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The Picture Word Inductive Model : an effective model for vocabulary instruction McDonald, Karen Anne 2010

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THE PICTURE WORD INDUCTIVE MODEL:AN EFFECTIVE MODEL FOR VOCABULARY INSTRUCTIONByKAREN ANNE MCDONALDGraduate Diploma in Education Simon Fraser University, 2004 Professional Development Program Simon Fraser University, 2000 B.A. Queen’s University, 1984 [A GRADUATING PAPER SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF EDUCATION inTHE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Language and Literacy Education(Graduate Advisor)Dr. Marilyn Chapman THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIADecember 2010 © K. A. MCDONALD, 2010ABSTRACTIn this paper I investigate the Picture Word Inductive Model (PWlM) as an effective classroom tool for vocabulary instruction. I review the literature related to recent developments in the area of Vocabulary research, the importance of effective vocabulary instruction in a balanced literacy program, and why PWIM is such a valuable program for teaching vocabulary in the classroom. In the Connections to Practice section I have included my experiences using PWIM in my Grade One French Immersion classroom, a look at the inherent strengths of PWIM and how it can be used in a classroom for vocabulary instruction of theme related curriculum, and a PowerPoint presentation created for a District Day Pro D workshop (February 2011) for colleagues teaching at the Primary level (English and French) as well as Intermediate, French as a Second Language, teachers. I include a teacher resource package in the appendix. My goal in writing this paper is to inform the reader not only about the value of the Picture Word Inductive Model as a vocabulary instructional tool, but also to help them better understand why it is so effective."The limits of my language are the limits of my mind.All I know is what I have words for.”Ludwig WittgensteinIllTABLE OF CONTENTSAbstract........................  : ........................................................................  iiTable of Contents..........■...................................................   iiiAcknowledgement. ....................................................................................................................ivINTRODUCTION  .....................................................................................................  1Why is PWIM Siich an Effective Model for Vocabulary Instruction?.......................  1LITERATURE REVIEW  ..................................................................................................3V ocabulary Instruction..................     4............................ 3Application to Classrooms...........................................................................   5The Picture Word Inductive Model................................................................................. 8CONNECTIONS TO PRACTICE..............................................................      11My Classroom Experiences with the Picture Word Inductive Model......................... 11Strengths of the Picture Word Inductive Model.......................................................... 12The Picture Word Inductive Model Process................................................................  13Picture Word Inductive Model PowerPoint Presentation............................................. 16Outline for PowerPoint presentation.............................. 17REFLECTIONS............ > ......................................................................................................   22REFERENCES................................................................................................................................ 24APPENDICESAppendix A PowerPoint presentation..............................................................................26Appendix B Teacher Resource package.......................................................................... 32Appendix C Blackline Masters.....................................................................................   35AcknowledgementsI suppose I should start by thanking Mother Theresa because she was the one who said “Just ask” and it was through those words o f inspiration that we were able to embark on this journey. With the inception of the Delta Cohort Group we managed to create a dynamic learning environment that seemed to be enjoyed by everyone involved, students and instructors alike. What an amazing experience to share with such an inspiring group of women. We will all be left with many memories, above and beyond the academics, of our time together!I would like to thank Dr. Theresa Rogers for her enthusiasm and encouragement from the very beginning. It was comforting to know that we were all “under her watch” for the duration of the program. Thank you as well to Dr. Marilyn Chapman for sharing her wisdom and expertise over the course of the last two years, and in helping to make this paper a reality.I Would like to thank my family for their unfailing support over the course of the last two years. To my daughters, Andrea and Jennifer, we’ve all been working through this “school thing” together and in doing so we’ve been able to commiserate through the homework and assignment stresses. I’m proud of who you are becoming, even though I haven’t been available all the time through-out this experience. To my husband, Andrew, I wouldn’t have survived this without your help in keeping things going on the home front. I especially appreciated your quiet campaign of support when you stopped asking if  I had homework and let me get to it in my own time. Thank you to my extended family Mom, Dad, Kath and Dave, my McDonald family,Mom, Dad and Cathy, as well as my dear friends for your well-timed words of encouragement and love, it all helped to keep me going!And finally to Cheryl, we always knew that when we did this we would do it together... we just really didn’t have a clue what we were getting ourselves into. I can’t imagine getting through this without you because “if you can’t laugh then you might as well cry” and we made it through with more laughter than tears.Merciatous!The focus of my paper is to connect what I have discovered about relatively recent developments in vocabulary research and instruction (over the past thirty years) to an instructional model called the Picture Word Inductive Model (PWIM). I use PWIM in my Grade One French Immersion classroom to develop customized vocabulary banks related to particular themes throughout the course of the year. PWIM provides an opportunity to incorporate integrated language arts, grammar, writing and reading lessons with non-fiction areas of study. Theme-related vocabulary banks are generated from studying a relevant poster picture, recording the word on a paper frame around the picture and drawing a line connecting the image and the word. The posters provide a visual “dictionary” for the students to reference (for Clarification of the word meaning) made up of authentic, relevant words that have been chosen by the students themselves. I also add an element of “ownership of the words” by writing the students’ names next to their chosen words. I have always been intrigued by the connections that the students make to their words and the way the words become assimilated into their daily work in the classroom. The students become much more aware of the words as they occur in different contexts. As every vocabulary bank is student generated the language lessons that emerge are always related to what the teacher would like to highlight (working with phonics, word groups, rhyme, spelling, use of plurals). The possibilities are endless!Why is Picture Word Inductive Model Such an Effective Model for Vocabulary Instruction?After reading many papers about vocabulary instruction, the earlier focus being that of research into vocabulary instruction and the more recent about effective strategies, I came to the realization that the Picture Word Inductive Model was supported not only by the research but1PWIM: EFFECTIVE VOCABULARY INSTRUCTIONIntroductionalso by the successes that I had witnessed in my classroom. The PWIM is a flexible, customized approach to use when teaching vocabulary with initial teacher modeling and eventual release of responsibility to the student, but what makes it so effective? Vocabulary instruction is not limited to a select few methods, but involves several components:These formulations emphasize characteristics of good vocabulary instruction:• It takes place in a language- and word-rich environment that fosters what has been referred to as “word consciousness” (see Blachowicz & Fisher, 2006; Graves, 2006).i• It includes intentional teaching of selected words, providing multiple types of information about each new word as well as opportunities for repeated exposure, Use, and practice.• It includes teaching generative elements of words and word-learning strategies in ways that give students the ability to learn new words independently.(Blachowicz, Fisher and Ogle, 2006, p. 527).Blachowicz et al. have identified the multi-faceted elements involved in a successful vocabulary instruction, and all of these components can be found within the PWIM. In order to learn more about the elements of effective vocabulary instruction, I decided to review the research literature.2PWIM: EFFECTIVE VOCABULARY INSTRUCTION/Literature ReviewMy focus of this literature review is to examine recent developments in vocabulary instruction, its relevance to second language instruction and, finally, to investigate the key elements involved in making the Picture Word Inductive Model such an effective form of teaching vocabulary. There has been a “recurring theme” over the past thirty years or so about the importance of vocabulary development and yet it has not seemed to get the respect that it deserves until more recently, starting with the National Reading Panel’s report in 2000. More teacher instructional resources are becoming available, but vocabulary development is so specialized, and unique to the various grade levels and content areas, that there really doesn’t seem to be a “one size fits all” answer. One of the reasons that PWIM is so effective is that it can be used flexibly and adapted for many different needs.Vocabulary InstructionThe importance of effective vocabulary instruction has gained a considerable amount of respect Since the 1970’s. There was initially little consensus on what was effective vocabulary instruction and yet there was general agreement regarding its importance and the need for more research, “Both interest in and research on vocabulary knowledge and vocabulary instruction have waxed and waned over the years (Cassidy & Cassidy, 2005/2006), often in relation to other issues at the forefront of reading instruction” (Blachowicz et al., 2006, p. 524). There is currently ample information available to support the importance of an effective vocabulary instruction program. Through my readings it seems that there was a time when explicit vocabulary instruction was not widely recognized as an effective use of instructional time. In 1986, Stahl and Fairbanks looked at the effectiveness of vocabulary instruction through a meta­analysis. In their paper, The Effects o f  Vocabulary Instruction: A Model-Based Meta-analysis,PWIM: EFFECTIVE VOCABULARY INSTRUCTIONPWIM: EFFECTIVE VOCABULARY INSTRUCTIONStahl and Fairbanks (1986) reviewed a sample of studies about the useful nature of vocabulary instruction asking two questions “Does vocabulary instruction have a significant effect on children’s comprehension of text?” (p. 72) and “What types of vocabulary instruction are most effective?” (p. 72). They looked at the studies for evidence of effective vocabulary instruction, the method and setting factors used, followed by a summary and discussion of their findings. This paper was ground-breaking in its validation of vocabulary instruction as a vehicle for enhancing students’ comprehension. Stahl and Fairbanks discussed the diversity of previous research (for and against explicit vocabulary instruction) and sought to clarify the effects of vocabulary instruction On comprehension, the most effective teaching methods, as well as “fiiture” implications. They concluded that, “The effects of vocabulary instruction are subtle and complex, but, given their potential effects On comprehension, they are worthy of further investigation,” (p. 104).Further support for vocabulary instruction came when The National Institute of Child Health and Human' Development’s Report of the National Reading Panel addressed their concerns in 2000 and then, in 2001, Biemiller blamed an over-emphasis on phonics for poor results in reading comprehension and felt that vocabulary instruction had been under­represented, “What is missing for many children who master phonics but don’t comprehend well is vocabulary, the words they need to know in order to understand what they’re reading.” (Biemiller, 2001, para. 3). In 2000 The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development published the Report of the National Reading Panel (NRP). The NRP looked to the Stahl arid Fairbanks 1986 report (i.e., it was one of three meta-analyses used) as a source for vocabulary studies as part of its review. The NRP report was somewhat coritroversial in its use of only quantitative research for making recommendations on literacy policies and not qualitativePWIM: EFFECTIVE VOCABULARY INSTRUCTIONresearch which was more directly linked to classroom practice (Pressley, 2001). Cunningham (2001) noted that the Panel could not reach a consensus on which vocabulary research to accept, and therefore did not rely as heavily on classroom research, which may have benefited their review of vocabulary instruction “As a result, their instructional recommendations for vocabulary tend to be more balanced and less standardized than those o f other subgroups” (p. 334). Both the Stahl and Fairbanks paper and the NRP report discuss the existence of a wide variety of effective strategies and the importance of further research. When looking at the “implications for reading instructions” made by the NRP one finds many common ideas being implemented in classrooms today. For example, “Vocabulary should be taught both directly and indirectly, vocabulary learning should entail active engagement in learning tasks and, dependence oh a single vocabulary instruction method will not result in optimal learning” (National Reading Panel, 2000). Several articles that I have read quote this report as supporting the importance of explicit vocabulary instruction and improved student comprehension of text. Application to ClassroomsOver the course of twenty years, spanning the 1980’s and 90’s, research had been conducted into effective instruction methods but there had been little connection between the results of the research and practical use in the classroom (Allen, 1999). In their paper, Vocabulary Development: All Contexts are Not Created Equal, Beck, McKeown and McCaslinI(1983) examined vocabulary instruction in a variety of different contexts. The authors identified and assessed various types of contextualized vocabulary instruction and also the role of the teacher. Their suggestions for teaching were meaningful but quite general, leaving teachers to interpret arid create a program for their classroom based on findings.Herman and Dole (1988) looked at research-based ways to provide vocabularyinstruction. They described three major categories for vocabulary instruction: definitional,contextual and conceptual. Each approach appeared to have strengths and weaknesses, and theyconcluded that, “No simplistic solutions exist to the instructional dilemmas teachers face as theyapproach the teaching of vocabulary” (p. 51). They went on to say that more research wasneeded:We need to learn more about how students learn new words through reading and what can be done to encourage their learning more words while reading. Such knowledge will help teachers understand the relative importance of learning words directly through vocabulary instruction and indirectly through reading. Teachers can then use this information to allocate appropriate instructional time to each activity. (Herman & Dole, 1988, p. 52)Unfortunately, the lack o f direct instructional activities offered may have contributed to the dearth of consistent strategies being implemented in the classroom at that time. Indeed there is often a gap between research and practice.Classroom applications based on vocabulary research have begun to emerge since the late ‘90s. In her book, Words, Words, Words - Teaching Vocabulary in Grades 4-12, Allen (1999) spoke of the heed for teacher training in effective vocabulary instruction in light of the importance vocabulary awareness holds for comprehension:The connection between reading comprehension and word knowledge has been clear for many years. According to Davis (1944, 1968), “vocabulary knowledge is related to and affects comprehension. The relationship between word knowledge and comprehension is unequivocal.” Recent research showing the connection between word knowledge,PWIM: EFFECTIVE VOCABULARY INSTRUCTIONconcept development, and prior knowledge and the impact these have on readingcomprehension indicates that some drastic changes in our teaching methods arewarranted, (pp. 5'-6).Allen recalled her own lack of training in vocabulary instruction and her regrets about the time she spent with the traditional “assign, define, and test” approach, only to realize that the word banks she was using were irrelevant to her students’ everyday lives. She recognized that she was not alone in this situation and hoped to provide meaningful instruction practices for teachers to use in their classrooms. Allen’s feelings are reiterated by Biemiller (2001) in his article Teaching Vocabulary — Early, Direct, and Sequential. Following ten years of focus on the study of vocabulary and effective instruction with his colleague, Jeanne Chall, Biemiller opened his article with their concerns:Both of us had come to the conclusion that vocabulary growth was inadequately addressed in current educational curricula, especially in the elementary and preschool years and that more teacher-centered and planned curricula were needed, just as had been the case with phonics. (Biemiller, 2001, Introduction, para. 1).Biemiller also concluded with a recommendation for “a more teacher-directed and curriculum- directed approach to fostering vocabulary and language growth. If education is going to have a serious “compensatory” function, we must do more to promote vocabulary.” (Biemiller, 2001, Conclusion, para. 2).Over the years I have actively looked for strategies, pre, during and post reading, to facilitate effective vocabulary instruction in my French Immersion classroom. Most often the children enrolled in Early French Immersion programs do not come from French-speaking homes. They arrive at school without a large French vocabulary base in hand (unlike studentsPWIM: EFFECTIVE VOCABULARY INSTRUCTIONPWIM: EFFECTIVE VOCABULARY INSTRUCTIONfrom French speaking homes who are enrolled in the Francophone School system). French Immersion teachers must provide vocabulary instruction for their everyday communication skills as well as their theme/subject specific terms. Primary French Immersion teachers need to spend a significant amount of time “front loading” the students with the vocabulary and language skills necessary to support their daily communication and successful learning experiences in a second language. Helman and Burns (2008) suggest providing picture dictionaries as a useful aid as well as providing multiple opportunities to read “high utility words” for second language learners. Studies have shown that frequent and multiple exposures to vocabulary banks are more effective than instructional strategies that provided limited interactions with the words (McKeown, Beck, Omanson and Pople, 1985). Not only is this important for instruction within the classroom but it is also important to encourage the students to look for the words (or word families) outside of the classroom as well (McKeown et al. 1985).The Picture Word Inductive ModelThe Picture Word Inductive Model (PWIM) was developed by Emily Calhoun in 1976 (Calhoun, 1999). The effectiveness of this model may be attributed to its balanced approach in helping students access their personal listening and speaking vocabularies, working with these vocabulary banks, and modeling and teaching the correct use of the words independently as well as within sentences and paragraphs. It is also flexible, allowing for directed small or large group activities or one-on-one instruction. This model can be used with any curricular area and the amount of time spent on lessons can take anywhere from a few weeks to months depending on the needs of the students or the directive from the teacher.There is also an opportunity for word choice in PWIM through the customized vocabulary bank that is generated from the theme-related poster. Another reason for the successPWIM: EFFECTIVE VOCABULARY INSTRUCTIONof this strategy may be due, in part, to the personal connection that the students make to the vocabulary and their feeling of ownership similar to Sylvia Ashton-Warner’s experiences with her “organic approach” to teaching. As Thompson (2000) relates, “Organically speaking, instead of directing the pupils to words from outside themselves as material for learning to read, Ashton Warner finds her material in the minds of the children.” (p. 91, emphasis in the original).Granted the PWIM strategy is not so wholly organic and personalized as Sylvia Ashton- Warner’s, but it does contain the elements of choice and ownership and the students seem to embrace their role in the experience.How is the Picture Word Inductive Model supported by current and classic research on vocabulary instruction? One of the most important elements o f PWIM’s effectiveness is its incorporation of differentiated instruction throughout the whole process. Students are provided with opportunities to work individually, with a partner or in small or large group settings. As well, it is the teacher who determines exactly what is to be taught, practised, reviewed and modeled. It provides the setting for guided as well as independent practice when working on the vocabulary banks that have been generated, depending on the abilities of the students within the classroom. Through my review of the literature I have determined that there is no single, most effective, way of teaching vocabulary but rather, the combination of a variety of methods that leads to the greatest gains in vocabulary acquisition. The National Reading Panel’s report (2000) offers a variety of possibilities for studying vocabulary: explicit and indirect instruction, association methods, repeated multiple exposures, pre-instruction and contextual approaches.All of these tactics can be used with PWIM and their effectiveness, when used in a second- language learning environment, is exemplified in Helman and Burns’ (2008) article, What Does Oral Language Have to Do With It? Helping Young English-Language Learners Acquire a Sight9PWIM: EFFECTIVE VOCABULARY INSTRUCTIONWord Vocabulary. The authors describe the importance of using a variety o f grouping strategies for literacy instruction based on assessment of students’ reading levels as well as oral language development. They also suggest that another form of differentiation includes word choice, starting with words that the students know or those which are important to them.It has been very interesting to follow the research o f the 80’s & 90’s and discover the “recurring theme” o f the importance o f vocabulary development. The Stahl and Fairbanks (1986) meta-arialysis seemed to be a turning point for making connections between research and the value of vocabulary instruction for classroom practice. This was confirmed once again with the National Reading Panel’s report in 2000. More recently, I have begun to see more teacher instructional resources addressing the importance of vocabulary acquisition as a component of their program, and including ideas for implementation into classroom practice. The Picture Word Inductive Model is all encompassing in its wide range of instructional possibilities and it seems evident that it is research based. As the PWIM provides an opportunity for the incorporation of a wide variety of instructional strategies, I hope that teachers are inspired to continue to support and develop vocabulary acquisition as an effective tool in a balanced and successful literacy program.Connections to PracticeThe literature reviewed for this paper indicates that vocabulary instruction plays a significant part in an effective literacy program. Unfortunately, with the need to create specific and relevant vocabulary banks to use in the classroom, it is often challenging to find a one-size- fits-all vocabulary instruction format. Classroom teachers are often left to create their own programs, in order to go beyond the “assign, define, and test” approach mentioned by Allen (1999). The Picture Word Inductive Model fills this need by not only generating a customized, theme related vocabulary bank, but also by providing a variety of activities for students to do with guidance and, eventually, independence. In making my connections to practice I feel that it is important to include a brief look at my classroom experiences using PWIM, the strengths of PWIM as a vocabulary instruction tool and finally the process involved in the PWIM “cycle.” I created the PowerPoint for a district level workshop to introduce teachers (Elementary English and French, as well as Intermediate French as a Second Language) to the Picture Word Inductive Model next February 2011. I include this presentation, accompanied by a teacher resource package (handouts and black line masters) in the Appendix to support the activity suggestions. My Classroom Experiences with the Picture Word Inductive ModelI have been using the PWIM in my Early French Immersion classroom for seven years and I have found it to be very effective for creating a customized vocabulary bank based on the theme that we are working on in class. Every year I am amazed at how “tenaciously” the students own their words. They master words that are new to them and they will often be acutely aware of other students’ words as well. After generating the vocabulary bank we work with the words themselves, and then incorporate them into writing and reading activities. These words transfer from an association with the theme related poster to daily classroom activities. I will11PWIM: EFFECTIVE VOCABULARY INSTRUCTIONPWIM: EFFECTIVE VOCABULARY INSTRUCTIONoften be reading a story and someone will point out that I have just read “their word” or “Sam’s word.” There does not seem to be the same sense of heightened awareness for each term’s “mots cles” (sight words) which we work with daily as well. I enjoy witnessing the students them­selves becoming the expert or “go to person” for their word and the level of independence that all of the students achieve because of the support in the classroom - poster picture for reference and classmate knowledge as well - not just the teacher. PWIM offers the teacher an opportunity to provide modeled instruction as well as customized mini-lessons, as the need arises, creating a truly flexible and tailored literacy program for the classroom.Strengths of the Picture Word Inductive ModelThe following list of strengths of the PWIM is taken directly from Calhoun’s book, Teaching Beginning Reading and Writing with the Picture Word Inductive Mode (1999):The basic moves of the PWIM stress these components of phonics, grammar, mechanics, and usage.• Students hear the words pronounced correctly many times and the picture word chart is an immediate reference as they add these words to their sight vocabulary. The teacher can choose to emphasize almost any sound and symbol relation (introduced or taken to mastery)• Students hear and see letters identified and written correctly many times.• Students hear the words spelled correctly many times and participate in spelling them correctly.• In writing the sentences, the teacher uses Standard English (transforming Student sentences if necessary) and uses correct punctuation and mechanics (e.g. commas, capital letters). As different mechanical and grammaticalPWIM: EFFECTIVE VOCABULARY INSTRUCTIONdevices are used, the teacher describes why the device is used. After manylessons and experiences with the teacher modeling the devices, the studentslearn how to use them too. (p. 23)PWIM is an effective model for all ages of learners and I have found it to be particularly usefulfor the teaching of a second language (French). The students have an opportunity to choose anobject for which they may or may not know the word in French, hear the new word pronouncedcorrectly and watch the teacher model how to use the vocabulary on a variety of levels.The Picture Word Inductive Model ProcessThe process begins with the selection of a large poster related to the theme that will bestudied (e.g. reading, math, science or social studies). The poster is put on display for a fewdays before working with it to allow the students to discover what they can find in the picture(Figure 1). Once the students are familiar with the process I find that they get excited when theysee a new poster on the wall. They start to look for their new word as well as possible backupwords in case their first choice is chosen by someone else. As I begin to generate the“vocabulary bank” from the poster by recording the child’s word, drawing a line from the objectin the picture to the word, and writing the student’s name underneath his or her word all studentsare engaged, both as they wait for their turn and to see what other words can be discovered(Figure 2). Once we all get use to this process a vocabulary bank of 24 words can usually begenerated within thirty minutes. This creates a picture dictionary as well as a “resource” forstudents to check for unknown words (the picture or student who suggested the word). Thestudents and I then read and review the new “found words” and that ends the first session. Overthe course of the next few weeks I direct the students’ interactions with the words on a dailybasis ~ teaching mini-lessons based on phonics, letter awareness or grammar and then moving onPWIM: EFFECTIVE VOCABULARY INSTRUCTIONto creating effective titles for the poster, generating sentences and eventually writing paragraphs together.14Initially we review the words using games and center activities. The “Flyswatter game,”a fun and engaging activity, is as simple as drawing a T-chart on the whiteboard and writing thesame eight words on each side of the chart (Figure 3). The students come up to the board two ata time (one on the butterfly team and the other on the dragonfly team, based on which flyswatterthey’re holding) and whoever swats the word first wins a point for their team. The great thingabout this game is that it can easily be adapted to fit the needs of the students. It may start withsimply finding the correct word, then it could involve finding the word that starts with aparticular sound or, even more challenging, locating the word that starts with the letter “s” andhas two syllables. Everyone gets a chance to work with the vocabulary, whether it is their turn orthey’re just rooting for their team. Bingo is another game that can be modified to fit the abilitiesof the students. They can create their bingo sheet by either copying the words onto the templateor cutting the words out from a master list and gluing the words into the boxes (sometimes theylike to put a small drawing in the box to help them remember the meaning of the word). Anyone of these methods is acceptable and results in a common vocabulary game-card for the classto play with together. As the students become more familiar with the vocabulary I am oftenimpressed with their use of the poster as a word bank. Students tend refer one another to theposter even if the same word can be found on our class “Word Wall” or they sometimes suggestthat the “owner” of the word be consulted for the correct spelling!15PWIM: EFFECTIVE VOCABULARY INSTRUCTIONFigure 3: The Flyswatter GamePWIM: EFFECTIVE VOCABULARY INSTRUCTIONI particularly like that the Picture Word Inductive Model is an excellent way toincoiporate non-fiction language arts activities within the classroom curriculum. So often at theprimary level writing instruction tends to focus on fiction and personal stories. PWIM providesthe opportunity to model how to incorporate vocabulary into a meaningful sentence, orparagraph, and how to create a relevant title for the work as well. I often create a class bookbased on the vocabulary bank using the student created sentences (figure 4). We work togetherto produce a sentence for each word and then every student is responsible for copying andillustrating a sentence to include in the book. The title is a group effort, several suggestions arerecorded and then we vote on the one we all feel best represents the theme or topic of the book.The students are proud of the finished piece of writing and are motivated to read the book aswell. With the varied levels of support throughout the “cycle” I find the PWIM to be anengaging, thought provoking and active model of learning for the students.16Picture Word Inductive Model PowerPoint PresentationBecause I have been successfully using the Picture Word Inductive Model for several years in my classroom, I feel that a relevant way to make a connection between my research findings and my professional practice is to create a PowerPoint presentation to be used at aPWIM: EFFECTIVE VOCABULARY INSTRUCTIONworkshop (next year) to inform colleagues about the PWIM. I have included an overview/ outline of the PowerPoint presentation which consists o f the main ideas behind PWIM, supporting research facts about vocabulary acquisition, the steps involved in the PWIM cycle, as well as ideas for use in the classroom and photos to show the process. A “handout copy” of the presentation is included in the appendices (Appendix A -  PowerPoint).Outline for PowerPoint presentation.17Frame Title Notes1Picture Word Inductive Model An Effective Model for Vocabulary Instruction2Quote“The limits of my language are limits o f my mind. All I know is what I have words for”Ludwig Wittgenstein3What is the Picture Word Inductive Model? (PWIM)“The PWIM is a strategy that uses an integrated language arts approach to teaching beginning reading and writing, and it includes the component skills o f phonetic analysis, structural analysis, spelling, and mechanics.”“The PWIM can help us to provide a better curricular and instructional balance by focusing lessons on composing and comprehending nonfiction prose.”Emily Calhoun4Research into Effective Vocabulary Instruction* “Recent research showing the connection between word knowledge, concept development, and prior knowledge and the impact these have on reading comprehension indicates that some drastic changes in our teaching methods are warranted.” (Allen, 1999)* “Vocabulary should be taught both directly and indirectly, vocabulary learning should entail active engagement in learning tasks and, dependence on a single vocabulary instruction method will not result in optimal learning.” (National Reading Panel, 2000).18PWIM: EFFECTIVE VOCABULARY INSTRUCTION5Research continued...These formulations emphasize characteristics of good vocabulary instruction:* It takes place in a language- and word-rich environment that fosters what has been referred to as “word consciousness” (see Blachowicz & Fisher, 2006; Graves, 2006).* It includes intentional teaching of selected words, providing multiple types of information about each new word as well as opportunities for repeated exposure, use, and practice.* It includes teaching generative elements of words and word-learning strategies in ways that give students the ability to leam new words independently. (Blachowicz, Fisher and Ogle, 2006, p. 527).6Advantages of PWIM * Generates a specific, theme related vocabulary bank* Engages students in accessing previous knowledge as well as creating a sense o f anticipation* Students see and hear words identified and written correctly (transition from oral to written language)* Focuses on non-fiction reading and writing prose instead of fiction or narrative* Provides a “picture dictionary” for student reference7Far Side Cartoon* “Now! .... That should clear up a few things around here!” Gary Larson8The Instruction Cycle PWIM always begins with creating a vocabulary bank together as a group, followed by teacher modeled activities and then eventual movement onto small group or individual activities to work with the vocabulary9Getting Started ❖ Display a poster related to a theme or unit❖ Encourage students to look at the poster for a few days before starting❖ Allow students to think about the topic before generating the vocabulary bank (accessing previous knowledge)10Generate a theme related vocabulary bank❖ Solicit words from students that they can find in the poster❖ Draw a line from their word to where it is found on the poster❖ Write the student’s name under “their” word❖ Review all words in the new vocabulary bank one more time before the end of this session19PWIM: EFFECTIVE VOCABULARY INSTRUCTION11Modeled/Direct Instruction* Group Work ~ Teacher and class together* Generate vocabulary bank from theme related poster ~ include student’s name next to/under the word (One lesson)* Have students orally create sentences for their word ~ model correct formation of sentence structure, spelling and punctuation. (One lesson)* Students to copy down their sentence and draw an illustration ~ create a class book, use sentences for small group/partner activities. (One lesson)* Model writing a paragraph or story, combining sentences, discussing beginning, middle and ending ~ choral read with students. (One lesson)* Generate appropriate titles for poster ~ brainstorm for ideas from students (One mini-lesson)* Incidentally review words throughout the week(s) ~ e.g. dismiss children by “their” word, when reading a story ask students to listen for any of the vocabulary words, call students to the carpet by initial letter of “their” word or by the number of letters in the word.12Small Group/Partner WorkWord Plav* “Go Fish”* Memory Game/Concentration* Flyswatter game/quiz game* Bingo* Word sort* Choral ReadingReaders’ Theatre, Read Along, using story generated from modeled lessons with teacher, classroom book, or something student created to fit this activity.* Big Buddy activities ~ All of the above activities can be paired with peer or older student mentors13Flyswatter Game Photos: Flyswatter Game14Student Activities Photos: Word SortMemory Game Go Fish20PWIM: EFFECTIVE VOCABULARY INSTRUCTION15Individual Student Activities Ideas for Literacy Centres:* Cloze activitiesCopy out sentences or paragraph generated together by the class. Leave out the vocabulary words in each sentence.Provide cards with the words printed on them -  students can either copy the words into the story or cut and paste the words appropriately.* Student DictionaryProvide the students with a personal dictionary for them to copy down the theme related vocabulary or create a class dictionary which includes all of the generated vocabulary banks (this could include student drawn visual references).* Create a class bookProvide materials for students to create their own book for the class. Pages will include the printed vocabulary word and the student will have to draw the illustration.* Word sortProvide sets of cards made up of the generated vocabulary bank and a copy of the two or three section sorting mats.Extension: Students can copy words down (or cut and paste) onto the mats according to the “rule”* Word searchesCreate a word search using the theme related vocabulary bank (Just do an on-line search for “create word search puzzle” for a convenient, customized word search)* JournalsStudents can write in their journals at the writing center, using the PWIM poster for vocabulary and idea bank.16Advantages for use in a French Immersion/Second Language Classroom* Students can generate vocabulary bank in French with student saying word in French or English and teacher supplying the correct word in French* Model looking for/finding the word in dictionary* Excellent opportunity for students to hear and repeat words with correct pronunciation* Practise alphabet use by spelling words out loud in French* Provides a new lexicon for theme related vocabulary with picture references* Word sorts can be done using rules for masculin/feminin/plural agreements21PWIM: EFFECTIVE VOCABULARY INSTRUCTION17Overview of Teacher Resource packagePWIM- Ideas for a variety of learning opportunities:* Group Work ~ Teacher and class together* Small Group Work/ Partner -  Students with students* Individual Work -  Ideas for Literacy Centres:* Blackline Masters:Vocabulary Card Template Bingo card (9, 16, 25 squares)Word sorting mats (2 & 3 categories)18Additional Resources * Teaching Beginning Reading and Writing with The Picture Word Inductive Model.Emily Calhoun (1999)* Making Words Stick: Strategies that build vocabulary and reading comprehension in the elementary grades. Kellie Buis (2004)ReflectionsI have been using the Picture Word Inductive Model in my classroom for many years and I know it to be a very successful program for teaching my Grade One French Immersion Students. It has been through my research of vocabulary instruction over the past two years that I have come to understand why it is so effective.What I like best about the PWIM is that the students generate a relevant, theme related word bank through observation, connections to their Own experiences with the subject, and words that they want to know more about. The relationship that is created between the students and the vocabulary is an important point to consider as they are often more engaged in the activities working with the theme related words than they are with our daily, generic sight words. Students look for and are able to recognize their words within the word bank even if  it is a more challenging word and they also seem to quickly recognize their friends’ words as well. In choosing the word that they want to add to the word bank it is interesting to see the variety of words generated by the students. Some love to find words that they don’t know the word for in French and others take the safe route with a well-known word. The great thing about working with the PWIM is that all of these words can be incorporated into the theme related word bank, and all students’ contributions are relevant and meaningful to the activities in some way.The research comments on the importance of the role of the teacher when working with vocabulary, and the value of providing a context or meaning for the words. Throughout the PWIM cycle the teacher is available to provide correct spelling and pronunciation (initially) and then to model the mechanics and thought processes involved in writing activities, with a gradual release of responsibility over to the students. This provides the opportunity for differentiated learning opportunities, respecting what each child is capable o f doing with each activity, within a22PWIM: EFFECTIVE VOCABULARY INSTRUCTIONPWIM: EFFECTIVE VOCABULARY INSTRUCTIONsupportive learning environment. Some children are more comfortable taking risks with new learning situations and others require more guidance. Often, after repeated exposures to the PWIM process, students become risk takers and step out of their comfort zones because they know that we will all be working with the vocabulary together and support is available throughout the classroom. The PWIM offers support through visual aids, as well as assistance from other students and the teacher.I feel fortunate to have discovered such a well-rounded Vocabulary instruction model as it is apparent that, with the many different variables involved in vocabulary instruction, at different grade levels and content areas, “The current burgeoning interest in vocabulary, coupled with documentation of less-than-robust classroom practice, has left conscientious teachers with many questions about how to design and implement effective instruction” (Blachowicz, Fisher and Ogle, 2006, p. 524). Many teachers have come to recognize the value of focussed vocabulary instruction, but with so little time to “give up” to new programs it is empowering to find a model that integrates literacy learning and content area information into one shared activity that can be customized to accommodate any theme. It is to this end that I have strived to share my enthusiasm about the Picture Word Inductive Model as a worthy and effective form of vocabulary instruction.ReferencesAllen, j. (1999). Words, words, words: Teaching vocabulary in grades 4-12. York,Maine: Stenhouse Publishers.Beck, I., McKeown, M., McCaslin, E. (1983). Vocabulary development: All contexts are not created equal. The Elementary School Journal, 83(3), 177-181.Biemiller, A. (2001). Teaching Vocabulary: Early, direct, and sequential. American Educator,Spring 2001. (Reprinted from the International Dyslexia Association quarterly newsletter, Perspectives, Fall 2000, Vol.26, No.4.) Retrieved from http://www.aft.org/pubs- reports/american educator/spring2001 /vocab.htmlBlachowicz, L., Fisher P., Ogle D., Watts-Taffe S. (2006). Vocabulary: Questions from the classroom. Reading Research Quarterly, 41(4), 524-539.Calhoun, E. (1999). Teaching beginning reading and writing with the picture word inductive model. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.Cunningham, J. (2001). Essay book reviews: The National Reading Panel report. Reading Research Quarterly, 36(3), 326-335.Helman, L., Bums, M. (2008). What does oral language have to do with it? Helping youngEnglish-language learners acquire a sight word vocabulary. The Reading Teacher, 62(1) 14-19.Herman, A., Dole, J. (1988). Theory and practice in vocabulary learning and instruction. The Elementary School Journal, 89(1), 43-54.McKeown, M., Beck, I., Omanson, R., Pople, M. (1985) Some effects o f the nature andfrequency of vocabulary instruction on the knowledge and use o f words. International Reading Association, 20(5) 522-535.PWIM: EFFECTIVE VOCABULARY INSTRUCTIONPWIM: EFFECTIVE VOCABULARY INSTRUCTIONNational Institute o f Child Health and Human Development (2000). Report o f  the NationalReading Panel. Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment o f  the scientific research literature on reading and its implications fo r  reading instructions: Reports o f  subgroups (NIH Publication No. 004754). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Retrieved from: http://www.nichd.nih.gov/pubrications/nrp/report.cfm Pressley, M. (2001). Effective beginning reading instruction: A paper commissioned by the National Reading Conference. Executive Summary. Chicago, IL: National Reading ConferenceRetrieved from: Http://fiare.ucf.edu/Research/EffectiveBeginningReadinglnstruction.pdf Stahl, S., Fairbanks, M. (1986). The effects of vocabulary instruction: A model-based meta­analysis. Review o f  Educational Research^ 56(1), 72-110 Thompson, N. (200O). Sylvia Ashton-Wamer: Reclaiming personal meaning in literacy teaching. The English Journal, 89(3), 90-96.PWIM: EFFECTIVE VOCABULARY INSTRUCTIONAppendix A -  PowerPointKaren  M cDona ld  Delta School District 3 7Slide 2Ludw ig  W ittgen ste in“The limits o f my la n g u ag e  a re  limits o f my mind. A ll I know  is what I have w ords for.”Slide 3“The P W IM  is a  st ra te g y  that uses a n  in te g ra ted  la n g u a g e  a rts a p p ro a c h  to teach in g  b e g in n in g  re a d in g  a n d  writing, a n d  it includes the  com ponent skills o f  phonetic  ana ly sis, structural ana ly sis, spe llin g, a n d  mechanics.”“The P W IM  can  he lp  us to  p ro v id e  a  bette r curricular a n d  instructional b a la n c e  b y  focusing lessons on c om posing  a n d  c om p rehend in g  nonfiction prose.”Em ily C a lhounPWIM: EFFECTIVE VOCABULARY INSTRUCTIONSlide 4Slide 5Slide 6• : G e n e ra te s  a  specific, them e re la ted  v o c a b u la ry  b an k  : : E n g a g e s  students in a c ce ssin g  p re v io u s  k n ow le d g e  a swell a s  c re a t in g  a  se n se  o f  antic ipation• Studen ts se e  a n d  h e a r  w o rd s  iden tif ied  a n d  written correctly  (transition from  o ra l to written la n g u a g e ):: Focuses on  non-fiction  r e a d in g  a n d  w riting  p ro se  in stead  o f  fiction o r  na rra tive• P ro v id e s  a  “picture d ic t io n a ry " fo r  student re fe ren ceHjHHHfHHjThese form ulations em phasize  characteristics of good  vocabu la ry  instruction:It takes place in a language- and word-rich environment that fosters what has been referred to as "word consciousness" (see Blachowicz & Fisher, 2006; Graves, 2006).5 It includes Intentional teaching of selected words, providing multiple types of information about each new word as well as opportunities for repeated exposure, use, and practice.*  It includes teaching generative elements of words and word-learning strategies in ways that give students the ability to learn new words independently.(Blachowicz, Fisher and Ogle, 2006)* “Recent research showing the connection between word knowledge, concept development, and  prior know ledge and the impact these have on read ing  comprehension indicates that some drastic changes in our teaching methods are warranted.” (Allen, 1 9 99 )“Vocabu la ry  should be taught both directly and  indirectly, vocabu lary  learning should entail active engagem ent in learning tasks and, dependence on a single vocabu lary instruction method will not result in optimal learning.”(National Read ing Panel, 2 0 0 0 )PWIM: EFFECTIVE VOCABULARY INSTRUCTION*  P W IM  always begins with creating a vocabu lary  bank together as a group, followed by teacher modeled activities and then eventual movement onto small group or individual activities to work with the vocabulary.Slide 9Getting startedDisplay a poster related to a theme or unit.Encourage students to look at the poster for a few days before starting...<8* Allow students to think about the topic before generating the i vocabulary bank (accessing previous knowledge)PWIM: EFFECTIVE VOCABULARY INSTRUCTIONSlide10Slide11Slide12Word Play"Go Fish"Memory Game/Concentration Ftyswaffer gome/quiz gameBingo Word sort Choral ReadingRenders’ Theatre, Read Along, using story generoted from modeled lessons with teocher, classroom bock, or something student created to fit this octivity.Big Buddy activities -  All of the above activities can be paired with peer or older studentGroup Work — Teacher and class togetherGenerate vocabulary bank from theme related poster — Include student's name next to/under the word (One lesson)Hcve students orally creote sentences for their word •“ model correct formation of sentence structure, spelling and punctuation. (One lesson)Students to copy down their sentence ond draw an Illustration -  create a class book, use sentences for small group/partner activities. (One lesson)Model writing a paragraph or story, combining sentences, discussing beginning, middle and ending ~  choral read with students. (One lesson)Generate appropriate titles for poster — brainstorm for ideas from students (One mini-lesson)Incidentally review words throughout tile week(s) -  e.g. dismiss children by "their" word, when reading a story ask students to listen for any of the vocabulary words, call students to the corpet by initial letter of ''their" word or by the number of letters in the word.Gene ra te  a theme related vo cabu la ry  bankSolicit words from students that they can find in the poster. Draw o line from their word to where it is found on the poster v  Write the student's name under “their" word v  Review all words in the new vocabulary bank one more time before the end of this sessionSlide13PWIM:Slide14Slide15Id e a s  fo r  L ite rac y  C entres:C lo ze  activities Student D ic t io n a ry  Create a c la s s  b ook  W ord sortW ord  searches J o u rn a lsEFFECTIVE VOCABULARY INSTRUCTIONPWIM: EFFECTIVE VOCABULARY INSTRUCTION“ Students can generate vocabu lary  bank in French with student saying  word in French or English and teacher supplying the correct w ord in French~ M ode l looking for/finding the word in dictionary "  Excellent opportunity for students to hear and  repeat words with correct pronunciationPractise a lphabet use by spelling words out loud in French * Provides a new lexicon fo r theme related vocabu lary with picture references “ W o rd  sorts can be done using rules fo r masculin/feminin/ plural agreementsSlide17PW IM ~  Ideas for a variety of learning opportunities:G ro u p  W ork ~  Teacher a n d  c la s s  together  Sm a ll G ro u p  W ork / Partner ~  S tudents  w ith  students  : in d iv id u a l W ork  ~  Id e a s  fo r L iteracy Centres: B lack line  M aste rs:1 V ocabu la ry  C a rd  Template ■* B ingo  c a rd  (9, 16, 2 5  squares)• W o rd  sorting mats (2  & 3  categories)Teaching B eginn ing  R e ad in g  a n d  W rit in g  W ith  The Picture W o rd  Inductive M odel.Em ily  C a lh oun  (1 9 9 9 )M ak in g  W ords Stick: Strategies that build  v o c ab u la ry  and  re ad in g  comprehension in the elementary grades.Ke llie  Buis ( 2 0 0 4 )32PW IM  ~  Ideas for a variety of learning opportunities:PWIM: EFFECTIVE VOCABULARY INSTRUCTIONAppendix B -  Teacher Resource PackageGroup Work ~ Teacher and class together• Generate vocabulary bank from theme related poster ~ include student’s name next to/under the word (One lesson)• Have students orally create sentences for their word ~ model correct formation of sentence structure, spelling and punctuation. (One lesson)• Students to copy down their sentence and draw an illustration ~ create a class book, use sentences for small group/partner activities. (One lesson)• Model writing a paragraph or story, combining sentences, discussing beginning, middle and ending ~ choral read with students. (One lesson)• Generate appropriate titles for poster ~ brainstorm for ideas from students (One mini-lesson)• Incidentally review words throughout the week(s) ~ e.g. dismiss children by “their” word, when reading a story ask students to listen for any of the vocabulary words, call students to the carpet by initial letter of “their” word or by the number of letters in the word.PWIM: EFFECTIVE VOCABULARY INSTRUCTIONAppendix B -  Teacher Resource PackageSmall Group.Work/ Partner -  Students with studentsWord Play “Go Fish”Provide sets of cards made up of two copies of the vocabulary bank words. Students take turns asking their partner for a specific word. If the partner has the word he/she must hand it over. Player with the most pairs at the end of the game wins.ConcentrationProvide sets of cards made Up of two copies of the vocabulary bank Words (same as above). Students working with a partner or in a small group must lay out all Of the cards without the words Showing. Players will take turns turning over two cards at a time, looking for a match. As they turn the cards over they must read the word out loud. Player with the most pairs at the end of the game wins.Flyswatter game/quiz gameWrite a selection of the Vocabulary bank words twice (on either side of a t-chart) On the whiteboard. Have students come up to the board two at a time (with flyswatters in hand) and they have to correctly “swat” the word that you call out.BingoDepending on the age of your students you can either have them copy a selection of the vocabulary words onto a BINGO sheet or you can provide the words, already printed out, to be cut and pasted onto the BINGO sheet. Call out the words from the sample of vocabulary used for that game and have the students repeat the word out loud and locate the word on their game card or you can ask students to help you call out the words.Word sortProvide sets of cards made up of vocabulary bank words. Provide a sorting mat (with two or three sections) to allow for different “rules” to follow for sorting words.For example:Words that start with a vowel or a consonant, number of letters in the word ~ 6 letters / more than / less than, living and non-living, (in French, masculine/feminin).Students can make up their Own rules as well.Choral ReadingReaders’ Theatre, Read Along, using story generated from modeled lessons with teacher, classroom book, or something student created to fit this activity.Big Buddy activities ~  All of the above activities can be paired with peer or older studentmentorsPWIM: EFFECTIVE VOCABULARY INSTRUCTIONAppendix B -  Teacher Resource Package34Individual WorkIdeas for Literacy Centres; Cloze activitiesCopy out sentences or paragraph generated together by the class. Leave out the vocabulary words in each sentence. Provide cards with the words printed on them -  students can either copy the words into the story or cut and paste the words appropriately.Student DictionaryProvide the students with a personal dictionary for them to copy down the theme related vocabulary or create a class dictionary which includes all of the generated vocabulary banks (this could include student drawn visual references).Create a class bookProvide materials for students to create their own book for the ciass. Pages will include the printed vocabulary word and the student will have to draw the illustration.Word sortProvide sets of cards made up of the generated vocabulary bank and a copy o f the two or three section sorting mats.Ideas for Word sortsTwo section mat: Initial letter consonant/vowelNoun/V erbThree section mat: Number of letters in the word ~ 6 letters / more than / less thanFrench - Masculin/Feminin/PlurielExtension: Students can copy words down (or cut and paste) onto the mats according to the “rule”Word searchesCreate a word search using the theme related vocabulary bank (Just do an on-line search for “create word search puzzle” for a convenient, customized word search)JournalsStudents can write in their journals at the writing centre, using the PWIM poster for vocabulary and idea bank.35Appendix C -  Blackline MastersVOCABULARY CARD TEMPLATEPWIM: EFFECTIVE VOCABULARY INSTRUCTIONAppendix C -  Blackline MastersBingo card (9 squares)PWIM: EFFECTIVE VOCABULARY INSTRUCTIONBINGOAppendix C -  Blackline MastersBingo card (16 squares)PWIM: EFFECTIVE VOCABULARY INSTRUCTIONBINGOAppendix C -  Blackline MastersBingo card (25 squares)PWIM: EFFECTIVE VOCABULARY INSTRUCTIONBINGOFree39Appendix C -  Blackline MastersWord sorting mats (2 categories)PWIM: EFFECTIVE VOCABULARY INSTRUCTIONPWIM: EFFECTIVE VOCABULARY INSTRUCTIONAppendix C -  Blackline MastersWord sorting mats (3 categories)

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