.commoncraft.com/video-wikis-plain-english Dewey Decimal Classification, (nd). Multimedia Tour. Retrieved March 5, 2009 from http://www.oclc.org/dewev/resources/tour/ddc 1 .html Do We Really Know Dewey? (nd). Retrieved March 5, 2009 from http://librarv.thinkquest.org/5002/index.shtml Encyclopedia of BC. (2002). Retrieved March 5, 2009 from http://sd41 .bc.ca/ebsco/Google. (2009). Retrieved March 5, 2009 from www.google.com Greece Central School District, (nd). Classification Notes. Retrieved March 5, 2009 from http://www.greece.kl2.nv.us/instruction/ela/6-12/Tools/classificationnotes.pdf51KidsClick! Worlds of Web Searching. (1999). Retrieved March 5, 2009 from http://www.kidsclick.org/wows/index.html Open University. (2008). Fast Reading Techniques. Retrieved March 5, 2009 from www.open.ac.uk/skillsforstudy/fast-reading-techniques.php Oregon School Library Information System. (2006). How to Evaluate Information. 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