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The Wonder of Water : digital literacies and environmental change Moïse, Hélène M. 2009-03

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THE WONDER OF WATER:DIGITAL LITERACIES AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGEDiploma in Ed. Simon Fraser University, 2006 B.Ed. (Ed. Major, French Major) Simon Fraser University, 2006 A GRADUATING PAPER SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF EDUCATIONTHE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Language and Literacy EducationWe accep t this major paper as conform ing to  the required standardbyHELENE M. MOISEinTTTTTHE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIAApril 2009 © HELENE M. MOISE, 2009“Never doubt that a  small group o f  thoughtful committed citizens can change the world: indeed  i t ’s  the only thing that ever has ” (Margaret Mead).ABSTRACTAs vve can no longer ignore the emergency o f  the wounds we have inflicted on the health o f our ecosystems, there has been a growing concern to integrate environmental issues in the school curriculum. The United Nations declared 2005-2014 to be the decade for Education for Sustainable Development, which intends to bring to the forefront the role o f all teachers to integrate the principles, values, and practices o f  sustainable development in the classroom. Teachers play a crucial role in empowering students to become environmentally responsible. Based on the work in New Literacies, digital literacies, language and identity, and indigenous knowledge, this Capstone paper, which is particularly concerned with the state o f the worlds’ fresh water supplies, explores how a multimodal curriculum can be adapted to integrate learning for environmental change. The curriculum (The Wonder o f  Water) developed as part o f the Connection to Practice component o f this project was inspired by my involvement with the organization Learning for a Sustainable Future, which aims to educate teachers on the meaning and importance o f  engaging students in sustainable action projects. This curriculum will demonstrate how digital literacies and Education for a Sustainable Development can come together to create an empowering learning experience for students that can enable them to add unforeseen colors to the landscape o f  ideas and to take actions to heal our worlds’ water.TABLE OF CONTENTSAbstract...................................................................................................................................... iiTable of Contents.................................................................................................................... iiiAcknowledgements................................................................................................................. vSECTION 1: INTRODUCTION..........................................................................................1Motivation.................................................................................................................................. 1Theoretical Framework.............................................................................................................2The first model........................................................................................................................... 3Moving forward: curriculum review& renewal.....................................................................6SECTION 2: LITERATURE REVIEW .............................................................................8New Literacies........................................................................................................................... 9Language and identity............................................................................................................... 12Indigenous knowledge and ecological literacy a n d ..............................................................16Implication for practice: Digital literacies & the environment........................................... 19Conclusion.................................................................................................................................. 22SECTION 3: MAKING CONNECTIONS........................................................................ 24SECTION 4: CONCLUSION............................................................................................... 39Spreading the word & future plans..........................................................................................40REFERENCES.........................................................................................................................42APPENDICES:........................................................................................................................47Introduction to LTP................................................................................................................... 47CONTENTSThinking like a photographer: lesson plan...............................................................................48Thinking like a photographer: activity sheet........................................................................... 49Brainstorm on family and water................................................................................................ 50Creating a water shot list............................................................................................................ 51Watersheds................................................................................................................................... 52What would you condone........................................................................................................... 54Types o f action projects and ideas.............................................................................................56Research activities....................................................................................................................... 61Research activity worksheet.......................................................................................................62Research analysis......................................................................................................................... 63Project planning........................................................................................................................... 64Assessment rubric for water issues action project...................................................................69Assessment rubric for Mind Map..............................................................................................70Features and convention of language....................................................................................... 71Student self assessment sheet.....................................................................................................72Additional resources....................................................................................................................73Suggested readings......................................................................................................................79ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSThis project is dedicated to every educator working with passion to help the future citizens o f  the world develop their own personal legend and heal the wounds we have inflicted on our ecosystems. I am most grateful to Bonny Norton, Margot Filipenko, and Don Krug for guiding me and making possible the creation o f  this project. I would like to say a particular thank you to my mother, a woman with a special gift and beauty, who has never doubted me and has always encouraged me to reach for the stars. Thank you also to my partner who has been with me every step o f  the journey. Finally, I would like to thank the staff o f  Trafalgar Elementary, particularly my teaching partner Anne-Marie who warmly welcomed me in her classroom this year, and Dorothy who reminded me o f  the gift in each o f  us.vSECTION I: INTRODUCTION“I f  you are thinking a year ahead, sow a seed I f  you are thinking ten years ahead plant a tree.I f  you are thinking one hundred years ahead, educate the people. ”(Kuan Tzu, Chinese Poet, c. 500 B.C.)MotivationThis redesigned version of the curriculum Literacy Through Photography (LTP) is what I will consider my stepping stone when leaving the world o f academia to embrace a new journey into the world of practice. This Capstone project was shaped by my involvement with the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development and by the re-articulation o f my thinking on Education, which occurred in the time and space o f my graduate studies at the University of British Columbia (UBC). The combination of these two experiences has led me to replay and resignify the theoretical positions that have defined me, allowing me to redesign a curriculum that takes into account the possibilities of their convergence (Morgan, 2004).In Canada, the United Nations Decade for Education for Sustainable Development (UNDESD), under the umbrella of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) designated the office of Learning for a Sustainable Future (LSF) at York University to take over the mission of promoting, through education, the knowledge, skills, perspectives and practices essential for a sustainable future (LSF, n.d.). As part of this mission, I was recruited and trained by LSF to be part of a pan-Canadian team of teachers whose task is to provide educators with access to pedagogical resources that demonstrate the interplay among the dimensions of sustainable development, such as the environment, economy and social forces.The first year of the project was spent reviewing teaching resources that were made accessible1online on the LSF Resources fo r  Rethinking database. As the team entered its second year, our role as reviewers shifted towards presenting the LSF database at various Education conferences. As part of this new role, I was also trained to present and design workshops for teachers on engaging students in sustainable action projects.This recent professional engagement with LSF came at a time when I was deeply involved in graduate work, and it became clear to me that the goals and objectives of LSF were consistent with the changes that were occurring in my thinking, particularly as it pertained to children’s use of various sign systems, such as photography, to represent complex ideas.Theoretical framework My graduate studies at UBC acquainted me in more depth with the theoretical framework adopted for this Capstone project. Based on Vygotsky’s (1978) sociocultural theory, I further developed my beliefs about the various ways in which children create meaning about the world. Vygotsky’s (1978) views that children’s learning is co-constructed with others before being internalised, and that children’s learning needs to be situated culturally and socially, informed my understanding o f children’s use o f digital mediums, particularly photography, as it pertains to literacy and children’s understanding of the world.The New London Group (2000) maintains that we have to expand the traditional definition of literacy to first “account for the context of our culturally and linguistically diverse and increasingly globalised societies; to account for the multifarious cultures that interrelate and the plurality of texts that circulate”(p.9). Second, they argue that: “literacy pedagogy now must account for the burgeoning variety of texts forms associated with information and multimedia technologies” (New London Group, 2000, p.9).2Hence, the development o f the curriculum The Wonder o f Water adopted an expanded definition o f literacy through which children were able to construct meaning using a variety of mediums such as photography and the creation of a blog. The concepts of New Literacies, digital literacies, and language and identity (Bawden, 2008; Gilster, 1997; Kendrick & Jones, 2008; Norton, 2000; Knobel & Lankshear, 2008; Millard, 2003; Orr, 1992; Rogoff, 2003; Schratz- Hadwich,, Walker, & Egg 2004) informed my understanding of the ways visual images could influence children’s writing and knowledge o f the world.These concepts made me aware that my previous conception of literacy was constrained to printed texts, thus, possibly limiting my students’ opportunities to become successful learners. Through passionate conversations with peers, colleagues, and professors, I was able to co­construct and re-articulate an expanded view o f literacy and redefine my beliefs that had previously shaped my teaching (Norton, 2000). This re-articulation of literacy impacted my teaching practices and created more opportunities for students to make meaning and creatively represent what they know. The interplay between many meaning-making resources (e.g., language, colour, music, gesture, drawing, music, etc.) or multimodality was the start of a transformative journey for my students and me, as we began the first version o f the curriculum Literacy Through Photography.The first modelLiteracy Through Photography was first developed by Wendy Ewald: an artist-in- residence at the John Hop Franklin Center and a research associate at the Center for Documentary Studies at Duke University. Incidentally, she is the young teacher portrayed in the movie “Born into Brothels.” Ewald coauthored I  Wanna Take Me a Picture: Teaching Photography and Writing to Children with Alexandra Lightfoot, a PhD graduate from the School3of Education at Harvard University. Based on their book, I first adapted the program to fit the Grade 7, BC English curriculum and to better suit the needs of my students. As described by Ewald and Lightfoot (2001), the goal of the program was to let the children speak for themselves and to allow them to be active observers of the world through their own lenses in order to allow writing to flow from their own voices. The first version of the project included the teaching of photography techniques and terminology and was developed according to four main themes: self-portrait, family, community and dreams. In this version, the students had to complete a final project in which they were responsible for creating an exciting format for the presentation of their work that would take place during a community exhibit. However, this part of the project did not happen since time and the organization of their “Grade Seven Farewell” caught up with us.Overall, Literacy Through Photography provided students with an alternative mode of meaning making, and as discussed by Early (2008), the results demonstrated the power and the strength of students’ engagement in the project. Through my students work, I was able to observe creativity, engagement and depth in their writing. Most students demonstrated a unique voice and an ability to write meaningful and logical sequences. Perhaps their success can be explained by both the multimodal and prevailing power relation, which allowed students to engage their own voice with the world and offered them the opportunity to have an equal opportunity o f outcome in this particular program (Norton, 2000).The concept of multimodality discussed by scholars such as Harste, Woodward and Burke (1984), Kendrick, Jones, Mutonyi, & Norton (2006), Kress (1997), and the New London Group (2000), unravelled ways to connect a wider variety o f meaning making systems and expanded my own conception of literacy. Weedon (1987) stated: “the political significance of4decentring the subject and abandoning the belief in essential subjectivity is that it opens up subjectivity to change” (p.33). As discussed by Morgan (2004), who we are and how we re-script ourselves as individuals and teachers is reflected on our students and, subsequently on the world. A student represented this concept during the LTP project as followed: “We can all be who we are because people are people through people! We understand the world around us according to people” (personal communication, June 2, 2006).Based on the notions of New Literacies, LTP offered many opportunities for students to explore new ways of meaning making through the mode of photography. Like drama, photography provides an opportunity for students to integrate the body and the mind and to explore ways of producing meaning in a picture through the position of the body and the objects in the frame (Cummins, 2006). One student stated: “I feel that the way we place ourselves in the picture can really change the emotions, messages and perspectives o f the photograph” (personal communication, June 2, 2008). Hence, through this mode of meaning making my students were able to represent their visual thinking and to place reality in their own perspective.Throughout the program, students were also encouraged to reflect about themselves, their values, and their communities. Further to this, they had to negotiate language in particular ways, and this widened their window to identify with the world (Kendrick, Jones, Mutonyi, & Norton,2006). Literacy Through Photography guides students to establish a relationship with their social world: it integrates the language learner and the language learning context, an element which, as argued by Norton (2000), has not been addressed by Second Language Acquisition (SLA) theorists. Photography allowed students to claim ownership and gave their audience an investment in the text through both their photographs and their writing (Norton, in press). In the self-portrait unit, one student wrote: “I found that the garden was a suitable background that5reflected a piece o f my personality, so many different components brought together to form an amazingly intricate whole” (personal communication, June 2, 2008). This student demonstrated an ability to bring the outside world into her own identity; she created her own identity-text (Morgan, 2004)By integrating LTP to my English program, I created an opportunity for my students to use a mode with very few constraints that could set free their imaginations. Through this mode, I was able to witness their unique voices and identities, which was one o f the many rich rewards gained in this project. I now wish to take this curriculum further and to adapt it to create with my students a community of active citizenship with a mutual kind of learning centred on environmental change.Moving forward: curriculum review & renewalAs part of the United Nations Decade o f Education for Sustainable Development, the organization of Learning for a Sustainable Future aims to educate teachers on the meaning and importance of teaching for a sustainable future and ways in which they can engage students in sustainable action projects. With this goal in mind, I wanted to create a multimodal curriculum for environmental change that would demonstrate the interconnectedness of various theories and disciplines.The adapted version of LTP, titled The Wonder o f  Water, is an interdisciplinary curriculum that uses photography, among other forms of digital mediums, to engage students with the world and their writing. Its mission is to help lead educators into the 21st century by engaging learners with the language learning process (Norton, 2000) via digital literacies and an environmental approach that guides learners to interpret and change the world through their own lenses. The purpose of this curriculum is to guide children to speak for themselves; to guide themi6to become active observers of the world through their own lenses and to open up opportunities for writing to flow from their own voices.Hence, this Capstone paper will research how a multimodal curriculum using digital photography can be adapted to integrate learning for environmental change in the classroom. It does so by looking at the efficacy of using digital photography, and other forms of digital literacies such as the creation of a blog, through what the literature reveals about New Literacies, digital literacies, language and identity, and Indigenous knowledge. It will also look at the implications for practice of the best principles of education for a sustainable development. These multiple concepts shaped the adaptation and creation of The Wonder o f Water that was developed as part of the “Connection to Practice” component of this project. This new curriculum strives to empower students to add unforeseen colors to the landscape of ideas and to take actions to heal the state of our worlds’ water.7SECTION 2: LITERATURE REVIEW“Ifound that the garden was a suitable background that reflected a piece of my personality, so many different components brought together to form an amazingly intricate whole" (ElementaryStudent).Throughout history, humans have embedded their stories in various systems o f  meaning making in order to reach beyond what languages alone are capable o f  expressing. Up until the 15th century, when Gutenberg invented the printing press, architecture was the big book o f  humanity. Architectural patterns documented big ideas and current philosophies and a well- designed building could be compared to poetry as it could be interpreted at different levels that go beyond language itself (Nair & Fielding, 2005). Since the printing press, literacy has taken over all other forms o f  meaning making, leading the way to an educational focus for developing students’ ability to understand and decode printed texts. However, arts, films, music, movements, gestures, dance, photography, and much more, all convey different meanings encoding distinctive ways o f  knowing that are also o f  importance and show rationality, logic, human desire and affect (Kress, 1997). As language is not enough to express the complexity o f  human society and the means by which meaning is constructed, scholars are reconceptualizing a view o f  literacy which considers the importance o f  a variety o f  modes o f  communication and representation (Eisner, 1991; Kendrick & Jones, 2008; Kress, 1997; New London Group, 1996).To talk about literacy as if  it were a single skill applicable to all forms o f  text is to underestimate the special demands that different forms o f  language exact (Eisner, 1991). This literature review will take a particular look at the mode o f  digital photography, as a way o f  knowing. The literature that has helped me conceptualize this project is drawn from the work in New Literacies, digital literacies, language and identity, and Indigenous knowledge. This project8also considers the implications for practice of the best principles of Education for Sustainable Development. As such, it adopted the United Nations definition of ESD:Education for sustainable development is about learning to: respect, value and preserve the achievements of the past; appreciate the wonders and the peoples o f the Earth; live in a world where all people have sufficient food for a healthy and productive life; assess, care for and restore the state of our Planet; create and enjoy a better, safer, more just world; be caring citizens who exercise their rights and responsibilities locally, nationally and globally (UNDESD, n.d).These multiple concepts shaped the adaptation of a multimodal curriculum for environmental change, titled The Wonder o f  Water, which was developed as the “Connection to Practice ” component of this Capstone paper.“How can I  talk to you about my winter land when you only have one wordfor snow and I  have fifty  three” (Sigh o f  an Inuit, source unknown).New LiteraciesVarious academics such as Eisner (1991), Kress (1997), the New London Group (1996), Van Leeuwen & Jewitt (2001) have been making the claim for a new way o f defining literacy. Traditionally, literacy pedagogy was bound to the standard forms of reading and writing printed text (New London Group, 1996). Yet, it has been argued that this conceptualization of literacy pedagogy was too restricted and marginalized other modes of meaning making that are not “rule- governed forms of languages” (New London Group, 1996, p.l). Therefore, in order to waive the restrictions imposed by the previous definition of literacy pedagogy, the New London Group (1996) maintains that we must expand our definition of literacy to “account for the context of our culturally and linguistically diverse and increasingly globalised societies, and to account for the multifarious cultures that interrelate and the plurality of texts that circulate” (p.l).9The expanded definition of literacy lays the foundation of multiliteracy, a concept which calls for the development o f students’ ability to encode and decode meaning in all forms embedded in society (Eisner, 1991). Moreover, to limit our view of literacy to printed text would go against the mission of Education if  one believes and wishes to work towards an Education system capable of leading students to a full and equitable social participation (New London Group, 1996). Kress (1997) stresses the importance that as educators, if the limitation to one mode of representation is a limitation, then we should do everything we can to overcome that limitation. Kress (1997) asserts:The force of my argument is to suggest that there are best ways of representing meanings: in some circumstances language may be the best medium; in some a drawing may be; in others colour may be the most apt medium for expression, (p.38)Moreover, Kress (1997) claims that the ability to decode visual design is as important as decoding words since each mode has its limitations and possibilities, where one can help fill the gap that the other leaves behind; each medium offers a unique and different dimension of interpretation. For instance, Swanson (2008) gave the example o f an African community which used to learn multiplication through chanting but this medium was taken away in favour of what they believe to be a more “progressive” education. However, by taking away this meaningful mode o f meaning making, students’ mathematical results started to decline (Swanson, 2008). This example demonstrates that it is to the benefit of all students that we, educators, do not underestimate other modes of meaning making, and that we embrace other modes that are just as demanding and rewarding (Swanson, 2008).The Wonder o f Water, the adapted version of Literacy Through Photography, emphasizes visual modes of communication and expands its literacy pedagogy by adopting a view of10multiliteracy based on the insights of scholars such as Harste, Woodward and Burke (1984), Kress (1997), New London Group (2000), Rogoff (2003), and Vygotsky (1978). Here is a summary o f the literacy view adopted in this Capstone project:Multiliteracy is how we make sense of the world by analyzing, understanding, and reacting to incoming information using our five senses. It also encompasses the development of one's ability to write and read all forms of print and media. Views of multiliteracy depend on the sociocultural, economic, environmental, and cultural contexts, as well as the specific period in time in which it is experienced.In addition to adopting the above view of multiliteracy, The Wonder o f Water emphasizes the use of photography as a medium of knowing, as well as other forms of digital literacies such as the use of photo editing software and the creation of a blog on Wordpress. This Capstone project adopted a view of digital literacies based on the work of scholars such as Bawden (2008), Eshet (2002), Gilster (1997), and Lankshear and Knobel (2008) that can be summarized as follows: digital literacy is the set o f attitudes, understanding and skills to handle and communicate information and knowledge effectively, in a variety of media and formats.In this view, to be digitally literate is more than knowing a certain set of skills; it is also a way of thinking critically about what you see on a digital medium (Bawden, 2008). The Wonder o f  Water does so by expanding text created by students; it brings together photography and editing, video and image analysis (posted on the blog and in the classroom), drawing and story­telling (in a scrapbook), and other forms o f arts such as painting (Buckingham, 2008). The Wonder o f  Water goes beyond the teaching of media skills by guiding students to reflect on the ways media works and addresses questions about the selection, manipulation, and combination of images (Buckingham, 2008).11Furthermore, digital literacies, such as photography, learning how to use editing photo software, and blogging, convey different meanings encoding distinctive ways o f knowing that are just as valuable as generally held views of literacy (Kress, 1997). Eisner (1991) maintained that language itself is not enough to express the complexity of human society and the means by which meaning is constructed. For instance, with photography, we are able to see the data and this, as maintained by Schratz-Hadwich, Walker, and Egg (2004), turns the data into visible knowledge of individuals which can then be shared, discussed or questioned; they refer to this as “knowledge in the making” (p.6). Like Eisner (1991), Schratz-Hadwich, Walker, and Egg (2004) also discuss how photography is a mode of meaning making which has the potential to bring out different interpretations o f reality since a picture can also bring forward details that may have otherwise appeared unimportant. Capello and Hollingsworth (2008) further add that the act of photographing brings new ways of problem solving and creates more complex texts while enlarging the expanded meaning.The Wonder o f  Water fits well with the views of New Literacies; it parallels the New London Group (2000) argument that literacy pedagogy must emphasise innovation and creativity by: “supporting a pedagogy that views language and other modes of representation as dynamic, constantly being remade by meaning-makers in changing and varied contexts” (New London Group, 2000, p. 12). The digital mediums integrated in the curriculum also create new possibilities for accessing, producing, sharing and reusing information (Erstad, 2008). The next section will explore the meanings of these new possibilities on learners’ identity.12“But there is also another sense in which seeing comes before words. It is seeing which establishes our place in the surrounding world; we explain this world with words, but words can never undo the fac t that we are surrounded by i t” (Berger, 2008).Language and identityNorton (in press) maintains that the use of photography in the classroom can offerstudents the opportunity to gain the right to speech and the power to impose reception. In this visual space, through the aid of photographs, students are encouraged to no longer be subject “o f ’ or subject “to” the world. With photography, students can let the world become their subject since this medium offers them a different position of interaction with the world (Kendrick, Jones, Mutonyi, & Norton, 2006). Ewald and Lightfoot (2001) also discuss this concept in their book I  Wanna Take Me a Picture: Teaching Photography and Writing to Children:Photography is perhaps the most democratic visual art of our time. For most of us, picture taking is part of our family lives. We don’t need a particular talent, like the hand-eye coordination necessary for drawing, to render what we look at. Even children and adults unfamiliar with photography can make photographs of what they see and imagine. For those of us who have used cameras, photography offers a language that can draw on the imagination in a way we may never have thought possible before; children eagerly harness it to the engine of their imagination, (p. 14)Through their photographs students have the possibility to reclaim where they belong in the world (Kendrick et al., 2006). Digital photography is also easy to use and the data being collected can be rapidly displayed. Schratz-Hadwich, Walker, and Egg (2004) maintain that these properties make it impossible for adult and expert language to “overrule and the images look beyond stereotyped phrasing” (p.5); making “individual expertise visible to others” (p.5).13As maintained by Norton (2000), the power to impose reception is of first importance in power relation and a photography project for children might be doing just that.Furthermore, the first version of Literacy Through Photography, previously discussed in this paper, has been done in similar ways around the world in inner city schools and developing countries (Ewald & Lightfoot, 2001; Norton, in press). Many projects report how children, with the aid of photography, gained a sense of ownership and a place from which to speak (Kendrick et al., 2006). For example, in the self-portrait unit of the first version of Literacy Through Photography, students were challenged to take a picture of the person deep inside of them; the person nobody knows. Based on their picture, they then had to write a description that would tell their audience, such as their peers, teachers and parents, something important about them that was represented in the picture. The following is an illustration of the type of response I encountered:I have not yet completely understood myself, found myself, and so silently, I asked: how can anyone show who they are in a photo, when they don’t even know it themselves? I suppose I could show myself doing an activity which I enjoy, but Fd have to really love doing it, or else it wouldn’t really actually be representing me, would it? So hard to know... Eventually, I decided the simplest approach would have to do. I went with the flow, instead of carefully planning every single detail. I jumped right into it, and was rewarded with a work of great honesty that is truly my own. (personal communication, June 2, 2008)Moreover, Morgan (2004) maintains that “what happens in the classroom has the potential to challenge or maintain the power structures in society” (p. 173) and she argues that photography has the ability to diminish the unequal power distribution between adults and children (see also14Schratz-Hadwich et al., 2004). By offering students the opportunity to speak for themselves, Literacy Through Photography and The Wonder o f  Water challenge the power structures in society which do not allow for children to claim their own voice. By taking pictures, students are “letting the world in rather than simply being heard by the world” (Potts, 2005). Schratz- Hadwich, Walker, and Egg (2004) explain that when students explore their environment by taking pictures, discussing and reflecting on them, the gap between learning questions and life questions collapses: “In trying to find the unknown in the known and to sense where relationships exist between their school world and their world of feelings, their own views begin to count. What is important is how they feel” (p.8). This is made possible because what students see through the lens of their camera demonstrates the interplay between multiple dimensions of the environment, emotions and associations (Shratz-Hadwich et al., 2004).Barbara Rogoff (2003) discusses how people develop an “understanding of their world through active participation in shared endeavours with other people as they engage in sociocultural activities” (p. 236). She thus emphasizes the importance o f engagement and action in the community, which can relate back to Vygotsky’s (1978) cultural historical theory, which holds that individual cognitive skills derive from people’s engagement in sociocultural activities. Rogoff (2003) also asserts that: “an integrated approach makes it much easier to understand how thinking involves social relations and cultural experience, without an artificial separation into isolated parts” (p.237).Furthermore, Kress’s (1997) educational approach explains that meaning-making is closely related to children’s own experiences with the world since learning is built upon your own experience, knowledge and interest. Similarly, Capello and Hollingsworth (2008) believe that “when constructing multimodal texts, meaning makers intentionally choose media with15which they are familiar, and/or the media that will enable them to say what they want to say” (p. 445). The Wonder o f  Water creates opportunities for students to have access in the classroom to their literacy practices and ways of knowing. My students have been taking pictures for years and enjoy the use of technology in the classroom; they also like to have the opportunity to include images as an addition to their essays.The Wonder o f  Water also integrates the students’ home and school by encouraging students to take pictures and document water usage at home and in their community outside the school; they bring back the outside world inside the classroom and build on prior learning (Early, 2008). Students and parents are also encouraged to participate and create multimodal postings on the classroom blog. Hence, these practices offer opportunities for students to engage their social identities and help improve their language skills outside the classroom while recognizing their authorship (Kendrick et al., 2006).“It is time to ask what we need to know to live humanely, peacefully and responsibly on the Earth, and toset our priorities accordingly” (Orr, 1992).Indigenous knowledge and ecological literacyThe Wonder o f  Water aims for the development o f an ecological consciousness that is now critical if  we are to ever heal the wounds we have inflicted on the health of our ecosystems. Eurocentric worldviews have much to leam from many Indigenous1 worldviews in regard to protecting Mother Earth (Battiste, 2002). The goal is to infuse, in The Wonder o f  Water, Indigenous worldviews that are grounded in the environment and that reflect behaviour that does not harm the sustainability o f our ecosystems (Suzuki, 1997). Understanding the forces of nature and the balance between all of its elements is at the core o f most Indigenous worldviews and1 While this project acknowledges Indigenous views, it is not intended to romanticize their cultures but rather to provide some of the main ideas regarding their worldviews.16languages (Henderson, 2002). While Pesco and Crago (2008) acknowledge that Indigenous people are culturally diverse, they also state that “they are bound together by a sacred tie to the land, a value of communal interdependence and a holistic worldview” (p. 274).The concept of the “Indigenous language o f the land” is similar to the theory of ecological literacy discussed by David Orr (1992). In Orr’s (1992) view, ecological literacy includes not only the ability to write and read, but also the ability to use numbers with an understanding of what is countable and what is not; the ability to observe nature with insight and to understand the “intricate history of one’s life on the land” (Orr, 1992, p. 86). For Indigenous people, ecological literacy speaks of an “affinity with the living world” and a “kinship with life” (Orr, 1992, p. 86). Contrary to the Eurocentric worldviews, which take everything in nature for granted, many Indigenous people have the knowledge to work in harmony with the environment, and their behaviour does not harm the future o f local ecosystems essential to all life (Suzuki,1997). Much Indigenous people do not perceive humans to be superior to nature, instead, they perceive humans to be an element that is dependent upon all forces o f nature for survival.Learning to read the land was at the centre o f Indigenous spiritual, social and economic systems (Hare, 2005). Henderson (2002) explains that Indigenous worldviews are in a constant process of transformation which attempts to follow a circular interaction of the forces of Nature. Hence, he maintains that their languages: “express an awareness o f a local ecology and are directed to understanding both external life forms and the invisible forces beneath them” (p.262). Orr (1992) wrote the following about the language of nature:The language o f nature includes the sounds of animals, whales, birds, insects, wind, and water -  a language more ancient and basic than human speech. Its books are the etching17of life on the face o f the land. To hear its language requires patient, disciplined study of the natural world. But it is a language for which we have an affinity, (p. 91)Similarly, Indigenous languages and thoughts are developed in an attempt to contain the forces of nature. These languages help Indigenous people to become a part of an active cycle which creates harmony between them and nature. For instance, Cajete (2002) talks about a certain figure called Kokopelli of the Pueblo people, which is a symbol they have created to represent the procreative processes and energy in nature. He explains:We came to know the nature of water and o f land. Some of these stops were by sacred waters that are so important in a desert environment like New Mexico. We came to know the importance o f water for our life and our well-being. We began to reflect that understanding in a variety of ways, and we began to evolve technologies based on our growing understanding of the elements within our environment, (p. 183)Battiste (2002) also adds: “As Aboriginal2 peoples o f this land, we have the knowledge to enable us to survive and flourish in our own homeland. Our stories of ancient times tell us how. Our languages provide those instructions” (p. 202). Cajete (2002) and Battiste’s (2002) statements reflect well the extent to which Indigenous languages are intertwined with their relationship with the environment.Furthermore, The Wonder o f Water, in addition to integrating the best practices of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD), is infused with worldviews that are particularly similar to the Indigenous views of education. It also parallels the goals of ecological literacy, which encourages a sense of wonder, beauty and mystery in relation with nature along with the2 “Indigenous” and “Aboriginal” is used interchangeably.18knowledge to understand the interconnectedness among all things and the ability to demonstrate care (Orr, 1992).The following table represents the similarities between some Indigenous views of Education and ESD.Indigenous Education(Battiste, 2002; Cajete, 2002; Henderson, 2002)Education for a Sustainable Future(Learning for a Sustainable Future, n.d)Multimodal: story-telling, dance, songs, rituals... Multimodal: encourages different modes of learningExperiential: learning & living are interconnected Experiential: action project where students have to take actions in the communityStrong connection to the landHEWOW N D N T TTHTEWOT RT F A HH :TIIHHGLHEncourages the development of compassion for all living and non-living thingsC i  -ss : . - -WKKH Spirit and heart;• : . ' • •. •Encourages students to clarify their values, develop compassion and respect for all“Hamatowin” Cree word for communal learning (learning happens in connection with the Earth, creator and elders)Encourages students to connect with the community and the Earth by going outdoorMultiple perspectives and critical thinking: one has to listen to multiple stories and reflect on them to think of an answer to their questionMultiple perspectives which should include socio, economic and environmental aspects. Not steered towards one right answer“Teach me, and I  will forget, show me, and I  will remember. Involve me, and I  will learn. ”(Source unknown)Implication for practice: Digital literacies & the environmentThe future o f the Earth’s environment and its ecosystems are an increasingly urgent global concern. The complexity and diversity of the issues can only be properly address by involving and engaging all scale of possible actions from the individual to global organizations. As educators, among our many roles, one is to encourage schools to integrate a curriculum that will create informed, engaged and empowered citizens of the world.The Wonder o f  Water seeks to address the various issues as well as the integration of best practices for Education for Sustainable Development via various digital mediums. It will use these mediums to connect students with information such as orientation, exploring, focusing and19locating (Markless & Streatfield, 2007). For instance, many links are posted on the blog and students are encouraged to use them as a starting point to explore and learn about water issues. They are also learning to use search engines such as Google. In addition, they are learning to interact with information, while thinking and evaluating it critically (Markless & Streatfield,2007). On the blog, they have the opportunity to interact with a wide variety o f experts in various fields such as education, international development and sustainability, and finance. They are exposed to images and multimodal texts from both these experts and their peers, which they are encouraged to question and comment. Students also make use of information by transforming it, (through bricolage o f various formats), communicating it (on a posting on the blog, their web page, water scrapbook...) and applying it to their final project, which includes an art gallery of their photographs and other formats of ecological arts (Markless & Streatfield, 2007).Matilsky (1992) in Fragile Ecologies: Contemporary Artists ’ Interpretations and Solutions maintains that artists have the ability to translate ideas into images that can profoundly influence public perceptions o f local ecosystems by communicating the wonder of nature. For instance, Matilsky (1992) mentions the Minata (Japan) project where photographs were used to focus public attention on the issue of water pollution. In another project called the L.A. River Project, students’ direct observation of the river and the coming to their own solutions to the problems through ecological arts, won public attention and improved the state of the river (Matilsky, 1992). These ecological artworks are examples o f interdisciplinary environmental programs where artists of all age demonstrated how people can make a change to their local environment. Hence, The Wonder o f  Water emphasizes the creation of action projects centred on ecological art using digital mediums, such as photography. Moreover, Capello and Hollingsworth (2008) argue that:20Photography has the potential to enhance what is possible by amplifying what teachers are able to do ... (and) by expending what students are able to produce as a result of their investigations. Photography has the potential to help change the ways in which students leam. (p.443)Photography is a multimodal text, which offers students an alternative way to respond to text, moving beyond positivist notions of photography depicting literal truth and, as maintained by Capello and Hollingsworth (2008): “students need to have many ways of thinking and sharing available to them in order to engage more fully in pursuing questions within the classroom that are significant in their own lives” (p. 444).In their report, Rivet and Schneider (2004) demonstrate that photography has the potential to support students’ inquiry in real-world setting. Rivet and Schneider (2004) researched students’ use of photography in their study about the health of a local stream and the creation of a website to share their knowledge with the community (Rivet & Schneider, 2004). They also observed how the use of pictures led the students to ask more questions about what was being investigated. In their research, they compared taking pictures of an ecosystem with the use o f a telescope in astronomy; both can be used to capture large-scale phenomena and can collapse time with a series o f images.Rivet and Schneider (2004) also found that students used their photographs in order to leam and share information with others. Furthermore, the development of a website to share their knowledge offered an opportunity for the students to participate in the community and through this participation changed their ways of thinking and perceiving their local environment (Rivet & Schneider, 2004; Rogoff, 2003). The inclusion of photography and the creation of a website is21reported to have increased students’ interest and awareness of the environment, as well as the amount of time students spent thinking about their ecosystem (Rivet & Schneider, 2004).Hence, digital mediums, such as photography and the creation of a website or a blog, have the potential to transform students’ thinking about the environment and to bring positive change in the community. The curriculum presented in this project will demonstrate how digital literacies and environmental change can come together to create an empowering learning  experience for students that can enable them to make a change on their local ecosystems.“Students will understand our fundamental connections to each other and to the world around us through our relationship to food, water, energy, air, and land, and our interaction with all livingthings” (Ontario Ministry o f  Education, 2007).ConclusionMany scholars such as Kress (1997), Harste, Woodward and Burke (1984), Kendrick, Jones, Mutonyi, and Norton (2006), Rogoff (2003), and Vygotsky (1978) demonstrated that the ways students are learning represent how multimodalities need to be included and valued in today’s teaching methodologies. For the purpose of expanding my students’ access to a wide variety of ways of meaning making and to refrain from limiting their possibilities, I created a multimodal curriculum based on digital mediums, such as digital photography and the creation of a blog. I selected these particular modes of meaning making with the hope that it would increase students’ engagement with their local ecosystems by enabling them to see the world through their own lenses and to let their own voices shine.The integration o f Indigenous ways o f knowing into this project also validates local knowledges and exposes the rest of the community to a certain kind of life kinship which has usually been unfamiliar. Hence, The Wonder o f  Water offers students a way of meaning making22which takes place through experiential learning that interconnects the students’ lives with the community and their local ecosystems.Photography, as a form o f digital literacy, is an ideal medium that is well suited for environmental education. The New London Group (1996) advocates an Education in which the learning processes would “recruit rather than attempt to ignore and erase the different subjectivities, interests, intentions, commitments, and purposes that students bring to learning” (p. 18). Photography accomplishes this by being a mode with which students can engage their own experience and discourse; offering students a place from which to speak with the power to be heard. It is the unique power o f their voices that will create the strength o f a multimodal curriculum for environmental change.23“We have an ocean flowing through our veins” (David Suzuki, 1997)SECTION 3: MAKING CONNECTIONS THE WONDER OF WATER Main ObjectiveTo provoke students thinking about the importance and the state of water in their community and the world, and what it involves for the future. It is an invitation to teachers and students to explore the magic of water and its wonders on life on Earth. Students will improve a variety of literacy skills, such as writing, reading images, via various modes of meaning making, while at the same time gaining a sense of empowerment by engaging with the world through their own lenses. This program also integrates the principles for organizing and conceptualizing environmental education from the BC Ministry of Education Environmental Learning and Experience: An Interdisciplinary Guide for Teachers. As such, The Wonder o f Water is a cross­curricular program which provides opportunities, inside and outside the classroom, for students to engage in actions that deepen their understanding of complexity, aesthetics, responsibility and ethics for the environment. Multimodal: encourages differentmodes of learningRationale Experiential: action project wherestudents take actions in the community The Wonder of Water contains lessons Spiritual: encourages the developmentand activities to help educators integrate of compassion and respect for all livingthe principles of Education for a and non-living thingsSustainable Development through water Value: encourages students to clarify action projects in the classroom. The and express their own values.United Nations declared 2005-2014 the Connection: encourages students toDecade of Education for Sustainable connect with the community and theDevelopment. Blue Planet aims to Earth by going outdooreducate teachers on the meaning and Multi-dimensional: must include theimportance of teaching for a sustainable socio economic and environmentaldimensions of an issueNetworking: provides opportunities forpositively engage students in sustainable cooperative learningfuture and ways in which they can sitively e a action projectsIt is an interdisciplinary program which uses photography and other technologies to engage students with the world and their writing. The program emphasizes the creation of a community where students have the opportunity to develop a sense of active citizenship with a mutual kind of learning centered on environmental change.The Wonder o f Water adopted an expanded definition of literacy which will give your students the possibility to construct meaning using a variety of semiotic tools, such as visual images through the use of photography, a blog, the creation of a portfolio and an exhibit.3 Adapted from:Learning for a Sustainable Future. (2008). Engaging students in sustainable action projects (Workshop participant guide). Toronto: ON.24Why water?A sustainable future cannot be imagined without taking actions in our daily lives to save our water. There is an increasing focus on quality water management and conservation in order to address the limitations of fresh water availability. At the individual level, each of us has the power to make a change in our water consumptions. The activities contained in Blue Planet will guide you through the different steps necessary to implement a water action project with your students.Education for a Sustainable DevelopmentOne of The Wonder of Water’s goals is to integrate the best practices of Education for a Sustainable Development. Education for a Sustainable Development (ESD) encourages educators, among other principles, to bring students outdoor, to help them connect with Earth and with all living and non-living things using all of our senses.“T H IS  W A TER  C U R R IC U L U M  WAS D E V E L O P E D  O N  T H E  P R E M ISE S  T H A T  A SU ST A IN A B L E  F U T U R E :❖ Recognizes that growth occurs within some limits❖ Values cultural diversity❖ Respects other life forms❖ Works toward some shared values amongst the members of the community❖ Makes decisions and plans in a manner that includes the perspectives from the social, health, economic and environmental sectors of the community❖ Makes best use of local efforts and resources❖ Use renewable sources of energy❖ Fosters activities which use materials in continuous cycles❖ Does not compromise the sustainability of future generations❖ Has a stable, dependable and diversified economic base❖ Provides a range of opportunities for rewarding work❖ Satisfies the basic needs of every one of its members including the opportunity to fill her or his potential4 Adapted from: Richardson, N. (1994). Making our communities sustainable. The central issue is will. Ontario Round Table on Environment and Economy in Readings on Sustainability. Toronto: ON. (21-22)25Instructional Procedures for Effective Education for Sustainable Development5Characteristics ExplanationAboriginalPerspectivesAllowing their holistic worldview could help transform society’s consciousness in relation to the forces of Nature. Looking at how they learned in connection with Earth could help inform Education for a Sustainable Development which also strives to connect students with their environment.InterdisciplinaryLearningLearning integrates knowledge, process and skills from different subject areas (science, math, language arts, visual arts and others).Discovery/InquiryLearningActive and open-ended learning. Students address an issue/problem which requires the application of critical thinking skills. Students investigate and experiment with increasing independence.Strong Values ComponentThe learning experience provides students with specific opportunities to reflect upon and express their own values. Learning is structured so that multiple/complex perspectives are possible.SharedResponsibility for LearningThe learning design requires students to assume some responsibility for deciding what they will leam and how to apply the results of their learning for the benefit of the larger community.Locally Focused LearningThe program provides learning that is made concrete in some way and is relevant to the lives of the learners. The learning activities are locally relevant while also recognizing the global ramifications.Experiential Learning Students leam by participating in authentic experiences that have real consequences. Learning takes place in the real world using real skills and tools to solve real problems.WHY ACTION PROJECTS?Learning through and from action projects engages teachers and students in a form of experiential education, which involves identifying a problem, researching an issue, envisioning solutions, and acting to effect change. Action experiences foster a sense of hope by5 Adapted from: Learning for a Sustainable Future. (2008). Engaging students in sustainable action projects (Workshop participant guide). Toronto: ON.26encouraging students to develop practical skills and strategies for future problem-solving and active citizenship. Students experience first hand that they can make a difference.Action projects:Offer authentic, relevant, meaningful opportunities for learning and for taking responsibility.Create a natural relationship between the people in the school and the wider community.Experiential; cater to different learning styles.The outcomes can have substantial, positive, consequences for all of us.Illuminate the trans-disciplinary and deeply interconnected nature of real problems.Model active citizenship for students and the community and increase likelihood of engaging in future action projects.If involve with being outdoor, it provides students with opportunities to fall in love with Earth.Cultivate skills, knowledge, attitudes necessary for active citizenship.Using the environment as an integrating context for learning has been linked to improved test scores on standard tests.Can help students to learn how to think from a systems perspective and how to appreciate complexity.Action ProjectChoosing an issue that is important to the groupRESEARCHINGThe root causes, multiple perspectives, and myriad stakeholders involved in the issueACTINGCELEBRATINGAs v e  I VHi I -  IREFLECTING^Meaningful engagement of students throughout an entire process61 created this graphic during my work with Learning for a Sustainable Future in January 09.“Children of a culture born in a water-rich environment, we have never really learned how important water is to us. We understand it, but we do not respect it.”William Ashworth, Nor Any Drop to Drink, 1982Goals• Teachers and students will explore the magic of water and its wonders on life on Earth.• Students will be introduced to and researched water issues, the state of water in their community and the world, and what it involves for the future.•  Students will select an issue and make an inform decision on a solution to implement in their community based on an understanding of water issues, personal values, and the values of the members of their community.• Students will become informed, engaged, and empowered citizens able to shape the future of our communities and our global environment in a way that does not compromise future generations.• Students will improve their writing skills and their ability to read images via various modes of meaning making and technologies while at the same time gaining a sense of empowerment by engaging with the world through their own lenses.Material• Folders for all students• Scrapbooks for all students• Pictures (water advertisings, documentaries and snapshots)• Digital Cameras• Computer software to download, organize and print pictures• Printer (preferably in color)•  100% recycled paper to print pictures when necessary• Internet accessPreparation•S Send a letter home to parents to ask permission for students to take pictures of themselves and to bring their digital camera to school when possible S  Create a blog for your students to post and comment on the issues, problems and solutions (see example at s  Make a copy of the various pictures you will need (overheads could also be useful) s  Copy self-evaluation for group work and final project s  Create a poster of terms used in photographyTime FrameTypically 2-3 hours per week for 12 weeks. Tentative schedule:Week# Lesson # THEMES1 1,2 INTRODUCTION TO LTP2-3 3 ,4 ,5 INTRODUCTION TO WATER4-5 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 IMPORTANCE OF WATER & PHOTOGRAPHY6-7 12, 13, 14 LOCAL SOURCES OF WATER8-9 15, 16, 17 SELECTING AN ISSUE & PROJECT10-11 18, 19, 20 PROJECT PLANNING & ACTION12 21 PRESENTATION OF PORTFOLIO12 22 EXHIBIT28AssessmentThis curriculum contains ongoing formative assessment of student’s ability to complete the assigned task in the lessons. The end of project summative assessment is carried out when students have completed all their activities, prepared their portfolio presentation for their peers and teacher, and participated in a community exhibit. The appendix contains examples of evaluation rubrics, a language convention checklist as well as a student self-evaluation fo rm .7Main assessment tools:■ Creation of a portfolio: each student will receive a folder and will be responsible to collect all received material as well as their work.■ Each student will be responsible to imagine and create an exciting format for the presentation of their work (poster board, scrap book, digital scrap book or other computer presentation, video...)‘ format should be discussed with the teacher*■ Develop rubrics and checklists to capture your observations and allow students to assess their own learning.■ Participation in a community exhibit to be organized by the students and the teacherAt the beginning of the unit•  Introduce the unit with time for students to set up a system of note keeping andreflection. Portfolios, journals, notebooks either digital or hardcopy may be used, andintroduce them to the classroom blog if you choose to set one up.• Include the key learning questions of the unit at the beginning of the journals to help direct students’ thinking.During the unit• Provide opportunities for students to write, reflect and organize their journal. Use the reflection questions suggested in the appendix to support students’ thinking.• Schedule time for student teacher conferences to review progress, provide feedback using evaluation criteria.• Design methods of capturing your observations of student learning including use of rubrics (see appendix p. 69) or checklists or anecdotal records.7 This assessment section is adapted from: Learning for a Sustainable Future. (2008). Engaging students in sustainable action projects (Workshop participant guide). Toronto: ON.29Key learning questions for the portfolioStudents will demonstrate in their portfolio their answer to the following questions:1) Why is water important?2) What are some concerns people in your community have about water?3) What are some concerns people outside your community have about water?4) What concerns do you have about water?5) Do you want to make a change related to water issues?6) How do you want to make a change?At the end of the unit:•  Review learning goals and evaluation criteria and reflect with students on their progress.•  Use a variety of evidence of learning including group work products and presentations, anecdotal notes, student journals/portfolios, blog participation and action learning projects.• Use data for feedback to students and for reporting.• Collect samples of student work to use as examples for future years.Sample of Assessment Rubric for Water Issues Action Project (in appendix p.69)Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Self TeacherKnowledge/ UnderstandingDemonstrate knowledge and understanding of water issuesThorough knowledge and understandingConsiderable knowledge and understandingSome knowledge and understandingLimited knowledge and understandingThinking/ InquiryDemonstrate the use of critical and creative thinking skills to make a change on a local issue related to waterThorough knowledge and understandingConsiderable knowledge and understandingSome knowledge and understandingLimited knowledge and understandingApplicationDemonstrate various steps to make a positive change in the communityThorough knowledge and understandingConsiderable knowledge and understandingSome knowledge and understandingLimited knowledge and understandingCommunicationPortfolio, journal, blog participation (spelling, grammar, clarity...)Thorough knowledge and understandingConsiderable knowledge and understandingSome knowledge and understandingLimited knowledge and understandingAlso in appendix: Blue Planet — Assessment Rubric for Mind Map (p. 70)Blue Planet- Magical Water- Features and Conventions of Language (p. 71) Blue Planet- Student Performance Self-Evaluation Form (p. 72)Additional assessment resources:Davies, Anne (2000). Making Classroom Assessment Work. Courtenay BC. Connections Publishing,Heacox, Diane (2002). Differentiating Instruction in the Regular Classroom: How to Reach and Teach all Learners, Grades 3-12. Minneapolis Minn: Free Spirit Publishing.Barton, J., & Collins, A. (Eds.) (1997). Portfolio assessment: A handbook for educators. Menlo Park, CA: Addison-Wesley Publishing30CROSS-CURRICULAR INTEGRATION8Key Concepts of Digital LiteraciesBasic SkillsBe able to open software, sort out and save information on the computer, and other simple skills in using the computer and software.DownloadmmmmmmmsmmMmmmgvmmssmmmBmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmBe able to download different information types from the internetSearch Know about and how to get access to informationNavigate Be able to orient oneself in digital networks such as a blog, learning strategies in using the internetClassify Be able to organize informationIntegrate Be able to promote and put together different types of information related to multimodal textsEvaluate. . . . . . .  C . .l i l l l l  ■ lllllllSBe able to judge the quality, relevance, objectivity and usefulness of the sourcesCommunicate Be able to communicate information and express oneself through different mediational meansCooperateBe able to take part in net-based interactions and learning and take advantage of digital technology to cooperate and be part of different networksCreateBe able to produce and create different forms of content: multimodal texts, photograph... Be able to create something new by using available tools and software8 Developed by:Erstad, O. (2008). Trajectory of remixing: Digital literacies, media production, and schooling, In C. Lankshear, M. Knobel (Eds), Digital literacies: Concepts, policies and practices (pp. 177-202). New York, NY: Peter Lang Publishing Inc.31Curriculum links to the grade 3 Prescribed Learning Outcomes of the British-Columbia Ministry of Education9SOCIAL STUDIESSkills and processes of social studiesCreates a response to a relevant classroom, school or community problem or issueSee theme E (Selecting an issue and an action) & F (Project planning and action)Applies critical thinking skills to selected problems or issuesSee theme E (Selecting an issue and an action) & F (Project planning and action)Gathers information from a variety of sources See theme D (Local sources of water)| GovernanceDescribe how an understanding of personal roles, rights, and responsibilities can affect the wellbeing of the school and communityTheme F (Project planning and action)Human and physical environmentDemonstrate a sense of responsibility for the local environmentMany opportunities throughout the entire programFRENCH LANGUAGE ARTSLanguage and communicationExpresses ideas in various forms (journals, scrap book, online...)Many opportunities throughout the entire programOrganizes information and ideas on a certain subject See theme C (Importance of water and introduction to photography) and theme FAsks questions to obtain information about a given subjectSee theme C (Importance of water and introduction to photography)Collects information and ideas from various sources for a specific purposeSee theme C (Importance of water and introduction to photography) and theme E&FPrepares text for presentation End of project evaluationDemonstrate enhanced vocabulary knowledge and usage of terms used in photographyMany opportunities throughout the entire programUse speaking, listening, and writing to respond, explain, and provide supporting evidence of student’s connections between images and their interpretationsSee theme B (Introduction to water), many other opportunities throughout the entire programUse speaking and listening to interact with others for the purposes of contributing to group success by:Many opportunities throughout the entire program9 Adapted from the adapted and compiled British-Columbia PLOs form of School District 36 (Surrey) updated on September 1,2008.32- improving and contributing to comprehension- generating questions- sharing ideas- staying on topic and ignoring distractions- discussing and analyzing ideas and opinionsWrite a variety of clear, focused personal writing for a range of purposes and audiences that demonstrates connections to personal experiences, ideas, and opinionsMany opportunities on the blog, in their journal and scrap bookCreate meaningful visual representations for a variety of purposes and audiences that communicate a personal response, information, and ideas relevant to the topicSee theme C, many other opportunities on the blog, in their journal and scrap bookUse the features and conventions of language (see appendix page XX for specific criteria) to express meaning in their writingFor the final presentation of their workVISUAL ARTSCreate images based on an issue in their community, using the elements and principles to produce a particular effect and using a variety of materialsSee theme C, many other opportunities on the blog, in their journal, scrap book and final presentation of their workDemonstrate a willingness to display individual and group artworks in a variety of waysSee theme C, many other opportunities on the blog, in their journal, scrap book and final presentation of their workUse feelings, observation, memory and imagination as sources for imagesMany opportunities throughout the programMake 2-D images:using a variety of design strategies exploring a variety of media to communicate experiences, moods and storiesto illustrate and decorate - that engage more than one of the sensesMany opportunities throughout the program(33The Wonder of Water Action Process1. Introduction to Literacy Through Photography2. Introduction to water3. Importance of water & photography4. Local sources of water5. Selecting an issue and an action6. Project planning & action7. Reflect, evaluate & celebrateTEACHING PLAN1 Theme #IIA(Step 1)Topic Objectives/Learning | MaterialsS| Activities \: \iEStudents will understand | *Folders for each student, the objectives of Literacy copies of the program &Introduction to Literacy Through PhotographyThrough Photography (LTP) and develop their visualisation skills.letters for parents to be sent home and signed.*Recommended books on water (see list of suggested reading)S piAssessment|  Students are responsible to keep a record of their work in their portfolio. Online*participation to the blog.| Brainstorm the meaning of LTP with the class; each student receives a folder as a portfolio f containing the program information and group discussion of the criteria for this program. (See 1 appendix p. 47)|  Explore the role of a photographer with the class. Tell the students that as a photographer, they are \ now becoming the recorders of the world, real or imagined. (See lesson plan in appendix p.48)Themef/Jf/W /AB(Step 2) ActivitiesTopic Objectives/Learning \ MaterialsIntroduction to waterOutcomesStudents will developed a sense of aesthetic for water and explore water usage in their everyday life.Assessment/CriteriaE|  Recommended \ Students write freelybooks on water about an image for 3-5I ||  (see list of minutes and keep their\ suggested I writing sample in their| portfolio.\ reading)S34Ii*IVr/JTA\BlogSIt is a good time to organize the classroom blog. You can use and follow the step by step guide that is very simple, offers more possibility but is more complicated. For an example see www.thewonderofwater.blogspot.comFor more information see: Green, D., T., Brown, A., Robinson, L. (2007). Making the Most o f theWeb in Your Classroom: A Teacher's Guide to Blogs, Podcasts, Wikis, Pages, and Sites. Thousand PIOaks, CA: Corwin Press.TIPS:• Keep a class list with students’ usernames and passwords• Book a time at the computer lab to introduce your students to the blog and demonstratehow to log in and post a comment.• You can post the major themes of the lessons on the blog with the questions and have students comment/reflect on them.• Students should also leam to post their images to share them with others.• On my blog I added links to interesting sites link to water and students can surf these tofind out more information.Show your students the water images you have selected from the list of suggested resources and discuss:What does the water feels like? Can you smell the water?What do you hear?OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOORead a story of how water is used around the world and have students write and draw what waterImeans to them.|Ask students: “What kind of water are you like? Describe how you are like this water emotionally \ and physically.”Topic Objectives/Learning \ OutcomesMaterials I Assessment/Criteria(Step 3)ActivitiesImportance of water and photography■Students will understand Digital cameras,why water is so important portfolio,for our lives personally, scrapbook, listregionally, and globally of suggested questions.Students keep their work sample in their portfolio.35y~\!Students write a list of how they use water from the moment they wake up until they get to school. 1 As a group, create a list of 20 ways water is used and post it on your classroom blog.With the aid of a group brainstorm, students will now reflect about water usage in their home and | record the answers in their scrapbook. See appendix p.50 for a list of suggested questions.|With your students discuss some basics of photography such as:Facial expression- Composition (main elements of the photograph)- Framing & Angle- BackgroundFor help on how to teach basic elements of photography see:Ewald, W., & Lightfoot, A. (2001). I  wanna take me a picture: Teaching photography and writing to children. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.Based on their notes from the brainstorm sessions, students create a list of possible photo shots of \ their family interaction with water. (See appendix p.51 for creating a water shot list)V M10Di \| Theme #IUActivitieslIIi iIStudents will take pictures of all the different ways water is used in the everyday life of their family. Students take the pictures and post them on the blog with their comment or they do a collage in their scrapbook.Water usage: FSA6.htm#sustainTopicr/W/M/M/M/M/M/ALocal sources of water| Objectives/LearningP Outcomes11i Students will explore and be able to identify the sources of water for our |  region. Students will be |  able to answer: who gets water; when; and how I much? Students will understand the water1Materials Assessment/Criteria Iissues of greatest concern I to our region.IW/MStudents keep their work sample in their portfolio |  and contribute to the class blog byposting/responding to comments and images.What are the sources of water for our region? (See appendix on p.52 on watersheds and groundwater sources in the Greater Vancouver Area and Metro Vancouver: Use photograph of the watersheds and arrange a fieldtrip to one of your local watershed where students will be able to take pictures.36Detailed lesson plans on the Greater Vancouver Watersheds will be posted and available for %downloading on the blog.YTWho gets water? When? And how much?12|  It costs money to provide the fresh water that you use. How much does it cost for the government |  to get the water to where it is needed? Post this question on the blog.| Cost of water: contnthtmf  Everyone in our watershed affects the amount and quality of fresh water available to others andI the environment. Over 1 billion people in the world do not have proper access to water that isI suitable to drink, bath or wash in.U s13| Jigsaw. Place students into teams and have them research and teach their peers about the water |  issue they most cared about. Water issues of greatest concern to our region: (see appendix p.61) |  (Freshwater available) (Water cycle) (Water & agriculture) (Privatization of water) (Water |  pollution) (Freshwater inflow) (Global warming & water)(Population growth & water)|  See mindmap rubrics at: edmall. gsfc.nasa. gov/webquest/svsmaprub.htm Research project (selecting an issue and an action); internet access; ' markers|  Students will explore and \ Chart paper;| be able to identify and select the action they wish to take while |  considering their own |  values. They will also |  develop and acquireji1 Assessment/Criteria IJwagStudents record theseUresearch skills.*activities with the help of \ photograph and post what \ they have done on the |  classroom blog or in their scrapbook.Uw/w/M/mWhat would you condone? (See lesson plan in appendix p.54)14 | By examining different types of actions students can take, teachers and students can reflect on|  what they personally consider appropriate and inappropriate.IU37e5?Value line activity and 8 issues you care about._  . . .  . . .151617|  Students write things that bother them about water. Draw ideas randomly from a bin and ask |  students to do an imaginary line where one extremity is “I really care” and the other “I don’t |  care”. Choose the 8 most popular issues. Post them around the room and ask students to go to the \ one they are the most interested in, somewhat interested in, and least interested in.t> Classifying project ideas (See appendix p.56)I' . -   ’ •Y|  Research analysis (See appendix p.63)\v/jr/atTheme#T/W/W/MW/MF(Step 6)TopicVM /W /W /M /JT/JT /AAction Research project (Project planning and action)Objectives/Learning j OutcomesStudents will acquire |  skills to plan a project |  and to build skills to make a change.Ur/Mr/.Materials|  activities with the help of photograph and post what \ they have done on the | classroom blog or in their scrapbook.I18 Project planning (see appendix p.64)Activities%/M/,. .t tjj Skill building activities (writing letters, lobbying, telephone skills...) ig  Resources:e£ £Kielburger, M.,Kielburger, C. (2002) Take Action! A Guide to Active Citizenship. Toronto: Gagepa20Learning.Do it!I Reflect, evaluate and celebrate.(see assessment tools appendix p.71-74)^   1This teaching plan was inspired bv:(Step 7) |  Share your experience on the blog and during the exhibit I Celebrate!!! Do not forget to celebrate all the small successes along the way.Ewald, W., Lightfoot, A. (2001). I Wanna Take Me a Picture: Teaching Photography and Writing to Children. Beacon Press: Boston.Learning for a Sustainable Future. (2008). Engaging students in sustainable action projects (Workshop participant guide). Toronto: ON.Proctor, T., Klay, K. (2003-2004). Literacy through photography: Just a drop- water curriculum. Fotofest, TX: Houston.38“Never doubt that a small group o f  thoughtful committed citizens can change the world: indeed i t ’s the only thing that ever has ” (Margaret Mead).SECTION 4: CONCLUSIONIn the first chapter, I asked the following question: how can a multimodal curriculum be adapted to integrate learning for environmental change in the classroom? To answer this question I explored, in the second chapter, what the literature reveals about New Literacies, digital literacies, language and identity and Indigenous knowledge. The third chapter demonstrated how the work in this field can come together to create a powerful interdisciplinary curriculum centred on environmental change.The work in New Literacies discussed the re-articulation of literacy to multiliteracy, a concept which calls for the development of students’ ability to encode and decode meaning in all forms embedded in society (Eisner, 1991; Kress 1997; New London Group, 1996; Van Leeuwen & Jewitt, 2001). Hence, the multimodal curriculum, The Wonder o f  Water, presented in the third chapter, adopted an expanded view o f literacy where meaning is created using a multiplicity of dynamic mediums.The work in language and identity revealed that the use of photography in the classroom can not only offer students the opportunity to gain the right to speech and the power to impose reception (Norton, 2000), but it can also diminish the unequal power distribution between adults and children (Schratz-Hadwich et al., 2004). Hence, one of the goals of The Wonder o f  Water is to let the children speak for themselves; to let them become active observers of the world through their own lenses and to allow writing to flow from their own voices. The Wonder o f  Water also brings the outside world inside the classroom by allowing students to build on prior learning and to engage their social identities outside the classroom (Early, 2008).39Furthermore, the literature supports that digital mediums can be best suited for environmental education. For instance, the inclusion of photography and the creation o f a website are reported to have increased students’ interest and awareness of the environment as well as the amount of time students spent thinking about their ecosystem (Rivet & Schneider, 2004). A main element o f The Wonder o f  Water is also the creation on an ecological art project, using digital mediums. Through their arts students hope to translate ideas into images that will communicate the wonder o f water and influence public perceptions of the Earth’s ecosystems (Matilsky, 1992).The Wonder o f  Water is an interdisciplinary curriculum which demonstrates how the work in New Literacies, digital literacies, language and identity, and Indigenous knowledge can come together to create an empowering learning experience for students, which can enable them to make a change in the world.Spreading the word & future plansThis graduating paper, including the water curriculum The Wonder o f  Water, will be made available in French and English on a website that is currently under construction. Teachers will be able to download the curriculum, as well as all the appendices, which include lesson plans, students’ worksheets, assessment rubrics, and additional resources. The material will also be available in a CD-Rom format. In addition, a link to my classroom blog will be created on the website in order for teachers to see an example of an environmental blog used in a classroom setting. Meanwhile, educators can download The Wonder o f  Water, in French and English on my class blog at The Wonder o f  Water has been submitted to the organization of Learning for a Sustainable Future in order to make it available live on their online Resources fo r  Rethinking database, which can be found at .40Negotiations are also taking place with the Blue Planet Run Foundation to include the curriculum on their Teaching Corner’s and Education Action Kit.Globally, The Wonder o f  Water was created with the view that a collaboration between a BC elementary school and a school in a developing country, on a common sustainable development project using digital literacies, would be established. To achieve this, my students will raise funds to finance a similar digital project in a developing country that is currently under negotiation. They will do this by organizing a local art gallery, which will take place in a community centre, and they will send an open invitation through our classroom blog, Facebook and emails. Their work will be sold through an auction that will take place during the exhibit. By raising funds to support a digital program in a developing country, the students hope to help the youth sell their work on a global market, via the internet, and to enable this community to not only be able to finance a clean water project but also to gain the necessary competence to take advantage o f the opportunities offered by digital mediums. As such, The Wonder o f  Water is currently under review for the Canadian Ecohealth Training and Awards Program, in order to help further finance its local and global implementation. The details and processes of this on­going project will be available live on the blog.Finally, the students and community members who are part of this program are a small group of citizens who, by educating the people, will create a spiral effect and contribute to changing society’s consciousness on water usage and the importance o f fresh available water for the sustainability of humanity. By making this project available online in French and English it will promote a wider global cooperation that could improve the state of our worlds’ water. I look forward to other people of the world to contribute to this project with their knowledge of the Earth’s ecosystems, especially in regard to water.41ReferencesBattiste, M. (2002). Maintaining aboriginal identity, language, and culture in modem society. In M. Battiste (Ed.), Reclaiming indigenous voice and vision (pp. 192-208). Vancouver: University o f British Colombia Press.Bawden, D. (2008). Origins and concepts of digital literacies. In C. Lankshear, M. Knobel (Eds), Digital literacies: Concepts, policies and practices (pp. 17-32). New York, NY: Peter Lang Publishing Inc.Buckingham, D. (2008). Defining digital literacy: What do young people know about digital media? In C. Lankshear, M. Knobel (Eds), Digital literacies: Concepts, policies and practices (pp.73-89). New York, NY: Peter Lang Publishing Inc.Cajete, G. (2002). Indigenous knowledge: The pueblo metaphor o f indigenous education. In M. Battiste (Ed.), Reclaiming indigenous voice and vision (pp. 192-208). Vancouver: University of British Colombia Press.Cappello, M., Hollingsworth, S. (2008) Literacy inquiry and pedagogy through a photographic lens. Language Arts, 85(6), 442-449.Cummins, J. (2006). Identity texts: The imaginative construction o f self through multiliteracies pedagogy. In O. Garcia, T. Skutnabb-Kangas, & M. Torres-Guzman, (Eds), Imagining multilingual schools: Language in education and glocalization. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.Early, M. (2008). From literacy to multiliteracies: implications for lifelong learning and work. In D. W. Livingstone, K. Mirchandani & P. S. Sawchuk (Eds), The future o f lifelong learning and work. Toronto. Sense Publishers.Eisner, E. W. (1991) Rethinking literacy. Educational Horizons, 69 (3), 120-128.42Erstad, O. (2008). Trajectory of remixing: Digital literacies, media production, and schooling. In C. Lankshear, M. Knobel (Eds), Digital literacies: Concepts, policies and practices (pp. 177-202). New York, NY: Peter Lang Publishing Inc.Eshet, Y. (2002). Digital literacy: A new terminology framework and its application to thedesign of meaningful technology-based learning environments. In P. Barker, S. Rebelsky (Eds), Proceedings o f  the World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunication (pp.493-498). Chesapeake, VA: AACE.Ewald, W., Lightfoot, A. (2001). I  wanna take me a picture: Teaching photography and writing to children. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.Gilster, P. (1997). Digital literacy. New York, NY: Wiley.Hare, J. (2005). To "know papers": Aboriginal perspectives on literacy. In J. Anderson,M. Kendrick, T. Rogers & S. Smythe (Eds.), Portraits o f  literacy across families, communities and schools (pp. 243-263). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Harste, J., Woodward, V., & Burke, C. (1984). Language stories and literacy lessons. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.Henderson, J. (2002). The context of the state of nature. In M. Battiste (Ed.), Reclaimingindigenous voice and vision (pp. 11-38). Vancouver: University o f British Colombia Press.Kendrick, M., Jones, S., Mutonyi, H., & Norton, B. (2006). Using drawing,photography, and drama to enhance students' English language learning in Uganda.In M. Dantas-Whitney (Ed.), Authenticity in the Language Classroom and Beyond: Children and Adolescent Learners. Alexandria, VA: TESOL.Kendrick, M. Jones, S. (2008). Girls' Visual Representations of Literacy in a Rural Ugandan Community. Canadian Journal o f  Education, 31 (2), 371-404.43Kress, G. (1997). Before writing: rethinking the paths to literacy. London, UK: Routledge.Lankshere C., Knobel, M. (2008). Digital literacies: Concepts, policies and practices. InC. Lankshear, M. Knobel (Eds), Digital literacies: Concepts, policies and practices (pp. 1-15). New York, NY: Peter Lang Publishing Inc.Learning for a Sustainable Future, (n.d.). Retrieved November 17, 2008, from http://www.lsf-, S., Streatfield, D. (2007). Three decades of information literacy: Redefining theparameters. In S. Andretta (Ed.), Change and challenge: Information literacy fo r  the 21st century (pp. 15-36). Adelaide, AU: Auslib Press.Matilsky, B. (1992). Fragile ecologies: contemporary artist’s interpretations and solutions. New York, NY: Rizzoli International Publications.Nair, P., Fielding, R. (2005). The language o f  school design: Design patterns fo r  21st century schools. Minneapolis, MN: DesignShare.New London Group (2000). A pedagogy of multiliteracies: Designing social futures. In B. Cope & M. Kalantzis (Eds.), Multiliteracies: Learning and the design o f  social futures (pp. 9-37). London, UK: Routledge.New London Group. (1996). A pedagogy of multiliteracies: Designing social futures.Harvard Educational Review, 66(1), 60-92.Norton, B. (in press) Identity, literacy, and English language teaching. Conference proceedings, LATEFL 2009, Cardiff, UK.Norton, B. (2000). Identity and language learning: Gender, ethnicity and educational change. Harlow, England: Longman/Pearson Education.44Orr, D. (1992). Ecological literacy: Education and the transition to a postmodern World. New York: State University of New York.Pesco, D., Crago, M. (2008). Language socialization in Canadian aboriginal communities. In Encyclopedia o f  language and education (Vol. 8, pp. 273-285). New York, NY: Kluwer Academic.Potts, D. (2005). Pedagogy, Purpose, and the Second Language Learner in On-Line Communities. Canadian Modern Language Review, 62 (1), 137-60.Rivet, A., Schneider, R. (2004) Exploring the role of digital photography to enhancestudent inquiry in a local ecosystem. Journal o f  Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 23(1), 47-65.Rogoff, B. (2003). The cultural nature o f  human development. New York: OxfordUniversity Press. Chapter 7: Thinking with the tools and institutions of culture (pp. 236-281).Schratz-Hadwich, B., Walker, R., Egg, P. (2004) Photo evaluation: a participatory ethnographi research and evaluation tool in child care and education. Paper for the AARE, Melbourne.Suzuki, D. (1997) The sacred balance: Rediscovering our place in nature. Vancouver, Toronto: Greystone Books.Swanson, D.M. (2008). Breaking silences. In. D. T. Jacobs (Ed.), The authenticdissertation: Alternative ways o f knowing, research and representation. London: Routledge.United Nation Decade for Education for Sustainable Development, (n.d.). Retrieved December 9, 2008, from Leeuwen, T. Jewitt, C. (2001) Handbook o f  visual analysis. London: Sage Publications.Vygotsky, L. (1978) Mind in society: The development o f  higher psychological processes.Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Weedon, C. (1987). Feminist practice and poststructuralist theory. London, UK: Blackwell.46Preparation■ Folders for each student■ Copy of the program for each student■ Letter for parents to be sent home and signedObjectives> Students will understand the objectives of Literacy Through Photography (LTP) and develop their visualisation skills.Introduction1. In teams, students discuss what they th ink LTP means.2. Brainstorm of the meaning with the class and teacher explains what LTP means. Literacy Through Photography means th a t students writing will be inspired through their own lens using photography.3. Each student receives a folder containing the program information and reads it w ith a partner. Together they highlight questions they have.4. Come to a group and answer the questions as you read the program as a whole class.Closure5. Students will receive a le tter to bring home and to be signed by parents.Assessment❖ Students are to keep their work in their folder.47Preparation■ Select a book on water suited for a visualisation activity [ Objectives> Students will develop their visualisation skillsIntroduction1. Brainstorm  with your students what they th ink  the role of a photographer is.2. Tell the students th a t as a photographer, they are now becoming the recordersof the world, real or imagined.Activity3. Divide the book you have selected into appropriate sections (2 for easy level, 4 for medium level, 6 for hard level) and cover the front page so the artwork can’t  be seen. Read the first section and send the students off to pretend they are photographers and encourage them to draw photographically as if they had been there and seen the events unfold. Give them  a time limit (5-10 minutes) and repeat depending on the number of sections in which you have divided the story.Closure4. Share the pictures w ith the class.5. Using a digital camera, have your students act out scenes they chose. P rin t the pictures out and they have their own picture book.Assessment❖ Students are to keep their work in their folder.48THINKING LIKE A PHOTOGRAPHERoHow much water does your family use? How, when, and where do they use water?What time of day does your family use the most water? Think of three ways your family uses too much water.Which family members would you like to photograph together with water? Where?What kinds of things float in water? What does it feel like to float in water? Where do you float in water?What are the things your entire family does together that involve water?Where do you put yourself in a picture with water?Who else is part of your family that uses water? Your grandparents? A close friend or neighbour? An aunt or uncle? The dog or cat? How, where, and when do they use water?Who do you depend on to provide water in your home and to take you to water? How would you show that in a photograph?Does water make you mad? Does water make you smile> Why or why not?Do you have family traditions or stories that make your family unique that involve water?What do you wish your family could do or learn to do in or on the water?Did you or one of your relatives travel over water to live in Canada? Who? How far? What body of water was travelled over?Just a Drop Water Curriculum50Where will you take the picture?What will be the source of water in the picture?What do you want to show the viewer about water?Who will be sitting, standing, touching, in, near, or interacting with the water? Will the water be clean, dirty, soapy, fresh, etc.?Will they be inside or outside?Will there be animals, plants or people in the photograph?What is the background?What do you want the viewer to think of when they see the photograph?Ju s t a Drop Water Curriculum51CapilanoVancouver draws its drinking water from reservoirs in the Capilano, Seymour, and Coquitlam watersheds. Pipelines distribute these waters throughout the Vancouver area. Landslides in the watersheds are natural phenomena that usually occur during heavy rains, exposing soil to erosion. This allows mud to wash into reservoirs where it enters the water system. While cloudy water is not itself a health risk, silt and clay can reduce the ability of chlorine to kill bacteria and other microorganisms. Natural phenomena, such as wildfires, or poor forestry practices can also increase the incidence of landslides within B.C.'s mountainous areas.11 Retrieved from e.php52Groundwater is a h idden, often fo rgo tten  resource, ye t it meets abou t ha lf o f the to ta l w a te r needs o f areas not served by the  North Shore reservoirs. G roundwater is supplied from  over 10 000 wells in the Fraser Valley. Most of these are small household wells, bu t some high-yield wells support large communities and industries. G roundwater quality  in many areas has been deg raded  by fertilizers, pesticides, septic fie ld  effluent, farm  animal waste, and industrial chem icals. This carelessness results, perhaps, from  the a ttitude  "out o f sight, ou t o f mind".Groundwater in the Vancouver area occurs in two main types of materials - modem and Ice Age sands and gravels, and fractured bedrock. The water is stored in pores between grains in sediments and in fractures in bedrock.22 Retrieved from e.oho53MaterialWhite board MarkersA copy of the chart on the following pageObjectivesBy examining different types of actions students can take, teachers and students can reflect on what they personally consider appropriate and inappropriate.I Introduction■ On the board, create a Venn diagram using two large, overlapping circles. In one large circle, write “would not condone” and in the other, write “would condone”. The overlapping section in the centre of the diagram is for the actions you are not certain about.Activity■ Read each student action listed below. Discuss the student action and decide if you would condone the student action described taking place in/ from your school.■ Write the number of the activity in the corresponding area of the Venn Diagram.ClosureAfter you have placed all of the action numbers in the appropriate places on the diagram, look a t the overall pattern  on your diagram. Discuss the results (for example: What types of action are supported? Are they effective in making a change? What types of action are not supported? Is there a pair of activities in which the action is quite sim ilar but the topic is different, resulting in one action being condoned and the other not?).Assessment❖ Students are to keep their work in their folder.Adapted from: Learning for a Sustainable Future. (2008). Engaging Students in Sustainable Action Projects. Toronto, ON; Learning for a Sustainable Future.54i H "  STUDENT ACTION1 Students follow a local election in all its stages, interviewing voters in their community and attending local election meetings to raise awareness about the impact low-paying jobs have on working families.2 Students host a  press conference to alert the community about a by-law th a t is about to be passed th a t would make it  easier to convert farm land to commercial property.3 After learning th a t a new, heavy-polluting industry is hoping to come to their community, students create a campaign to urge fellow students to write letters to government to prevent the company from setting up shop in their community.rF rustrated  th a t the car traffic outside of the school is polluting the air, students create a campaign to educate motorists about the negative effects of idling the ir cars.5 S tud en ts  choose a heav ily -packaged  toy and  w rite  to  th e  company to te ll th e  company executives th a t  th ey  w ill no t buy  th e  toy  u n til th e  packag ing  is m inim ized. The s tu d en ts  actively  encourage o th e r  people to  boycott th e  toys th rough  a  le tte r  to  th e  ed ito r and  po ste rs  a t  school.6 Students organize a fundraiser to raise money for an  organization th a t promotes fairly-traded products. . . .7 Sttidehts engage in a letter-w riting campaign to local newspaper and radio stations to ask them not to advertise a new film which the students deem to be too violent.8 Students create and mount a  play th a t illustrates how the low wages paid to workers in a South American country indirectly accelerate the destruction of the rainforest. A branch of the multinational company in  question employs many of the students’ parents.9 Students host a press conference to raise awareness about the work they are doing to combat racism in their community.10W m11Students create a brochure and distribute it  in  the community to alert local residents about the impact household chemicals can have on the local creek.After learning th a t a local company sells goods created in sweatshops in poor countries, students mount a sit-down protest a t the school gates to stop an exhibitor from the company from participating in the school career fair.12N tStudents create a  survey to find out what teachers would need to have an “outdoor classroom” in order to use it  well. Students then  lobby the school board and the paren t council to provide funds to build the outdoor classroom. Students even suggest th a t money should be taken  out of other budgets like the library and the phys.ed budget to ensure th a t the outdoor classroom is built.13 After learning about the health  risk associated w ith pesticides, students write an open letter to the school board and have it published in a local paper, asking tha t pesticides no longer be used on their schoolyard.From: Learning for a Sustainable Future. (2008). Engaging Students in Sustainable ActionProjects. Toronto, ON: Learning for a Sustainable Future.55TYPES OF ACTION PROJECTS3Educate & InformThis can involve educating peers or younger students about water issues in your area, community education programs, newspaper articles, plays, poems, posters, advertisements, workshops etc.Make Consumer ChoicesPersonal decisions like refusing to buy items with more than one layer of packaging, buying toilets with smaller tanks, buying Canadian made and locally grown products, buying organic, boycotting products produced by known operators of sweatshops, buying used, reducing consumption etc.Make Lifestyle ChoicesThis category includes such decisions that are not related to making purchases (those decisions are called ‘consumer choices’). These choices may include:- using low water flow showerheads- reducing the amount of water used to flush your toilet by placing a brick in your current tank- turning the tap off when brushing your teeth- generally conducting one’s life in ways which have less impact on the planet and are more sustainable in the long term.Persuade Others To...Similar to educate and inform, this approach attempts to convince people to make changes. Letters to the editor, PA announcements, advertisements (or anti-ads -  see Adbusters’ website), pamphlets, street theatre etc. are all useful persuasion tools).Raise FundsThis can refer either to fundraising for an external cause or raising funds to implement your own project.3 Learning for a Sustainable Future. (2008). Engaging students in sustainable action projects (Workshop participant guide). Toronto: ON.56Engage in Political ActionThis can include meeting with elected officials, speaking at public meetings and hearings, circulating petitions, supporting political candidates, writing letters to the editor etc. Often, this type of action is geared toward achieving changes in legislation.Eco-management ProjectsThese projects make physical changes to the environment including schoolyard naturalization, tree planting, river bank stabilization etc. They may also include other types of ‘get-your-hands-dirty’ type projects like installing water-saving tap aerators.Civil Disobedience and Peaceful DissentCivil disobedience involves the active refusal to obey certain laws, demands and commands of a government or of an occupying power without resorting to physical violence.Examples:• Rosa Parks sitting in the “white” section of the bus• Draft dodgers—people who avoid serving military service•  “Tresspassers” who “sit in” an office without permission to attract attention to an issuePeaceful Dissent is similar in that it involves opposition to a rule or to the usual way of doing things, but it does not involve breaking the law. Examples of peaceful dissent include: parades with protest signs, gatherings in public places (with a permit), wearing gym clothing inside out to protest the use of sweatshop labour, etc.57EXAMPLES OF ACTION PROJECTS—FOCUS ON WATER1. Students were concerned when they learned that 2/3 of the world's population will not have access to clean water as of 2025. Students created a compelling audio/visual presentation to play over-and-over again in the foyer of the school during events in which the community was already invited to the school (eg. parent-teacher interviews, holiday concert, etc.). In addition, students identified several non-profit organizations that work to help people throughout the world gain access to clean water. The students printed information from the non-profit organizations to have available for members of the public to take home if they wanted to learn more after seeing/hearing the students' presentation.2. Several families a t this local school were dealing with low water levels in their household wells. Students began to ask questions about where the local beverage company was getting the water to make the bottled beverages. Students explored these questions with the local municipal government and conservation authority. Then the students wrote an article about what they learned and their concerns. They searched for diverse venues in which to share the article, including: the local newspaper, the school website, the community bulletin board a t the library, etc.3. Students learned that 75% of India's surface water and 80% of China's surface water has become too contaminated to drink. The students decided to find out what chemicals in their own homes were contaminating their local bodies of water. When students learned that many cleaning products were the culprits, they decided to lead a campaign in their own homes to reduce the use of commercial cleaning products. The students promised that for three weeks, they would offer to clean anything appropriate with baking soda and vinegar instead of the cleaning product their family usually used. At the end of the campaign, students shared stories about which tasks could continue to be done using baking soda and vinegar and which tasks their families were opting to switch back to the commercial cleaner.584. When researching water issues on the internet, students learned about peoples' concerns in India related to a particular pop company's practices a t their bottling plants in India (for example, the pop company is accused of using up ground water supplies in drought-stricken areas, making beverages from water that has high levels of pesticides in it, producing hazardous waste and not disposing of it properly, etc.).Students decided that they wanted to find out which products in their local stores were sold by the particular pop company they were studying. Then, the students made individual personal pledges to reduce or eliminate their own consumption of the pop products for a two week period. Many of the students decided to continue their personal avoidance of the specific pop products indefinitely.5. At a local conference, some students learned about a nonprofit organization that supports park and 'turf' managers to manage lawns and gardens without the use of pesticides ( The students were concerned when they learned about the persistence of pesticide chemicals in the water system. The students decided to contact the parks manager for their municipality and the greens keepers for two local golf courses. They prepared a list of questions to ask the managers via email concerning their use of pesticides. Once the students ascertained that pesticides were indeed being used, they requested a meeting a t which they tried to persuade the managers to seek the support of the nonprofit organic greens- keeping organization. When one of the managers agreed to do this, the students wrote a letter to the editor of the local newspaper thanking the manager for her openness and forward-thinking approach (and reporting the lack of action by the other two managers).6. A group of students designed an audit that they used to analyse the litter found in a local river. They identified the types of litter they found most frequently and the probable sources of the litter. The students then did research to pinpoint some of the potential negative consequences of having the most populous types of litter in the river. Once equipped with compelling and specific information about the litter, the students wrote letters to the businesses that were originally responsible for the litter to ask them to consider alternative types of packaging for their products (eg. biodegradable packaging, reusable containers, etc.). The students learned how to identify the person a t the companies that would be most likely to constructively respond to their requests. They also experimented59with contacting more than one department a t a particular company to see what types of responses they would get from the different employees.7. One student watched a television program in which she learned that poor sanitation systems can lead to outbreaks of waterborne diseases such as cholera. She was particularly concerned about the cholera epidemic in Zimbabwe. The student shared this information with her classmates; the classmates felt compelled to act. In small groups, the students researched different organizations that help financially poor communities to build safe sanitation systems to protect the quality of the drinking water. The teacher helped the students to generate a list of criteria to use to decide upon an organization to which they should donate funds. After choosing an organization to support, the students then researched different types of fundraising opportunities. They chose to sell compact fluorescent light bulbs to raise funds for the water charity through A guest speaker visited a grade eight class and told them about a number of countries in the world where the countries are being forced to sell household tap water distribution system to private companies (the International Monetary Fund often stipulates that certain public services must be privatized in order for the country to qualify for financial loans). Students were angered by the difficult and often tragic position in which this puts financially poor families in cities like La Paz, Bolivia. The students were also moved to try to protect their own municipal water supply. In an effort to try to get members of their community to better appreciate tap water and to reduce the waste associated with plastic water bottles, the students sold stainless steel water bottles ( at school sporting events and gave away free fill-ups of tap  water to people who bought the water bottles. The profits that they made were donated to a nonprofit organization that promotes the protection of public rights to water (http://www.canadians.ora/).Facts from speech by Maude Barlow, Senior Advisor on Water Issues to the President of the General Assembly of the United Nationshttp://video, aooale. ca/videoolav?docid=-2452563840429862970 viewed January 3rd, 2009.60PreparationChart paper separated in four sections w ith a square a t the centre to write the water issue being researched. In  each section write the following questions:1) What is the w ater issue th a t bothers you? Write details and examples.2) Who is involved in this problem? Name as many people/ organizations as possible.3) How could this situation be different? What are other options th a t would be better for the environment?4) What else do you w ant to know about this w ater issue?ObjectivesIn groups of 4, students write as much as they know about their issue as well as their own questions about the issue on the chart paper. The questions are then numbered and students decide on the best way to find the answers before conducting the research.Introduction6. Write the questions or the board so th a t you can model the answers and ask for suggestions to check for student understanding before they work in their small group.Activity7. At the same time each student writes one answer to the question th a t is on front of them on the chart paper. When they are ready they move around so th a t they are facing a new question. Each student should have a chance to read, add to and contribute to all of the questions.8. W ith the whole class, the teacher reviews the answers and creates a list of “what else do you want to know”.Closure9. Students select 1-2 questions and are provided with a list of possible sources of information. As they gather information, they write notes on the page with the associated question and note where they found the information.Assessment❖ Students are to keep their work in their folder.❖Adapted from: Learning for a Sustainable Future. (2008). Engaging Students in  Sustainable Action Projects. Toronto, ON: Learning for a Sustainable Future.61PreparationYour own mind map to share w ith the students or build one together about a concept they already know well.| ObjectivesTo build a model mind map representing what they have learned from their research.Introduction10. Students draw a circle in the middle of a page. Students write in words/pictures/drawing to describe their issue.Activity11. Students write/draw/picture around the circle the various things they have learned about the issue.12. In  pair, students explain their mind map to each other and listen to suggestions from their partner.Closure13. Students revise their mind map based on the feedback they received from their partners.Assessment❖ See mind map rubricAdapted from: Learning for a Sustainable Future. (2008). Engaging Students in Sustainable Action Projects. Toronto, ON: Learning for a Sustainable Future.63Project Planning 1ResponsibilityTeam members1. Name the water issue you are working on:2. Why do you care about this issue?1. Name the water issue you are working on:2. Why do you care about this issue?Project Planning 23. Color the type of action you will take to deal with this water issue and describe the action you will take to make it better.Type of action Describe the action you will takeEducate & Inform the community membersConvince people to make a change Fundraising Get involve in political actions Make personal lifestyle choices Make better consumer choices when buying things Get your hands dirty projectsType of actionEducate & Inform the community membersConvince people to make a changeGet involve in political actionsMake personal lifestyle choicesMake better consumer choices when buying thingsI. Why did you choose this particular action?-oo. Evidence that you have made progress towards our goal.O)cccEnd of project evaluation (complete in small groups or with the class)Assessment Rubric for Water Issues Action Project Name:Date:__________________________________Teacher AssmtSelf AssmtLevel 4Limited knowledge and understandingLimited knowledge and understandingLimited knowledge and understandingLimited knowledge and understandingLevel 3Someknowledge and understandingSomeknowledge and understandingSomeknowledge and understandingSomeknowledge and understandingConsiderable knowledge and understandingConsiderable knowledge and understandingConsiderable knowledge and understandingConsiderable knowledge and understandingLevel 1Thorough knowledge and understandingThorough knowledge and understandingThorough knowledge and understandingThorough knowledge and understandingKnowledge/UnderstandingDemonstrate knowledge and understanding of water issuesThinking/ InquiryDemonstrate the use of critical and creative thinking skills to make a change on a local issue related to waterApplicationDemonstrate various steps to make a positive change in the communityCommunicationPortfolio, journal, blog participation (spelling, grammar, clarity...)Assessment Rubric for Mind Map Name: a>* -*mnDTeacher AssmtSelf AssmtLevel 4Diagram shows limited understandin g of the manyconsequenc es of the issueDiagram shows limited understandin g ofrelationshipsInformationis communicat ed with limited effectivenessLevel 3Diagram shows some understandin g of the manyconsequenc es of the issueDiagram shows some understandin g ofrelationshipsInformationis communicated somewhateffectivelyLevel 2Diagram shows good understandin g of the manyconsequenc es of the issueDiagram shows good understandin g ofrelationshipsInformationis communicated effectivelyLevel 1Diagram shows an excellent understandin g of many consequenc es of the issueDiagram shows an excellent understandin g ofrelationshipsInformationis communicat ed with excellent effectivenessKnowledge/UnderstandingReflect understanding of multiple dimensions of the issue (economic, politic, environmental)Thinking/ InquiryDemonstrate an understanding of how the multiple dimensions are interconnectedCommunication• Language conventions• Use of images to convey informationor--The student written work has:■ A central idea or theme O■ Well organized and developed ideas (fluency, details, explanations...) □■ A personal and engaging/expressive voice □■ The development of ideas by making connections to personal feelings, experiences, opinions, and information □■ Effective word choice (precise nouns, powerful verbs and adjectives) ^■ Write simple sentences using appropriate punctuation such as capital letters and periods ^■ Accuracy in spelling ^■ Identifies and corrects frequent Anglicism ^■ Legible writing appropriate to context and purpose □71Student Performance Self-Evaluation FormName: Date:Seldom Sometimes OftenHI contributed ideas to the classroom discussion TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTII contributed ideas in our small group discussion IjI listened and respected the ideas of others| !TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT!I helped make decisions and solve problemsI jI took risk by exploring things that are new to me|I1) What is the most interesting thing about what I did today?2) What was positive?3) What was negative?4) What I have learned?5) Questions I have:72WebsitesAlberta Council for Environmental Education:www.abcee.ora/Alberta Education:www,education,gov, International Activist Toolkit:h ttp ://www.amnestyusa,ora/activist toolkit/index,htmlAustralia Educating for a Sustainable National Environmental Education Sustainability Education:www.environment, Ministry of Education:www,gov.bc,ca/bvprd/bc/channel,do?action=ministrv&channellD=8382&navld =NAV ID province California Education and the Environment Initiative: Environmental Education Interagency Network (CEEIN) Regional Environmental Education Community:www.creec.ora/California School Waste Management Education and for Young People's Rights Editor: Roland Case Taking it Global Action Guide: http://www.takingitalobal.ora/action/auide/Guide to Action.pdfFinland's Ministry of Education: A national strategy and guidelines 2006-2014 for education for sustainable Min of Educ strategy for sust dev.pdfFreechild Project: http://www.freechild.ora/73Ireland Department of Education and,ie/home/home.isp?pcategorv=27173&ecategrv=27173&lanauaae=ENIsrael Ministry of Education:http://cms. education, gov, il/educationcms/units/owl/english/about/ministrv+stru cture.htmMaking a Commitment Matter Toolkit UN: to We Teacher Resources: resources.htmlMillennium Campaign: http://www.millenniumcampaian.orgMinnesota A GreenPrint for d.cfmMinnesota Capacity Building for EE in Minnesota: An f.cfmMinnesota Environmental Education Advisory i.cfmMinnesota Environmental Literacy Scope and c.cfmMinnesota Office of Environmental SEEK: Minnesota's interactive directory of EE The Second Minnesota Report Card on Environmental b.cfmNew Zealand Environmental Education in the v l /sci-nzc.pdfNew Zealand Parliamentary Commission on the Zealand: See Change: Learning and education for 877274 56 9.shtmlEnvironmental Educationand ed/Passons a I'action pour I'environnement: L'Eau FSA6.htmPeace Child: http://www.peacechild.ora/Poverty toolkit: 9755/miscdocs/povertv toolkit final,pdfQuebec Ministry of Education, Recreation and enalis.htmState Education and Environment Roundtable The EIC Model - Using the environment as an integrating Context for improved student learning:www, Ministry of Education and Research:www.Sweden.aov,se/sb/d/2063UK Every Child Matters:www.everychildmatters,aov.ukUK Learning Outside the Classroom /UK Sustainable Schools National detail.cfm UK Sustainable Schools Youth Congress Toolkit: United for Global Action:http://www.planusa.ora/contentmar/showdetails.php/id/216675Suggested readingsBeneath Their Blue, Blue Skins, (nv) Spaceships & Spells, ed. Jane Yolen, Martin H. Greenberg & Charles G. Wauah. Harper & Row 1987Kielburger, M.,Kielburger, C. (2002) Take Action! A Guide to Active Citizenship. Toronto: Gage Learning.Active Citizenship: Student Action Projects Roland Case, Cliff Falk, Neil Smith and Walt Werner76


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