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Le Pharaon est Mort : creating a graphic novel for grade seven French immersion social studies and French… Cormack, Mark Charles Aug 31, 2010

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LE PHARAON EST MORT: CREATING A GRAPHIC NOVEL FOR GRADE SEVEN FRENCH IMMERSION SOCIAL STUDIES AND FRENCH LANGUAGE ARTSbyMark Charles CormackB.Ed. University o f British Columbia, 2008 B. A. University of Victoria, 2007 A GRADUATING PAPER SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFUILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF EDUCATION InTHE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Language and Literacy EducationWe accept this major paper as conforming to the required standardTHE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIAAugust 2010 © Mark Charles Cormack, 2010ABSTRACTDue the difference between the language ability and cognitive level o f most Grade seven French immersion students and the availability o f language level appropriate material, many students experience difficulty in social studies and do not fully benefit from their experience. Le pharaon est mort (Cormack & Lindberg, in progress) is a cross-curricular resource based on a graphic novel set in ancient Egypt. This graphic novel format offers the reader visual support to the text, develops visual and multimodal literacy skills and contextualises historical elements by presenting them as part o f a visual story. The format can also encourage interest which, in turn, promotes comprehension and interest in further reading. The accompanying lessons help teach students how to read graphic novels and encourage interaction with the visual, textual and historic elements of the graphic novel. Le pharaon est mort offers an interesting, accessible supplement to the ancient civilisation element of the Grade seven social studies curriculum.TABLE OF CONTENTSAbstract...........................................................................................................................   iiTable o f contents..............................................................     iüAcknowledgements  .................i......................................................................................................vSECTION 1 : INTRODUCTION  ...............................................    1SECTION 2: LITERATURE REVIEW................................................................................................. 2History of the graphic novel and its use in the classroom....................   2Motivation and engagement with graphic novels..............................................................   6Graphic novels and reading comprehension...............................................................................8Graphic novels and multiple literacies.............................................. 11Accessibility o f textbooks in French immersion.....................................................................14Summary  ................................................   .16SECTION 3: LE PHARAON EST MORT..................................................   17The writing process.............................................................................   17SECTION 4: LINKS TO PRACTICE........................    22SECTION 5: CONCLUSION................................................................... ............................................ 26REFERENCES................     27APPENDICES............................................................     31Appendix 1 : Curriculum Links to the British Columbia Ministry o f Education Grade 7jPrescribed Learning Outcomes..........................................................................   31Appendix 2: Teaching Plan.........................................................................................................33Appendix 3 : Plot o f Le pharaon est mort............................................................................... 35Appendix 4 : Sample script for storyboard o f the first chapter............................................ 38Appendix 5: Progression of concept art....................................................................................42Appendix 6 : Introduction aux bandes dessinées.................................................................... 47Appendix 7 : Classification des bandes dessinées.........................................  48Appendix 8 : Introduction aux conventions de la bande dessinée  ............................49Appendix 9 : Powerpoint presentation for lesson 2 : Introduction aux conventions de latbande dessinée.  ...........................................    50Appendix 10 : Les conventions des bandes dessinées........................................................... 54Appendix 11 : Les mots et les images.....................................................................................55Appendix 12 : Le texte et l ’image...................... 56Appendix 13 : Chapter questions............................................................................................. 58Appendix 14 : Les cercles de lecture..................................................: .................................... 69Appendix 15 : Literature circle worksheets............................................ !................................70Appendix 16 : Literature circle self-evaluation.......................................................................74Appendix 17 : Les projets finaux.........................  75I would like to thank everyone who has helped along the way to make my journey possible. Thank you to Monique Boumot-Trites for having given me the opportunity to pursue my master’s degree and to Wendy Carr for her guidance through the writing process o f this paper. I would like to say a particular thank you to Tyler Lindberg, the artist and co-writer of our graphic novel, without whom, it would never come to fruition. I wish to also acknowledge my mother, the strongest person I know. Most importantly, I would like to thank my wife Karen for her incredible support over the past years.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSvSECTION 1: INTRODUCTIONMy uncle, a retired teacher and principal, asked me recently if  I had a strong memory of the Grade seven social studies curriculum of ancient worlds. After some thought, I replied that not much had stuck with me. According to him, most former French Immersion students he asked gave a similar answer while former students in the English stream remembered a rich discovery o f a fantastic world, long disappeared. The reasons could be many, but teaching social studies and history in particular, at the intermediate level made me aware o f the difficulty French immersion students have retrieving information from their textbooks. Students in Grade seven tend to have little trouble reading aloud from their textbooks but, because the language level is often beyond their capacities, they struggle with understanding what the text says. As a result, the teacher must then explain to the class what the passage was about. In this case, the textbook serves as a starting point for the teacher’s lesson, but the students do not necessarily learn from the text.I had often thought o f different means to increase student motivation in reading and learning, but the idea for this project came from a discussion with an artist friend of mine. He had long been a collector o f graphic novels and he recommended a number o f them for me toread. I became an instant fan. Later, I had the opportunity to observe a study being conducted at/a local elementary school using graphic novels in cooperative literature circles. There, I had access to a large number o f graphic novels geared towards elementary students. I was shown graphic novel versions o f previously written children’s literature, works o f non-fiction, original novels exploring important themes such as racism and cultural acceptance, and even plays by Shakespeare written at three different language levels. The potential for French immersion amazed me. Graphic novels could possibly increase reading comprehension in French as well as1spark students’ interest to read and learn. I approached my artist friend with the idea o f writing a historical graphic novel together for Grade seven French immersion students. Excited about writing his first comic and having it read by students, he agreed without hesitation.Comics and graphic novels have been widely read since the 1930s but have recently experienced a renaissance in both popularity and quality. Their potential in education has been noticed by librarians and researchers alike. The incorporation o f text and images to form a narrative can promote engagement, comprehension and higher-level thinking in students. This format, written at a language level appropriate for Grade seven French immersion students could help to bridge the gap between their interest and comprehension levels.SECTION 2: LITERATURE REVIEW History of the graphic novel and its use in the classroomComics, in one form or another, have been in existence for over five thousand years. The walls o f ancient Egyptian tombs and palaces were adorned with them. The images, arranged in a sequential order and often accompanied by text, told a story. The use o f text and images as a means o f communication let archaeologists thousands of years later explore and better understand an ancient civilisation.Comics and comic books have traditionally been regarded as a low form o f literature, if  considered literature at all. They provide an escape for young readers by bringing them into a visual, colourful and fantastic world o f super heroes, humour and adventure. The “Golden Age” of comics dated from about 1937 to 1995. During the period that introduced characters such as Superman, Batman, Wonder Woman and Archie, 90 percent o f elementary school students and 50-80 percent o f high school students were comic book readers (Krashen, 2004). Public concern/ 2about the impact of comic books on behaviour, partly due to Wertham’s Seduction o f  the Innocent (1954), which claimed that comics lured children into a life o f delinquency, largely kept comics out o f the classroom. As early as the 1940s, educational researchers examined the negative effects of reading comic books. Witty (1941) sought to test the validity o f the “dogmatic statements . . .  made concerning the baneful influence o f reading the comics upon the development o f boys and girls” (p. 108). To do so, he compared the intelligence quotient (IQ) scores o f the ten percent o f the students in one school who read the most comics with the ten percent who read the least. He found that the boys and girls in the two groups received almost the same average marks and were considered by their teacher to be about equally well adjusted. Even the early research determined that the fears about comic books were largely unmerited.The comics read at the time were generally published in magazine format and featured short, fantastical stories. Comics have undergone a renaissance in the last two decades. What was once a medium aimed almost entirely to entertain young teenage boys has developed and matured into a means o f storytelling, exploration o f complex themes and a means to even retell history.Comics can be defined, perhaps most simply, as sequential art. In his book explaining comics as an art form, written itself in graphic-novel format, McCloud (2003) defines them as “juxtaposed pictorial and other images in deliberate sequence, intended to convey information and/or produce an aesthetic response in the viewer” (p. 9). The time element in a story is conveyed by the author presenting different snapshots o f its events by placing them in different panels. While it is not a mandatory part o f comic storytelling, most comics contain text. Although they make use o f the same format, graphic novels differ from superhero and humourous comics in many ways. The most apparent difference is the size o f the book. Many3comics are printed in magazine format arid contain one section o f a continuing story. Often, these parts are assembled and bound so that the story can be presented in one volume. In other cases a graphic novel is created as a work in itself. One important distinction between the two forms is the production quality. Graphic novels tend to be printed on higher quality paper and are better printed using a higher resolution than their counterparts. They are often bound like books and are more attractive than the magazine format. The books range in length from 50 to 250 pages and there may be as many as 180 words on a page. With this in mind, a 175 page graphic novel might contain approximately 31 500 words (Gallow and Weiner, 2004). While the text o f a comic may be less dense, it does not necessarily mean that students using it are not reading.Comics, as a medium, combine the appeal o f images and words. A well written and drawn graphic novel has the ability to offer the immediacy o f a prose reading experience with pictures and text working together. A graphic novel is not something a student merely reads, but sees as well. Gallo and Weiner (2004) make the comparison between graphic novels and movies and explain that, with a graphic novel, the movie takes place on a page in the reader’s hand.One o f the first graphic novels used in education brought the genre into the spotlight and legitimised comics as a form of literature. Art Spiegelman’s (1986) pseudo-autobiography, Maus, is widely,recognized as one of the best examples o f a graphic novel. In his book, Spiegleman tells three stories simultaneously. The first storyline tells o f the trials o f his Jewish parents, Vladek and Anna, endured while surviving Nazi concentration camps during the Second World War. The other storylines are that o f Vladek’s life after the war, as he is still reliving it, and the story o f a young Speigleman himself struggling to understand his family history. What makes this graphic novel truly exceptional is the portrayal o f the Jews as mice and the Nazis as4cats. Spiegleman took thirteen years to create his masterpiece and was awarded the Pulitzer Prize in 1992 for his efforts. Gallo and Weiner (2004) argue that Spiegleman’s achievement is spectacular because its format is integral to the telling o f the story. If  Maus were written in prose, its impact would be less successful. Because o f its depth and literary richness, Maus has been used in a variety o f classrooms for many different purposes. Even though the characters are depicted as animals, their representation brings a more human aspect to learning about the Holocaust.Since Maus, many other graphic novels have been used in exploring themes o f history and literature. Two notable books are Persepolis and Louis Riel: A Comic Strip Biography. In her graphic novel Persepolis, Satrapi (2003) uses a simple black and white graphic background to depict her childhood in revolutionary Iran. The rudimentary black and white drawings are used to represent her childhood memories o f the era. This drawing style, according to Rhett(2007), can be understood as ironic by playing with the idea that the revolution was anything but a black and white issue. “The simplicity of the text and graphics allows the reader to delve into the culture and politics o f a nation that, in Western societies in particular, is greatly misunderstood” (p. 7). In Louis Riel: A Comic Strip Biography, Brown (2003) tells a somewhat sympathetic story o f one o f Canada’s most controversial historical figures. Referring to Brown’s work, Buhle (2007) writes that “no comic-format work yet created on a figure in U.S. history is so sweeping as Chester Brown’s epic tale o f Louis Riel, nineteenth-century leader o f French colonists and Métis ‘half-breeds’ in what is present-day Manitoba” (p. 318) He deals with, among other themes, the Canadian government’s mistreatment o f the Métis people o f the Red River settlement arid Riel’s role in both the 1869-70 and 1885 conflicts. The story chronicles Riel’s victories, his crime, his military defeat and, eventually, his execution. Thenovel is drawn entirely in pen and ink and uses only six-panel grids. The characters’ speech is serious, but their visual representation is cartoonish. Seeing historical figures come to life and represented as a narrative offer students a more intimate connection with the subject matter they are learning. Scrupulously examining the incursion o f the British settlers, backed by military force but for extended periods unable to subdue the existing population, it is also a close study of the mentally troubled leader, depicted with a brush-stroke minimalism.Motivation and Engagement with Graphic NovelsStudents show a great interest in reading graphic novels,and many librarians are encouraged by their popularity and encourage their circulation (Crawford, 2004, Gallo &Weiner, 2004). Students with reading difficulties read relatively less and avoid texts when possible. These students also define themselves as disinterested readers. This avoidance contributes to less text exposure and fewer opportunities to improve (Krashen, 2004). Since engagement in reading and achievement in reading are mutually causal, both must be attended to in school (Guthrie, 2009). Reading a graphic novel requires the reader to infer and construct meaning from the visual representations while using the text to develop not only meaning but to foster comprehension. Even students whose reading abilities deter them from enjoying reading for the inherent satisfaction are drawn to graphic novels (Lyga & Lyga 2004). Graphic novels may, therefore, be a powerful tool for motivating students to read. Research also shows a marked improvement in comprehension, vocabulary development, and motivation toward reading when students participate in free voluntary reading (Edwards, 2008).Guthrie, Wigfield, Barbosa, Perencevich, Taboada, Davis, Scafiddi, and Tonks . (2004) compared the reading comprehension skills o f groups of grade 3 students who received Concept Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) to those who received basic instruction. They found thatthose who received CORI, which includes a motivational component, outperformed the group that did not. In the study, the motivational component consisted o f the choice o f text, collaborative work with classmates and active, kinaesthetic learning with hands-on activities. This instructional program was implemented 90 minutes each day for twelve weeks. The researchers concluded that “when students are interested in what they read, they process theJmaterial more deeply, gain richer conceptual understandings and engage more fully with the text” (p. 146). The authors hypothesize that students may be more receptive to receiving strategy instruction when they are reading more engaging texts.(To study the effect o f the appeal o f comics on reading comprehension, Edwards (2008) conducted an eight-week study involving four groups o f Grade seven students, three experimental groups with varying access to graphic novels and free reading time and one control group. The students completed pre- and post-assessment tests o f vocabulary and comprehension and a questionnaire about motivation towards reading. The questionnaire included questions about interest and enjoyment, perceived confidence, effort, perceived choice and usefulness. The students also completed self-reported reading logs and answered reflective questions about their motivation towards reading and their ability after the study. Although her results were not statistically significant, Edwards found that reading graphic novels could affect the intrinsic motivation, vocabulary and comprehension ability o f the Grade Seven students studied. After the study, students indicated that they enjoyed reading more, felt more skilled and also enjoyed reading the format o f graphic novels. The students liked the graphic novels because the additional details provided by the images helped them understand the material. With greater understanding o f the text came greater motivation to read.7In a study by Cho, Choi and Krashen (2005), a high school math teacher was asked to teach a Korean foreign language class because he could speak the language. The teacher had not had any training in foreign language pedagogy, had no curriculum or resources, and his class consisted o f students ranging from Grade 9 to 12 with Korean language levels ranging from beginner to native speaker. In an effort to bridge the proficiency gap, the teacher decided to begin every class with twenty minutes o f sustained silent reading o f Korean language comic books. There was no accountability for the reading, and the students were free to read anything, as long as it was in Korean. Not all the students chose to read the comic books at first, but the genre became more and more popular in the classroom. After some time, some students began bringing Korean language books from home to read. According to the authors, this suggests that reading comics can transition into other forms o f literature. The authors claim that more readingtleads to more competence, especially in the case o f voluntary reading and that comic books can be particularly effective in encouraging students to read for pleasure.G raphic Novels and Reading Comprehension Wertham (1994), in Seduction o f  the Innocent stated that reading comic books interfered with learning to read and with language development, claiming that “severe reading difficulties and maximum comic book reading go hand in hand, that far from being a help to reading, comic books are a casual and reinforcing factor in children’s reading disorders” (p.130). His claims, largely based on undocumented anecdotes, however, have not been supported by other research. In fact, many researchers have found the opposite.Graphic novels offer a medium that can both assist comprehension of a text with visual support for those with reading difficulties and help contextualise information with images to promote better understanding o f a subject matter taught (Lamano, 2007). When experiencing8difficulties with the textual element o f a comic, the reader can seek assistance from the imageand return to the text with a better understanding o f its meaning. The visual clues make it more{probable that the students will have a more positive experience. By combining the two elements, Rakes (1999) claims that based on brain imaging technology, comprehension is increased. Using Positron Emission Tomography (PET scans), one can see that, upon receiving verbal information, two regions in the brain’s verbal domain of the left hemisphere light up. When receiving visual information, the right hemisphere becomes active. She argues that the use o f visuals should be greater than simply “decorative supplements to the text” (p. 15) and that their combined use provides a dual code which can create connections and increase comprehension.Lamanno (2007) conducted a study to explore the effectiveness o f using graphic novels to increase the reading comprehension skills o f a group o f high school students with reading abilities below grade level. The majority o f the students in this study had been diagnosed with a learning disability or with mental retardation. Students participated in small group reading instruction with graphic novels and materials that were previously shown to increase the reading comprehension skill o f adolescents. Explored in this study was whether the graphic novel intervention improved reading comprehension and oral fluency and motivation to read.Although some students did show improvements in reading comprehension, the results were not statistically significant. One o f the reasons, Lamanno suggests, is that at the high school age, an eight-week intervention is too short a time to make a significant difference and that external social and academic factors affected the participants’ involvement in the study. The author expects that with a better controlled study, the results would be more favourable.Mallia (2007) conducted a study in Malta where he converted a text about Maltese history into comic book format. The author followed the language norms and narrative9techniques used in comics with the aim o f maximising information compression through the use)o f a narration device. This comic takes the form of a father and son conversation that is not present in the source text. The information from the original text was presented using a combination o f this conversation and flashbacks. Nothing was changed regarding the information the text could communicate, except for the numerous references in the original which were not congruous with the format and were omitted. Mallia also prepared an illustrated version o f the text with images from textbooks and drawings created specifically for this study. Ninety students, 14 to 15 years o f age, were used in the study. They were separated into three equal groups and given either the original text, the text supported with images, or the comic. After 45 minutes the texts were collected and the students were given a questionnaire that intended to test short-term recall and cognitive retention, acquisition o f knowledge and comprehension o f the text. The data from the questionnaire were comparatively analysed for each treatment. Although the author found no statistically significant difference between the treatments, the small numerical differences did give a clear enough indication that the comics treatment competed well with the more accepted forms o f instruction. Recall o f content in the comic book treatment was very close to that o f the illustrated text and fared much better than the text-only treatment. Mallia claims that this study shows that comics as an instructional medium have the potential o f being a valuable and effective cognitive tool and can be used in instruction for, among others, motivational and retention purposes.Graphic novels can be a benefit to proficient readers and reluctant readers alike. A welliwritten graphic novel offers interesting and complex stories that appeal to students at all reading levels. Each student reads and builds on his existing capabilities. According to McTaggart(2008), graphic novels act as the as an equaliser between struggling and achieving students: “A10sense o f unity develops and a spirit o f camaraderie forms when kids share a common interest and a passion for what they are doing. Time and again we see this happen when graphic novels become a part o f the classroom curriculum” (p. 34).In his book The Power o f Reading, Insights from the Research, Krashen (2004) refers to several anecdotes from researchers and prominent public figures, including South Africa’s Bishop Desmond Tutu, crediting comics as helping them or their children to either learn a language or get excited about reading. He even tells o f his own experience o f being in the low reading group in the second grade and how his father’s encouragement o f reading comic books helped improve his reading.G raphic Novels and Multiple Literacies In the 2006 publication o f the British Columbia Integrated Resource Package for language arts, the term “reading” has been replaced by “reading and viewing.” One o f the prescribed learning outcomes states that a student will “demonstrate comprehension o f visual texts with specialized features and complex ideas” and specifically mentions, among other media, graphic novels (p. 57). Frey and Fisher (2008) describe visual literacy as “the act of meaning making using still and moving images” (p. 1). They argue that the same skills are required for visual literacy as are for reading comprehension, for example, the ability to “make connections, determine importance, synthesize information, evaluate and critique” ( page 1). Combining and interweaving visual and textual literacies creates an interaction that forms the basis for a more complete understanding.Using text and image together is nothing new in education. When learning to read, kindergarten and first-grade students are presented with picture books. One o f the strategies taught to new readers when encountering difficulty with the text is to refer to the accompanying11pictures. With multimodal texts, readers must rely on a combination o f modes such as words and images for meaning making. Sipe (as cited in Hammond, 2009) examined first- and second- grade students’ responses to picture books and found that 23 percent involved analysis o f the illustrations. Students used both text and image to make meaning when analysing illustrations, linking stories to other books and media, making connections to their own lives, making sense o f the story and using the book as a springboard for creative play.Since graphic novel stories are told in a format called “sequential art. the combination of text, panels, and images” which requires the reader to read text and analyze images to interpret the story (Brenner, 2006, p. 123), they offer a different experience to the reader than does a text without images. It requires the reader to interpret the meaning and relationship o f written words, drawings and time. “Graphic novel readers have learned to understand print, but can also decode facial and body expressions, the symbolic meanings o f certain images and postures, metaphors and similes, and other social and literary nuances teenagers are mastering as they move from childhood to maturity” (Simmons, 2003, as cited in Bucher & Manning, 2004, p. 68). In an ever-increasing visual world, comics can offer a familiar and appealing format for students: “Growing up with television and video games, contemporary young adults look for print media that contain the same visual impact and pared-down writing style and contribute to their enthusiasm for visual rather than written literacy” (Bucher & Manning, 2004, p. 67). This doesnot mean, however, that the visual should or could replace the written word, but comics offer the(combination to both motivate students and develop this aspect o f literacy.A focus on the reading process itself o f comic books is investigated in a study conductedc"'"by Hammond (2009) involving 23 Grade twelve political science students reading the graphic novel American Bom Chinese (Yang, 2007) twice. For most o f the group, the format o f the12graphie novel was a new experience. Between readings, the students were given instruction on graphic novel conventions and visual literacy skills. Based on response journals, student questionnaires, interviews and field notes, the author determined, that with the introduction o f comics conventions and further development o f multimodal literacy skills, students acquired new knowledge on a second reading of the book. The author’s observations indicated that the majority o f the students did not understand the graphic novel upon their first reading o f it. Because o f their understanding of the format increased after the intervention, they inspected the images more closely and noted some o f the comic conventions. Arizipe and Style (as cited in Hammond, 2009) report that research findings on multimodal texts show that to be properly understood, enough time is needed to look closely at the texts, to go back and forth between images and to reread. Evidence from this study supports the benefits o f teaching comics conventions and reading graphic novels as part o f the language arts curriculum to improve multimodal literacy skills.Graphic novels used in the curriculum offer students the opportunity to deconstruct text on multiple levels. One may examine the story, the author’s message, the characters and context, as well as the relationship between the text, the images and the design. Layout, words, and pictures all play an important role in storytelling in comics, but none dominates the notion of reading them (Williams, 2008). The author states that “pairing visual images with words is an easy way to help students develop stronger visual literacy. Comics offer an opportunity for students to scrutinize how interdependent images and words can create a strong sequential narrative” (p. 13).Comic books allow teachers to help students understand how images produce meaning, and they can become engaged in searching for this meaning. Film and television also combine13words and images, but the pace at which they are delivered to their audience is predetermined. The information is experienced more passively than with comics that can be read at whichever pace the reader wishes. When reading a comic or a graphic hovel, the reader’s eye is active and is not always working in a left to right motion. He may see the image first, read the text to supply the necessary context and then return again to the image to re-evaluate its meaning. The exact process is equally likely if  the reader decides to read the text first. In this process, comics lend themselves to “extensive interpretation, providing teachers with numerous opportunities to help develop visual literacy among their students” (Versaci, 2008).Accessibility of Textbooks in French Immersion Students whose parents choose to have them enrol in French immersion have traditionally been Anglophones. This demographic is changing and now more and more French immersion students are learning French as a third or additional language (Boumot-Trites, 2008). Since early immersion students are introduced to reading in kindergarten, they tend to learn to read first in French and then later in English. All academic content is taught in French at the primary level and, once students reach the intermediate levels, English in introduced to the curriculum. Mathematics is also taught in English at times. In the intermediate grades, students are expected to read textbooks written in French for social studies and science. Boumot-Trites (2008) notes how important it is for students to be able to read and comprehend increasingly complex content in French:Academic achievement can be very seriously compromised if  [students] do not acquire high levels o f competence in FrenchTreading. For a student who does not master reading early on, reading social science textbooks in French can be a daunting task. Such14students can struggle, experience frustration, feel they are failing, lose self-esteem, and, finally, may not learn what they need to learn, (p. 2)Often noted as a reason for leaving the French immersion program, students find the technical language o f social studies difficult to grasp (Mannavarayan, 2001). “Their frustration builds up as the language becomes more and more decontextualised and academic tasks shift to more abstract work” (p. 45).Other reading tasks become more appealing in English to immersion students make the transition from primary to intermediate. Rather than reading in French in non-technical areas of the curriculum, many immersion students will opt to read in English even though they first learned to read in French. French immersion teachers have the constant challenge o f motivating their students to read in French. Maguire (1987) found that students have little interest in the French language resources made available to them in the classroom, such as books, magazines, movies, television and music. With their greater vocabulary in their native language, French as a second language students prefer reading in English because it is easier and more pleasurable (Romney & Menzies, 1995). In interviews with Grade seven French immersion students who participated in a study that, in part, examined the link between reading and writing in French, they made comments such as, “more French reading might help vocabulary, but French books are boring” (Boumot-Trites & Séror, 2003 p. 139). In the same study, the authors found that students complained about the lack o f connection between their language ability and the subject matter o f the books. Since most book in French in the school library are written for francophones, students are not able to read books at their interest level. One student put it this way:15French books aren’t as available as English books and I also find th a t ... like ... in our library, they have to have books that are our level in French in technical French but the stories are a little too babyish. When I’m reading adult fiction books in English, I have a hard time reading Grade 3 level French books when the stories aren’t at my level, (p.140)Since the language level is often too advanced for the students reading them, textbooks pose a problem in French immersion education. Although the program has consistently gained momentum since its inception in the early 1960s with more and more classes being created every year across the country, it is still a relatively small market for textbook publishers. Johnson and Swain (1994) note how the history textbook used in a Grade seven French immersion class was one written for francophone students. When the authors commented on the difficulty o f the text, the teacher admitted that it was too difficult for the students to read. Instead, she used the book primarily for its images. The lack o f language-appropriate pedagogical material often forces teachers to create their own material. This lack o f material was identified in a study by the Canadian Association o f Immersion Teachers (Karsenti, Collins, Villeneuve, Dumouchel, &Roy, 2008) as the major reason that French immersion teachers leave the profession. This factor accounted for over thirty five percent o f the reasons given by teachers. Often, the textbooks are not even available in French. The English language resources more readily available to French immersion teachers cannot be used in the program (Karsenti et al., 2008).SummaryFrench immersion teachers face many challenges when delivering a curriculum. There is often a gap between a student’s cognitive abilities, interest and language proficiency (Boumot- Trites & Séror, 2003). Finding textbooks that satisfy this need can be difficult (Karsenti et al.,162008). A graphic novel written at the desired language level o f a Grade seven student would help greatly to close this gap. Using graphic novels as a pedagogical tool has many advantages. The comic book format is appealing to young readers and visual learners, and high interest in reading leads to reader engagement which leads to better comprehension (Guthrie et al., 2004). High interest in reading also encourages children to read more which, in turn, improves their ability to do so (Krashen, 2004). The comic book format offers visual aid for those having difficulty with the text and allows students to interpret and explore the relationship between words and images (Carter, 2008). Based on Hammond’s (2009) findings, it would be appropriate to teach the format before presenting a graphic novel to students. Based on the need for interest and language appropriate resources and the research on the pedagogical use o f comic books, I have created a curriculum resource based on a yet unfinished graphic novel co-authored by artist, Tyler Lindberg. La mort d ’un pharaon is a story that spans two graphic novels. The first volume in the series is titled Le pharaon est mort.SECTION 3: THE GRAPHIC NOVEL Le pharaon est mort The Writing ProcessWhen one hears the words “ancient Egypt” it is easy to think o f the pyramids, mummies and pharaohs existing together at one moment o f time. It is also easy to forget that what we think of as ancient Egypt spans over thousands o f years. As co-authors, we had to first decide what era o f ancient Egypt we wanted to depict. To take advantage o f the stunning visual elements o f the time, we decided to set it during the period o f the New Kingdom (16th to 11th century BC). This would allow the story’s backdrop to feature such impressive architectural structures such as the great pyramids, temples and palaces, towering statues and walls covered in17hieroglyphs. Next, came the decision as to which elements o f Egypt’s civilisation would be included or featured in the story. We realised early that an entire civilisation cannot be forced into a single book. Our original story was that o f a poor farmer’s son having to leave his land to build pyramids for the Pharaoh. Through his travels, our protagonist would experience the kingdom’s agriculture, economy, technology, art, political system, culture and religion; however, this epic tale had to be shortened. To incorporate every aspect o f ancient Egyptian life into an engaging illustrated story, the book would be much too long and would have to be broken into multiple volumes. Instead, we decided to focus on some of the more important, exciting and visually stimulating elements o f the civilisation.Often, mummification is prominent in teaching about ancient Egypt; death and the afterlife being central to the civilisation’s culture. The decision was made to base the graphic novel around the death o f an Egyptian. The most interesting character on which to focus would be the Pharaoh. His death would be the result o f civil unrest in the kingdom and would leave the question o f who would replace him as the leader. Vying for the position would be his widowed queen, the army’s general and the head priest. To allow for creative freedom in the story, none of the characters is named so not to conflict directly with any historical figures. After his mummification and burial, the pharaoh would then start his journey through the underworld with Anubis as his guide. There, he would reflect on his life to purify his soul so that his heart would not weigh heavy before Osiris.The writing process was a collaborative one. We started by referring to the prescribed learning outcomes for Grade seven social studies and language arts to determine what elements would be included in the book. From there, a basic story line was developed. For the graphic novel to be effective, we decided that both the story and the artwork needed to be appealing. I18had already seen many educational and historical comics whose quality in visual design and storytelling was, in my opinion, inadequate. Often, the stories seemed empty or rushed and the art was too simple. It was as though the authors thought that simply because a story was presented in comic format,' it would be appealing to elementary aged students. Ours would have to contain high quality art, and storytelling. In an interesting story, the reader needs to become invested in its characters. We brainstormed each character’s motivation, history and interaction to create a believable world in which the student could immerse himself. In doing so, we considered again the scope o f the project. If we included enough detail in the story, in thedevelopment o f character and in the setting, the final product would be too long. Not wanting to>eliminate any more elements, we decided to tell the story over the course o f two books, each estimated to be about 200 pages long. This smaller scope allowed us to concentrate on the storyline and the visual details. A synopsis o f the story is found in appendix 3.Together, we discussed the dialogue and how it was to be delivered. Since the meaning of the textual element o f a scene can differ dramatically by drawing a panel from a different angle, each one had to be visualised so that it could be optimally portrayed. An example o f the script can be found in appendix 4. The collaborative sessions allowed us to exchange ideas and build on each other’s. Together, we could create something that would be superior to anything either of us could have done alone.Multiple art and storytelling styles were explored in the preliminary stages o f writing the graphic novel. For it to be used as an effective pedagogical tool, the graphic novel needed to appeal to a Grade seven audience. We researched other comics and graphic novels found in the school library and examined their styles. The comic books that first came to mind were those o f Astérix (Goscinny & Uderzo, 1961) and Tintin (Hergé, 1929) series. Both featured characters19drawn in a cartoonish style and used comedy as a means to appeal to their audience and deliver the story. Other graphic novels were adaptations o f youth novels such as Artemis Foul (Colfer & Donkin, 2007) and the Young Bond (Higson & Walker, 2008) series. These books featured more serious characters and had little emphasis on comedy. The stories told were propelled by mystery, fantasy and character development. Both styles o f storytelling are effective in generating appeal for a graphic novel as evidenced by the high circulation o f  both styles at my school library. To determine which one to use, we brainstormed a specific scene done in each genre. Since it is central to our story, we thought of how the embalming scene might appear as comic relief. We imagined a lead embalmer with three incompetent assistants. The three would have cartoonish characteristics: one would be short, another tall and skinny and the third strong and particularly unintelligent. During the mummification process, they would sneak drinks from the palm wine, get entangled in entrails, chase after a dog that had ran off with the kidney, narrowly miss having the canopic jars shatter on the ground and inevitably frustrate their supervisor. We had written a script for this scene and had a good laugh. In the end, however, we felt that the story would be more memorable and would better fit the material if  told as an epic.Other art elements had to be explored as well. Would the graphic novel be in colour? How would the panels be laid out? What drawing style would best tell the story? As mentioned earlier, one could draw characters along a line o f realism from Charlie Brown to Clark Kent. We were also influenced by the Japanese comic book style o f anime, a genre often defined by its vibrant colours, and characters drawn with fine features and proportionally large eyes. Again, after many, many concept drawings, we decided on a relatively realistic depiction o f the people o f Ancient Egypt while still emphasising certain physical traits to develop character. An extremely important element to the process o f creating a “feel” for La mort d ’un Pharaon was20the look of the main characters. To create a look, we first researched historical queens, priests and generals to determine what costumes each would wear. The appearance o f each character had to be distinct to have them stand out in the story. An easy way to develop sympathy for a character is to make him or her attractive. Since she is the main protagonist in the first book, we decided to apply this strategy to the queen. The priest and the general would be powerful, yet contrasting characters and would have to be drawn to represent this. The Sem-priest in ancient Egypt was distinguished by the leopard skin that he wore over his shoulder.' This gave us the idea to use some o f the animal’s elements in his design. He would be tall and sleek and his face would share some o f the characteristics o f a feline’s. The general, however, had to be strong in body and determination. We decided to base him on another animal found in ancient Egypt, the hippopotamus.As long as I have known Tyler, he has been an incredible artist but in creating drawing after drawing, we found that his abilities kept improving. An important factor when writing a comic is the consistency in the appearance o f its characters. As an exercise, Tyler created .a completely rendered draft o f the opening sequence o f the book. Each page took him almost a day to complete. The difference between the quality o f the first page to the fifth was evident. If  a full novel would take almost a year to draw, the difference between the first page and the last would be not only noticeable, but distracting. Tyler then re-worked his character drawings to ensure a high level o f quality and consistency.Many elements o f comic story telling become much more apparent as the pages and panels are laid put during the storyboarding process. An idea explained in the script may not come across as well as intended when drawn. For this reason, the script continued to require revisions as the process progressed. Currently, we are at the point o f making final revisions tothe script and the storyboard. As mentioned above, each fully rendered page takes approximately a day to complete. With near 200 pages to draw, the expected completion date o f the graphic novel is summer o f 2011.SECTION 4: LINKS TO PRACTICE Main ObjectivesThe goal o f creating this graphic novel and its accompanying curriculum is for students to gain a deeper understanding o f the life o f ancient Egyptians by presenting it as a visual and textual narrative. This narrative is intended to promote both the student’s motivation and comprehension. Elements o f ancient Egyptian culture, government and technology are woven into an engaging story with strong characters and exciting visual support so that the reader will be able to experience these aspects in context and make better connections with the subject matter. Written at a French language level appropriate to Grade seven French Immersion students, it will make the information accessible to them and help bridge the gap between interest and language ability. The program is also intended to promote visual and textual literacy by presenting drawings and text together so that one promotes a deeper understanding o f the other. The accompanying unit encourages the comprehension o f the story and its historical elements as well as give the reader the opportunity to further explore the language arts and social studies elements o f the graphic novel.RationaleLe pharaon est mort and its accompanying lessons will allow students to experience and interact with the ancient civilisations component o f the Grade seven BC curriculum by offering a visual, story-based representation o f ancient Egypt. It adopts an expanded definition o f literacy22which will give students the possibility to construct meaning using image and text together. This is an interdisciplinary program that allows students to engage with social studies content and to develop textual and visual literary abilities as well as writing and fine arts skills.Students today are growing up in an ever-changing technological world. Visual literacy has become more predominant and important in the everyday lives our learners and makes the format o f the graphic novel particularly appealing to students allowing them to be more at ease reading the combination of words and pictures to tell a story. Graphic novels contribute to textual and visual literacy by helping students to connect with them in a way they cannot with text-only books. Graphic novels are an appealing format can lead to greater enjoyment with the text, leading, in turn, to better comprehension o f its content. Graphic novels can also assist those with comprehension difficulties by providing visual support while affording options to more advanced readers to deepen their understanding by exploring the relationship between image and text. The following are the main goals o f the graphic novel and the accompanying unit plan:■ Students will become more engaged with reading by having access to high interest, linguistically appropriate material.r■ Students will interact with both visual and textual elements o f the text to make connections, inferences and predictionsStudents will improve their writing skills and their ability to read images and text together while being exposed to an alternate representation o f the social studies curriculum.Time FrameLe pharaon est mort lessons will be taught twice a week for 4 weeks. The students will be allowed adequate time after the reading to complete their final projects.Table 1. Time frameTesson # Theme'0-45 mm Introduction to Comics and (iraphic No\els30-45 min Conventions o f Comics and Graphic No\ els30-45 min Woids and Images45-60 min each Reading and Response2-3 weeks Wri t ing ,  V isua l  \ i l .  D ramaOverviewThe unit is divided into three stages: an introduction to and instructions for the graphic novel format, reading activities and final projects. The teaching plan is found in appendix 2.The introduction o f graphic novels and their conventions will prepare the students to best benefit from the format in general and Le pharaon est mort specifically. This will include lessons involving presentation o f the format by the teacher, discussion among peers and with the instructor to promote and ensure comprehension, interaction with comics and graphic novels by manipulating textual and visual elements of the format, “discovery learning,” an inquiry-based and constructivist approach to learning, and activities. Two different reading activities are provided. The teacher may choose to use either, or both. The first option contains chapter questions found in appendix 13 that ensure student comprehension o f the graphic novel, provide opportunities for higher-level thinking such as inferring and analysing, and make connections to the social studies curriculum. The second option lets students discuss the graphic novel, chapter by chapter in small groups. In the groups, each student analyses the chapter through a specific role and brings a different perspective to the conversation. The unit concludes with a list o f writing-based, dramatic-art-based and visual-art based final projects from which students are given a choice to create a means to demonstrate what they have learnt.24PreparationThe following should be done by the teacher prior to teaching the unit:•  Create a classroom collection o f comics and graphic novels o f different styles from the school or public library.•  Open an account with an online comic creating site such as or download the software from comic if  digitally created comics are accepted or desired for the final project.•  Familiarise yourself with both Le pharaon est mor, its lesson plans found in appendices 6, 9, 11 and the Powerpoint presentation found in Appendix 9 to facilitate discussion.•  Make copies o f student handouts found in Appendices 7 ,1 0 ,1 2 ,1 3  and 15.• Make a copy of an image from which an inference o f conversation could be made to be used in a class discussion.iAssessmentThroughout the first two parts o f the unit, formative assessment is used to ensure the student’s understanding of the subject matter taught and o f the graphic novel itself. Students will be given the opportunity for self evaluation for their contribution to the literature circles. A sample self-assessment form is found in Appendix 16. Summative assessment is carried out when students have completed their final projects and have presented them to the teacher and the class to determine student understanding o f the historical and thematic elements o f the graphic novel as well as the ability to interact with the novel using writing, dramatic, and visual arts. Writing will be evaluated as per the BC Ministry o f Education Performance Standards (Ministry o f Education, British Columbia, 2002).25SECTION 5: CONCLUSIONThis resource and teaching sequence offers the opportunity to Grade seven French immersion students to experience ancient Egypt in a new and interesting way. By reading the graphic novel Le pharaon est mort, they will review the concepts taught in social studies while engaging in a language-appropriate, image-rich story. In so doing, they will make a better connection to the content by being interested in what they read, benefiting from visual support to the text and using more areas o f the brain than would when reading text alone. They will develop their visual literacy skills to experience a deeper meaning when seeing words and pictures support each other. The lessons associated with Le pharaon est mort will teach students how to read a graphic format and encourage them to engage with the visual, textual and historical elements o f the graphic novel.26REFERENCESBoumot-Trites, M. (2008). Fostering reading acquisition in French immersion.Encyclopedia o f  Language and Literacy Development (pp. 1-8). London, ON: Canadian Language and Literacy Research Network.Boumot-Trites, M., & Séror, J. (2003). Students' and teachers' perception aboutstrategies which promote proficiency in second language writing. Canadian Journal o f Applied Linguistics, 6(2), 129-157.Brenner, R. (2006). Graphic novels 101: FAQ. 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A novel approach: Using graphic novels to attract reluctant readers and promote literacy. Library Media Connection, 22(5), 26-28.27Edwards,' Buffy (2008). Motivation and middle school readers: Graphic novels, comicbooks, and free voluntary reading time. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Oklahoma.Frey, N., & Fisher, D. (2008). Introduction, in N. Frey & D. Fisher (Eds.), Teaching Visual Literacy (pp. 27-46). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.Gallo, G., & Weiner, S. (2004). Bold books for innovative teaching: Show, don't tell:Graphic novels in the classroom. The English Journal, 94(2), 114-117.Gosciny, R. ,& Uderzo, A. (1959). Astérix le gaulois. Paris: Hachette.Guthrie, J. T. (2004). Teaching for literacy engagement, Journal o f  Literacy Research,56(1), 1-29.Guthrie, J. T., Wigfield, A., Barbosa, P., Perencevich, K. C., Toboada, A., Davis, M. H.,Scaffidi, M. T., & Tonks, S. (2004). Increasing reading comprehension and engagement through concept-oriented reading instruction. 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Exploring the use o f  graphic novels in the classroom: Does exposure to non-traditional texts increase the reading comprehension skills and motivation o f  low- functioning adolescent readers? Ph.D. dissertation, The Pennsylvania State University.Lyga, A.A.W., & Lyga, B. (2004). Graphic novels in your media center: A definitive guide. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited.Maguire, M.H. (1987). Is writing a story in a second language that much more complex than in a first language? Children’s perceptions. Carleton Papers in Applied Language Studies, A, 17—65.Mallia, G. (2007). Learning from the sequence: The use o f comics in instruction.ImageText: Interdisciplinary Comic Studies, 3 (3). Retrieved October 1 st, 2009, from http://www.english.ufl.edU//imagetext/archives/v3_3/mallia/index.shtml.Mannavarayan, J. (2001). Revisiting why some students struggle in immersion: Anexpanded review o f the literature. Unpublished M.A. thesis, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia.McCloud, S. (1993). Understanding comics: The invisible art. New York: Harper Perennial.McTaggart, J. (2008). Graphic novels : The good the bad and the ugly. In N. Frey & D. Fisher (Eds.), Teaching Visual Literacy (pp. 27-46). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.Rakes, G.C. (1999). Teaching visual literacy in a multimedia age. Tech Trends, 43(4) 14-18.Rhett, M. (2007). The graphic novel and the world history classroom. World History Connected, 4(2), retrieved October 1st, 2009, from, J.C., & Menzies, H.M. (1995). Reading for pleasure in French: A study of the reading habits and interests o f French immersion children. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 51{3), 474-511.Satrapi, M. (2003). Persepolis: The story o f  a childhood. New York: Pantheon Books.Spiegelman, A. (1986). Maus: A survivor’s tale. New York: Pantheon Books.Versaci, R. (2008). “Literary literacy” and the role o f the comic book or, “You teach a class on what?”. In N. Frey & D. Fisher (Eds.), Teaching visual literacy (pp. 27-46).Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.Wetham, F. (1954). Seduction o f  the innocent. New York: Rinehart.Williams, R. (2008). Image, text, and story: Comics and graphic novels in the classroom. Art Education, 61(6), 13-19.Witty, P. (1941). Reading the comics: A comparative study. Journal o f Experimental Education, 10, 105-109.Yang, G. L. (2007). American Bom Chinese. New York: First Second.30Appendix 1: Curriculum  Links to the British Columbia M inistry of Education G rade 7 Prescribed Learning OutcomesSOCIAL STUDIES (, SOCIETY AND CULTUREB1 analyse the concept of civilization as it applies to selected ancient culturesText, chapter questions and final projectsB2 analyse social roles within one or more ancient civilizationsText, chapter questions and final projectsGOVERNANCEC l describe the evolution and purpose of rules, laws, and government in ancient civilizationsText, chapter questions and final projectsECONOMY AND TECHNOLOGYD1 describe various ways ancient peoples exchanged goods and servicesText and chapter questionsD2 assess ways technological innovations enabled ancient peoples to adap t to and modify their environments satisfy their needs increase exploration and trade  develop their culturesText and chapter questionsHUMAN AND PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENTE l assess how physical environments affected ancient civilizationsText and chapter questionsE2 identify the impact of human activity on physical environments in ancient civilizationsText and chapter questionsLANGUAGE ARTS ( AND LISTENINGA1 use speaking and listening to in teract with others for the purposes of improving and deepening comprehensionPre-reading activitiesREADING AND VIEWINGB2 read fluently and demonstrate comprehension of grade-appropriate information texts with some specialized language and some complex ideas including...visual and graphic textsText and chapter questionsB4 demonstrate comprehension of visual texts Pre-reading lessons, text and chapter31with specialized features and complex ideas (e.g., visual components of media such as magazines, newspapers, web sites, reference books, graphic novels, broadcast media, videos, advertising and promotional materials)questions' V . . ' :■ •, ' .: ■ :: ! '• ■ . ! ' ■- • ■ . ■ " ■ ■ . ■ ■" " ' ■.. ■; ï : ' ' '■■■■■ . ■ ■. ■; : . ' ;  ■ •i!;:: •- ■ •• ' ^ . / y '  \B8 respond to selections they read or view, by expressing opinions and making judgments supported by reasons, explanations, and evidenceText, chapter questions and final projectsWRITING AND REPRESENTINGC8 use writing and representing to critique, express personal responses and relevant opinions, and respond to experiences and texts language and some complex ideas including...visual and graphic textsChapter questions and final projectsp i i »  : . w m m: ■ B | | f  ■ . ■ ..... I l l  1 I I  v ... ;. ..C9 use writing and representing to extend thinking, by developing explanations, analysing the relationships in ideas and information and exploring new ideasChapter questions and final projectsSimiÊBl:^^^^^ÊsMmtté^^^^^XSÊS§iilSÊmsSÊmFINE ARTSDRAMA ( lter language and movement of a role to fit changing dramatic situationsFinal projects.... ■ . .. 'In te rp re t their characters’ motivations within a dram atic workFinal projectsVISUAL ARTS ( image-developmcnt and  design strategies used by various artists for a variety of purposesPre-reading lessons, text, final proj ectsCreate images using the elements and principles to produce particu lar styles of a rtPre-reading lessons, final projects32Appendix 2: Teaching PlanL esson _0^^ ActivitiesStudents will be able to generate criteria to compare different comic books•Comic books of various styles, genres and lengths •Chart Paper to recordbrainstormingideas•Blackline master: Classification des bandes dessinées found in Appendix 7.•Group discussion on comics as a format.•Brainstorm criteria for differentiation.•Classify comics by characteristics such as art style, comedic value, size, etc. •Present findings to class.Students will be able to name and understand the conventions of comic format to better comprehend multimodal texts•Comic books of various styles, genres and lengths •Powerpoint presentation. (Appendix 9) •Worksheet : Les conventions des bandes dessinées. (Appendix 10)•Review previous lesson •Brainstorm differences between comics and traditional literature.•Show Powerpoint presentation, pause for discussion.•In groups, students will find examples of each convention in the comics and explain their use in its context.Students will •Image of two •As a class, give suggestions ofbetterunderstand the1 t * 1 *people found in conversation, seepossible conversation between people in the image.n , 1 . • ______ p  _relationship between words and images inexample in appendix. •Worksheets : Le•Students are given four images with empty speech bubbles and will write differentgraphic novels text et I ’image dialogue in each to give thebymanipulatingeach.(Appendix 12) image new meaning.•Class generates 4-5 phrases together, individually will use it as a speech bubble in four different drawings •Extension: Student will write a paragraph telling the story about one of the panels in the exercise.AssessmentFormative:Collectworksheets;promotediscussionduringpresentationFormative: Collect handouts to ensure that conventions areunderstood.Formative: Collect handouts and writing assignments.334-9Students will gain a better understanding of Le pharaon est mort.•Le pharaon est mort•Worksheets : Chapter questions (Appendix 13)After reading every chapter, students will answer questions encouraging them to remember, understand, analyse and evaluate different elements of the story, artwork and historical context to allow the teacher to verify comprehension.Formative or summative:Collectchapterquestions.FinalStudents willdemonstratetheirunderstanding of the graphic novel and the comic book•Le pharaon est mort•Final project options•Students are given a choice of final projects to complete. •Number of projects to complete determined by theAssessment by teacher and by student.Projects teacher.•Projects are classified as writing, drama and fine art.Summative: Normes deformat performanced’écriture.Optional Teaching PlanThe teacher may want to use a more interactive approach to reading Le pharaon est mort and may choose from the chapter questions to use as discussion questions with the class. If this is the case, the teacher may want to treat the reading of the graphic novel in literature circles. In a literature circle, groups of four students take turns analyzing the book, chapter by chapter, from the point of view of a different role. For each chapter, the students will be assigned a different role. The four roles are that of the panel analyst, the historian, the mind reader and the summariser (Appendix 15). The students share their findings and then record them, along with their personal feelings about the book, in ajournai. The students perform a self-evaluation based on their participation. The teacher evaluates the journal and the worksheet. Detailed descriptions of each role, the student worksheets and the self evaluation forms are found in Appendix 16.34Chapter 1Le pharaon est mort begins with a short, textual introduction written on papyrus. It tells of how the Nile’s yearly floods leave its banks with rich, fertile land on which farmers can grow the grain necessary to feed their kingdom, pay taxes and provide the basis for the ancient Egyptian economy. The previous year, however, Egypt experienced a severe drought that left the kingdom hungry and weak. The pharaoh, as political and spiritual leader of Egypt, had recently decided to move away from polytheism toward the worship of only the sun. The flood season approaches and tensions rise while all eyes are on the level of the river. Another season of drought will cause famine, weakness and unrest.The first panels of the graphic novel introduce the Pharaoh’s queen searching for her king outside the gate of the palace. Before entering, she is startled by a jackal outside that growls at her before running away. Inside the palace, she notices a trail of blood leading inevitably to the Pharaoh’s dead body. Her cries draw a crowd, among others the Sem-priest, the Pharaoh’s head spiritual advisor. While calming the crowd, he blames his death on the Pharaoh’s change in religious policy. The crowd suddenly goes silent when they hear the loud footsteps of the army’s general. After a quick exchange of confusion and blame between the three characters, the Sem- priest orders the body to be prepared for mummification.Chapter 2In her dream, the queen lies in a field beside the Pharaoh. Suddenly, the grain surrounding them dries up and dies and the queen finds herself laying beside a mummified corpse. When she wakes, she feels that she must see her king and runs out the door towards the embalming temple. The reader is then taken to the first stage of embalming, the purification ofAppendix 3: The plot of Le pharaon est mort35the body. When the queen arrives, she pushes past the guard and draws back the curtain to see an embalmer about to hammer a chisel lodged in the Pharaoh’s nose. The curtain is quickly drawn back by the Sem-priest. Here, the Sem-priest assures her that despite his shortcomings as king, the Pharaoh is being treated with respect so as to ensure his passage through the afterlife. During this conversation, he also alludes to the unborn king she is carrying. The embalming process continues in the background.Chapter 3The General trains solitarily while contemplating the state of Egypt’s military. He has been unimpressed with the Pharaoh’s direction over the last year and knows that another year of drought will cripple the army. It was the king’s plan to engage the Syrians in battle to conquer more territory for Egypt. The general has already lost many soldiers and is resentful at having to send his weakened army to their inevitable death. The scene then cuts to the next stage in the embalming process.Chapter 4The queen plays the ancient Egyptian game similar to chess called Senet in her chamber and contemplates if she is strong enough to lead Egypt. The general enters and advises her that he would have made a better move playing the game. He then tells her of the military situation and forcefully tells her of his alternate plans. The queen, faithful to the Pharaoh’s honour, stands strong and does not allow him to proceed as he wishes. Deflated, the general sits down, regains his composure and storms out. When he leaves, the queen puts her face into her arms, whimpers and wonders if she can continue to reign.The next stage of the embalming scene is then shown. The last image is that of the funerary mask placed over the Pharaoh’s face.36Chapter 5The scene opens with the queen sitting beside the casket at the funerary banquet. The hall is filled with wailing women and bearded men. The feast is laid out on the tables. As the queen asks for her kingdom to pray for the Pharaoh’s safe travels through the underworld, the Sem-priest and the general speak privately at the back of the room. They discuss the likelihood of the Pharaoh’s heart being pure enough to weigh lighter than the feather of Maat at the final judgement. Success would mean achieving solarisation and being one with Amun-Ra, while failure would mean having his soul devoured by Ammit, the beast that is part lion, hippopotamus and alligator. They also discuss their disapproval of the queen and her ability to lead. Both say that, if  she is unable, he would be the best option to replace her.Chapter 6The funeral march leaves the banquet and passes through the street. As the casket and its entourage cross the Nile, the queen looks at the water level and sighs depressingly. The group travels past the pyramids and through to the Valley of the Kings. The bird that has been a background character since the discovery of the body flies overhead as the narrator explains how, at death, the soul is divided in two: the ka, is the body that needs to be preserved; the ba, flies freely. The party enters the tomb and places the casket in its final resting place. The opening of the mouth ceremony is performed and, without anyone noticing, the bird flies into the tomb and passes into the coffin. After the ceremony, everyone leaves and the door to the tomb is closed behind them. Suddenly, in place of the casket, two eyes open wide. Scrambling, the Pharaoh finds a torch and lights it. Surprised and confused, he sits up and walks over to reads the hieroglyphs on the wall. Standing behind him, coming out of the shadows is Anubis. The last frame shows a terrified Pharaoh turning around to find that he is not alone.37Appendix 4: Sample script for storyboard of the first chapterScène 1 Dialogue Image ObjectifL’éveil du soleil. Les babouins sautent et crient dans le plan principal.On peut voir le palais dans la distance1.1. Babouin regarde au soleil1.2. Plan des babouins avec le palais en arrière planMis en scène.Zoom avant jusqu’au palais 1.3. Zoom statique Mis en scèneReine à la porte du palais, regardant dedans"Pharaon?" Je jure que je l’ai vu entrer par ici1.4. Reine encadrée dans la porte, regarde par une colonne.1.5. Gros plan de son visageIntroduction du personnageChacal apparaît derrière la reine. Les deux se voient.1.6. Plan inférieur du Chacal avec la reine dans le plan1.7. Reine regarde par son épauleTension dramatiqueIntroduction de l’élément spiritualistique (Anubis)Chacal gronde, montre ses dents1.8. Point de vue de la reineLentement la reine se recule et entre dans le palais1.9. Plan par l’épaule du chacalReine regarde derrière elle, chacal a disparu, elle se ressaisitBP (bulle de pensée) Maintenant je peux trouver mon amour. J’ai si hâte de le voir.1.10. Dos contre la colonne, chacal absent1.11. Plan moyenÉtablir une relation entre la reine et le pharaonReine reprend sa recherche pour le pharaon, souriant. On peut voir des images d’Anubis peints aux murs."Pharaon, je sais que tu es ici."« Ne sois pas méchant. Tu sais ce qui arrive aux égyptiens méchants, mon Pharaon »« Leurs cœurs pèsent trop lourds sur la balance d’Osiris, »« et leurs âmes sont dévorées par la bête »1.12.L’architecture du palais, hiéroglyphes visibles .1.13 .Grand plan de la reine, emphase sur son attitude1.14.Grand plan sur ses yeux, pupilles dilatéesIntroduction du thème religieux principal, introduction de l’élément déclencheurReine voit du sang et décide avec hésitation de le suivre à son origine« S’il vous plaît, Ra. Ce ne peut pas.. .être comment il apparaît »1.15. Plan avec du sang1.16. Reine avec le sang sur le doigtCréer la tension,Établir un disjoint entre les attentes du pharaon et38« Rien ne peut blesser le ..un dieu. »1.17. Silhouette de la reinela réalitéReine aperçoit le cadavre du pharaon1.18. Grand plan des yeux1.19. Reine avance lentement vers le cadavre. Pharaon en plan principal, reine arrière plan. Angle bas de vision.Reine roule le cadavre vers elle, confirme qu’il est le pharaon« LE PHARAON EST MORT! »1.20. Reine avec le pharaon dans ses bras, la couronne d’Égypte en deux à côtéLes mots rebondissent aux murs autour du palais, entendu par plusieurs gens surpris Les mots forment ensuite le titre du tome pour la page titre.Scène 2Point de vue d’en hautReine au plancher avec le pharaon en état de chagrin2.21. Vue d’un haut angle, point de vue d’un oiseauCommencer à établir une connexion entre l’âme du pharaon, l’oiseau et la reineSilhouette d’un oiseau dans les rayons solaires2.22. Avec les larmes aux yeux, reine regarde vers le cielContact visuel fait entre les deux2.23 Grand plan sur yeux de l’oiseau 2.24. Grand plan sur yeux de la reineEntrée de la foule, confusion et pandémonium2.25 Différentes expressions des égyptiens de surprise et de choqueEntrée du prêtre 2.26. Entrée dramatique avec un regard de choqueLe prêtre fait la surveillance de la scène, montre la surprise, chagrin, détermination et ensuite confiance.« Silence!!! Savez-vous ce que ceci veut dire?!!2.27 Entrée dramatique avec un regard de choque (contée)La foule tombe silencieux et le regarde avec le peur« Le pharaon a été évoqué pour être jugé devant le tribunal devin2.28. a) Différents plans du prêtre et de la foule. DeIntroduire le rôle du prêtre.39des 42 dieux »« Egypte est en danger! Le Ma’at est malcontent! Il faut qu’on adore aux temples pour plaire les dieux. Soyez effrayés, c’est presque la saison de l’inondation! »l’arrière, et de devant.2.28. b) La reine et le pharaon, vus seulement des jambes de la fouleIl est absolument convaincu par ce qu’il ditLa foule commence à parler entre eux2.29Visages apeurés de la fouleMontre la puissance de la parole du prêtrePrêtre content avec la façon par laquelle il a pris charge de la situation2.30 a)Plan du visage du prêtre, après avoir parlé, confiantDéveloppement du personnageSon des pas lourds, la foule tombe silencieux2.30 b) Expressions de surprise de la foule et du prêtreEntre le général avec deux soldats2.31 Général regarde la foule, le cadavre, le prêtre, et puis baisse la tête.Reine crie au général « Où étais-tu?!!!! »2.32 Reine enragée, toujours avec le pharaon2.33 Général est sans parole, plan vers le haut pour démontrer sa présence physiqueIntroduction du général et de sa puissance.Général reprend la confiance, parle à la reine, puis au prêtre« Le pharaon a dit à ses gardes de lui laisser. Il les a considérés déplacés. Il a dit que Rê le protégerait. »« Alors mon prêtre, c’est ceci la protection divine? »2.34 Général parle calmement à la reine2.34 A changé de regard, fâché.Introduction de la tension entre le général et le prêtreGénéral et prêtre se regardent, ni l’un niPrêtre « Le pharaon a abandonné les anciens2.35 2.36 Le contact visuel est établi entre les40l’autre est impressionné dieux et ancienne coutumes de l’Égypte. Il passait son temps en adorant seulement le soleil. Pour ceci... les dieux n’offrent aucune protection. »deux2.37 Le prêtre continue,Le général n’est pas satisfait Hurmph..2.38 Plan consiste du visage entier du généralLe prêtre reste en contrôle de la situation« Les porteurs! Emmène le pharaon au Wabat pour être préparé pour son voyage vers le royaume de morts. Les scribes, préparez le tombeau! Les hommes, laissez poussez vos barbes. »« En 70 jours, nous ferons le voyage la vallée des rois!! »2.41 Le prêtre est devant la foule avec le doigt pointé2.40 Zoom avant au prêtreQuand le prêtre commence à partir, la reine lui prend le bras« Prêtre, faites certain que vous le fassiez BIEN! Vous me comprenez? »2.41 La reine et le prêtre sont nez à nezPrêtre répond avec le visage sans émotion« Ne vous inquiétez pas, ma reine. Je vous assure qu’il recevra le traitement royal. »2.42 Grand plan du prêtre, point de vue de la reineLe prêtre quitte par la gauchePlan horizontal montrant la moitié de la foule partant avec le cadavre du pharaonGénéral quitte par la droitePlan similaire, l’autre moitié de la foule part avec luiReine laissée seule2.43 Vue du haut, reine à ses genoux, entourée du sang. Les ombres des gens partants visibles vers le bord de la vignetteMontrer la solitude de la reine41Appendix 5: Progression of concept a r t th roughout the w riting process of the graphic novelTU DOIS ME LAISSER POUR TRflVAlLLBR POUR LB PHARAONigure 1. A concept drawing of the boy and his father from the original story idea.C’EST IE  PHARAON!Figure 2. Experimenting with the idea of comic relief in the story42Figure 4. Development of character and art styleFigure 6. Development of character and art style44Figure 7. Development of character and art styleFigure 8. Development of page layout45y ,PFigure 9. Development o f page layout46Appendix o: imroaucuon aux oanaes aessmeesLeçon 1 : Introduction aux bandes dessinéesDurée:30-45 minMatériel:Une collection de bandes dessinées de différents styles et grandeurs.Tableau noir ou chevalet.Fiches de travailButs:Les élèves seront capables de créer leurs propres critères pour trier les bandes dessinées.Déroulement:-Introduisez les bandes dessinées à la classe, demandez aux élèves s’ils en reconnaissent.-Ensemble, faites un remue-méninge de comment les bandes dessinés sont similaires ou différentes à la littérature classique. Gardez le papier du chevalet pour la prochaine leçon.-Séparez les élèves en groupes de 4 à 6 ayant 3 à 4 albums par groupe.-Modélisez comment les albums peuvent être comparés en prenant deux comme exemple. Utilisez comme critères le style d’art, la grandeur, la comédie, la couleur etc.-En utilisant la fiche de travail, les élèves trouvent des différentes façons de comparer les différentes albums.-Si le soutien est nécessaire, donnez aux élèves de l’assistance durant le période de travail.-Afin de remplir la fiche de travail, les élèves ordonnent les BD selon leur préférence, et présentent leurs conclusions à la classe et selon les critères ils ont créés.Évaluation:Participation des membres du groupe.Gardez les fiches de travail pour la prochaine leçon.47Appendix 7: Classification des bandes dessinéesNom :Classification des bandes dessinéesTitre de la bande dessinée ^Caractéristique de la bande dessinée *48Appendix 8; Introduction aux conventions de la bande dessinéeLeçon 2: Introduction aux conventions de la bande dessinéeDurée: 45 mmMatérial:Une collection de bandes dessinées Présentation Powerpoint Fiche de travailButs:Les élèves seront capables d’identifier et reconnaître des conventions de la bande dessinée pour être mieux capables de comprendre les textes multimodaux.Déroulement:-Revisitez la dernière leçon et faites un remue-méninge de ce qui diffère la BD le la littérature classique.-Passez la présentation Powerpoint. Arrêtez au long de la présentation pour montrer des exemples des bandes dessinées dans votre collection et pour répondre aux questions des élèves.-Distribuez les fiches de travail et les BDs aux groupes de 3-4 élèves.-En utilisant des exemples trouvés dans leurs albums, les élèves identifient des conventions de la BD et fournissent des exemples et des explications.Évaluation:Formative: reprenez les fiches de travail pour assurer la compréhension.49Appendix 9: Powerpoint presentation for lesson 2: Introduction aux conventions de la bande dessinéeQu’est ce que c’est?• La bande dessinée (appelée des fois BD, ou bédé) est un art littéraire et graphique qui peut est utilisé pour raconter une îistoireLes cases ou les vignettes Les cases ou les vignettes• Elles peuvent être grades ou petites, motrer beaucoup ou presque rien.' ! ■  rLa vignette ou la case est l’unité de base de la bande dessinnée. Elle contient normalement les mots et les images.50Le bandeau* Suite horizontale de cases.SOUVENT LES BANDES DESSINEES DANS LES JOURNEAUX SONT SEULEMENT UN BANDEAU DE LONê.La planche» La collection de toutes les cases de la page.• Souvent organisé sur plusieurs lignesLes boîtes narratives» Souvent aident à expliquer l’image. ♦ Peut être la voix du narrateur.La gouttière"m* La gouttière est l'espace vide entre les cases.* Elle est souvent petite, mais beaucoup peut arriver dans cette petite espaceLes bulles•  La façon pour montrer la parole et la pensée des personnages dans une BD.•  Les différentes types de bulles montrent les différentes sortes de parole.ompmn w w ji  rtw .* 3Ç ftXtOL rà_Quelques exemples:51Les images et le texteLe planEN CHANGEANT UE PLAN, ON PEU T  T IR ER  L'OEIL DU  LECTEUR POUR METTRE L'EMPHASE SUR U S  ELEMENT DE L'fMÀSEUn plan très lapge,ou une vue de l'ensembleLe planUn plan largeC é Le planLe plan moyenLe planLe plan rapproché52ÈLe planLe plan très rapprochéLe point de vueVue à vol d'oiseauLe point de vue'‘Aie d une verre de terre53Appendix 10: Les conventions des bandes dessinéesNom :Les conventions des bandes dessinéesLa convention Un exemple Comment on l’utilise54f  f  fAppendix 11 : Les mots et les imagesëtët                    Leçon 3: Les mots et les imagesDurée:45 minMatérial:Image d’une conversation du choix du professeur.Buts:Les élèves pourront mieux comprendre la relation entre les mots et les images dans les bandes dessinées en manipulant chaque.Déroulement:-Montrez aux élèves l’image des gens en conversation et demandez leurs ce que chaque dit. Notez les différentes réponses au tableau. Démontrez comment les paroles peuvent changer le sens de l’image.-Donnez aux élèves la fiche ayant quatre images dont la bulle de parole est vide. Chacune sera remplie différemment alors que les images sont données les sens différents.-Faites un remue-méninge avec la classe pour créer 4-5 exemples de dialogue sans contexte et écrivez- les au tableau.-Les élèves prennent un de ces exemples et dessinent quatre images qui changent le sens du texte. Extension:Les élèves écrivent un paragraphe pour raconter l’histoire d’une vignette de l’exercice.ÉvaluationLes fiches de travail et l’écriture de l’élève.55Appendix 12: Le texte et l’imageNom :Le texte et l’ImageDans ces images, la bulle de parole a été laissée vide. Remplissez-la différemment chaque fois pour changer le sens des images.Copyright © [Christian Hill] via NACAE / of Use: texte et l’ImageDans ces cases, faites des dessins différents qui incorporent le dialogue crée en classeNom :_____________________57Appendix 13: Chapter questionsNom :LE PHARAON EST MORTAu long de votre lecture, répondez aux questions suivantes.Chapitre lAu début de l’histoire, quelle est la situation politique du royaume du pharaon?Pourquoi est le fleuve si important pour les égyptiens?Quelle était le premier indice qu’il y avait quelque chose n ’allait pas bien pour le pharaon?Pourquoi le prêtre croit-il que les dieux se sont fâchés contre le pharaon?Pourquoi, la reine, est-elle enragée vers le général?Ni le général, ni le prêtre avait l’air trop choqué, ni triste de voir que le pharaon a été tué. Selon les indices donnés, expliquez pourquoi.59Au long de votre lecture, répondez aux questions suivantes.Chapitre 4D’après la conversation entre la reine et le prêtre, croyez-vous que l’un respecte l’autre? Pourquoi?Nom :______________________LE PHARAON EST MORTDe quel secret parle le prête? Comment ce secret pourrait-t-il affecter les futures décisions de la reine?60Pourquoi est le cadavre du pharaon lavé avec le vin de palme et l’eau du fleuve?Croyez-vous que la reine devrait suivre le conseil du prêtre?61Au long de votre lecture, répondez aux questions suivantes.Chapitre 3Ceci est la deuxième fois qu’on est introduit au général. Quel est son attitude vers le pharaon? Le prêtre? La reine?Nom :____________________LE PHARAON EST MORTComment la sécheresse pourrait-elle influencer les projets militaires des ennemies d’Égypte?62LE PHARAON EST MORTAu long de votre lecture, répondez aux questions suivantes. Chapitre 4À quoi joue la reine au début du chapitre?Nom :__________Quelles seraient les difficultés d’assumer le règne d’Égypte?Pourquoi, croyez-vous que la reine est résistante aux idées du général?Mettes-vous à la place du général. Écrivez un paragraphe de ses pensées dès le moment que la reine a refusé son conseil jusqu’au moment qu’il quitte la pièce.Nom :LE PHARAON EST MORTAu long de votre lecture, répondez aux questions suivantes. Chapitre 5Où est-ce que ce chapitre a lieu? Qu’est ce qui se passe dans la scène?Qu’est-ce que c’est la balance d’Osiris?65D’après ce que vous savez du pharaon à ce point, est-ce que son cœur pèsera plus lourd que la plume de Maat? Expliquez votre réponse?Croyez-vous que la reine pourra maintenir contrôle de l’Égypte? Expliquez.Selon vous, entre le général et le prêtre, lequel serait le meilleur choix de devenir pharaon?Au long de votre lecture, répondez aux questions suivantes.Chapitre 6Qu’est ce que la reine remarque lorsqu’elle traverse le fleuve? Pourquoi est-ce que c’est important?Nom :____________________LE PHARAON EST MORTCroyez-vous que les autres personnages ont remarqué l’oiseau?Que pensez-vous de la fin de l’album? Que pensez-vous arrivera en prochain?68Les cercles de lectureDurée:3 semaines,Matériel :Le pharaon est mortUn autre album de bande dessinée, Astérix ou Tintin, par exemple.Les duotangs et le papier Fiches pédagogiquesButs:Les élèves travaillent ensemble pour collectivement gagner une meilleur compréhension des éléments visuels, textuels et historiques de Le pharaon est mort.Déroulement:-Expliquez aux élèves chaque rôle du cercle de lecture par modéliser comment faire chacune avec la bande dessinée choisie.-Chaque élève fait le travail de chaque rôle pour la même page que les autres membres de la classe pour assurer que les rôles sont bien compris.-En groupes de quatre, les élèves font la rotation parmi les rôles différents du cercle de lecture. Les dates de rencontre sont déterminées avant de commencer la lecture. Caque élève lit le chapitre nécessaire pour la prochaine réunion sans aller plus loin et prépare son travail. Durant le rencontre, chaque élève, à tour, partage son travail avec les autres. Les autres peuvent lui poser des questions ou offrir aussi leurs opinions. Après le rencontre, les élèves écrivent dans leur journal de ce que les autres ont présenté et ce qu’ils en pensent. Ils écrivent aussi une entrée personnelle à propos de sentiments, ses opinions et les liens faits avec la bande dessinée.-Les rôles :-L’analyste graphique choisit trois vignettes du chapitre pour présenter au groupe. Il peut écrire à propos de la taille de la vignette, le montant de texte, le montant de détail, son contexte dans l’histoire, la qualité de l’art, le point de vue, le plan, etc.Le raconteur fait un résumé des événements du chapitre et fait une prédiction de ce quivient.-Le clairvoyant décrit les pensés d’un personnage d’une vignette de son choix. Pour déterminer ses pensés il utilise le contexte de l’histoire, son expression et ses actions.-L’historien fait de la recherche à propos d’un élément historique trouvé dans la BD, par exemple : les pyramides, le Baa, la bête, etc.Évaluation:Évaluation de soi:-Les élèves remplient un formulaire d’évaluation basé sur sa préparation et participation. Évaluation magistrale :-Après chaque réunion, ramassez les duotangs comprenant le journal, les fiches de travail et l’évaluation de soi et attribuez les notes selon la qualité de travail écrit et comment bien l’élève travail avec les autres.Nom Date Chap.Pourquoi est l’image intéressante ?Quelle est sa connexion à l’histoire ?EffetPageBandeauVignetteEffetPageBandeauVignetteEffetPageBandeauVignetteNom : Date Chap.Page :_______ Bandeau__________ Vignette.Ce que j ’ai trouvé :71Nom Date Chap.Ce que le personnage pensePageBandeauVignettePersonnagePageBandeauVignettePersonnage72Appendix 16 : Literature circle sett-evaluationNom : Date Chap.Mon auto-évaluation © © ©Je suis arrivé(e) préparé(e)J’ai bien partagé mes idéesJ’ai fait mon travail de mon mieuxJ’ai bien écouté aux autresJ’ai bien écris dans mon journalDate : Chap.Mon auto-évaluation © © ©Je suis arrivé(e) préparé(e)J’ai bien partagé mes idéesJ’ai fait mon travail de mon mieuxJ’ai bien écouté aux autresJ’ai bien écris dans mon journalDate : Chap.Mon auto-évaluation © © ©Je suis arrivé(e) préparé(e)J’ai bien partagé mes idéesJ’ai fait mon travail de mon mieuxJ’ai bien écouté aux autresJ’ai bien écris dans mon journal74Appendix 17: Les projets finals/Nom :LE PHARAON EST MORTLes projets finalsÉcritureReprenez une scène de la bande dessinée et réécrivez-la comme elle était dans un roman traditionnelle. N ’oubliez pas de décrire la scène et les personnages. Il est à vous de prendre toute l’information contenue dans l’image et le raconter à ton public. (2 pages)Prenez une case de ton choix de la bande dessinée et analysez-la. Mettez-la dans le contexte de la scène en disant ce qui y arrive et ce qui s’est passée avant. Dans votre analyse, discutez le suivant :-la raison pour votre choix de cette case -son importance dans l’histoire -le texte-Il y a-t-il une boîte textuelle?-Est-ce que les personnages parlent beaucoup?-Comment est-ce que les auteurs montrent si quelqu’un crie ou chuchote?-l’image-le plan-le point de vue-tout ce qu’on peut voir-comment les auteurs démontrent les émotions75Art dramatique : (en groupe)Prenez une scène de l’album, écrivez un scénario et démontrez-la devant la classe. N ’oubliez pas de représenter toute le dialogue et les actions.Vous serez évaluer sur :-la qualité d’écriture du scénario,-la clarté des paroles,-l’utilisation de la voix et les gestes pour communiquer les émotionsArt visuel :Refaites la couverture pour l’album. Incorporez les éléments de l’histoire que vous trouvez importants. Votre couverture devrait comprendre le suivant : -Le titre et le nom des auteurs, le numéro ISBN -Une image représentant l’histoire-Un bref sommaire de l’histoire à la quatrième de la couvertureEn format de BD, écrivez la suite de la dernière scène de l’album. Imaginez comment ces deux personnages réagiraient dans cette circonstance. Incorporez les mouvements, les expressions et le texte. Votre BD doit être d’une longueur de deux pages.Récréez une ou deux pages de l’album en utilisant un style de dessin différent. Vous pouvez représenter les personnages, par exemple, comme les Simpson, comme les enfants de South Park, en manga, ou tout simplement de votre style de dessin personnel. Si vous le voulez, vous pouvez changer le plan, le point de vue ou le nombre et la grandeur des cases à moins que l’histoire reste la même76


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