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Becoming a new literacies classroom Erickson, Helen Jane Zoe Aug 31, 2010

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Becoming a New Literacies Classroom.byHelen Jane Zoe EricksonCertificate in Liberal Arts, Simon Fraser University, 2002 B.Ed. Simon Fraser University, 2004A GRADUATING PAPER SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF EDUCATION inTHE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Language and Literacy EducationWe accept this major paper as conforming to the required standardAugust 2010 © H. Erickson, 2010AbstractA paper exploring the changing needs of English language learners and the ways in which literacy instruction can be transformed in the technologically advanced twenty-first century. Collaborative, thematic, inquiry-based pedagogy is recommended as a way to transform literacy instruction to meet the academic and affective needs of second language students in a secondary subject English classroom.3Table of ContentsAbstract...........................................................................................................................................2Table o f Contents.......................................................................................................................... 3Paper Title...................................................................................................................................... 4Introduction....................................................................................................................... 4Theoretical Perspective....................................................................................................8Entering the Teaching Profession................................................................................. 11Literature Review........................................................................................................... 20Developing a Literacy Pedagogy.................................................................................24Collaborative Instruction..............................................................................................27Thematic Instruction......................................................................................................30Inquiry-Based Instruction.............................................................................................32Connections to Practice................................................................................................. 35Conclusion......................................................................................................................40References....................................................................... 45Appendices................................................................................................................................... 52Appendix A -  Sample Unit Plan..................................................................................52Appendix B -  Anticipation Guide................................................................................90Appendix B.2 -  Stop Light Page.................................................................................. 92Appendix B.3 -  Journal / Portfolio Expectations.......................................................93Appendix B.4 -  Language Adapted English 10 Assessment and Evaluation 94Appendix B.5 -  Assessment Matrix......................................................  96Appendix B.6 -  5 Question Model............................................................................. 98Appendix B.7 -  Class Brainstorm - Example........................................................... 99Appendix B.8 -  Ticket into Discussion -  Example.................................................100Appendix B.9 -  Checklist for Causal Explanation. ...............................................101Appendix B.10 -  Literature Circle Assessment....................................................... 102Appendix B .ll -  Sample Guide Lines for Class On-line Blogs............................103Appendix B.12 -  Inquiry Project Final Evaluation................................................. 104Becoming a New Literacies Classroom. Introduction“School is a like a zoo. We move from cage to cage and observe our teachers.” Shocked, and then dismayed by this statement, as well as by the agreement expressed by several other students in the room, I added this simile to the growing list of poetic devices the class was brainstorming and quickly moved on to the next suggestion. However, throughout the day I continued to think about the sincerity in this student’s voice, and his words repeated themselves in my mind. I realized that I could not ignore this comment. Developing strategies to meet the needs o f all learners is currently one of the goals o f the Burnaby School District. Attending numerous conferences on the topic has made me conscious of the importance of differentiating instruction to make content more accessible to the variety of learners in my classroom. However, despite my efforts, this student’s comment suggested that his needs were not being met. At the end o f the school day, I took some time to write down the possible interpretations o f this statement and quickly discovered the powerful message that I believe my students delivered that day.If schools are like zoos, and students are the visitors, then teachers are the ‘animals’. According to this interpretation, while at school, students are forced to study and passively observe teachers who, like animals in a zoo, go about their daily business, performing the same actions, regardless o f who is watching them. In this teacher- centered scenario, where students are expected to watch their instructors from the sidelines, take notes, memorize content, and write tests based on their observations, there is little need for educators to learn about the students they are teaching. As a result, even as student populations become increasingly diverse, classrooms remain staticenvironments where students have little influence or control and where their contributions are not valued or encouraged. If this is the case, then it is little wonder that attending school becomes increasingly tedious and meaningless for some individuals, and could possibly explain why a student would compare a classroom to a cage.Moreover, if  a classroom is like a cage, then a school is a building containing a collection o f isolated, specialized environments. Therefore, to survive in school, students must adapt and develop survival strategies for each new setting they are forced to inhabit. While some students may be able adapt to each new location quickly, many students will struggle as they attempt to determine the implicit expectations of each new classroom and teacher. Unfortunately, some students will have an advantage over their peers, as their experiences and background knowledge will be recognized and valued in their different educational environments. In contrast, some students will be denied access to certain areas o f the school based on their perceived deficiencies. For example, I have witnessed several occasions where students who are learning English as a second language are not permitted to take courses they have the designated pre-requisites for because o f their limited English language skills. This situation clearly demonstrates that students must adapt to their settings, rather than teachers making adaptations to help meet the needs of diverse learners. Additionally, if  classrooms are perceived to be disconnected from the world outside the school, it is unlikely that students will invest significant time and energy to learn skills that they view as not applicable or helpful in their daily lives.The more I contemplated the interpretation o f a school being a zoo, the more disturbing the possibility became. I realized that the implications of my initial interpretation o f this comment echoed the concerns expressed by many educationaltheorists about teaching and learning in the twenty-first century. The image of students passively observing as a teacher lectures is all too familiar as transmission-based pedagogy is still a popular mode of instruction in North American schools (Goodlad, 1984; Ramirez, 1992). Although direct instruction of information and skills is an “important component of effective pedagogy” (Cummins, Brown, & Sayers, 2007, p. 44), exclusive reliance on the transmission o f knowledge is in direct opposition to research in cognitive psychology on how people learn.Conditions for effective learning include activating and making connections to background knowledge, and active engagement in the learning process (Bransford, Brown, & Cocking, 2000; Donovan and Bransford, 2005). In contrast, the adoption o f a narrow focused transmission approach to teaching is likely to promote memorization, minimal activation o f an individual’s prior knowledge, and passive learning (Cummins et al., 2007). Consequently, classrooms, in which the focus of instruction is on the transmission of knowledge, become interpersonal spaces where student identities are constricted. The coercive relations of power evident in society are reinforced as students are inadvertently taught to value a dependence upon authority, linear thinking, social apathy, passive involvement, and hands-off learning (Cummins et al., 2007). Regrettably, these are not the skills or values that will help students successfully integrate into, and contribute to, today’s knowledge-based economy.The rate o f change in today’s society is occurring at such a rapid pace that it is difficult to imagine the specific skills and information that an individual will need for employment in the future. In this fast-paced and ever changing environment employers are looking for workers who are innovative and are able to negotiate the demands ofincreasingly complex and diverse environments (Cookson, 2009). However, the shift in workplace expectations has not been reflected in educational programming (Cope & Kalantzis, 2006). As a result, of the communications revolution and the static nature of educational environments the overlap between students' home and school-based literacy practices has narrowed.Perhaps the growing distance between students’ academic and home environments caused teens in my class to compare their school to a zoo. I wondered, do my students perceive me as an endangered species in need o f protection? Or, do they see their teachers as rare specimens that need to be kept in a cage in order to be preserved? Then, a realization dawned on me and an alternative interpretation of the students' statement occurred to me: perhaps our classrooms have become cages for students and teachers alike since we, as educators, have not evolved because we are protecting or preserving traditional pedagogical practices.This epiphany shook me out of my reverie, and forced me to look around my classroom. What was I doing to learn more about my students, or to make connections between learning activities and the real world? Suddenly claustrophobic, I felt an overpowering need to leave my classroom and school. How had I become trapped in my profession?After an initial panic attack, I settled down and began to think rationally. If I wanted to redefine myself as an educator who did not teach from inside a cage, then I needed to confront and reconsider my beliefs about teaching and learning.Theoretical PerspectiveI am proud to work for a multicultural school district that has a strong professional development program. In the 2008 District Review, the Burnaby School District identifies that English language learners (ELLs) in the district’s schools are consistently performing lower than the general population and that there are increasing numbers of multi-barriered students (refugee, second language, and first nations students) who require additional support in their learning (School District 41 Literacy Plan, 2008). In response to these findings, the school district has continued to offer many in-service opportunities and has provided funding for teachers interested in expanding their knowledge of innovative pedagogical practice. I believe that the Burnaby School District recognizes that investing in teachers and supporting them as they continue to build their expertise throughout their careers, is essential for educational reform. As a teacher working specifically with students transitioning from the ESL program into mainstream courses, I have taken advantage o f the opportunity to attend numerous workshops and tra ining sessions to increase my own professional repertoire. By learning more about pedagogical practices such as differentiated learning, universal backwards design, universal designs for learning, assessment for learning, in addition to Sheltered Instruction, and attending teacher development courses on second language instruction, I have realized the misconceptions about teaching linguistically and culturally diverse students that I brought with me into the teaching profession.My first teaching practicum took place in a small, rural school in Trinidad. Many o f the students who attended this school came from the local community, which was very heterogeneous. Some of the students came from affluent families, while others struggled to pay for their uniforms and school fees. Like many areas in the Caribbean, the studentsin my class were from many different ethnic backgrounds and practiced different religions. In hindsight, I realize that this would have been an ideal setting to learn about the unique skill sets that students from culturally diverse populations bring with them into the classroom. However, many of the teaching practices I learned during my practicum were based on creating lesson and unit plans that focused on delivering curriculum content, rather than developing strategies to bridge the gap between students’ home and school environments. Like many teachers who are under considerable pressure to deliver content in exam-driven school systems, my sponsor teacher's primary classroom resources where ministry approved textbooks and workbooks and the focus of her instruction was to prepare students for their grade-level exams. Unfortunately, the use of standardized texts and materials inadvertently demonstrates that the experience and knowledge students bring to school are unimportant, and that their languages, cultures, personalities, talents, and interests, were not valued in an academic setting. Although I did not realize it at the time, I concluded from my experience that it was the teacher’s job to maintain a strict separation between students’ experiences outside of the classroom, and to force students to conform to a predetermined “prototype o f excellence” (Kazoullis, 1996, p. 4). After reading Jim Cummins’ (2000) work on transformative pedagogy, and Bonny Norton’s and Kelleen Toohey’s (2004) research on critical pedagogies, I recognized that I unconsciously contributed to the maintenance o f the status quo and had not provided opportunities for students to challenge the existing inequalities in society (Cummins, 1996). Regretfully, my pre-service program focused on the development of transmission-orientated pedagogy, but failed to provide me with any knowledge of social constructivist or transformative orientations to pedagogy.Upon returning to Vancouver, I began my next teaching practicum at an elementary school in Burnaby. Again, the composition o f the class was diverse. The class was a split grade, with students from a variety o f ethnic backgrounds with a wide range of academic abilities. Several of the students were reading below grade level, and a number o f the students were on modified math programs. In addition, three of the students had special needs and there were two full time educational assistants in the classroom. Of all of the individuals in the class, two boys stand out clearly in my mind. Both students had recently moved to Canada from China and spoke very little English. During classroom activities, I often observed these students standing on the periphery, lost and confused. They were ‘pulled out’ for ESL instruction twice a week and the rest o f the time they did what they could to keep up with the rest of the class, which was very little. Few students in the class interacted with these boys; even the students who could speak Mandarin avoided them. Unfortunately, these boys were often silent for entire days. Conversely, the three students with special needs were highly involved in classroom activities. With the help of their educational assistants, in addition to the adaptations that their teacher made, these students were able to participate and had many friends in the class. By comparing the treatment o f these two groups o f students, my belief that students learned English implicitly through total immersion was solidified. I reasoned that my sponsor teacher, who was an excellent teacher, was giving these two boys time to develop their English language skills before she added the pressure of having to participate in content instruction. The boys would eventually learn the language, and I assumed that they were not provided with extra support or encouraged to use their first language as this might reduce their motivation to improve their Englishskills, a perspective that was widely held at that time (2003-2004). In retrospect, I wonder if my sponsor teacher was indeed allowing the students a “silent period” as advocated by Krashen (1981) or if  she may not have had adequate professional development to design pedagogies to support these students. Lee Gunderson’s (2007, 2009) research on the experiences of ESL students in mainstream classes reveals that this latter situation is not uncommon. Many ESL students are left to sink or swim, not because this strategy is more effective for language acquisition, but because classroom teachers are not trained in second language instruction, and are overwhelmed by the diverse needs of students. Whether due to lack o f training in ESL instruction and/or philosophies o f the times related to the “Natural Approach”, regretfully, I completed my practicum with the firm belief that there was very little that content teachers can do (or perhaps were required to do) to support ESL students in mainstream classes, and that it was acceptable to exclude them from actively participating in classroom activities until they had developed the necessary language skills to feel comfortable to participate.Entering the Teaching Profession: Waking up to Reality and Trying to Survive.Following my graduation from my professional development program in 2004, I opted to fulfill my desire to travel and began my teaching career by accepting a full time position at an international school in rural China. The school that hired me was working in partnership with the British Columbia Ministry o f Education to offer students studying in China the opportunity to take BC accredited courses taught by Canadian teachers in addition to their required Chinese courses. The goal was for these students to earn a BC “Dogwood Diploma”, as well as their Chinese secondary school credits to provide themwith the option of attending a Canadian or Chinese university. My job was to teach English 10, and to prepare students to write the British Columbia grade 10 English provincial exam. Unfortunately, my pre-service teaching and course work had not equipped me with methods, or strategies, to make academic content comprehensible for ESL students. My students and I quickly became frustrated as they struggled to comprehend short stories and poems published in Canadian anthologies. In a desperate attempt to keep students in the program, I made the classic error o f “dumbing down the curriculum” by retyping texts and removing any complex vocabulary, and often resorted to teaching entire lessons o f isolated grammar skills. After reading Jim Cummins’ (1981) model for teaching academic language, I now realize that instead o f providing my students with cognitively demanding tasks that were context embedded, I was limiting their learning to cognitively undemanding tasks. As a result, very few of the students were engaged in classroom activities, and the majority o f my students developed limited academic language proficiency. I returned to Canada with little confidence in my teaching abilities and questioned my beliefs about second language instruction.A major turning point in my teaching career took place when I was offered a full time position at a new school in Burnaby. Once again, I would be teaching English 10 and all my students would be English language learners. This time, however, I was supported by another professional who was an ESL trained teacher, and I had the opportunity to take two courses in Systemic Functional Linguistics. These courses introduced me to the concept of explicit language instruction and genre theory, and as a result, forced me to reconsider many of my prior assumptions about ESL instruction.The language arts methodology courses that were required as a part o f my teacher training program did not prepare me for the challenge o f talking about language with students. Educators, who teach from a functional perspective work with their students to develop an understanding o f how language varies across sociocultural contexts, begin instruction at the whole text level, focus on the authentic uses o f language, and have an understanding of an elaborate grammar that moves far beyond traditional syntax descriptions (The State o f South Australia, 2004). As a result, these teachers are equipped with the necessary skills to help their students learn about language in a serious and methodical way by making their knowledge o f language explicit and accessible to their students.The notion o f genre1 is another powerful tool that many educators who have adopted an explicit pedagogy employ. Although genres are not static and the charting of genres should not “imply prescriptive teaching” (Unsworth, 2001, p. 127), they do identify classes o f texts that adhere to generally accepted conventions and patterns.These particular characteristics can serve as starting points when teaching students to create and manipulate texts (Unsworth, 2001). This understanding significantly changed my literacy instruction. By adopting a functional perspective, and focusing my instruction on the development o f students’ linguistic and cultural knowledge, I was able to deconstruct academic texts for students and provide them access to the increasingly complex genres that are associated with specific learning areas. As I became more confident in my ability to teach second language students, I began to recognize that not1A genre is “any staged, purposeful social activity which is accomplished though language (eg. making a purchase a the local shop, a letter to the editor, meeting procedures) (The Stat e o f South Australia, 2004, pg. 16).all ESL students are alike, and I became more sensitive to the many factors that influence the school experiences o f second language learners.The ESL label hides diversity and groups students with dramatically different life and academic experiences into one large group. For example, students who are migrants, refugees, Indigenous students, students finishing their schooling in an English-speaking country or students attending international schools using English as the medium of instruction are all categorized as ESL students (Burke, 2007). As a result, teachers, including myself, may not recognize the broad range of needs or skills second language students in one class. A major factor influencing a student’s engagement in learning is their perception of how their culture is represented and valued in their school, as well as in the broader community (Custance, 2007). By looking beyond the ESL label, I was able to identify the diverse skills, knowledge, and previous experiences that my students and I could access. Instead o f perceiving the ESL students I worked with as less capable, or learners who lacked ability, I began to see them as unique individuals that have valuable contributions to make to the learning context. Rather than developing strategies to compensate for their deficiencies, I realized the importance o f recognizing and valuing their background knowledge and skills by building connections between students’ prior experiences and course content. Learning more about my students’ backgrounds not only led to a change in my instructional practices, but also a better understanding of the frustrations that second language learners experience by being identified as ESL students.Unfortunately, in many schools, there is a stigma attached to ESL courses. In Gunderson’s longitudinal study (2007), students described ESL classes as courses for second-class students or for students who had little chance of attending a post-secondary14institution. Perhaps this is because in many school districts students do not receive credit for completing an ESL course. Or, perhaps it is due to the fact that students may have to take the same level ESL classes for several semesters before transitioning to a higher level of ESL or to mainstream classes. Students’ negative attitudes towards their ESL classes may also be impacted by the lack o f rigor or academic content usually associated with these courses. Another potential cause for students’ discontent with their ESL programs maybe the feeling that their academic progress is being stalled, and that they are falling further behind their age level peers because they are not permitted access to the content courses they require to graduate. Students who have been academically successful in their first language or pervious learning environments may develop strong feelings o f resentment for being ‘held back’. I believe these are all are valid criticisms of ESL programs, and consequently, I have become a strong advocate for content-based ESL instruction and sheltered instruction.When I began teaching, I believed that content teachers were not language teachers, nor were they expected to be. The elementary ‘pull out’ model for ESL students had convinced me that content instruction was, and should be, separate from ESL instruction. At the secondary level, segregated classes for ESL students had led me to believe that ESL students should not take mainstream courses until they have developed the language skills necessary to be successful in those courses. It was my understanding that content teachers should not have the added responsibility of teaching academic language on top o f an already packed curriculum and, furthermore, that they did not need to change their delivery methods for ESL students. I unconsciously accepted the belief that if  a student was enrolled in a course, they were expected to be at an academic levelwhere they could handle the course content. It was not long before I realized the consequences of separating academic content and language learning. ESL students become,discouraged because their academic progress is interrupted by the separation of language and content instruction and second language learners (SLLs) often struggle to acquire the academic registers required to be successful in mainstream courses. When the teachers in my school voted in favor of creating strands, or ESL content classes, such as ESL Science, ESL Social Studies, and a literacy and composition class for ELLs, I noticed a significant change in students’ attitudes. Attendance rates also improved. It seemed that students were now more invested in their studies, and felt that they were not only increasing their language skills, but learning valuable academic content as well. The introduction o f the Sheltered Instructional Observation Protocol (SIOP) and SIOP Model2 (Echevarria, Vogt, & Short, 2008) also resulted in increased student engagement in learning, and a change in my beliefs about instruction in mainstream classes.English language learners have the added challenge o f learning in, and through, a second language. In my experience, this is a challenge not often recognized by mainstream teachers. Until I had the opportunity to follow some o f the English language learners at our school to their content classes, I was not aware o f the difficulties they faced in these courses. Many of the students I observed sat silently in classes that they could not understand, mostly because teachers did not perceive themselves as language teachers. Sheltered instruction encourages teachers to design academic lessons that are comprehensible for ESL students and that support students’ language acquisition. The2 The SIOP Protocol and the SIOP model are based on the sheltered instruction approach. Sheltered Instruction (SI) was developed by the ESL profession in conjunction with content teachers. Through SI, English Language Learners (ELLs) participate in content courses with grade-level objectives delivered through modified instruction designed to make the information comprehensible to students (Echevarria et al., 2008).SIOP Model (Echevarria et al., 2008) helped me to realize that it is possible to build content knowledge and academic language simultaneously. After all, as im m ig ra tio n  rates continue to rise in Canada and school populations become increasingly diverse, the responsibilities of professional educators continues to expand and evolve. Teachers o f all subjects and levels need to broaden the scope of their practice and teach the language of their content area (Pica, 2005). In many schools, where language learners are quickly becoming the majority, it is no longer acceptable for teachers to ignore the linguistic and communicative needs o f students when teaching subject content. This situation is not only occurring in Canada, teachers across the globe are struggling to teach students who must acquire knowledge and skills in science, technology, business, and telecommunication, in a second language (Pica, 2005). While this may seem like a heavy burden for individuals already working in a profession with overwhelming responsibilities, meeting students’ language needs is not necessarily an onerous task. Making small adjustments to instructional practices such as increasing the use of visual or graphic aids, introducing key vocabulary to provide learners’ access to course texts, or creating more opportunities for interaction between students, could significantly increase the chances of success for English language learners in mainstream classes.In addition to SIOP training (Echevarria et al., 2008), another professional development program that has significantly impacted my teaching style is Tribes. Tribes, developed by Jeanne Gibbs (2001), is a post method perspective that builds on the work o f other cooperative learning enthusiasts such as Kagan (1990) and Johnson, Johnson, & Holubec (1988), and shares many similarities with Allwright’s (2003) exploratory practice (EP) perspective. These methodologies are based on the belief that the quality oflife in the classroom will impact learning, and that teachers should adopt student-centered approaches to instruction (Kumaravadivelu, 2006). Additionally, many research studies have identified the benefits o f collaborative working environments for academic learning. These studies have also demonstrated that students are more successful when they work cooperatively than when they are placed in competitive or individual learning situations (Darling-Hammond et al., 2008; Williams, Lemke, & Slipac, in press). Unfortunately, Kamil and colleagues (2008) revealed that the majority o f a school day in many classrooms across North America is dedicated to classroom instruction and there is very little time allocated for sustained on-task discussion among students, one key indicator of collaboration (Lemke, 2009). Attending Tribes training helped me to understand that cooperative learning was more than group work. Building a positive classroom community became one of my major priorities and I began to pay more attention to what my students were doing during class, rather than to what I was doing. More importantly,I began to enjoy teaching and felt that I was developing the skills and strategies that I needed to become a teacher who engaged students affectively, cognitively, and imaginatively. Then, one o f the students in my class told me that to him, school was like a zoo, and I realized that I had not developed a method that effectively translated what I knew about teaching and learning into practice.Although I had developed an understanding of coercive and collaborative relations of power, I had not found a meaningful way to integrate these ideas into my teaching (Cummins et al., 2007). Even though I convinced myself that I viewed my students as multilingual individuals with diverse language skills and talents, I had not created a learning environment where students were encouraged to share their stories or toshowcase their skills. While students sat together in groups, and worked collaboratively, I had not established a classroom model that facilitated authentic cooperative learning because students were still required to answer my questions or complete specific projects that I had assigned. They had very little control over decisions about their learning. If my students were graduating into the old capitalist world of work, where management was responsible for thinking and planning and workers carried out assigned tasks (New London Group, 2000), then my model of instruction would have been appropriate. However, in the twenty-first century, employers demand knowledgeable, flexible workers, who are able to complete a wide variety of tasks (New London Group, 2000). While I congratulated myself for explicitly teaching students the structure and language features o f various genres, I did so in a very controlled and standardized way. Rather than presenting this information in a manner that encouraged students to develop knowledge of multiple forms of literacy, I still relied upon a transmission pedagogical orientation to teach students correct forms and methods for reading and writing. I realized that I had essentially replaced one set o f isolated grammar lessons for another. While my teaching practices have definitely evolved since my experience as a student teacher, it was once again time to rethink and reconsider the learning needs o f my culturally and linguistically diverse students, and the implications of recent societal changes for literacy instruction. I adopted the following two questions to guide my critical review o f the literature and subsequent pedagogical design:1.) In what ways have globalization and the significant technological changes o f the twenty-first century impacted the academic and affective needs o f ESL students in a secondary subject English classroom?2.) In what ways can literacy instruction be transformed to address the academic and affective needs o f ESL students in a secondary subject English classroom?Literature Review of Students’ Needs and Literacy in the Twenty-First CenturyIn what ways have globalization and the significant technological changes o f the twenty-first century impacted the academic and affective needs o f ESL students in a secondary subject English classroom? In what ways can literacy instruction be transformed to address the academic and affective needs o f ESL students in a secondary subject English classroom?For the past five years, I have been teaching Language Adapted English 10. This is a course designed by the Burnaby School District (41) for students who are transitioning out of ESL programs and into mainstream academic courses. Therefore, all o f the students enrolled in this course speak English as a second language, but as mentioned above, the ESL label hides a wide range of diversity. For example, during the 2009/2010 school year, students in one Language Adapted English 10 class were from thirteen different countries. Some students were refugees, some were immigrants, and others were international students. Many of the students were multilingual and lived in two or three different countries prior to arriving in Canada. In addition to the wide diversity o f cultural backgrounds and first languages, many of the students were in grade eleven or twelve, so there were also differences in the students’ ages. If the goal of education is to “ .. .ensure that all students benefit from learning in ways that allow them to participate fully in public, community, and economic life” (New London Group, 2000,20p. 9), then literacy pedagogy must account for the needs o f such diverse groups of learners, as well as the rapid changes taking place outside of schools.Students in Language Adapted English 10 face many new challenges as they transition from ESL classes to mainstream classes. The main objective of ESL courses is to help students develop their knowledge and understanding o f the English language. In comparison, there is typically very little language instruction in mainstream courses, and students are expected to learn complex academic content in, and through, a second language. In my experience, this shift in instruction causes many students to feel anxious and nervous, and consequently, they enter Language Adapted English 10 doubting their ability to succeed. To address these initial fears, I need to make students feel comfortable and help them build some confidence in their ability as “[f]ew remedies are likely to result from prescriptions about teaching and testing that take no account o f how students feel about themselves and about their chances o f being successful in the classroom” (Cummins et al., 2007, p. 9). The interactions between students and teachers significantly affect student success (Cummins, 1996). Students are less likely to be successful when they are forced to start from a disadvantage because their first language, cultural background, and life experiences are not recognized or valued in classroom interactions (Cummins, et al., 2007). Conversely, students are more likely to succeed when their “sense o f self is affirmed and extended through their interactions with teachers” (Cummins, 1996, p. 2). In addition to affirming students’ identities, teachers are also able to construct an image o f society where intelligence, creativity, and multilingual talents are valued by explicitly focusing on equity and challenging the “subordinate status assigned to culturally and linguistically diverse students” (Cummins et al., 2007, p. 65). In order21for literacy instruction to benefit all students, educators must “ensure that differences of culture, language, and gender are not barriers to educational success” (New London Group, 2000, p. 10) by helping second language students see their culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds as positive attributes.As previously mentioned, the twenty-first century is a time of significant social and technological change. The workplace has transformed from a twentieth century Industrial Age environment to an Age o f Information and in correlation management theories and practices have changed in this knowledge-based economy. In this new knowledge-based economy, management theories and practices have changed. These new theories stress the importance o f competition, and markets now focus on “change, flexibility, quality, and distinctive niches” (New London Group, 2000, p. 10). Companies have become Teaming organizations’ that facilitate the education o f their employees and continuously transform themselves. The traditional top down or vertical hierarchies are being replaced with “horizontal relationships o f teamwork” (New London Group, 2000, p. 11) and a new language of work is evolving. To be successful in the modem day workplace, literacy pedagogy needs to change to foster the development o f students’ “capacity to speak up, to negotiate, and to be able to engage critically with the conditions o f their working lives” (New London Group, 2000, p. 13). A positive consequence of these changes in the workplace is the development of new systems for motivating people. In this environment, a multiplicity o f cultures, experience, and diverse methods of meaning making and thinking are an asset to a company seeking to establish a competitive edge. It is possible that the need for individuals with unique ideas and22perspectives may result in the establishment o f a democratic pluralism3 in, and beyond, the workplace (New London Group, 2000). Although the role o f education should involve more than preparing students to enter the workplace4, educators have the responsibility o f understanding the demands o f potential employers, not to ensure that students become better capitalists, but to enable students to transition successfully into new environments.Similarly, cultural and linguistic diversity is becoming the norm in public and private lives in the twenty-first century. Societies are progressing beyond the traditional concept o f one cultural and linguistic norm. In these new contexts, individuals need to expand their “cultural and linguistic repertoires so that they can access a broader range of cultural and institutional resources” (New London Group, 2000, p. 15). Furthermore, as communities diversify, subcultures thrive, and people become members of multiple communities, students will need to learn how to negotiate the many lifeworlds they encounter. The ability o f working with diversity and knowledge of how to make meaning in different contexts has become an increasingly important part of literacy education.Technological change has also created new demands for literacy instruction. The privileged position o f the written word in academic contexts is being challenged in an era o f multimodality where changes in technology now facilitate the integration of visual, audio, and other modes o f meaning in written texts (Cope & Kalantzis, 2006; Jewitt, 2005). Literacy instruction today must “account for the plurality o f texts” (New London3 Democratic pluralism is a guiding principle which permits the peaceful coexistence o f different interests, convictions, and lifestyles.4 Educational institutions should provide students with opportunities to develop their individual strengths and skills as well as time to pursue individual interests in academics, technical trades, or the fine arts. Furthermore, students graduating into the complex, media-driven society o f the twenty-first century will need more than discrete skills to find solutions to the potential economic, global, and environmental problems that they may encounter.23Group, 2006, p. 18) that circulate in an environment so rich in textual messages, in addition to the “burgeoning variety o f text forms associated with multimedia” (New London Group, 2006, p i 8). The multifarious needs of students enrolled in courses such as Language Adapted English 10, as well as the dramatic global and technological changes, reveal the importance o f moving beyond an autonomous5 and linear view of literacy, to a broader, ideological model of literacy (Cope & Kalantzis, 2006; Jewit, 2005; Street, 1997).Developing a Literacy PedagogyIn the past, I used a traditional model for English Language Arts instruction. Each semester began with a short story unit, then a novel study, followed by a drama and poetry unit. The focus o f the final unit was always on essay writing skills to help students prepare for the English 10 British Columbia provincial exam. When I unconsciously accepted that my job was to teach students in Language Adapted English 10 a single, essentialized version of literacy and a collection of discrete skills, the aforementioned model made sense. However, in light o f what I learned about the needs of students, the staggering changes in communication practices taking place beyond the borders of schools, and the realization that literacy is a socioculturally mediated practice (Kist,2005) I could no longer justify the ‘one size fits all’ approach that I had previously employed.245 In an autonomous model o f literacy, literacy is understood as a finite set o f  skills, or an inherent human capacity that must be activated (Street, 1997). In comparison, an ideological model o f literacy recognizes literacy as a social practice and acknowledges multiple literacies that vary according to time and space that are contested in relations o f power (Street, 1997).Upon accepting that literacy is a social and cognitive practice, I realized that literacy involves the development of literacy practices6. Ideally, the literacy practices attained in school should be the result o f students and teachers actively engaged in the process o f integrating students’ home and school-based literacy practices. Therefore, the aim o f literacy instruction should be to increase students’ linguistic repertoires by valuing the literacy practices individuals engage in outside o f school and accepting the “variation in meanings and uses that students bring from their home backgrounds to formal learning contexts” (Street, 1997, p. 81). Unfortunately, there is a stark contrast between the “wide ranging and complex discursive practices evident in the community settings, and the predominately English-only environment” (Smythe & Toohey, 2009, p. 2) o f many schools.Students today live in a new world o f information and are constantly bombarded with a plethora o f visual, digital, audio, and multimodal texts (King & O’Brien, 2002). In comparison, academic settings are often static environments in which information is limited and controlled by educational professionals who select and determine what information students are allowed access to for their courses (King & O’Brien, 2002). While outside of school, students are engaging with new textual formations, in particular digital and multimodal texts, in school, students are required to use mainly print-based texts because they continue to maintain a dominate position in academic environments (Jewitt, 2005; Luke, 2002). This dichotomy between home and school literacy practices is becoming increasingly problematic as the exclusion o f the literacy practices students engage in outside of school invalidates the literacies in which students have gained6 Literacy practices are the everyday uses o f and meaning o f literacy amongst individuals (Street, 1997). They refer to the particular ways that individuals in different communities think about and read (Street, 1995).expertise. Furthermore, the exclusion of students' home literacy practices prevents learners from taking advantage o f information and communication resources available to them (McTavish, 2009). Therefore, my goal as an educator became to develop a meaningful way to bridge the gap between students’ home and school literacy practices by bringing new literacies into my classroom.Like the teaching pioneers in William Kist’s book New literacies in action: Teaching and learning in multimedia (2005), I became determined to find a method to weave new literacies7 into my instructional practices. I wanted to transform my language arts program to create opportunities to discuss a wide variety of texts everyday with my •students, and to work collaboratively with them to become readers and writers of traditional print-based texts, in addition to contemporary multimodal texts.I am fortunate to currently be teaching in a school and district that embraces change. I also have the added benefit of being the only Language Adapted English 10 teacher at a relatively new sfchool. I was given greater autonomy over the design of the course because I was not expected to conform to the teaching practices o f the other English 10 teachers in my department. Furthermore, I was able to request new resources that I felt would better meet the needs of the learners in my class, and was not pressured to complete units o f instruction within the usual four to six week timeline to which other teachers in my department are expected to adhere. Instead o f collecting short story anthologies from the book room, I began the hew semester by using my imagination to combine my knowledge of transmission, social constructivist, and transformative7 In this paper, I will follow the convention use by William Kist (2005) to denote the difference between the terms New Literacies and new literacies. Capitalization will be used when referring to the body o f research published by New Literacy scholars such as Barton and Hamilton, 1998; Gee, 1996; Street, 1995. No capitalization will be used when referring to new forms o f technology and new forms o f media available to individuals in the twenty-first century (Kist, 2005).26pedagogical orientations (Cummins et al., 2007) with the Multiliteracies framework (Cope & Kalantzis, 2006; New London Group, 2000), the SIOP Model8 (Echevarria et al., 2008) and New Literacy Studies (Street, 1997). An analysis of this large body of work revealed the importance of collaborative, thematic, and inquiry-based instruction when designing units with the dual intentions of building students’ linguistic repertoires and affirming students’ identities.Collaborative InstructionCollaboration involves cooperative learning between students as well as between teachers and learners. One of the unique characteristics of Language Adapted English 10 is the vast difference in students’ educational and life experience and their often conflicting opinions about the learning process and expectations for assessment. In response to this situation, it is necessary for teachers to engage in teaching practices that are culturally responsive and can accommodate students’ potentially different ways of learning, behaving, and using language (Bartolome, 1994). In addition, to establishing a cohesive community o f learners, it may also be necessary for teachers to “socialize English Language Learners (ELLs) to the implicit classroom cultures, including appropriate behaviors and communication patterns” (Echevarria, Vogt, & Short, 2008, p. 17). Providing opportunities for students to work in small groups where students learn that different experiences and ways o f constructing meaning are advantages results in the development o f nonthreatening learning environments where individuals feel8 For students in ESL courses, sheltered instruction (SI) “provides a bridge to the mainstream , and the amount o f SI provided should increase as students move towards transition out o f [ESL courses]. Any program in which students are learning content through a nonnative language should use the SI approach.” (Echevarria et al., 2008, p. 14)27comfortable, and are more likely to take risks with language. Additionally, students who work cooperatively with others develop important communication skills required in the new knowledge-based economy, such as the ability work productively as a member o f a team (McTavish, 2009) and to “support the learning of self and others, explore . experiences, ideas and information, and understand the perspective of others” (BCELA IRP, 2006, p. 54). As learning takes place in a social context, and entails more than the isolated cognitive processes that take place inside individuals’ heads, educators need to ensure that their instructional processes enable ELLs to gain access to particular communities o f practice (Cummins et al., 2007).Although many students enter Language Adapted English 10 apprehensively, some students enter with confidence and swagger. In this situation, it is easy for some students to become ‘lost in the crowd’ as learners eager to prove themselves ready for mainstream courses dominate classroom discussions. This situation can be avoided through the creation o f a supportive learning community in which students work in small groups where dialogue, apprenticeship, and mentoring are encouraged (Cummins et al., 2007). Organizing students into collaborative groups provides a teacher with the flexibility to place two or more learners with the same first language in heterogeneous groups to enable them to collaborate in their first language (LI) and English (L2). Alternatively, teachers can group students in such a way that struggling learners have opportunities to work with individuals who can act as mentors (Cummins et al., 2007). The concept o f student mentors who help their classmates increase language skills or content knowledge draws on Lev Vygotsky’s (1978) notion of the zone of proximal development (ZPD). An individuals’ ZPD is the distance between his/her current skilllevel and his/her level o f performance when assisted by more capable adults or peers. Additionally, the ZPD is an “interpersonal space where minds meet and new understandings can arise through collaborative interaction and inquiry” (Cummins et al., 2007, p. 59). When students are working in small groups, they have fewer opportunities to hide and more opportunities to participate, discuss and develop their identities as capable learners with valuable ideas (Cummins, 1996). Students who generate knowledge as a group through investigations or discussions rather than by memorizing content presented by a teacher usually develop a sense of ownership of their knowledge, and invest their identities in the work they produce (Cummins, 1996). As a result, cooperative learning effectively reduces passive involvement and hands-off learning by allowing students to take active control of the learning process.When students become actively involved in the learning process, teachers are able to act as facilitators of learning processes and environments. In this role, educators are no longer saddled with the expectation o f dictating the actions o f those around them and teachers can adopt a social constructivist approach that focuses on the collaborative construction o f knowledge by teachers and learners. Additionally, as a facilitator of learning, teachers can orchestrate classroom activities in flexible ways that recognize and build on the diverse cultural, linguistic, and personal experiences of students and help learners make connections between new information and their prior knowledge (Cummins et al., 2007). This emphasis on the importance o f relating instructional content to students’ experiences and the construction of knowledge through social interaction has been heavily influenced by the American philosopher John Dewey and the Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky (1978). When interactions between students and teachersinvolve the collaborative generation of knowledge and the affirmation o f students’ identities, learners’ dependence on authority and linear thinking is replaced with the development of higher order thinking skills and students become empowered (Cummins, 1996).Thematic InstructionThe thematic organization of units provides students working in small groups with a wide selection of meaningful materials united by a common theme. Rather than insisting that all students in a class use the same text materials to develop their knowledge of content topics, a thematic approach allows a teacher to provide students with a choice of materials with which to work. Furthermore, this approach increases the information available to learners by encouraging students to draw upon their out-of-school literacy practices to find additional materials that are relevant to the current unit of instruction. These additional materials collected by students may be composed in a language other than English, and students may have the opportunity to demonstrate their linguistic knowledge and skills by translating found texts (poems, songs, stories, information articles) for other students or their teacher. These powerful learning moments not only further affirm students’ bilingual or multilingual identities, they also provide students with exposure to a more diverse range of literacies than the traditional reading and writing skills in the dominant language (Cope & Kalantzis, 2000).The ability to weave differentiated learning into the everyday activities o f the classroom is another benefit o f adopting a thematic approach. As all students are not pressured to read the same materials, students are able to select the resources that are30most accessible to them without appearing less capable than their peers. Also, teachers are able to scaffold students’ learning by providing them with access to materials that become increasingly more complex. Finally, thematic organization of units provides ideal opportunities for teachers to integrate the multiliteracies (Cope & Kalantzis 2006; New London Group, 2000) construct o f overt instruction and transmission style teaching into a social constructivist approach. Teachers can create explicit lessons focused on students’ development o f effective comprehension strategies using the texts that students are currently reading (Postlethwaite & Ross, 1992; Pressley, Duke, & Boling, 2004).A thematic approach also enables teachers to expand their instruction beyond traditional linear print-based literacy practices. While outside o f school, students live in a globally connected, technologically sophisticated, age of information (Cummins et al., 2007) that school-based literacy practices have fallen behind. It is unfortunate that students’ multilingual resources and technologically-mediated literacies are often ignored in classroom environments where genres such as graphics, posters, photographs, billboards, and teen magazines are considered inferior or inappropriate in comparison to district-approved reading materials (Ajayi, 2009). However, when adopting a thematic approach, environments outside of schools become locations rich in resources (Kendrick, Jones, Mutonyi, & Norton, 2006). Rather than being dependent on the books or texts available in the school book room, or bemoaning the fact that few resources exist, a teacher who adopts a thematic approach can select texts from students’ homes or community environments and use these texts to develop learners’ ability to deconstruct or construct the multimodal texts they encounter outside o f school. The inclusion of texts from students' home environments is an effective way to bridge the distance betweenlearners' home and school literacy practices (Duke & Purcell-Gates, 2003) and to create meaningful learning experiences that have long lasting impacts on learners (Kendrick et al., 2006). The use o f multimodal texts provides further support for ELLs as the available graphics, images, audio, or digital elements o f these texts serve as additional entry points into texts. Consequently, the language barriers that students encounter when reading or writing print-based texts are removed (Ajayi, 2009). Furthermore, when students are presented with information through different modes such as radio plays, graphic novels, or movies, students gain expertise synthesizing and making meaning across a variety of texts; a skill that will help them make sense of a world that is becoming increasingly complex and multimodal.Inquiry-Based InstructionInquiry-based instruction entails the creation of learning environments where ELLs encounter cognitively demanding tasks embedded in context. Unfortunately, many educators, including me, misinterpret students’ struggles to develop academic language proficiency as an inability to comprehend complex content knowledge, and respond by creating tasks that require low level thinking skills such as memorization or route practice. Asking learners open-ended, complex questions about topics or issues that are relevant to their lives is an effective way to initiate meaningful and thoughtful discussions or debates. Activities such as Socratic dialogue, literature circles, and small group discussions promote higher level thinking skills and provide ELLs with opportunities to participate in the collaborative construction o f academic ideas. Extended conversations are important for ESL students as the production o f meaningful linguistic output aids thedevelopment of oral proficiency (Swain, 1985; Zwiers & Crawford, 2009). Also, when working with adolescent learners of different ages, it is important to differentiate instruction so content is accessible and cognitively challenging for all learners.In addition to engaging students in cognitively challenging tasks designed to build higher order thinking skills and creating identities of competence (Cummins, 2009), inquiry-based instruction promotes the transfer o f knowledge beyond the borders of the classroom. By grounding literacy instruction in students' everyday experiences, classrooms become spaces connected to the world outside o f the school, and knowledge gained within classrooms becomes applicable and relevant in new environments and contexts. Instead of feeling,forced to forfeit their identities to become a member of dominant, privileged societal groups, students from culturally and linguistic diverse communities become empowered by the recognition and validation of their experiences and knowledge. The acceptance of all students’ backgrounds and ways o f meaning making fosters an environment of mutual respect in which students see differences as positive attributes and are able to work cooperatively to scrutinize and challenge patterns of power relations in the broader society by participating in social action projects (Cummins, 2009). These projects extend learning outside the classroom and empower learners to employ their democratic rights to actively challenge instances of injustice and inequality in society (Cummins et al., 2007). For example, during a unit that focus on the influences of mass media on society, students could investigate how gender roles are constructed in popular culture, or how stereotypes of culturally and linguistically diverse groups are reflected in contemporary TV shows or movies, and then create advertising campaigns to reverse these roles or stereotypes. Through the process of collaborative33inquiry, individual learners not only come to see themselves as capable o f generating knowledge and contributing to the education o f others inside the classroom, but they also begin to perceive themselves as valuable and contributing members of society.In theory, knowledge o f the benefits of collaborative, thematic, inquiry-based instruction should transform teaching practices to meet the needs o f culturally and linguistically diverse students in the twenty-first century. However, past experience has taught me that developing a professional research base does not guarantee a change or improvement in teaching practices. The prevalence of transmission style pedagogy in addition to the dominance o f writing and the medium of books (Kist, 2005) in our current education systems reflects the distance between theory and practice. While plenty of information exists in educational literature and research about the changing needs of students and the benefits o f collaborative, thematic, inquiry-based instruction, there is a lack o f direction about how to translate what is known into practice. The inspiring accounts o f teachers who have used their creativity and forged new roads in teaching and learning experiences by creating classrooms that feature daily work in multiple forms of representation (Cummins et al., 2007; Kist, 2005) provide some examples for other teachers to follow, but their techniques may not be reproducible in different settings. Therefore, rather than investing in scripted programs, teachers have the freedom, and the responsibility, to use their creativity, ingenuity, and skills to design a model that works for their students and in the context of their own classroom. Fortunately, the theories about New Literacies, Multiliteracies, and the SIOP model do not constrict teacher autonomy or advocate for one, essentialized method for instruction.34Included below is a description o f the collaborative, thematic, inquiry-based model that I adopted to create units of instruction for Language Adapted English 10. The model includes a broader definition of literacy and integrates transmission, social constructivist, and transformative styles o f pedagogy.Connections to PracticeWhen designing the model of instruction that I wanted to use to guide my literacy pedagogy, I kept the following requirements in mind: the model had to be sustainable, flexible, and facilitate the integration o f the four language processes: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. As many teachers, myself included, teach a variety o f grade levels and courses, I needed a model that could be used to design unit and lesson plans in multiple content areas as well as for students with various levels of English language proficiency. Furthermore, the model had to be ‘reusable’ and ‘sustainable’. A model that resulted in the creation of an isolated unit that could be taught once in a semester course, or a one time event that could not be recreated due to a need for specialized resources or partnership with outside agencies, would not lead to a permanent change in instructional practices. Additionally, each of the lessons in the units needed to include opportunities for students to improve their listening, speaking, reading (including viewing o f non-written texts), and writing (including representing in multiple modes) skills as these language processes develop interdependently (August & Shanahan, 2006; Genesee, Lindholm- Leary, Saunders, & Christian, 2006). Finally, to encourage the collaborative generation of knowledge, the model had to be flexible. Rather than imposing a fixed sequence of learning activities, the model was constructed from five main components that can be35combined in any order to create collaborative, thematic, inquiry-based units of instruction: essential questions, thematic selections o f texts, reading and writing workshops, on-line blogging, and inquiry projects.Each unit designed using a collaborative, thematic, inquiry-based model, is organized around an essential question (EQ). The EQ is selected to draw students’ attention to a social issue that is relevant to their age group, context, and content area that they are studying. For example, frequently used EQs in Language Adapted English 10 include: “In what ways do the expectations o f society and mass media impact our behavior?” and “In what ways does our ability to deal with significant changes, or transitions, impact our identity?” At the conclusion of the unit, students are required to provide their own response to the EQ. To help students develop an understanding of the social issue being addressed, each o f the individual lessons begins with a sub-question that students discuss, and then respond to at the end of the lesson.For each of the sub-questions in the unit, students have the opportunity to read and discuss a variety o f texts that are selected to activate students’ background knowledge and to broaden their understanding of the issue. Students are also encouraged to find texts, such as poems, stories, articles, graphics, photographs, etc., that they think will help themselves and others better understand the issues discussed in class. In addition to the discussion of texts in class, students participate in literature circle conversations. Each of the novels chosen also connects to the unit EQ. Literature circles are an important component o f each unit as there is a positive correlation between literacy engagement and reading achievement (Cummins et al., 2007; Guthrie, 2004). Engaged reading combines ample time for solitary reading, or self-directed learning from texts, with opportunities36for students to interact and discuss their ideas, understandings, or interpretations o f the texts they are reading. Research has revealed that traditional barriers to reading achievement can be overcome by engaged reading can overcome traditional barriers, including gender, parental education, and income to reading achievement (Guthrie, 2004). However, without social interaction, students are less likely to actively engage in the interpretation and understanding of the texts that they encounter (Guthrie, 2004). Organizing literature circle groups also enables students to select the texts that they would like to read, and provides teachers with opportunities to use texts such as graphic novels, Manga, comics, etc., that may not traditionally be used in academic settings.In addition to reading extensively, students also need to develop effective strategies to deepen their comprehension o f the texts they encounter (Cummins et al., 2007; Guthrie, 2004; Postlethwaite & Ross, 1992; Pressley, Duke, & Boling, 2004). For this reason, reading and writing workshops are an important component of each unit created using a collaborative, thematic, inquiry-based model. Throughout each unit, the teachers are able to use their professional opinion to select reading strategies to introduce, model, and practice with learners to encourage students’ independent use of these key strategies. Likewise, educators can select genres for students to study and deconstruct. Learners are able to gain an understanding of how to construct or compose their own texts through explicit instruction of the structure and language features o f the texts they encounter inside and outside of school.Even though there has been a significant increase in computer use and internet access during the 1990s, a ‘digital divide’ still exists between lower-income and higher- income families (Wilhelm, Carmen, & Reynolds, 2002). Schools can help address thisissue by ensuring students have access to computers and other digital tools while at school, but closing the ‘digital divide’ will require more than technology and connectivity itself.Participation in the creation of a class and group on-line blog is an essential part o f a collaborative, thematic, inquiry-based model. Although technology by itself has not been shown to improve learning, learners do benefit when technology is used to support instruction that focuses on the generation of knowledge and critical analysis (Cummins et al., 2007). In some situations, teachers assume that students do not have access to computers, and in response, create learning activities that focus on the development of basic computer skills or the ability to use a single program such as PowerPoint. Regrettably, these instructional choices further perpetuate the ‘digital divide’ as many students do not develop the ability to create or author texts using new communication tools and technologies (Bulfm & North, 2007). Rather than constricting students’ use of technology in school, educators need to ‘think outside the box’ and consider the affordances o f new technological tools for education (Ito et al., 2008). Forming connections with the ways young people use-technology outside of school and in the home also help to remove the barriers between schools and communities and allows students’ digital literacy practices to flow between the different spaces they inhabit (Bulfm & North, 2007). The use of a class on-line blog builds upon students’ knowledge of, and interest in, social networking sites such as Facebook and Twitter. As students read their books, they are able to publish their responses to their texts and/or reply to the postings submitted by other students. Additionally, students are not limited to written38responses as they are able to add video, audio, or graphic images to create multimodal responses to their readings.The final component of the unit is the inquiry project. At the conclusion of each unit, students are required to respond to the EQ in any format or mode they choose. The purpose o f this assignment is to provide opportunities for students to use their talents and skills to demonstrate their knowledge rather than limiting them to one standardized form of assessment. This freedom not only encourages students to use their creativity to solve a problem, it also facilitates the development of a deeper understanding of the recursive processes, such as editing and revision, that are involved in more conventional alphabetic compositions (Selfe, Fliescher & Wright, 2007). As a part o f their final project, students are encouraged to use the texts discussed in class, literature circle novels, and texts found outside o f class to explain their understanding of the issues discussed throughout the unit. In the past, many students have created ‘identity texts’9 in various forms in response to the unit EQ. For example, some students have written stories, poems or rap songs, created PowerPoint or Photo Story presentations, and even filmed mini-documentaries that featured interviews with their friends and family members. The quality o f work that students have produced has exceeded expectations, and their work reflects a significant personal investment in their projects. A sample unit constructed using a collaborative, thematic, inquiry-based approach is included in appendix A.399 Identity texts are texts created by individuals who invest their identities in texts (written, spoken, visual, musical, or combinations in multimodal form) that then reflect individuals’ identities in a positive light (Cummins et al., 2007).ConclusionA review of research concerning the affective and academic needs o f ESL students reveals the importance of cognitively demanding learning activities that develop students’ identities as knowledgeable and capable learners and bridge the gap between students’ home and school-based literacy practices. The wide scope of texts, issues and skills included in the sample unit plan (see appendix A) reveals that literacy instruction embedded in a collaborative:, thematic, inquiry-based model can meet the academic and effective needs of ESL students in a secondary subject English classroom.Initially, students may challenge, and/or struggle against, new instructional practices. As Kist (2005) observed in his study of New Literacy classrooms, redesigning instructional practices to embrace a broader definition o f literacy may not be consistent with students’ perceived mental model of teaching and learning. If students are familiar and comfortable with traditional, transmission style pedagogy, they may resist a social constructivist or transformative approach as they may feel that they are not learning. Similarly to the comments made by students in Kist’s (2005) research, I found that students wondered why they were not given content to memorize or textbook questions to answer. During the two semesters that I have used a collaborative, thematic, inquiry- based model to design my curriculum, there have been two or three students who actively, and vocally, questioned the value o f the learning activities in which they were required to participate. However, these students often produced high quality work once they become comfortable generating rather than simply consuming knowledge. This situation demonstrates that any shift in instructional practices will also involve a process of negotiation between teachers and learners as students re-conceptualize their40understanding of teaching and learning. To ease this transition, teachers need to affirm students’ identities by validating their background knowledge and demonstrating to SLLs that the return for their investment in teaching and learning activities is the development o f a wider range o f linguistic capabilities (Norton, 2008).Adopting a collaborative, thematic, inquiry-based approach creates a classroom environment with permeable borders where information can flow from inside and outside o f the classroom. As the cultural and linguistic resources that students bring with them to school become more visible, students begin to draw on these skills to improve their comprehension o f texts or issues discussed in class. For example, throughout the unit included in this paper students brought in songs, poems, articles, videos and movies in various languages that they felt were relevant to the topics discussed in class. Students also seemed keen to continue conversations started in class by adding posts to the class blog, or by responding to the comments posted by other students. Additionally, many of the students I worked with expressed their appreciation for opportunities to work in groups. By the end of the course, students felt that they were better able to work with a diverse group of learners, and realized the value of different perspectives and meaning making systems. Furthermore, they felt accepted and valued, and consequently, felt more comfortable sharing their experiences and contributing to conversations. Students who came into the course feeling apprehensive thrived in this collaborative environment and developed more confident in their abilities. When students realized that their teacher and fellow classmates did not expect them to ‘abandon’ their identities, then began to identify themselves as intelligent, imaginative, and linguistically talented individuals with valuable thoughts and ideas;41Throughout the lessons, I also observed a high level o f student engagement. In comparison to my previous classes, these students became more actively engaged in critical thinking and active participants in the reading and writing process.10 Students became increasingly interested in their own interpretations o f texts and became less dependent on me as their teacher to supply the ‘right’ answer. They seemed to understand that texts contain multiple meanings and an individual’s life experience will impact his/her reading of a text. Also, many students appeared to enjoy meeting with their literature circle groups each week. Even students who claimed at the beginning of the course that they were not readers and revealed that they had not read a book for several years began to identify themselves as readers. They actively engaged in literacy practices such as reading and discussing, reading to answer their own questions, and reading to better understand life, or the world around them. While students may need time to adjust to this style o f instruction, once they do, they seem to excel.From a teacher’s perspective, there are also challenges that educators may face when changing their instructional practices. While I was able to stretch my own horizons as an educator, I often second-guessed myself and was uncertain about what to do next. I was used to being in charge of the content, and having a firm deadline for the beginning and end of each unit. I was unfamiliar with the role o f a facilitator rather than director. In his book, New Literacies in action: Teaching and Learning in multiple media Kist (2005) refers to the teachers he observed as ‘pioneers’; individuals exploring the new frontiers of education. Although this endeavor is exciting, there were times when I felt disconnected10 The inquiry projects created by students who participated in units based on a collaborative, thematic, inquiry-based approach were detailed, informative, and reflected a high level o f proficiency when synthesizing, evaluating, or thinking critically. Many o f the students were asked if  their work could be shared with a group o f students and teachers in Burnaby and in Winnipeg to demonstrate the complex work that ESL students are capable o f producing.from my department and had to resist the urge to relapse into the use of familiar traditional teaching methods. For example, I found it difficult to lead “explicit discussions [on the] merits o f certain symbol systems” (Kist, 2005, p. 16) and the advantages or disadvantages o f using particular modes to address certain tasks because I had very little background knowledge in this area. While it was easy for me to find theoretical texts, there were few existing models for applying these theories. From this experience, I have learned the importance of engaging in professional dialogue and sharing my ideas about teaching and learning.My experience as an educator during the last year has been a collection of frustrations and breakthroughs. I have agonized over decisions about what to do next and celebrated students’ successes. After much hard work, and with the help of my students, I believe that I have created a sustainable model for curriculum design. I believe that I can use this model again next year to create new units o f instruction for my English Language Adapted 10 course, and also for my other courses. Additionally, I am looking forward to collaborating with my colleagues in other content areas, such as social studies and English to see if  this model can be applied in those settings as well. While I feel that I have come a long way on my professional journey, I have not yet reached my final destination.According to Kist’s (2005) characteristics of a New Literacies classroom, work in multiple forms o f representation is a basic requirement for New Literacies instruction. Looking back at the work I have done with students, I realize that many of the texts that I have found to work with are still primarily English-only print-based texts. I would like to find more audio, visual, digital, multilingual, and multimodal texts to use in the future,43and provide students with more opportunities to create a wider variety o f texts. Unfortunately, in my units, there is still a strong emphasis on composing written texts, such as causal explanations, and it would be interesting to investigate how written composition skills could be acquired though audio, visual, or multimodal mediums. Perhaps students could create cartoons, digital animations, or mini-documentaries that explain, for example, the ways in which the expectations o f society and the mass media impact individuals’ self esteem and body image.At this point in my career, I believe that I have a greater understanding of the ways that literacy instruction can be transformed to meet the academic and effective needs of ESL students in a secondary subject English classroom. I realize now that I need to increase my knowledge o f symbol systems and become more comfortable releasing control o f the ways students can demonstrate their knowledge to allow students to be more creative and innovative. 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Gass and C. Madden (Eds.), Input in Second Language Acquisition (pp. 235-253). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.The State o f South Australia. (2004). The functional model o f language. In The State of South Australia (2004) Language and literacy: Classroom applications o f  functional grammar. Hindmarsh, South Australia: The State o f South Australia, Department o f Education and Children’s Services and The South Australian Commissions for Catholic Schools.Unsworth, L. (2001). Multiliteracies across the curriculum: Changing contexts o f  text and image in classroom practice. New York, NY: Open University Press.Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development o f  higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Wilhelm, T., Carmen, D., & Reynolds, M. (2002, June). Connecting kids to technology: Challenges and opportunities. Kids Count Snapshot. The Anne E. Casey Foundation. Retrieved June 16, 2010, fromwww.aecf.org/upload/publicationfiles/connecting kids technology.pdf.Williams, S., Lemke, C., & Slipac, S. (in press). The impact o f  collaborative, scaffolded learning. San Jose, CA: Cisco Systems.51Zwiers, J., & Crawford, M. (2009). How to start academic conversations. Educational Leadership, 66(7), 70-73.52Appendix A - Sample UnitUnit Essential Question:In what ways do the expectations of society and the mass media impact our behavior? Lesson #1: Unit IntroductionConnections to BC Ministry o f Education English Language Arts 10 Prescribed Learning Outcomes (BCELAIRP, 2006)Oral Language: Students will:A l -  interact and collaborate in pairs and groups to support and extend the learning of self and others; explore experiences, ideas, and information; and gain insight into others’ perspectives.A4 -  select, adapt, and apply a range o f strategies to interact and collaborate with others in pairs and groups, including initiating and sharing responsibilities; listening actively; contributing ideas and supporting the ideas o f others; acknowledging and discussing diverse points of view; reaching consensus or agreeing to differ.A ll  -  use metacognitive strategies to reflect on and assess their speaking and listening, by referring to criteria; setting goals for improvement; creating a plan for achieving goals; evaluating progress and setting new goals.Reading and Viewing: Students will:B2 -  read, both collaboratively and independently, to comprehend information texts including instructions and explanations.B11 -  use metacognitive strategies to reflect on and assess their reading and viewing, by referring to criteria; setting goals for improvement; creating a plan for achieving goals; evaluating progress and setting new goals.Writing and Representing: Students will:C l -  write meaningful personal texts that elaborate on ideas and information to express self; make connections; reflect and respond; remember and recall.C l 1 -  use metacognitive strategies to reflect on and assess their writing, by referring to criteria; setting goals for improvement; creating a plan for achieving goals; evaluating progress and setting new goals.Content Objective11:1 will know the expectations for our first unit of study.According to the SIOP Model, every lesson should begin with clearly defined content and language objectives that are clearly displayed and reviewed with students (Echevvarria, Vogt & Short, 2008). A content objective identifies what students should know.and/or be able to do by the conclusion o f the lesson. Language objectives identify what“students should know and be able to do while using English (or another53Language Objective: I will show I know by writing a reflection about the learningactivities I am looking forward to and the learning activities I am concerned about.Resources: Unit I -  Anticipation Guide (see appendix)Unit I -  Stop Light Page (see appendix)Unit I -  Inquiry Project Proposal (see appendix)Unit I -  Grading policy / 4-point scale assessment (see appendix)Unit I -  Assessment matrix / connections to BCELAIRP (see appendix)Classroom Materials:• Green, yellow, and red circular stickers or coloured pens for stop light page.• Student journals - these can be provided by the teacher, or students can be asked to bring a notebook or duo tang to function as their journal / portfolio.Sequence of Activities:Part One: Anticipation Guide -1.) After welcoming students to class, the teacher will distribute the Unit I anticipation guide. Students will work independently for approximately three to four minutes to respond the questions.2.) Once students have responded to the anticipation guide questions, the teacher will select a question from the anticipation guide to discuss.3.) Students will be instructed to place themselves on a line. Students will do this by standing at one end of the line if  they agree with the statement on the anticipation guide, or stand on the opposite end of the line if  they disagree. Students who are undecided will stand in the middle o f the line.4.) Next, the teacher will ask students to fold the line by having one end of the line move to form a line facing the other students. Ideally, the students who most agree and most disagree about the topic will end up standing face to face when the line stops moving.5.) Students will then ‘partner up’ with the individual facing them. Students will each be given time to discuss their thoughts, ideas, opinions, and/ or feelings about the question.6.) Students will then join a group o f four and share what they discussed in their groups o f two.7.) This sequence o f activities can be continued until students have discussed all of the questions on the anticipation guide, or the teacher can decide to discuss some of the questions at a later time.8.) Before moving to part two of the lesson, the teacher will introduce the unit EQ. Students will have approximately five minutes to write their thoughts or opinionslanguage) (Echevvarria, Vogt & Short, 2008). I have opted to write these objectives in “student-friendly” language. The objectives appear in these lesson plans as they would be written on the board at the beginning o f  each class.54about the EQ on the first page of their journal. After silently writing, students will be asked to mingle and share their responses with their classmates.9.) Next, the teacher will explain to the students that the overall goal o f the unit is to work collaboratively to answer the EQ. Additionally, the teacher will explain that students will be listening to, viewing, reading, and writing a variety o f texts to help them develop their understanding of the issues included in their anticipation guide.Part Two: Stop Light Page1.) The teacher will distribute a stop light page to each student. The stop light page includes a summary of the content knowledge and skills that will be covered throughout the unit. This will provide students with an opportunity to assess their knowledge and skill level before the unit, and at the conclusion of the unit.2.) Then, the teacher will instruct students to place a green sticker beside any statements that describe content knowledge they already know, or skills they are already able to perform individually. Students will place a yellow sticker beside any statements that describe content knowledge they are familiar with, or skills they are already able to perform with some support or assistance. Students will place a red sticker beside any statements that describe content knowledge they are unfamiliar with, or skills they are not yet able to perform.3.) The teacher will then collect students completed stop light pages to determine what content and skills students are comfortable with, familiar with, and unfamiliar with.Part Three: Journal / Portfolio Expectations1.) The teacher will distribute copies of the journal / portfolio expectations. This handout provides students with information about the unit journal they are required to maintain. Each lesson will begin and end with an opportunity for students to record their thoughts/ideas/opinions about the topics discussed in class in their journals.Part Four: Grading Policy1.) The teacher will distribute copies o f the grading policy and assessment matrix. Then, the teacher will explain the 4-point scale assessment that will be used to assess all students’ work. The scale has been created to make assessment more meaningful for students by establishing connections between their marks and their performance. The assessment matrix shows students connections between their assignments and the learning outcomes for English 10.Part Five: Lesson Reflection2.) At the conclusion of the lesson, students will be given approximately ten minutes to write down their reactions to the information provided. They will be asked to write about aspects of the course they are looking forward to and any aspects of the course that they are concerned about.55Lesson #2: In what ways do the rules and expectations of society and the mass media impact the behaviour o f males and females?Connections to BC Ministry of Education English Language Arts 10 Prescribed Learning Outcomes (BCELAIRP, 2006)Oral language: Students will:A l - interact and collaborate in pairs and groups to support and extend the learning of self and others; explore experiences, ideas, and information; gain insight into others’ perspectives; respond to and analyse a variety of texts.A4 - select, adapt, and apply a range o f strategies to interact and collaborate with others in pairs and groups, including initiating and sharing responsibilities; listening actively; contributing ideas and supporting the ideas of others; acknowledging and discussing diverse points of view; reaching consensus or agreeing to differ.A5 - select, adapt, and apply a range o f strategies to prepare oral communications, including interpreting a task and setting a purpose; generating ideas; considering multiple perspectives; synthesizing relevant knowledge and experiences; planning presentations.A6 - select, adapt, and apply a range o f strategies to express ideas and information in oral communications, including vocal techniques; style and tone; nonverbal techniques; visual aids; organizational and memory aids; monitoring methods.A8 - speak and listen to make personal responses to texts, by making connections with prior knowledge and experiences; relating reactions and emotions to understanding of the text; generating thoughtful questions; making inferences; explaining opinions using reasons and evidence.A9 - speak and listen to interpret, analyse, and evaluate ideas and information from texts, by making and supporting reasoned judgments; examining and comparing ideas and elements among texts; describing and comparing perspectives.A10 - speak and listen to synthesize and extend thinking, by personalizing ideas and information; explaining relationships among ideas and information; applying new ideas and information; transforming existing ideas and information; contextualizing ideas and information.Reading and Viewing: Students will:B2 - read, both collaboratively and independently, to comprehend a variety of information and persuasive texts with increasing complexity o f ideas and form, such as articles and reports, magazines, and opinion-based material.B3 - read, both collaboratively and independently, to comprehend a variety o f literary texts, including poetry in a variety of narrative and lyric forms.56B4 - view, both collaboratively and independently, to comprehend a variety o f visual texts, such as video, and visual components o f print media.B5 - before reading and viewing, select, adapt, and apply a range o f strategies to anticipate content and construct meaning, including interpreting a task; setting a purpose or multiple purposes; accessing prior knowledge, including knowledge of genre, form, and context; making logical, detailed predictions; generating guiding or speculative questions.B6 - during reading and viewing, select, adapt, and apply a range of strategies to construct, monitor, confirm meaning, including comparing and refining predictions, questions, images, and connections; making inferences and drawing conclusions; summarizing and paraphrasing; using text features; determining the meaning of unknown words and phrases; clarifying meaning.B7 - after reading and viewing, select, adapt, and apply a range of strategies to extend and confirm meaning and to consider author’s craft, including reflecting on predictions, questions, images, and connections made during reading; reviewing text and purpose for reading; making inferences and drawing conclusions; summarizing, synthesizing, and applying ideas; identifying stylistic techniques.B8 - explain and support personal responses to texts, by making comparisons to other ideas and concepts; relating reactions and emotions to understanding o f the text; explaining opinions using reasons and evidence; suggesting contextual influences.B9 - interpret, analyse, and evaluate ideas and information from texts, by making and supporting reasoned judgments; comparing ideas and elements among texts; identifying and describing diverse voices.BIO - synthesize and extend thinking about texts, by personalizing ideas and information; explaining relationships among ideas and information; applying new ideas and information; transforming existing ideas and information.Writing and Representing: Students will:C l - write meaningful personal texts that elaborate on ideas and information to experiment; express self; make connections; reflect and respond; remember and recallContent Objectives: I will know how to use reading strategies before, during, and after reading an information text.Language Objectives: I will show I know by recording the reading strategies that I use before, during, and after reading information texts and by discussing a variety of information texts with my class or small group.57Resources:Brizendine, L. (2006). The female brain. New York, NY: Morgan Road Books.Duffy, T. (1998, September). Behind the silence: A psychologist says boys are victims of the stoicism they sense we expect of them. People Magazine, 50, 175-177Goldwater, R.H. (1996, October). “Fairy tale land revisited.” Betty and Veronica Double Digest Magazine, 60. Mamaroneck, New York: Archie Comic Publications Inc.Korman, G. (2010). Guy things. In J. Mackenzie (Senior Author), Nelson literacy 9b (pp.72 - 75). Toronto: Nelson Education Ltd.Stefani, G.; Dumont, T. (1995). Just a girl [Recorded by No Doubt] On Tragic Kingdom [CD]. Los Angeles: Trauma Records.Classroom Materials: A variety o f magazines (approximately 1 per student) and tape Sequence o f Activities:Part One; Accessing background knowledge1.) After welcoming students to class, the teacher will ask students to open their binders to the anticipation guide discussed in lesson #1. If the class has not discussed questions two and three, these questions can now be addressed. If students have already discussed these questions, the teacher can lead a one or two minute discussion to review the ideas and thoughts that students discussed during the first lesson.2.) Next, students will be given approximately five minutes to respond to today’s sub­question in their journals. The teacher will encourage students to agree or disagree with the sub-question or with question two and three from the anticipation guide and explain why. As students will be writing causal explanations, they need to practice including supporting details for their opinions.3.) After students have had time for independent reflection and writing, students will discuss their responses with a partner in class. After sharing with their partner, they will have a few minutes to add any additional ideas, thoughts, or comments to their journal entries.Part Two: Data CollectionStudents will form groups o f four or five. Each group will be given a selection of magazines and instructed to find images of males and females. They will remove these images from the magazines, and tape these images to the white boards at the front of the class. One white board will have images of females, and the other board will have images o f males.1.) Once the students have selected several images for both genders, the teacher will ask students to go to the front o f the room and look at the images. Then, in their .58groups they will work collaboratively to make some observations about the portrayal o f genders in the images.2.) The teacher will then facilitate a class discussion using the 5-question model designed by Michah Jacobson and Mari Ruddy in their book Open to outcome: A practical guide fo r  facilitating and teaching experiential reflection (2004). See the appendix for more information. This discussion will help students understand what an academic conversation looks like, sounds like, and feels like. This will prepare students to create criteria for their literature circle discussions.3.) Before moving to the next stage o f the lesson, the teacher will record students’ ideas on a class brainstorm poster that will remain in the class throughout the unit. This poster can be added to at anytime during the unit. For an example, see the photo in the appendix.Part Three: Reading workshop -  Strategies for reading nonfiction texts1.) The teacher will distribute copies o f the magazine article Behind the Silence by Tom Duffy. This article can be accessed at the following website address: http://www.Deople.com/people/archive/article/CL20126359,00.html2.) The teacher will read this article with the students and model reading strategies that can be used before, during, and after reading an information text.123.) After reading the article, the teacher will, again, facilitate a class discussion using the 5-question model. This time, the teacher will also encourage students to make connections between the ideas they brainstormed during the data collection activity and from reading the article Behind the Silence.4.) Again, before moving to the next stage, the teacher will record students’ ideas on a class brainstorm poster, modeling how to maintain a record of ideas collected from a variety o f texts.Part Four: Collaborative and independent reading1.) The teacher will begin by writing the title of the next article that students are going to read on the board: The Female Brain by Louann Brizendine (2006).2.) Before distributing the article, students will make predictions about the contents o f the article, and will discuss the strategies that help to improve comprehension before, during, and after reading the article.3.) Once the article is distributed, students have the option of reading the article independently or collaboratively. Each student will be required to create a ‘ticket into’ the class discussion (see appendix) by 1. recording the reading strategies that they used before, during, and after reading the article, 2. one or two sentences from the article that they think are interesting, 3. three big ideas that they found in the article, and 4. one question that they think will generate conversation.4.) After reading the article, students will form small groups o f four or five and discuss the article by first discussing the reading strategies they used, then the sentences they found interesting, then the main points they found and finally by12 Two resources that provide helpful tips for teaching nonfiction reading strategies are: “Strategies that work: teaching comprehension for understanding and engagement” by Stephanie Harvey and Anne Goudvis(2007) and “Nonfiction reading power: Teaching students how to think while they read all kinds of information” by Adrienne Gear” (2008).59asking their questions. Once students have had an opportunity to discuss their ideas from their ‘ticket in’ pages, students will work collaboratively to make observations about the article that can be shared with the class in a 5-question discussion.5.) Before moving to the next stage, the teacher will record students’ ideas on a class brainstorm poster, modeling how to maintain a record of ideas collected from a variety of texts.Part Five: Small group discussions1.) During this part o f the lesson, students will be given a choice of three texts to read independently and collaboratively. The first text is the song Just a girl by No Doubt. There is also a music video for this song that students can watch. The second text is an essay by Gordon Korman Guy Things, and the third text is an Archie comic Fairy Tale Land Revisited.2.) To begin the activity, students will read the texts and decide which text they would like to discuss with their groups. Once each student has selected a text they would like to discuss the groups must agree which o f the three texts they would like to analyze.3.) Once each group has reached a consensus, students will work independently to complete another ‘ticket into’ a discussion. When everyone is prepared, the students move back into groups and use their ‘tickets’ to discuss and analyze their text.4.) When students feel that they have a strong understanding of the text they have selected, their group is in charge of facilitating a classroom discussion about their text. They will need to share some of their observations about their text with the class, and then lead a classroom discussion.5.) At the conclusion of the discussions, students will brainstorm strategies that they used to work cooperatively in their groups, and the characteristics of a good academic conversation.6.) Finally, students will write their post-lesson reflections in their journals. Students will be encouraged to consider how each o f the texts discussed in class helps them to understand how the behaviour of males and females is impacted by the rules and expectations of society and the mass media.60Lesson #3: Causal Explanations Writing WorkshopConnections to BC Ministry of Education English Language Arts 10 Prescribed Learning Outcomes (BCELAIRP, 2006)Oral Language: Students will:A l - interact and collaborate in pairs and groups to support and extend the learning of self and others; respond to and analyse a variety o f texts; create a variety o f texts.Writing and Representing: Students will:C2 - write purposeful information texts that express ideas and information to analyse and explain.C6 - select, adapt, and apply a range o f drafting and composing strategies while writing and representing, including using a variety of sources to collect ideas and information; generating text; organizing and synthesizing ideas and information; analysing writing samples or models; creating and consulting criteria.C7 - select, adapt, and apply a range of strategies to revise, edit, and publish writing and representing, including checking work against established criteria; enhancing supporting details and examples; refining specific aspects and features of text; proofreading.CIO - write and represent to synthesize and extend thinking, by personalizing ideas and information; explaining relationships among ideas and information; applying new ideas and information; transforming existing ideas and information.C ll  - use metacognitive strategies to reflect on and assess their writing and representing, by relating their work to criteria; setting goals for improvement; creating a plan for achieving goals; evaluating progress and setting new goals.C12 - use conventions in writing and representing, appropriate to purpose and audience, to enhance meaning and artistry, including grammar and usage; punctuation, capitalization, and Canadian spelling; copyright and citation o f references; presentation/layoutContent Objectives: I will know how to write causal explanations and explain phenomenon that occur in the social world.Language Objectives: I will show I know by writing a well organized causal explanation, with nonhuman participants, nominalisation, causal conjunctions, and use the passive form.Resources:Burnaby School District. (2008). Language adapted composition 11: Course curriculum and implementation guidelines. Burnaby, BC: Burnaby School District 41.61de Silva Joyce, H., & Feex, S. (2004). Developing writing skills: For middle secondary students book 2. Melbourne, AUS: Phoenix Education.de Silva Joyce, H. (2005). Developing writing skills: Teacher resource book. Melbourne, AUS: Phoenix Education.Classroom Materials: Poster paper and felt markersSequence o f Activities:Part One: Identification o f phenomenon1.) To begin the lesson, the teacher will ask students to refer back to the reflections that they wrote in their journals at the end of lesson #2.2.) The teacher will introduce the genre o f explanation writing by asking students to brainstorm who writes explanations, who reads explanations, and what a reader’s expectations are when they read an explanation. The teacher will organize students’ feedback into categories such as genre (what explanations are), purpose (who writes explanations and why), and register (what explanations sound like).3.) Once students have had time to access their background knowledge, the teacher will provide some information about explanations that students may not already know. For example, the teacher will explain that explanations are often written to explain how and why processes occur in the social and physical world. The teacher may also want to explain that historians, scientists, and social scientists usually trace the origins or causes o f phenomena in order to uncover reasonable explanations. Therefore, authors of explanations tend to work backwards from the outcome to uncover the cause.4.) After working together with students to generate information about explanation writing, the teacher will review the lesson’s content and language objectives and ensure students understand that there are different types of explanation essays, but that they will be writing causal explanations.5.) The teacher will then give students a few examples of phenomena that students may have identified in lesson #1 or #2. For example, students may have identified that the Archie comic Fairy Tale Land Revisited demonstrated that girls sometimes act more helpless then they are or men prefer women who need to be protected rather than strong, independent women. Students will then be given time to work with a partner or small group to identify other phenomena that are portrayed in the texts from lesson #2.6.) Once the class has generated a list of phenomena, the class will vote which phenomena they think they can explain using their past experiences and the knowledge they gained from lesson #2. The teacher will work with students to jointly construct a causal explanation. While writing, the teacher will pause at key moments to explain the language and grammar choices they are making, and to draw students’ attention to the language features that they include as they write.7.) Ideally, this activity should be done using poster paper so the completed text can be displayed in the classroom for future reference.62Part Two: Practice activities1.) After completing one causal explanation with the class, the teacher will identify key language features that are usually used when writing these texts. These language features include: nonhuman participants, nominalization, causal conjunctions, and use the passive form.2.) Students will be given opportunities to practice using these language features in oral language or written activities. For examples o f activities that can be used in the classroom refer to Developing writing skills: Teacher resource book by Helen de Silva Joyce (2005) and Developing writing skills: For middle secondary students book 2 by Helen de Silva Joyce and Susan Feez (2004).Part Three: Joint construction1.) Once students are more familiar with the language features they will be expected to include in their causal explanations, the teacher will work with students to brainstorm the expectations/criteria that the class will use to assess their written texts. See the appendix for a sample checklist created by students in Language Adapted English 10.2.) The teacher will then work with the class to create a graphic organizer that students can use to plan or outline a casual explanation.3.) Students will then work with a partner to complete the graphic organizer and create an outline for a causal explanation.4.) Finally, students will work with their partner to jointly construct a causal explanation for one of the phenomena identified from lesson #1 or #2. This could be done in class using paper and pencil, in a computer lab using Microsoft Word or outside the classroom through the use o f a wiki.Part Four: Peer Assessment and Feedback1.) Once students have completed their texts, they will switch work with another group. Each group will be responsible for reading and responding to work completed by other students in the class, and using the class generated criteria to assess other students’ work.Part Five: Reflection1.) Each student will be required to keep a copy of their draft text as well as a copy of the feedback they receive from other students in their journal / portfolio. They will also be required to provide a summary of the skills discussed in lesson #3 that they are comfortable with, and areas where they, or others, think that they can improve.Lesson #4: In what ways do the rules and expectations o f society and the mass mediaimpact our self and body image?Connections to BC Ministry of Education English Language Arts 10 Prescribed LearningOutcomes (BCELAIRP, 2006)63Oral language: Students will:A l - interact and collaborate in pairs and groups to support and extend the learning of self and others; explore experiences, ideas, and information; gain insight into others’ perspectives; respond to and analyse a variety of texts.A4 - select, adapt, and apply a range o f strategies to interact and collaborate with others in pairs and groups, including initiating and sharing responsibilities; listening actively; contributing ideas and supporting the ideas of others; acknowledging and discussing diverse points of view; reaching consensus or agreeing to differ.A5 - select, adapt, and apply a range o f strategies to prepare oral communications, including interpreting a task and setting a purpose; generating ideas; considering multiple perspectives; synthesizing relevant knowledge and experiences; planning presentations.A6 - select, adapt, and apply a range of strategies to express ideas and information in oral communications, including vocal techniques; style and tone; nonverbal techniques; visual aids; organizational and memory aids; monitoring methods.A8 - speak and listen to make personal responses to texts, by making connections with prior knowledge and experiences; relating reactions and emotions to understanding of the text; generating thoughtful questions; making inferences; explaining opinions using reasons and evidence.A9 - speak and listen to interpret, analyse, and evaluate ideas and information from texts, by making and supporting reasoned judgments; examining and comparing ideas and elements among texts; describing and comparing perspectives.A10 - speak and listen to synthesize and extend thinking, by personalizing ideas and information; explaining relationships among ideas and information; applying new ideas and information; transforming existing ideas and information; contextualizing ideas and information.Reading and Viewing: Students will:B 1 - read, both collaboratively and independently, to comprehend a variety of literary texts, literature reflecting a variety o f prose forms; poetry in a variety o f narrative and lyric forms.B4 - view, both collaboratively and independently, to comprehend a variety of visual texts, such as graphic novels.B5 - before reading and viewing, select, adapt, and apply a range o f strategies to anticipate content and construct meaning, including interpreting a task; setting a purpose or multiple purposes; accessing prior knowledge, including knowledge of genre, form, and context; making logical, detailed predictions; generating guiding or speculative questions.64B6 - during reading and viewing, select, adapt, and apply a range o f strategies to construct, monitor, confirm meaning, including comparing and refining predictions, questions, images, and connections; making inferences and drawing conclusions; summarizing and paraphrasing; using text features; determining the meaning of unknown words and phrases; clarifying meaning.B7 - after reading and viewing, select, adapt, and apply a range of strategies to extend and confirm meaning and to consider author’s craft, including reflecting on predictions, questions, images, and connections made during reading; reviewing text and purpose for reading; making inferences and drawing conclusions; summarizing, synthesizing, and applying ideas; identifying stylistic techniques.B8 - explain and support personal responses to texts, by making comparisons to other ideas and concepts; relating reactions and emotions to understanding o f the text; explaining opinions using reasons and evidence; suggesting contextual influences.B9 - interpret, analyse, and evaluate ideas and information from texts, by making and supporting reasoned judgments; comparing ideas and elements among texts; identifying and describing diverse voices.BIO - synthesize and extend thinking about texts, by personalizing ideas and information; explaining relationships among ideas and information; applying new ideas and information; transforming existing ideas and information.Writing and Representing: Students will:C l -  write meaningful personal texts that elaborate on ideas and information to experiment; express self; make connections; reflect and respond; remember and recallContent Objectives: I will know how to use reading strategies before, during, and after reading literary texts.Language Objectives: I will show I know by recording the reading strategies that I use before, during, and after reading literary texts and by discussing a variety of literary texts with my class or small group.Resources:Hall, Quantedius. (2008). Time somebody told me. In Toutant, A., Jeroski, S., Atkinson. C., Bowman, J., Chambers, R., Costello, C., et al. My choice, my voice: Who do I  want to be? (pp. 17). Toronto, ON: Pearson Education.Kretschmer, S. (1999). And summer is gone. In B. Emra (Ed.), Coming o f  age: Fiction about youth and adolescents (pp. 206-211). Lincolnwood, IL: National Textbook Corporation.65Medearis, A. S. (2000). Nonconformist. In M. Crane, B. Fullerton, & A. Joseph. Sightlines 10 (pp. 31). Toronto, ON: Prentice Hall Canada.Morris, M. (2010). So I ’m told. In J. MacKenzie, P. Davidson, & M. Kunka. Nelson Literacy 9b (pp. 76). Toronto, ON: Nelson Education.Rabinowicz, V. (2000). My body. In M. Crane, B. Fullerton, & A. Joseph. Sightlines 10 (pp. 31). Toronto, ON: Prentice Hall CanadaTis_Time. (2008). Juggling Masks. In Toutant, A., Jeroski, S., Atkinson. C., Bowman,J., Chambers, R., Costello, C., et al. My choice, my voice: Who do I  want to be?(pp. 17). Toronto, ON: Pearson Education.Wright, C. (2010). They said. In J. MacKenzie, P. Davidson, & M. Kunka. Nelson Literacy 9b (pp. 76). Toronto, ON: Nelson EducationClassroom Materials: N/ASequence o f Activities:Part One: Accessing background knowledge1.) After welcoming students to class, the teacher will ask students to open their binders to the anticipation guide discussed in lesson #1. If the class has not discussed questions four and five, these questions can now be addressed. If students have already discussed these questions, the teacher can lead a short discussion to review the ideas and thoughts that students discussed during the first lesson.2.) Next, students will be given approximately five minutes to respond to the lesson’s sub-question in their journals. The teacher will encourage students to agree or disagree with the sub-question, or with question four and five, from the anticipation guide and provide reasons for their opinions. As students will be writing causal explanations, they need to practice including supporting details for their opinions.3.) After students have had time for independent reflection and writing, students will discuss their responses with a partner in class. After sharing with their partner, they will have a few minutes to write add additional ideas, thoughts, or comments to their journal entries.Part Two: Reading workshop -  Strategies for reading narrative texts1.) The teacher will begin this part of the lesson by assessing what students already know about narrative texts. Students will be instructed to complete a ‘ticket in’ to a classroom discussion by dividing a piece o f paper into four equal parts and summarizing what they already know about the characteristics of a good short story, characters, conflict, and literary devices such as irony, flashbacks, and66foreshadowing. Once students have completed their ‘tickets in’ the teacher will lead a short class discussion about narrative texts.2.) After, the teacher will distribute copies of the short story “And summer is gone” by Susie Kretschmer (1999). The teacher will ask students for suggestions of reading strategies that can be used before reading a narrative text. Once students have made some predictions about the story, the teacher will read the story out loud to the class and model specific reading strategies that can be used while reading a narrative text.133.) After reading the story, students will create another ‘ticket into’ a discussion by dividing a piece of paper into four equal parts and summarizing what they noticed about the story (observations of phenomena), what they know from past experience about the events in the story (knowledge o f phenomena), what they infer about the characters in the story, and if the predictions they made about the story were correct.4.) After students have written down their reflections about the story, the teacher will facilitate a class discussion using the 5-question model.5.) As in lesson #2, before moving to the next stage, the teacher will record students’ ideas on a class brainstorm poster, modeling how to maintain a record of ideas collected from a variety o f texts. In addition, students will reflect on their own thoughts, ideas, and opinions in comparison to other students in the class. Each student will be instructed to write in their journals about what they knew, or thought about the story, and what other students in the class knew or thought. Then, students will be asked to explain if their understanding or thinking about the story was influenced by other people in the classroom.Part Three: Small group discussions1.) During this part o f the lesson, students will be given a choice o f five poems and one comic to read and analyze. Before moving into groups, the teacher and students will brainstorm strategies that can be used before, during, and after reading a poem to improve comprehension. The teacher may want to model these strategies using one of the poems collected for this lesson.2.) To begin the activity, students will read the texts and decide which text they would like to discuss with their groups. Once each student has selected a text they would like to discuss, their group must agree which of the texts they would like to analyze.3.) Once each group has reached a consensus, the students will work independently to complete another ‘ticket into’ a discussion. When everyone is prepared, the students will move back into groups and use their ‘tickets’ to discuss and analyze their text.4.) When students feel that they have a strong understanding of the text they have selected, their group is in charge of facilitating a classroom discussion about their13 Further information about teaching narrative reading strategies can be found in “Edge C: Reading, writing, and language” by David W. Moore, Deborah J. Short, Michael W. Smith, and Alfred W. Tatum(2008) and “Reading power: Teaching students to think while they read” by Adrienne Gear (2006).67text. They will need to share some of their observations about their text with the class, and then lead a classroom discussion.5.) At the conclusion of the discussions, students will brainstorm strategies that they used to work cooperatively in their groups, and the characteristics of a good academic conversation.6.) Finally, students will write their post-lesson reflections in their journals. Students will be encouraged to consider how each of the texts discussed in class provides insights into the ways in which the rules and expectations of society impact individuals’ self and body image.Lesson #5: Causal Explanations Writing Workshop, Part 2Connections to BC Ministry o f Education English Language Arts 10 Prescribed Learning Outcomes (BCELAIRP, 2006)Oral Language: Students will:A l - interact and collaborate in pairs and groups to support and extend the learning of self and others; respond to and analyse a variety o f texts; create a variety o f texts.Writing and Representing: Students will:C2 - write purposeful information texts that express ideas and information to analyse and explain.C6 - select, adapt, and apply a range o f drafting and composing strategies while writing and representing, including using a variety o f sources to collect ideas and information; generating text; organizing and synthesizing ideas and information; analysing writing samples or models; creating and consulting criteria.C7 - select, adapt, and apply a range of strategies to revise, edit, and publish writing and representing, including checking work against established criteria; enhancing supporting details and examples; refining specific aspects and features of text; proofreading.CIO - write and represent to synthesize and extend thinking, by personalizing ideas and information; explaining relationships among ideas and information; applying new ideas and information; transforming existing ideas and information.C l 1 - use metacognitive strategies to reflect on and assess their writing and representing, by relating their work to criteria; setting goals for improvement; creating a plan for achieving goals; evaluating progress and setting new goals.C12 - use conventions in writing and representing, appropriate to purpose and audience, to enhance meaning and artistry, including grammar and usage; punctuation, capitalization, and Canadian spelling; copyright and citation o f references; presentation/layout68Content Objectives: I will know how to write causal explanations and explain phenomenon that occur in the social world.Language Objectives: I will show I know by writing a well organized causal explanation, with nonhuman participants, nominalisation, conjunctions that make causal relationships clear, action and relational processes, and use the passive form.Resources:Burnaby School District. (2008). Language adapted composition 11: Course curriculum and implementation guidelines. Burnaby, BC: Burnaby School District 41.de Silva Joyce, H., & Feex, S. (2004). Developing writing skills: For middle secondary students book 2. Melbourne, AUS: Phoenix Education.de Silva Joyce, H. (2005). Developing writing skills: Teacher resource book.Melbourne, AUS: Phoenix Education.Classroom Materials: N/A <Sequence o f Activities:Part One: Review of expectations1.) To begin the lesson, the teacher will ask students to take out the casual explanation they wrote during lesson #3.2.) After reviewing the structure, and key language features o f the genre, the teacher will tell students that they will be writing another casual explanation, with a different partner, to explain the ways in which the rules and expectations of society and the mass media impact the our self and body image.3.) Students will then be asked to review the feedback they were given on their last casual explanation writing assignment and record one of two things they will do to improve their next text.Part Two: Practice activities1.) After reviewing their work from lesson #3, the teacher can give students additional time to work on some practice activities to increase their understanding o f they key language features. Teachers should select practice activities carefully to ensure students arc reviewing the skills they are still struggling with, rather than skills they are already proficient in.2.) For examples o f activities that can be used in the classroom refer to Developing writing skills: Teacher resource book by Helen de Silva Joyce (2005) and Developing writing skills: For middle secondary students book 2 by Helen de Silva Joyce and Susan Feez (2004).69Part Three: Joint construction1.) Once students have reviewed the skills discussed in lesson #3, the class will work to brainstorm a list of phenomena that are reflected in the story, poems, and comic that the students read in lesson #4.2.) Next, the teacher will instruct students to begin completing a graphic organizer to plan or outline their next casual explanation.3.) Students will then work with a partner to complete the graphic organizer and create an outline for a causal explanation.4.) Finally, students will work with their partner to jointly construct a causal explanation for one o f the phenomena identified from lesson #4. This could be done in class using paper and pencil, in a computer lab using Microsoft Word or at home through the use o f a wiki.Part Four: Peer Assessment and Feedback1.) Once students have completed their texts, they will switch work with another group. Each group will be responsible for reading and responding to work completed by other students in the class, and using the class generated criteria to assess other students’ work.Part Five: Reflection1.) Each student will be required to keep a copy o f their draft text as well as a copy of the feedback they receive from other students in their journal / portfolio. They will also be required to provide a summary of the skills discussed in lesson #5 that they are comfortable with, and areas where they, or others, think that they can improve.Lesson #6: Literature CirclesThis lesson is an ongoing lesson that can be used in parts throughout the unit. It does not have to be taught at a specific time in the unit, although it is helpful to introduce literature circles after students have practiced participating in academic conversations in class.Connections to BC Ministry o f Education English Language Arts 10 Prescribed Learning Outcomes (BCELAIRP, 2006)Oral language: Students will:A l - interact and collaborate in pairs and groups to support and extend the learning of self and others; explore experiences, ideas, and information; gain insight into others’ perspectives; respond to and analyse a variety of texts.A2 - express ideas and information in a variety o f situations and forms to explore and respond; recall and describe; narrate and explain; argue, persuade, and support.A4 - select, adapt, and apply a range o f strategies to interact and collaborate with others in pairs and groups, including initiating and sharing responsibilities; listening actively;70contributing ideas and supporting the ideas of others; acknowledging and discussing diverse points of view; reaching consensus or agreeing to differ.A8 - speak and listen to make personal responses to texts, by making connections with prior knowledge and experiences; relating reactions and emotions to understanding of the text; generating thoughtful questions; making inferences; explaining opinions using reasons and evidence.A9 - speak and listen to interpret, analyse, and evaluate ideas and information from texts, by making and supporting reasoned judgments; examining and comparing ideas and elements among texts; describing and comparing perspectives.A10 - speak and listen to synthesize and extend thinking, by personalizing ideas and information; explaining relationships among ideas and information; applying new ideas and information; transforming existing ideas and information; contextualizing ideas and information.Reading and Viewing: Students will:B1 - read, both collaboratively and independently, to comprehend a variety of literary texts, literature reflecting a variety of prose forms; poetry in a variety of narrative and lyric forms.B4 - view, both collaboratively and independently, to comprehend a variety of visual texts, such as graphic novels.B5 - before reading and viewing, select, adapt, and apply a range o f strategies to anticipate content and construct meaning, including interpreting a task; setting a purpose or multiple purposes; accessing prior knowledge, including knowledge of genre, form, and context; making logical, detailed predictions; generating guiding or speculative questions.B6 - during reading and viewing, select, adapt, and apply a range of strategies to construct, monitor, confirm meaning, including comparing and refining predictions, questions, images, and connections; making inferences and drawing conclusions; summarizing and paraphrasing; using text features; determining the meaning of unknown words and phrases; clarifying meaning.B7 - after reading and viewing, select, adapt, and apply a range of strategies to extend and confirm meaning and to consider author’s craft, including reflecting on predictions, questions, images, and connections made during reading; reviewing text and purpose for reading; making inferences and drawing conclusions; summarizing, synthesizing, and applying ideas; identifying stylistic techniques.71B8 - explain and support personal responses to texts, by making comparisons to other ideas and concepts; relating reactions and emotions to understanding of the text; explaining opinions using reasons and evidence; suggesting contextual influences.B9 - interpret, analyse, and evaluate ideas and information from texts, by making and supporting reasoned judgments; comparing ideas and elements among texts; identifying and describing diverse voices.BIO - synthesize and extend thinking about texts, by personalizing ideas and information; explaining relationships among ideas and information; applying new ideas and information; transforming existing ideas and information.B ll  - use metacognitive strategies to reflect on and assess their reading and viewing, by referring to criteria; setting goals for improvement; creating a plan for achieving goals; evaluating progress and setting new goals.Writing and Representing: Students will:C l - write meaningful personal texts that elaborate on ideas and information to experiment; express self; make connections; reflect and respond; remember and recall.C8 -  write and represent to explain and support personal responses to texts, by making comparisons to other ideas and concepts; relating reactions and emotions to understanding of the text; developing opinions using reasons and evidence.C9 -  write and represent to interpret, analyse, and evaluate ideas and information from texts, by making and supporting reasoned judgments; describing and comparing perspectives; describing bias, contradictions, and non-represented perspectives.CIO -  write and represent to synthesize and extend thinking, by personalizing ideas and information; explaining relationships among ideas and information; applying new ideas and information; transforming existing ideas and information.Content Objectives: I will know how to use reading strategies before, during, and after reading literary texts to be able to participate in academic conversations.Language Objectives: I will show I know by recording the reading strategies that I use before, during, and after reading literary texts and by discussing a variety o f literary texts with my class or small group.Resources:Novels:Anderson, L. H. (1999). Speak. New York, NY: Penguin Group.Anonymous. (2009). Go ask Alice. Charlotte, NC: Baker & Taylor, CATS.72Spinelli, J. (2000). Stargirl. New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf.Screenplay: .Myers, W. D. (1999). Monster. Carmel, CA: Hampton Brown.Graphic Novels:Satrapi, M. (2004). Persepolis: The story o f  a childhood. St. Louis, MO: San Val,Incorporated.Yang, G., L. (2008). American born Chinese. New York, NY: First Second.Classroom Materials: N/ASequence of Activities:Part One: Book talk and text selection1.) The teacher will begin by displaying each of the literature circle texts that students can choose to read, and will talk about each book for approximately two or three minutes. The purpose of this activity is to build students’ interest in the novels they will be reading.2.) After the book talks, students will be given approximately five minutes per book to read. Students are encouraged to read any part of the book to get a ‘taste’ of it and determine if they would like to continue reading the book.3.) When all o f the books are returned to the front of the room, each student will write down the titles of their top three choices on a card. The teacher will collect all o f the cards, and then divide the students into groups. The books are usually given to the students the following day. Ideally, a student should be given one of their top two choices, and the book groups should have at least three members and no more than five.Part Two: Establishing criteria1.) When the teacher has determined which students will be working together to read and analyze each book, the students will meet with their groups to decide how much o f their books they will read for each literature circle discussion. Students do not have to read the books at the same rate. They can choose to finish the book before their group members, and then join a new group. However, students must ‘keep up’ with their group so they are able to participate in and contribute to the group discussions.2.) Before the first literature circle conversation, the class will work together to generate the criteria that will be used to assess their performance in the group talks. See the appendix for an example assessment form created by students in Language Adapted English 10.Part Three: Group Discussions1.) Before each group discussion, students are required to create a ‘ticket into’ the discussion. The teacher can decide what information the ticket should include.73Alternatively, each group can decide. For example, students could be required to divide a page into four equal parts and record: 1. The page numbers they are on and the reading strategies they are using to help understand the text. 2. Quotes, sentences, or passages from the novel that they find interesting, surprising, confusing, disturbing, etc. 3. Connections they have made or found between the novels they are reading the texts discussed in class. 4. Open ended questions that they think will generate conversation or questions they are not yet able to answer individually.2.) Between literature circle discussions, the teacher can use students’ ‘tickets’ to monitor students’ progress and identify parts o f the texts that students are struggling with. Then, the teacher can create mini-lessons based on students needs, and model how to read certain texts (especially the graphic novels as some students may be unfamiliar with this medium). Alternatively, the teacher can model how to prepare for discussions by writing notes, using post-it notes, or drawing images to help understand the events in a book.3.) After each discussion, students should complete a self-assessment form and a peer-assessment form. The teacher may need to help students learn how to give and receive constructive feedback to enable their group members learn from one another.4.) Each of the self-assessments and the peer-assessment should be put in students’ journals or portfolios so they can keep track of their progress.Part Four: On-line blog and writing personal responses1.) In addition to the in-class discussions, students are expected to write a post for the class blog after each group meeting. Their post should include information from their discussion as well as their thoughts, feelings, opinions, or ideas about their book. The teacher may want to begin this activity by posting a question about each novel that students can respond to.2.) Before students begin adding posts to the class blog, it is a good idea to discuss some guidelines for on-line writing. See appendix for sample guidelines.3.) It may also be helpful for teachers to use students’ interest in on-line writing to teach students how to write personal responses. The teacher can begin the process o f teaching students how to write personal responses by using some of the posts submitted by students and discussing their strengths and areas of improvement with the class.4.) Then, the teacher can choose one text that the students are reading, and work with the class to collaboratively write a sample personal response. This response should be written on poster paper and displayed in the class for students’ reference. It could also be posted on the class blog so students can access the sample text from home.Part Five: Reflection1.) Approximately once a week or following every second literature circle discussion, each student should complete a reflection on their progress in their journal/portfolio. They should review their use o f reading strategies, their participation in their group meetings, and their understanding of their book.74Additionally, students should write about the connections between their literature circle novels and the texts they read in class. This will help students prepare for their inquiry project.Lesson #7: In what ways do the rules and expectations of society and the mass media are created and reinforced in advertisements?Connections to BC Ministry of Education English Language Arts 10 Prescribed Learning Outcomes (BCELAIRP, 2006)Oral language: Students w ill...A l - interact and collaborate in pairs and groups to support and extend the learning of self and others; explore experiences, ideas, and information; gain insight into others’ perspectives; respond to and analyse a variety o f texts.A4 - select, adapt, and apply a range of strategies to interact and collaborate with others in pairs and groups, including initiating and sharing responsibilities; listening actively; contributing ideas and supporting the ideas o f others; acknowledging and discussing diverse points of view; reaching consensus or agreeing to differ.A5 - select, adapt, and apply a range o f strategies to prepare oral communications, including interpreting a task and setting a purpose; generating ideas; considering multiple perspectives; synthesizing relevant knowledge and experiences; planning presentations.A6 - select, adapt, and apply a range o f strategies to express ideas and information in oral communications, including vocal techniques; style and tone; nonverbal techniques; visual aids; organizational and memory aids; monitoring methods.A8 - speak and listen to make personal responses to texts, by making connections with prior knowledge and experiences; relating reactions and emotions to understanding of the text; generating thoughtful questions; making inferences; explaining opinions using reasons and evidence.A9 - speak and listen to interpret, analyse, and evaluate ideas and information from texts, by making and supporting reasoned judgments; examining and comparing ideas and elements among texts; describing and comparing perspectives.A10 - speak and listen to synthesize and extend thinking, by personalizing ideas and information; explaining relationships among ideas and information; applying new ideas and information; transforming existing ideas and information; contextualizing ideas and information.Reading and Viewing: Students w ill...B2 - read, both collaboratively and independently, to comprehend a variety of information and persuasive texts with increasing complexity of ideas and form, such as articles and reports, magazines, and opinion-based material.75B3 - view, both collaboratively and independently, to comprehend a variety of visual texts, such as broadcast media, film and video and visual components o f print media.B5 - before reading and viewing, select, adapt, and apply a range of strategies to anticipate content and construct meaning, including interpreting a task; setting a purpose or multiple purposes; accessing prior knowledge, including knowledge of genre, form, and context; making logical, detailed predictions; generating guiding or speculative questions.B6 - during reading and viewing, select, adapt, and apply a range of strategies to construct, monitor, confirm meaning, including comparing and refining predictions, questions, images, and connections; making inferences and drawing conclusions; summarizing and paraphrasing; using text features; determining the meaning of unknown words and phrases; clarifying meaning.B7 - after reading and viewing, select, adapt, and apply a range of strategies to extend and confirm meaning and to consider author’s craft, including reflecting on predictions, questions, images, and connections made during reading; reviewing text and purpose for reading; making inferences and drawing conclusions; summarizing, synthesizing, and applying ideas; identifying stylistic techniques.B8 - explain and support personal responses to texts, by making comparisons to other ideas and concepts; relating reactions and emotions to understanding of the text; explaining opinions using reasons and evidence; suggesting contextual influences.B9 - interpret, analyse, and evaluate ideas and information from texts, by making and supporting reasoned judgments; comparing ideas and elements among texts; identifying and describing diverse voices.BIO - synthesize and extend thinking about texts, by personalizing ideas and information; explaining relationships among ideas and information; applying new ideas and information; transforming existing ideas and information.Writing and Representing: Students w ill...C l -  write meaningful personal texts that elaborate on ideas and information to experiment; express self; make connections; reflect and respond; remember and recallContent Objectives: I will know how to use reading strategies before, during, and after reading visual texts.Language Objectives: I will show I know by recording the reading strategies that I use before, during, and after reading visual texts and by discussing a variety o f visual texts with my class or small group.76Resources:Friedman, K., & Krugel, L. (2000) Market savy teens. In R. Davis, G. Kirkland, & J. Siamon Crossroads 10 (pp. 121-125). Toronto, ON: Gage Educational Publishing Company.Goodman, B., & Dretzin, R. (Producers), & Goodman, B (Director). (2001). Merchants o f  Cool [ DVD]. Boston: Frontline.Keever, H. (2000). The product is nothing. In R. Davis, G. Kirkland, & J. Siamon Crossroads 10 (pp. 118-120). Toronto, ON: Gage Educational Publishing Company.Neuheimer, A. (2000). A letter to the medi£ In M. Crane, B. Fullerton, & A. Joseph. Sightlines 10 (pp. 31). Toronto, ON: Prentice Hall Canada.O’ Reilly, T., & Tennant, M. (2009). The age o f  persuasion: How marketing ate our culture. Toronto, ON; Alfred A. Knopf CanadaClassroom Materials: N/ASequence of Activities:Part One: Accessing background knowledge1.) After welcoming students to class, the teacher will ask students to open their binders to the anticipation guide discussed in lesson #1. If the class has not discussed question six, this question can now be addressed. If students have already discussed this question, the teacher can lead a short discussion to review the ideas and thoughts that students discussed during the first lesson.2.) Next, students will respond to the lesson’s sub-question in their journals. The teacher will encourage students to agree or disagree with the sub-question, or with question four and five from the anticipation guide, and explain their reasons for their opinions. As students will be writing causal explanations, they need to practice including supporting details for their opinions.3.) After students have completed their independent reflections, students will discuss their responses with a partner in class. After sharing with their partner, they will have a few minutes to write add any additional ideas, thoughts, or comments to their journal entries.Part Two: Reading workshop -  reading visual texts1.) To begin this part of the lesson, the teacher will distribute a variety of magazines to students and instruct students to find an advertisement that catches their attention.2.) Next, students will divide into small groups and show their advertisements to each other. Each student will have an opportunity to explain why they selected their ad and as a group, students will brainstorm a list o f the ways advertisers can create attractive or effective ads.773.) Next, each group will be asked to brainstorm ways that the advertisements they are analyzing reflect the rules and expectations o f society.4.) Once students are finished working in their groups, each group will share their observations with the class. As the students are presenting, the teacher will record the visual techniques or use o f persuasive language that the students identify on a chart. After the group presentations, the teacher can add to the students’ brainstorm if they feel there are some key techniques that students have not identified. This would also be an ideal opportunity for a teacher to model methods for evaluating media texts.145.) Before continuing with the lesson, each student will be given another advertisement to read and respond to. This activity can be done orally by having students present their advertisements and interpretations to each other. Alternatively, students can be required to write a response and submit their work for the teacher to review.Part Two: Small group discussions1.) To begin this part o f the lesson, the class will review the reading strategies that can be used before, during, and after reading an information text and poetry.2.) Next, students will be given a choice o f three magazine articles to read, chapters form Terry O’Reilly and Mike Tennant’s book The age o f  persuasion: How marketing ate our culture (2009), or a poem to analyze. Students can also have the option o f analyzing and responding to a post on Terry O’Reilly’s blog: http://www.terrvoreillv.ca/.3.) Next, students will review the texts and decide which one they would like to discuss with their groups. Once each student has selected a text they would like to discuss, their group must agree which o f the texts they would like to analyze.4.) Once each group has reached a consensus, students will work independently to complete another ‘ticket into’ a discussion. When everyone is prepared, the students will move back into groups and use their ‘tickets’ to discuss and analyze their texts.5.) When students feel that they have a strong understanding o f the text they have selected, their group is in charge of facilitating a classroom discussion about their text. They will need to share some of their observations about their text with the class, and then lead a classroom discussion.6.) As in lesson #2, before moving to the next stage, the teacher will record students’ ideas on a class brainstorm poster, modeling how to maintain a record of ideas collected from a variety o f texts. In addition, students will have an opportunity to reflect on their own thoughts, ideas, and opinions in comparison to their classmates.14 Many textbooks provide suggestions for teaching students to evaluate media texts. For an example, refer to Focus on Media Texts in “Nelson Literacy 9b” (2010) pages 104-105.78Part Three: Video1.) During the next part of the lesson, students will have an opportunity to watch the Frontline documentary Merchants o f  Cool (2001). As the students are watching the documentary, the teacher will stop the video at appropriate moments to discuss the content and draw students’ attention to how the director has sequenced information to provide insight into the issue of marketing to teens. The class will also work together to identify ways the film maker exposes the ways in which the expectations of society and mass media are created or reinforced through advertisements.7.) Finally, students will be given an opportunity to write their post-lesson reflections in their journals. Students will be encouraged to consider how each of the texts discussed in class helps them to understand the ways in which the rules and expectations o f society and the mass media are created or reinforced in advertisements.Lesson #8: Causal Explanations Writing Workshop, Part 3Connections to BC Ministry of Education English Language Arts 10 Prescribed Learning Outcomes (BCELAIRP, 2006)Oral Language: Students will:A l - interact and collaborate in pairs and groups to support and extend the learning of self and others; respond to and analyse a variety of texts; create a variety o f texts.Writing and Representing: Students will:C2 - write purposeful information texts that express ideas and information to analyse and explain.C6 - select, adapt, and apply a range o f drafting and composing strategies while writing and representing, including using a variety o f sources to collect ideas and information; generating text; organizing and synthesizing ideas and information; analysing writing samples or models; creating and consulting criteria.C7 - select, adapt, and apply a range o f strategies to revise, edit, and publish writing and representing, including checking work against established criteria; enhancing supporting details and examples; refining specific aspects and features of text; proofreading.CIO - write and represent to synthesize and extend thinking, by personalizing ideas and information; explaining relationships among ideas and information; applying new ideas and information; transforming existing ideas and information.C ll  - use metacognitive strategies to reflect on and assess their writing and representing, by relating their work to criteria; setting goals for improvement; creating a plan for achieving goals; evaluating progress and setting new goals.79C12 - use conventions in writing and representing, appropriate to purpose and audience, to enhance meaning and artistry, including grammar and usage; punctuation, capitalization, and Canadian spelling; copyright and citation o f references; presentation/layoutContent Objectives: I will know how to write causal explanations and explain phenomenon that occur in the social world.Language Objectives: I will show I know by writing a well organized causal explanation, with nonhuman participants, nominalisation, causal conjunctions and use the passive form.Resources:Burnaby School District. (2008). Language adapted composition 11: Course curriculum and implementation guidelines. Burnaby, BC: Burnaby School District 41.de Silva Joyce, H., & Feex, S. (2004). Developing writing skills: For middle secondary students book 2. Melbourne, AUS: Phoenix Education.de Silva Joyce, H. (2005). Developing writing skills: Teacher resource book.Melbourne, AUS: Phoenix Education.Classroom Materials: N/ASequence of Activities:Part One: Review of expectations1.) To begin the lesson, the teacher will ask students to take out the casual explanation they wrote during lesson #5.2.) After reviewing the structure, and key language features o f the genre, the teacher will tell students that they will be writing another casual explanation, but this time they will be working individually. They will be writing a casual explanation to explain the ways in which the rules and expectations o f society and the mass media are created or reinforced in advertisements.3.) Students will then be asked to review the feedback they were given from their last casual explanation writing assignment and record what they will do to improve their next text.Part Two: Practice activities1.) After reviewing their work from lesson #5, the teacher can give studentsadditional time to work on some practice activities to increase their understanding of they key language features. Teachers should select practice activities carefully to ensure students are reviewing the skills they are still struggling with, rather than skills they are already proficient in.802.) For examples o f activities that can be used in the classroom refer to Developing writing skills: Teacher resource book by Helen de Silva Joyce (2005) and Developing writing skills: For middle secondary students book 2 by Helen de Silva Joyce and Susan Feez (2004).Part Three: Independent Construction o f Texts1.) Once students have reviewed the skills discussed in lesson #5, the class will work to brainstorm a list of phenomena that are reflected in the media texts in lesson #7.2.) Next, the teacher will instruct students to complete a graphic organizer to plan or outline their next casual explanation.3.) Students will then work individually to complete the graphic organizer and create an outline for a causal explanation.4.) Finally, students will work individually to write a causal explanation for one of the phenomena identified from lesson #7.Part Four: Peer Assessment and Feedback1.) Once students have completed their texts, they will switch work with another student. Each student will be responsible for reading and responding to work completed by another student in the class, and using the class generated criteria to assess another student’s work.Part Five: Reflection1.) Each student will be required to keep a copy of their draft text as well as a copy of the feedback they receive from other students in their journal / portfolio. They will also be required to provide a summary of the skills discussed in lesson #8 that they are comfortable with, and areas where they, or others, think that they can improve.Lesson #9: How can we challenge the rules and expectations o f society and the mass media?Connections to BC Ministry of Education English Language Arts 10 Prescribed Learning Outcomes (BCELAIRP, 2006)Oral language: Students will:A l - interact and collaborate in pairs and groups to support and extend the learning of self and others; explore experiences, ideas, and information; gain insight into others’ perspectives; respond to and analyse a variety of texts.A4 - select, adapt, and apply a range o f strategies to interact and collaborate with others in pairs and groups, including initiating and sharing responsibilities; listening actively; contributing ideas and supporting the ideas of others; acknowledging and discussing diverse points of view; reaching consensus or agreeing to differ.81A5 - select, adapt, and apply a range o f strategies to prepare oral communications, including interpreting a task and setting a purpose; generating ideas; considering multiple perspectives; synthesizing relevant knowledge and experiences; planning presentations.A6 - select, adapt, and apply a range o f strategies to express ideas and information in oral communications, including vocal techniques; style and tone; nonverbal techniques; visual aids; organizational and memory aids; monitoring methods.A7 - use listening strategies to understand, recall, and analyse a variety of texts, including extending understanding by accessing prior knowledge; making plausible predictions; summarizing main points; generating thoughtful questions; clarifying and confirming meaningA8 - speak and listen to make personal responses to texts, by making connections with prior knowledge and experiences; relating reactions and emotions to understanding of the text; generating thoughtful questions; making inferences; explaining opinions using reasons and evidence.A9 - speak and listen to interpret, analyse, and evaluate ideas and information from texts, by making and supporting reasoned judgments; examining and comparing ideas and elements among texts; describing and comparing perspectives.A10 - speak and listen to synthesize and extend thinking, by personalizing ideas and information; explaining relationships among ideas and information; applying new ideas and information; transforming existing ideas and information; contextualizing ideas and information.A7 - recognize the structures and features of oral language to convey and derive meaning, including context, text structures, syntax, diction, usage conventions, rhetorical devices, vocal techniques, nonverbal techniques, idiomatic expressionsReading and Viewing: Students will:B2 - read, both collaboratively and independently, to comprehend a variety of information and persuasive texts with increasing complexity o f ideas and form, such as articles and reports, magazines, and opinion-based material.B3 - view, both collaboratively and independently, to comprehend a variety of visual texts, such as film and video.B5 - before reading and viewing, select, adapt, and apply a range o f strategies to anticipate content and construct meaning, including interpreting a task; setting a purpose or multiple purposes; accessing prior knowledge, including knowledge o f genre, form, and context; making logical, detailed predictions; generating guiding or speculative questions.B6 - during reading and viewing, select, adapt, and apply a range o f strategies to construct, monitor, confirm meaning, including comparing and refining predictions,82questions, images, and connections; making inferences and drawing conclusions;' summarizing and paraphrasing; using text features; determining the meaning of unknown words and phrases; clarifying meaning.B7 - after reading and viewing, select, adapt, and apply a range o f strategies to extend and confirm meaning and to consider author’s craft, including reflecting on predictions, questions, images, and connections made during reading; reviewing text and purpose for reading; making inferences and drawing conclusions; summarizing, synthesizing, and applying ideas; identifying stylistic techniques.B8 - explain and support personal responses to texts, by making comparisons to other ideas and concepts; relating reactions and emotions to understanding of the text; explaining opinions using reasons and evidence; suggesting contextual influences.B9 - interpret, analyse, and evaluate ideas and information from texts, by making and supporting reasoned judgments; comparing ideas and elements among texts; identifying and describing diverse voices.BIO - synthesize and extend thinking about texts, by personalizing ideas and information; explaining relationships among ideas and information; applying new ideas and information; transforming existing ideas and information.Writing and Representing: Students will:C l - write meaningful personal texts that elaborate on ideas and information to experiment; express self; make connections; reflect and respond; remember and recallContent Objectives: I will know how to use reading strategies before, during, and after reading information texts.Language Objectives: I will show I know by recording the reading strategies that I use before, during, and after reading visual texts and by discussing a variety of information texts with my class or small group.Resources:Banks, S. (2000). Rosa Parks’s heroism still inspires. In R. Davis, G. Kirkland, & J. Siamon. Crossroads 10 (pp. 28 - 30). Toronto, ON: Gage Educational Publishing Company.King, M. L. (2000). I have a dream. In R. Davis, G. Kirkland, & J. Siamon. Crossroads 10 (pp. 259 - 263). Toronto, ON: Gage Educational Publishing Company.*audio and video version of the is can be accessed from: http://www.mlkonline.net/dream.html83Ross, L. (1999). I was a teenage ingenue: Undercover at Canada’s national bimbo rag.In A. Barlow-Kedves, C. Collins, I. Mills, R. Pearson, W. Mathieu, & S. Tywoniuk.Sightlines 9 (pp. 142 -145).Yusufali, S. (2000). My body is my own business. In M. Crane, B. Fullerton, & A.Joseph. Sightlines 10 (pp. 51 - 53). Toronto, ON: Prentice Hall Canada.Classroom materials: Computer with internet access, sound card, and speakersSequence of Activities:Part One:1.) After welcoming students to class, the teacher will ask students to open their binders to the anticipation guide discussed in lesson #1. If the class has not discussed questions nine and ten, these questions can now be addressed. If students have already discussed these questions, the teacher can lead a short discussion to review the ideas and thoughts that students discussed during the first lesson.2.) Next, students will be given approximately five minutes to respond to the lesson’s sub-question in their journals. The teacher will encourage students to agree or disagree with the sub-question, or with question nine and ten from the anticipation guide, and explain the reasons for their opinions.3.) After students have completed their reflections, students will discuss their responses with a partner in class. After sharing with their partner, they will have a few minutes to add any additional ideas, thoughts, or comments to their journal entries.Part Two: Small group discussions1.) To begin this part of the lesson, the class will review the reading strategies that can be used before, during, and after reading information texts.2.) Next, students will be given a choice of three magazine articles to read. Next, students will review the texts and decide which one they would like to discuss with their groups. Once each student has selected a text they would like to discuss, their group must agree which of the texts they would like to analyze.3.) Once each group has reached a consensus, students will work independently to complete another ‘ticket into’ a discussion. When everyone is prepared, the students will move back into groups and use their ‘tickets’ to discuss and analyze their text.4.) When students feel that they have a strong understanding o f the text they have selected, their group is in charge of facilitating a classroom discussion about their text. They will need to share some o f their observations about their text with the class, and then lead a classroom discussion.5.) As in previous lessons, before moving to the next stage, the teacher will record students’ ideas on a class brainstorm poster, modeling how to maintain a record of ideas collected froima variety o f texts. In addition, students will have an opportunity to reflect on their own thoughts, ideas, and opinions in comparison to84other students in the class. Each student will be instructed to write in their journals about what they knew, or thought about the articles and what other students in the class knew or thought. Then, students will be asked to explain if their understanding, or thinking, about the articles was influenced by other people in the classroom.Part Three: Speech1.) During the next part o f the lesson, the students will have an opportunity to watch and listen to the sixteen-minute video o f Martin Luther King’s famous I  have a dream speech.2.) Before playing the speech, the students will preview the text independently or collaboratively to aid their comprehension before listening to and watching the video. Also, the class will discuss listening strategies they can use to improve their comprehension o f the speech. This is an ideal time for the teacher to provide students with some guidance, and make some recommendations about how to listen attentively, and how to listen for information. The teacher may even want to model some strategies by listening to the first few minutes of the speech while recording notes on the board for students to see.3.) As the students listen to and watch the speech, the teacher will stop the video at appropriate moments to discuss the content and draw students’ attention to some of the rhetorical devices used by Martin Luther King. Depending on the students’ skill level, the teacher may want to replay the speech.4.) The class will also work together to identify the ways in which Martin Luther King was challenging the rules and expectations of society and the mass media during his speech.5.) Finally, students will be given an opportunity to write their post-lesson reflections in their journals. Students will be encouraged to consider how each o f the texts discussed in class helps them to understand the importance of challenging the rules and expectations o f society and the mass media.Lesson #10: Causal Explanations Writing Workshop, Part 4Connections to BC Ministry of Education English Language Arts 10 Prescribed Learning Outcomes (BCELAIRP, 2006)Oral Language: Students will:A l - interact and collaborate in pairs and groups to support and extend the learning o f self and others; respond to and analyse a variety o f texts; create a variety o f texts.Writing and Representing: Students will:C2 - write purposeful information texts that express ideas and information to analyse and explain.C6 - select, adapt, and apply a range o f drafting and composing strategies while writing and representing, including using a variety of sources to collect ideas and information;85generating text; organizing and synthesizing ideas and information; analysing writing samples or models; creating and consulting criteria.C7 - select, adapt, and apply a range of strategies to revise, edit, and publish writing and representing, including checking work against established criteria; enhancing supporting details and examples; refining specific aspects and features of text; proofreading.CIO - write and represent to synthesize and extend thinking, by personalizing ideas and information; explaining relationships among ideas and information; applying new ideas and information; transforming existing ideas and information.C ll  - use metacognitive strategies to reflect on and assess their writing and representing, by relating their work to criteria; setting goals for improvement; creating a plan for achieving goals; evaluating progress and setting new goals.C12 - use conventions in writing and representing, appropriate to purpose and audience, to enhance meaning and artistry, including grammar and usage; punctuation, capitalization, and Canadian spelling; copyright and citation of references; presentation/layoutContent Objectives: I will know how to write causal explanations and explain phenomenon that occur in the social world.Language Objectives: I will show I know by writing a well organized causal explanation, with nonhuman participants, nominalisation, causal conjunctions, and use the passive form.Resources:Burnaby School District. (2008). Language adapted composition 11: Course curriculum and implementation guidelines. Burnaby, BC: Burnaby School District 41.de Silva Joyce, H., & Feex, S. (2004). Developing writing skills: For middle secondary students book 2. Melbourne, AUS: Phoenix Education.de Silva Joyce, H. (2005). Developing writing skills: Teacher resource book.Melbourne, AUS: Phoenix Education.Classroom Materials: N/ASequence o f Activities:Part One: Review of expectations1.) To begin the lesson, the teacher will ask students to take out the casual explanation they wrote during lesson #8.862.) After reviewing the organization features, and key language features of the genre, the teacher will tell students that they will be writing another casual explanation, but this time they will be working individually. They will be writing a casual explanation to explain the importance of challenging the rules and expectations of society and the mass media.3.) Students will then be asked to review the feedback they were given from their last casual explanation writing assignment and record what they will do to improve their next text.Part Two: Practice activities1.) After reviewing their work from lesson #8, the teacher can give students additional time to work on some practice activities to increase their understanding of they key language features. Teachers should select practice activities carefully to ensure students are reviewing the skills they are still struggling with rather than skills they are already proficient in.2.) For examples of activities that can be used in the classroom refer to Developing writing skills: Teacher resource book by Helen de Silva Joyce (2005) and Developing writing skills: For middle secondary students book 2 by Helen de Silva Joyce and Susan Feez (2004).Part Three: Independent Construction of Texts5.) Once students have reviewed the skills discussed in lesson #8, the class will work to brainstorm a list of phenomena that are reflected in the texts in lesson #9.6.) Next, the teacher will instruct students to begin by completing a graphic organizer to plan or outline their next casual explanation.7.) Students will then work individually to complete the graphic organizer and create an outline for a causal explanation.8.) Finally, students will work individually to write a causal explanation for one of the phenomena identified from lesson #9.Part Four: Peer Assessment and Feedback1.) Once students have completed their texts, they will switch work with another student. Each student will be responsible for reading and responding to work completed by another student in the class, and using the class generated criteria to assess another student’s work.Part Five: Reflection1.) Each student will be required to keep a copy of their draft text as well as a copy of the feedback they receive from other students in their journal / portfolio.2.) As this is the fourth and final writing workshop o f the unit, the students will decide which o f their four casual explanations is their ‘personal best’ text. Each student will submit one casual explanation for final evaluation.87Lesson #11 -  Unit conclusionConnections to BC Ministry o f Education English Language Arts 10 Prescribed Learning Outcomes (BCELAIRP, 2006)Oral Language: Students will:A5 - select, adapt, and apply a range o f strategies to prepare oral communications, including interpreting a task and setting a purpose; generating ideas; considering multiple perspectives; synthesizing relevant knowledge and experiences; planning and rehearsing presentationsA6 - select, adapt, and apply a range o f strategies to express ideas and information in oral communications, including vocal techniques, style and tone, nonverbal techniques, visual aids, organizational and memory aids, monitoring methods.A7 - recognize and apply the structures and features of oral language to convey and derive meaning, including context, text structures, syntax, diction, usage conventions, rhetorical devices, vocal techniques, nonverbal techniques, idiomatic expressions.Reading and representing: Students will:B5 - before reading and viewing, select, adapt, and apply a range o f strategies to anticipate content and construct meaning, including interpreting a task; setting a purpose or multiple purposes; accessing prior knowledge, including knowledge of genre, form, and context; making logical, detailed predictions; generating guiding or speculative questions.B6 - during reading and viewing, select, adapt, and apply a range of strategies to construct, monitor, confirm meaning, including comparing and refining predictions, questions, images, and connections; making inferences and drawing conclusions; summarizing and paraphrasing; using text features; determining the meaning of unknown words and phrases; clarifying meaning.B7 - after reading and viewing, select, adapt, and apply a range of strategies to extend and confirm meaning and to consider author’s craft, including reflecting on predictions, questions, images, and connections made during reading; reviewing text and purpose for reading; making inferences and drawing conclusions; summarizing, synthesizing, and applying ideas; identifying stylistic techniques.B8 - explain and support personal responses to texts, by making comparisons to other ideas and concepts; relating reactions and emotions to understanding o f the text; explaining opinions using reasons and evidence; suggesting contextual influences.B9 - interpret, analyse, and evaluate ideas and information from texts, by making and supporting reasoned judgments; comparing ideas and elements among texts; identifying and describing diverse voices.88BIO - synthesize and extend thinking about texts, by personalizing ideas and information; explaining relationships among ideas and information; applying new ideas and information; transforming existing ideas and information.Writing.and Representing: Students will:C4 - create thoughtful representations that communicate ideas and information to explore and respond, record and describe, explain and persuade, engage.C5 - select, adapt, and apply a range of strategies to generate, develop, and organize ideas for writing and representing, including making connections, setting a purpose and considering audience, gathering and summarizing ideas from personal interest, knowledge, and inquiry; analysing writing samples or models; setting class-generated criteria.C6 - select, adapt, and apply a range of drafting and composing strategies while writing and representing,, including using a variety of sources to collect ideas and information; generating text; organizing and synthesizing ideas and information; analysing writing samples or models; creating and consulting criteria.C7 - select, adapt, and apply a range o f strategies to revise, edit, and publish writing and representing, including checking work against established criteria; enhancing supporting details and examples; refining specific aspects and features of text; proofreading.CIO - write and represent to synthesize and extend thinking, by personalizing ideas and information; explaining relationships among ideas and information; applying new ideas and information; transforming existing ideas and information; contextualizing ideas and information.C12 - use and experiment with elements o f style in writing and representing, appropriate to purpose and audience, to enhance meaning and artistry, including syntax and sentence fluency; diction; point of view; literary devices; visual/artistic devices.C13 - use and experiment with elements of form in writing and representing, appropriate to purpose and audience, to enhance meaning and artistry, including organization of ideas and information; text features and visual/artistic devices.C14 - use conventions in writing and representing, appropriate to purpose and audience, to enhance meaning and artistry, including grammar and usage; punctuation, capitalization, and Canadian spelling; copyright and citation o f references; presentation/layoutPart One: Inquiry Projects / End o f Unit Celebration1.) To conclude the unit, each student will be required to prepare an oral or visual presentation to explain/represent their response to the unit EQ.2.) Throughout the unit, students have the opportunity to read and analyze a variety of literary texts, information texts, and visual texts. For their projects, students89can answer the EQ using the mode of their choice. For example, students in the past have composed and performed songs that they felt connected to the topics discussed in class. Other students have made mini-documentaries, or animation films.3 .)  As students’ presentations may be very different from one another, it is im portant for the class to work together to generate criteria that will allow the students and teacher to assess the presentations, but not limit students’ options. See the appendix for an example evaluation form created by students in Language Adapted English 10.4.) Students will also have an opportunity to invite ‘special guests’ to watch their presentations. In the past, students have invited family members, teachers, administrators, as well as representatives from the district and the community.Part Two: Unit test1.) As students in Language Adapted English 10 are required to write a provincial exam, it is important for teachers to provide students with opportunities to perform under the pressure of time limits.2.) To be meaningful, the unit test must assess the skills that the students have been working on throughout the unit. Therefore, the unit test should include a selection o f two or three texts, linked by a common theme that provide different perspectives to an EQ that students will be required to respond to.90In what ways do the rules and expectations of society and the mass media impact ourbehaviour?Appendix B - Anticipation Guide:“She knows who she is because she knows who she isn’t”- Nikki Giovanni“There is no truth, only perception.”- Gustave FlaubertResponse:The world we live in is filled with images, sounds, videos, and written texts. Sometimes, we are exposed to so much information that we do not even notice how our thoughts, ideas, opinions, or beliefs are being shaped or changed by the things we see, hear, discuss or read. Amazingly, we all seem to learn what type of behaviour is acceptable or what is or is not ‘cool’. High schools can be especially difficult places to be as there are usually strict, unspoken rules about how everyone must look, dress, act, and talk. Look at the images and quotes above, and then think about your past experiences. How do you think your behaviour, or the way other people behave is impacted by the expectations of society and the mass media?Anticipation Guide91Read each of the following statements. Write A if you agree, D if you disagree with each statement. Then choose one statement that you feel particularly strong about and write a brief comment about what in your experience of theworld leads you to feel this way.  1 People often act the way they think they are supposed to act.  2 In our society, women are often portrayed as weak and in needof protection.  3 Real men hide their feelings and emotions.  4 Reading beauty magazines makes you feel ugly.  5 Most teenagers are confident and comfortable with themselves.  6 People sometimes buy things or do things just to look ‘cool’.  7 It is easier to understand a text that you read, view, or watch ifyou are able to discuss your ideas with others.  8 We learn how to behave by watching what our friends do.Everyone in our society should be expected to conform and   9 follow the same rules and expectations.  10 Some rules and expectations of society should be changed.92Unit OutlineFill in the traffic light circles in the before to column to show your level of understanding at the beginning of the unit.Fill in the Fill in the traffic light circles in the after column to show your level of understanding at the end of the unit.Before Destination AfterI can explain in my own way the ways in which the rules and expectations of society and the mass media impact people’s behaviour.Appendix B.2 - Stop Light Page:I can participate in small group and class discussion by contributing ideas and observations.I can participate in small groups and class discussion by listening actively to others.I can learn new ideas from other people and develop a greater understanding of issues discussed in class.I can effectively use strategies before, during, and after reading or viewing a variety of texts to improve my comprehension.I use strategies before, during, and after writing or creating a variety of texts.I can use higher level thinking skills such as analysis, synthesis, and evaluation to make meaning from a variety of texts.I can write a carefully organized causal explanation using language features such as nominalisation and passive voice.I can create methods to challenge the rules and expectations of society and the mass media.93Welcome to Language Adapted English 10!You are now a part of our classroom research team!!! This class may not be like other classes you have taken. This is an inquiry-based course where students have an opportunity to control what is learned. Rather than learning a pre­determined set of skills and content, to goal of this course is for students to generate knowledge together!In this particular unit, we are going to work together to learn more about the rules and expectations of society and the mass media and how these rules and expectations impact the way people behave. We will also investigate how the rules and expectations of society can create situations in which some people are treated unfairly or unjustly.Your research journal / portfolio!Like all good investigators, or researchers, you are required to keep a journal where you a record your thoughts, ideas, and observations about the topics discussed throughout the unit. Your journal needs to demonstrate how your thinking about our essential question has changed or evolved throughout the unit.You can choose the format you want to use for your journal. For example, your journal can be print-based (written entries in a notebook), or image based (a collection of graphics, cartoons, pictures) or it could be a digital journal (on-ling blog or glog ).To minimally meet expectations, you will be required to write in your journal at the beginning and conclusion of each of eleven lessons in our unit. You are encouraged to write in your journal as often as you like, as this will be a great place for you to reflect on our classroom and small group discussions. You will also be able to use your journal to help you complete your final inquiry project.Throughout the unit, you can find additional texts that we have not discussed in class to write about in your journal, or share in class. Remember, our goal is to generate knowledge together, and if you find a text outside of school that you think other people will be interested in...please bring it to class to share.Appendix B.3 - Journal / Portfolio Expectations:15 For more information on either o f these digital formats, go to www.bevondborders.edublogs.org. Once at this site, you will see links to student blogs and well as a link to the Glogster website.94Appendix B.4 - Language Adapted English 10 Assessment and Evaluation The goals of English Language Arts 10 are for students to be able to:1. comprehend and respond to oral and written language critically, creatively, and articulately.2. communicate ideas, information, and feelings critically, creatively, and articulately, using various media.3. think critically and creatively, and reflect on and articulate their thinking and learning.4. develop a continuously increasing understanding of self and others.All students will be assessed, then evaluated on their:Oral Language (Speaking and  Listening)Reading and  ViewingWriting and  RepresentingOralLngnung Lae( (eSprepg kL iSkgaedkslagngSkt )rgnkiLSt gRl(eiSt lganreVgt eSV (inkgSsOralLngnwgeV eSV Wig kL dLlaggSV eSV agnlLSV kL e Weaigk L paeVg ellaLlaiekg kgRknsOralLngn aikg eSV aglagngSk kL dagekg e Weaigk L geSiSpr( lganLSe(t iSLaekiLSe(t eSV iepiSekiWg kgRkns!kaekgpignung nkaekgpign gS iSkgaedkiSpt lagngSkiSpt eSV (inkgSiSp kL ilaLWg nlge"iSp eSV (inkgSiSps!kaekgpignung nkaekgpign #gLagt VraiSpt eSV ekga ageViSp eSV WigiSp kL iSdageng dLlaggSniLS eSV (rgSdsStrategiesung nkaekgpign gS aikiSp eSV a lagngSkiSp kL iSdageng nrddgnn ek dagekiSp geSiSpr( kgRknsThinking$ ung Lae( (eSprepg kL ilaLWgeSV gRkgSV kiS"iSps$ %Se(ng eSV gRl(Lag r(kil(g WiglLiSkn kaLrp nlge"iSp eSV (inkgSiSps$ ung gkedLpSik"t ng(enngnnt eSV ngk pLe(n La ilaLWggSk iS Lae( (eSprepgsThinking& ung ageViSp eSV WigiSp kL e"g geSiSpr( dLSSgdkiLSnt eSV kL ilaLWg eiV gRkgSV kiS"iSps& %Se(ng kg iS(rgSdg L dLSkgRk kaLrp ageViSp eSV aikiSps& ung gkedLpSikiLSt ng(enngnnt eSV ngk pLe(n La ilaLWggSk iS ageViSp eSV WigiSpsThinking' ung aikiSp eSV aglagngSkiSp kL gRlagnnt gRkgSVt eSV eSe(ng kiS"iSps$ (Rl(Lag r(kil(g lganlgdkiWgn kaLrp aikiSp eSV aglagngSkiSps$ ung gkedLpSikiLSt ng(enngnnt eSV ngk pLe(n La ilaLWggSk iS aikiSp eSV aglagngSkiSps)gekragnwgdLpSi*g eSV ell( kg gekragn eSV lekkgaSn L Lae( (eSprepg kL dLSWg eSV VgaiWg geSiSps)gekragnung kg nkardkragn eSV gekragn L kgRk kL VgaiWg geSiSp aL kgRkns)gekragnung kLg gekragn eSV dLSWgSkiLSn L (eSprepg kL gSeSdg geSiSp eSV eakinka iS aikiSp eSV aglagngSkiSpsFor more information -  See the British Columbia Ministry o f Education English Language Arts 10 Integrated Resource Package: http://www.bced.gov.bc.ca/irp/irp_ela.html95Language Adapted English 10 is a performance based16 course. Therefore, all assignments and performances will be marked on a 4- point scale:4 - Work goes beyond what was taught in class including in- depth inferences and applications. In addition, work contains accurate as well as relevant information.3 - Work includes all the information or processes taught in class as well as containing accurate and relevant information.2 - Work includes the basic information or processes taught in class. However, it is either missing accurate and relevant information or does not include accurate and relevant information regarding more complex ideas.1 - With assistance, work shows a partial or limited understanding of the basic ideas taught in class.4 point scale converted to percentage:4 -  95%3.5 - 86%3 -  75%2.5 -  65%2 -  55%1.5 -  45%1 -  35%Note:I am always willing to discuss assessments and evaluations with students, but I am not interested in arguments. I f  you would like to speak to me regarding your performance in this course, please make an appointment to see me outside of class time, either at lunch or before/after school.A performance based course is a course where students’ marks are not cumulative. As students improve their skills and content knowledge and achieve higher marks, their previous marks are replaced. Therefore, throughout the course, students are given multiple opportunities to demonstrate their understanding and improve their performance.96Appendix B.5 - Assessment MatrixPurposes: Strategies: Thinking: Features:Oral Oral Oral OralLanguag Language Language LanguageConnections to BCELAIRPCAl A4 A8 A12A2 A5 A9A3 A6 A10A7 A llJournal / Portfolio /Casual explanationw/In-class discussions / /w/Literature circle discussions / / / /On-line blog personal Jresponses wInquiry project / / / /Unit assessment / / /Purposes: Strategies: Thinking: Features:Reading Reading Reading Readingand and and andViewing Viewing Viewing ViewingConnections to BCELA IRP B1 B5 B8 B12B2 B6 B9 B13B3 B7 BIOB4 B llJournal / PortfolioCasual explanationIn-class discussionsLiterature circle discussionsOn-line blog personal responses Inquiry projectUnit assessment/  /  /  ///  //////////////Purposes: Writing and RepresentingStrategies: Writing and RepresentingThinking: Writing and RepresentinFeatures: Writing and Representingg97Connections to BCELA IRPJournal / PortfolioCasual explanationIn-class discussions Literature circle discussions On-line blog personal responses Inquiry projectUnit assessmentCl C5 C8 C12C2C3C4/C6C7C9CIOC ll// / / // // / //Connections to BCELA IRP http://www.bced.gov.bc.ca/irp/irp ela.html98Jacobson, M. & Ruddy, M. (2004). Open to outcome: A practical guide for facilitating and teaching experiential reflection. Oklahoma City, OK: Wood ‘N ’ Bams Publishing &Distribution.Appendix B.6 -  5 Question ModelDescribeDid you notice....? Question 1InterpretWhy did that happen? Question 2ApplyHow can you use that?Question 5GeneralizeDoes that happen in real life? Question 3 Why does that happen? Question 499Appendix B.7 - Class Brainstorm Example:100Reading strategies that I used before, One or two sentences from the article during, or after reading to help me that I think are interesting...understand...Appendix B.8 - Ticket into Discussion: ExampleThree big ideas that I found in the article...One question that I think will generate conversation...101Appendix B.9 - Checklist for Causal ExplanationAssessment -  Explanation C 'GenreComment on the schematic structure of the text.1. Is the text organized logically and according to your (teacher’s) expectations and/or directions?2. Are any stages missing or unnecessary stages included?3. How well does each stage achieve its purpose?+ S CommentsFieldComment on the vocabulary range and level of technicality and abstraction of the text.1. How comprehensive and accurate is the field in the text -  does it include everything expected?2. How well does the author choose from a wide vocabulary range?3. Are there sufficient technical terms used or are commonsense (eveiyday) terms preferred?TenorComment on the level of expertise and degree of objectivity shown in the text.1. Are there subjective(emotional/personal) elements in the text that you wouldn’t expect a social scientist to include?ModeComment on how information flows in the text and the accuracy of writing conventions.1. What has the author forgrounded?2. How accurate are the grammatical elements (e.g., tense, articles, prepositions, word order, verb endings)?3. Comment on the range of conjunctions used.4. How accurate is the spelling?5. How accurate is the punctuation?102Reading, Speaking &  Listening, W ritingAppendix B. 10 - Literature Circle AssessmentBefore: 4 3 2 1Student has prepared to engage in the class', has read, commented, and reflected on their novel.During: Collaborative Group Work 4 3 2 1Student listens attentively to offerings o f others; attemtps to build upon and extend the thoughts o f othersStudent is a responsible group member, helps to draw others into discussion; refrains from sarcasm or insults, tolerates attemtps o f others to explore and take risksStudent uses appropriate methods to work towards task completion; contributes to discussion, refers to pre-discussion notes, raises questions, makes connections, summarizes thinkingDuring: Comprehension and Analysis 4 3 2 1Student goes beyond retelling the text by logically describing and analyzing elements and key features o f the novel.Student offers logical predictions and speculations. For example, the student can respond to why questions or higher level Bloom’s questions.Student analyzes the characters with some insight. For example, they make observations about the characters that other students may not have thought of.Student is able to explain what the novel reveals about the way people behave or about some aspect o f human life. For example, the student is able to explain how readers can gain a greater understanding about others or themselves.Student is able to support their explanations or ideas about the novel by referring to specific passages or quotes from the novel.A fter: 4 3 2 1Student writes and represents to explain and support personal responses to texts, by making connections with prior knowledge and experiences, describing reactions and emotions, generating thought questions, developing opinions using evidenceComments:103Appendix B .ll -  Sample Guide Lines for Class On-line Blogs!?•? English 9/10— • Rules to live by in a digital environment1. Be aware of your audience. This is a school course using school technology and school servers and read by students and teachers. Think "appropriate" language. Stay focused on the topic. Think and review before you hit "send" or "post to forum."2. Be aware of your purpose in writing. The reason for the forum is. to engage in a dialogue with other students about novels that you have read. There may be differences in opinion in interpretation and analysis, but your purpose is to use evidence from the text to substantiate your point of view and thoughts on the novel. The task is a literary discussion rooted in the ideas from your books.3. Be aware of tone. The only appropriate tone in this forum is one of respect and tolerance for the ideas of others. You may disagree and have an alternate viewpoint, but please in every post be aware of the impact of the words that you choose and the impact of the tone that you take. Be persuasive; don't be mean-spirited. In the same way that putdowns or a disrespectful tone of voice is unacceptable in a classroom, our virtual classroom must be a place where all students feel safe to express their ideas and where all students communicate in a respectful manner.4. Be aware of the limitations of the technology. Digital communication is sometimes a challenging medium. Words can be misinterpreted and tone can be volatile. Graphics such as italics, capital letters and font size take on communication values in the digital world that are magnified. Words have greater connotation and magnitude in the absence of a two-way real-time conversation. There's no way to gauge facial expressions, response, or emotions to modify our communication, so email and discussions online can be easily misunderstood and conflicts can easily escalate.5. Be aware that there is a fine line between having a strong opinion and being abusive or harassing. We need to be mindful of what defines workplace harassment in a digital environment. It's no t okay, to be disrespectful in this medium in our society and in the adult (and school) world. There are significant consequences for stepping over this line at school and in our society.From:Brownlie, F., & Schnellert, L. (2009). It s all about thinking: Collaborating to support all learners in English, Social Studies, and Humanities. Winnipeg, MB: Portage and Main Press.104Appendix B.12 - Language Adapted English 10 - Inquiry Project: Final EvaluationPart One: Essential Question:1 2  3 4+ikk(g rSVgankeSViSp L  kg innrg !Lg rSVgankeSViSp L kginnrg,enid rSVgankeSViSp L kg innrg-SVglkt nLlinkidekgV rSVgankeSViSp L kg innrg1 2  3 4Student(s) answered the unit essential question or a related question.Part Two: Individual inquiry / investigation1 2  3 4+ikk(g gWiVgSdg L iSViWiVre( !Lg gWiVgSdg L iSViWiVre( (WiVgSdg L iSViWiVre( iS)ria !ipSiideSk gWiVgSdg LiS)ria . iSWgnkipekiLS iS)ria . iSWgnkipekiLS . iSWgnkipekiLS iSViWiVre( iS)ria ./////////////////////////// s/////////////////////////////////////////    iSWgnkipekiLS////////1 2  3 4Student(s) participated in individual inquiry or investigation of the issues discussed in class; student(s) work reflects research conducted outside of the classroom.Part Three: Model0LVg L   dLrSidekiLS en iSellaLlaiekg La kg dLSkgSk eSV erVigSdg20LVg L   dLrSidekiLS en nekinedkLa30LVg L   dLrSidekiLS en ellaLlaiekg La kg dLSkgSk eSV erVigSdg3OralLng in d(gea1 Ldrn in nrnkeiSgVs !ridigSk dLSkgSk La lralLng1 eddraekgs 2gSgae(( d(geat LapeSi*gV eSV gen kL L((L1 laLWiVgn drgn eSV kaeSnikiLSns 3Lidg1 SLSWga#e( kgdSi)rgn eag dLSiVgSk1 L(V ekkgSkiLSs!gSng L   erVigSdg1 kLSg in ellaLlaiekg1 LddeniLSe( (elngns +eSprepg in WeaigVt nlgdiid1 dagekgn iSkgSVgV ggdk1 iSd(rVgn nlgdie(i*gV kgan en ellaLlaiekgs/////////////////40LVg L  dLrSidekiLS VgLSnkaekgV e lganLSe( ain" kL ka nLgkiSp Sg . rSi)rg1 2  3 44OralLng.Ldrn in ggdkiWg eSV nrnkeiSgVs  g((VgWg(LlgV dLSkgSk1 eddraekg eSV nlgdiids 4ip Vgpagg L d(eaik1 LapeSi*ekiLS in ggdkiWg1 kaeSnleagSk1 eVVn kL iledks 3Lidg1 SLSWga#e( kgdSi)rgn eag gSpepiSps !kaLSp ngSng L erVigSdg1 kLSg in dLSninkgSk( ggdkiWgs +eSprepg in g(( daekgV1 en iledk1 rngn nlgdie(i*gV kgan ik lagdiniLSs1 2  3 4Student(s) selected a mode of communication that demonstrated personal strength or talent; the mode enhanced the presentation and helped communicate thoughts and ideas to the audience.Part Four: PresentationluSLdrngV1 lralLng in rSd(geas -SnridigSk dLSkgSk1 e #g iSeddraekgs +iikgV d(eaik1 ge" LapeSi*ekiLS1 eaV kL L((Ls 3Lidg1 SLSWga#e( kgdSi)rgn VL SLk pgk La L(V ekkgSkiLSs +ikk(g ngSng L erVigSdg1 kLSg in iSellaLlaiekgs +eSprepg in Weprg eSV pgSgae(sOralLng nLgek d(gea1 e (Lng Ldrns 0iSie( dLSkgSk La lralLng1 pgSgae(( eddraekgs !Lg d(eaik eSV LapeSi*ekiLSt #rk g g(lr( drgn.kaeSnikiLSns 3Lidg1 SLSWga#e( kgdSi)rgn eag iSdLSninkgSk1 e SLk L(V ekkgSkiLSs !Lg ngSng L erVigSdg1 kLSg in LkgS iSdLSninkgSks +eSprepg in d(gea ik nLg Weaigk eSV nlgdiidik1 e eWg i ledk iS l(edgns///////////////////////Student(s) prepared and organized presentation.Part Five: Investment o f  time and energy 1 2+ikk(g gWiVgSdg L kig eSV !Lg gWiVgSdg L kig eSVgLak kL dagekg e  )re(ik laL5gdk gLak kL dagekg e )re(ik///////////////////////////////// laL5gdk/////////////////////(WiVgSdg L   kig eSV gLak kL dagekg e )re(ik laL5gdk!ipSiideSk gWiVgSdg L kig eSV gLak kL dagekg e ip )re(ik laL5gdk////////////////////////Student(s) work reflects significant investment of time and effort outside of class time.1 2  3 4

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