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Weaving words and images : using visual strategies to improve idea generation and writing strategies… Dennis, Esther Lenore 2010-11

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WEAVING WORDS AND IMAGES:USING VISUAL STRATEGIES TO IMPROVE IDEA GENERATIONAND WRITING STRATEGIES OF PRIMARY WRITERS 1ByESTHER LENORE DENNISB.Ed (Elem.) The University of British Columbia, 1986 Dip. Ed (English as a Second Language) The University of British Columbia, 1994 A GRADUATING PAPER SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF EDUCATION inTHE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Language and Literacy EducationWe accept this major paper as conformingtc/tl e required siDr. Theresa Rogers graduate Advisor)THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIANovember 2010E. L. Dennis, 2010ACKNOWLEDGEMENTI would like to first thank all the young, artistic, articulate children o f this study who over the course of the time together welcomed me into their stories. I thank them for sharing their responses with me so that I could understand their ways with art and language. To Jan McIntyre, a friend and colleague, I thank you for your support and sense of humour in and out of the classroom during the course of the study.During the course of my master's journey, the voices of many people have insured my success. Each voice provided a unique role and I am most grateful for their support. The experienced voices of my advisor, Dr. Theresa Rogers, provided me with feedback to foster my growth as a researcher. To my cohort members, I thank you for your considerable support and reassurance. Traveling on this journey together has been an adventure, and I will always treasure the friendships that have formed. Thank you Juanita, and Kelly, for the cups o f tea and lengthy talks. I will keep you on my speed dial!My deepest thanks I extend to my family. To my mentor and greatest cheerleader, my mom. Your patience, understanding, and empathetic ear have enabled me to have the courage to fulfill my drehm. To my sister, Tracy Saddul, who has always been my best friend, I appreciate the many hours of commiserating about life over few glasses of wine.To my children, I owe the most appreciation. They have traveled the bumpiest part o f the journey with me, and have done so with unwavering love and understanding. Tiana, you have been one of my biggest cheerleaders. You are a literary and artistic talent in your own right. My own journey may have ended, but I hope to follow you on many of your own. Bradon and Zachary, you are my true inspirations. Your own curiousities about drawing and writing inspiredWeaving Words and Images , iime to explore the natural way in which you shared your imaginations with me. It was your work that lead me to do mine.My greatest appreciation goes to the supportive, reassuring voice o f my husband, Lloyd. You knew a Masters was a goal before I even had the courage to speak the words. Thank you for the endless flow of coffee, home cooked meals and knowing when to take the kids out of the house. Your constant love, encouragement, and patience (and lots of it) nourished me during my journey. My accomplishment here is most appropriately shared with you.Weaving Words and Images iiiABSTRACTThis eight week study supports the view that literacy learning is multimodal and it contributes to existing research (Dyson, 1986; Hubbard, 1989; Olshansky, 2006; Skupa, 1985) on the “communicability of drawing and writing as vehicles through which children make and share meaning” (Leigh & Heid, 2008, p .l). Focused on using visual art, specifically drawing, in the planning stages before and during the writing process, this study was conducted to explore if there is a value in privileging the role o f drawing to improve children’s writing stamina and idea generation. The subjects were 17 grade two and three students in an elementary classroom. Data collected consisted o f teacher observational notes, conferences with children, a survey, and portfolios of the children's writing and drawing. Patterns and themes were identified, relating to their (a) use o f drawing as a pre- writing or planning strategy, (b) use o f drawing to overcome writer’s block and reducing cognitive demands, (c) drawings as idea banks, (d) affective responses to drawing and writing, (e) recursive use of writing and drawing, and (f) embedding o f writing in drawings. On the basis of these patterns, inferences were made about writtep language development and the power in children's use of art, specifically drawing, when it is valued as a conduit for understanding how children construct meaning. It was concluded that drawing, before and during the writing process, at least in terms of the generation of ideas and children's stamina for writing tasks, is an effective form of planning for writing. Given the very diversity in personal learning styles, and ways o f knowing, there is a real benefit for children to approach the writing process using alternative modes of representation.Keywords', literacy learning, multimodal, planning, drawing, writing.Weaving Words and ImagesWeaving Words and Images vTABLE OF CONTENTSTitle Page .................................   iAcknowledgment .......................................................  ; ............iiAbstract ...............................................................................................................................ivTable of Contents ............................................................................................................... vList of Tables ...........................................................  viList of F igures...............................................................  viCHAPTER 1. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY..................  1CHAPTER 2. LITERATURE REVIEW ........................   2Building a Context for Multimodal Possibilities ofRepresentation in Writing..............   3Between Words and Images: A Dialogical View...........................  4Drawing Into Meaning: A Pre-Writing Strategy............................  7Valuing the Process of Weaving Stories and Images:The Art of Writing  .........................................................................   8Bridging Symbol Systems: A Pedagogical Shift............................. 11Looking Forward: Educational Implications ...................................12CHAPTER 3. METHOD....................................................................  14Research Design................................................................................. 14Research S ite ......................................................................................14Participants ........................................................................................ 15Procedures / Data Sources and Collection................................... 16Pre-Instructional Observations and Mini-lessons 17Writing Process and Conferencing....................................... 18Post-Instructional Assessment...............................................19Data Sources  ..............................................................................19Anecdotal / Observational Notes..........................................20Portfolios of Writing and Drawing Samples...................... 20Conferences / Interviews....................................................... 21Student Surveys...................................................................... 21Analysis.................................................................................................21Organizing and Coding the Survey Data.............................. 21Organizing and Coding Qualitative Data -Conferences, Field Notes, Portfolios................................... 21Weaving Words and ImagesCHAPTER 4. FINDINGS...................................................................................................... 22Identifying Themes and Patterns in QuantitativeSurvey Data ......................................................................................22Drawing as a Pre-Writing or Planning Strategy............... 23Utilizing Drawing to Overcome Writer's Blockand Reducing Cognitive Demands....................................... 24Drawing as an Idea Bank. ....................................................24Children's Affective Response to Drawing andW riting....................................................................................25Identifying Themes and Patterns in Qualitative D a ta  25Drawing as a Pre-Writing or Planning Strategy...............26Utilizing Drawing to Overcome Writer's Block andReducing Cognitive Demands.............................................28Drawing as an Idea Bank .............................................   29Mode-Switching: Use of Writing and DrawingRecursively...............................  31Writing Embedded In Drawing............................................32CHAPTER 5. DISCUSSION................................................................................................. 34REFERENCES........................................................................................................................................APPENDICES..................................................................................   401. Storyboard Planning Sheet......................................................................... 412. Conference Guide...................................  423. Student Survey..............................................................................................434. Conference Guide Transcriptions o f Semi-structuredand Spontaneous Conferences .................................................... 445. Coded Conference Transcripts..................................................................52LIST OF TABLESTable 1: Student Survey: Visual Strategies to Improve Idea Generation and Writing Stamina of Primary Writers Table 2: Written Text Features Embedded in DrawingsLIST OF FIGURESFigure 1: Student Survey: Preference for Initiating Writing ProcessFigure 2: Student Survey: Changing and Adding to Writing and / or DrawingFigure 3: Student Survey: Students' Affective Response to Writing and DrawingFigure 4: Ethan's drawing helps to explain the storyFigure 5: Drawing helps Julio continue writingFigure 6: Drawing serves as an idea bank for ChristopherFigure 7: Becky illustrates when there is roomFigure 8: Writing and drawing intermingle in Ethan's picturePURPOSE OF STUDYAs a primary teacher, with close to 20 years of experience, I have often struggled with tapping children's funds of knowledge during writing tasks. I haye provided opportunities to plan writing using: a variety of story maps and organizers, and still my students struggle with clarifying and elaborating on ideas and adding details. Yet, too often, the common refrains have been centred on not knowing what to write about and/or not having details to add to their writing. Drawing was something I discouraged until writing tasks were complete; instead, it was often done in the final, or publishing, stage of the writing process. For many of my students, this final step was the most enjoyable part of the process and when conferencing with students I became drawn to the realization that they spoke to their drawings and illustrations almost more than the written texts.'It was5 when my twin sons began writing their first stories at the kitchen table that I had an awakening. For my boys, drawing and colouring pictures, which they would later sequence and staple into booklets, was the first step in what had become a favourite pastime. Following their image-making, they put words to their pictures, both orally and in writing. Drawing as one means by which they registered their conceptions of the world, allowed them to produce tangible, concrete connections to what they knew. The composing, more abstract in its form, came after their visual representations o f their ideas.Drawing for some children could be a means to explore, to plan, for writing tasks. I began to wonder what would happen if children were encouraged to first use symbol systems other than writing to tap into their own ideas before and during the composing process. Could using visual strategies such as drawing result in more ideas emerging in their writing and would their writing stamina improve? Given opportunities to use image-making, or drawing to beWeaving Words and Images 1specific, I wondered if  as a planning process my students would more readily be able to generate and organize ideas, and set goals for writing.I am curious if there is value in allowing students to use visual strategies, specifically drawing, in the planning stages and throughout the writing process. For instance, I wonder if drawing provides writers with the means of clarifying and elaborating on their ideas in such aiway as to make the recall o f their ideas more accessible. The purpose of this study is to explore the role that drawing has in the writing process of learners in my grade 2/3 classroom. In particular, I want to know whether young writers use drawing as a planning tool before writing, and/or as a recursive tool during and following writing.LITERATURE REVIEWRecent research has investigated writing as one of several available systems of communication and explored the expansive benefits and values inherent in allowing children to make meaning in many ways before, and during, mastering writing (Dyson, 1986; Hubbard,1989; Kress, 1997). According to Vygotsky (1962), the origins o f children's writing development lie in the relatively concrete symbol systems of play and drawing and as such a growing number o f educators influenced by this line of thinking support a multimodal view of beginning writing (Frankel, 1993; Kendrick & McKay, 2004; Leigh & Heid, 2008). Many scholars too have demonstrated ways in which young students spontaneously use alternative symbolic forms such as drawing to add depth and meaning to their writing (Dyson, 1986; Karnowski, 1986, Rowe, 1994). The relationship between drawing and writing have also been discussed in relation to children's planning strategies for writing and suggest that drawing benefits the emergent writer in that it acts as a  form of rehearsal enabling children to gain more control of the processs of generating and organizing their ideas (Norris, Mokhtari, & Reichard, 1998; Olshansky, 1994,Weaving Words and Images 22006; Skupa, 1985).Building a Context for Multimodal Possibilities of Representation in WritingWriting is a complicated and challenging task, especially for young children. It is a conscious and self-directed pursuit, involving the knowledgeable use o f a variety o f mental operations and skills to satisfy the writer's goals and meet the needs of the reader. As a result, a writer must deal with many demands at once. As Flowers and Hayes (1981) noted, a good writer is a person who can juggle all of the demands on their attention simultaneously. The acts of planning, drawing ideas from memory, developing concepts and creating an image for the reader require a high degree of self-regulation, cognitive effort, and attentional control. Because so little of the writing process is automatic for children, they must “devote conscious attention to a variety of individual thinking tasks which adults perform quickly and automatically” (Flowers and Hayes, p. 374).Writing, then, can be a complex and demanding task that many children find difficult to master. Children's difficulties with learning to write have led to many researchers to explore ways in which children use drawing alongside other visual modes o f representation to create and express complex meanings about their worlds, as a means to investigate children's knowledge and understanding o f particular topics, and as a way of facilitating idea generation for writing. This review is intended to explore literature that could help to define my queries about children's ability to express ideas through visual modes to support their writing. The review will also examine the notion that using young children's drawings about reading and writing as an innovative way of investigating their perceptions and understandings of literacy across broad contexts of their lives is often neglected in schools. The neglect of the multimodal possibilities of representation engaged in by children has been a limitation rather than a stimulus to humanWeaving Words and Images 3creativity and innovation (Millard & Marsh, 2001) and schools must challenge the politics of classroom practices that privilege language dependent modes o f representation over other modes. Between Words and Images: A Dialogical ViewChildren whose language, culture, and experiences are different from that of mainstream children or whose modes of communication and expression do not fit the expected classroom discourse can often find verbocentric activities to be impediments to their ability to convey meaning. There can be an imbalance between the flow of their ideas and their ability to get the words down on paper when they try to represent their images in writing. Through drawing, children can generate new ideas and refine their writing by adding detail. Drawing may also help children organize their writing. Thus, children often need another form such as visual arts to support or express their ideas and they should be encouraged to use drawing and writing to generate meaning. Integrating drawing and writing is a way of motivating students to write and enjoy doing it. However, while it may be bold to state that drawing always should take place before writing occurs, Norris, Mokhtari, and Reichard (1998) argue that perhaps it would be more reasonable to suggest that drawing before writing could become a valuable extension of the overall writing curriculum in the classroom. In trying to integrate the arts with writing, if  done only superficially through illustrating after writing, educators still emphasize the conventional definition of literacy as privileging language over other representational modes.Researchers focusing on reluctant readers and writers, in particular, identified as “at-risk”, discuss why some students need visual, kinesthetic, and tactile sensory experiences to become more involved in the reading and writing process. Writing as a multimodal experience, as evidenced in how young children convey meaning to others using many different communication systems, is a prevalent and common direction in much of the literature I explored. In her study ofWeaving Words and Images . 4the writing behaviours o f young children, Karnowski (1986) asserts children use what is known about one system to support the understanding of another system. For example, they use everything they know about communicating in oral language, art, music, and drama in order to make sense of the writing process and to communicate to an audience. Karnowski (1986) investigated and described the writing behaviours of children aged three to five. Data obtained through videotapes were analyzed paying particular attention to the expressions of language, the types of communication systems used by young writers, and the forms of writing they attempted when writing occurred in a natural, unrestrictive setting. The data supported the conclusions that a supportive atmosphere allows children the freedom to use alternative forms of communicationfand to experiment with a range of products and that children use alternative forms oficommunication while writing.Scholars such as James Gee (1990) and Gunther Kress (1997) advocate against the dichotomy of visual literacy versus linguistic literacy. Instead, they stress the necessity of accepting the co-presence of linguistic literacies and visual literacies as interacting and interlacing modalities which complement one another in the meaning making process. Many researchers, however, working from semiotic perspectives have noted that school literacy events typically privilege authoring practices that isolate print from other sign systems.Millard and Marsh (2001) examined how the current emphasis on technical accuracy and neatness in handwriting has worked to limit the drawing in children's construction of text. They suggest that this tendency has adverse consequences for the development of pupil confidence as authors of their own meanings, particularly marked in young boys. Millard and Marsh (2001) report findings from their interviews of pupils who were asked to make value judgments about the writing they have completed in school and to identify their preferred modes of expression.Weaving Words and Images 5Their findings show that teachers' attitudes toward the use of drawing in the writing process affect the way in which children approach the use of diverse sign systems. In classrooms where they were generally free to pursue writing tasks as they wished, children, stated they preferredi sdrawing before writing because this helped them to think about the content of their compositions when writing: simple recounts of their lives or when asked to write stories. The children appeared to use drawing in an integral way in their written work and there was a “strong dialogic relationship between the word and image” (Millard and Marsh, p. 59).In another classroom setting, students were restricted to writing first and only on one page. Not surprisingly, responses of the children when asked if they preferred to draw or write first were effected. In this setting, students preferred writing first to ensure they had enough room, or space (Millard and Marsh, 2001). This parallels Skupa’s dissertation (1985) in which the writings of three groups of elementary students were analyzed: those permitted to draw and look at their drawings before writing, those permitted to draw but not look at their drawings before writing (blind drawers), and those who were not permitted to draw at all before writing. The data show that those permitted to draw and look at their drawings wrote best.Whereas Millard and Marsh (2001) focus bn the role of drawing in children's construction of texts to enhance and stimulate the writing process, another approach to integrating the use of visual imagery throughout the various stages of writing is illustrated in the ongoing investigations of Olshansky (2006) into the "art" of writing. In her efforts to provide a captivating pathway into writing for children with diverse learning styles, she introduces real artists’ materials into writer’s workshops. In several studies of children in the arts-based literacy program, the Image-Making Process, research findings supported teachers' observations that adding a rich Visual and sensory component to the writing process not only dramatically enrichedWeaving Words and Images ' 6children's story making, but also enhanced their finished pieces (Frankel, 1993; Olshansky,i2006). Stories demonstrate a far greater use of descriptive language, had more highly developed plots, had a stronger beginning, middle and end, and demonstrated a more cohesive literary quality (Frankel, 1993).Drawing Into Meaning: A Pre-Writing StrategyNorris, Mokhtari, & Reichard (1998) examined the unique kinship of drawing and!writing during the planning phases o f third-grade children's writing and their use of drawing and other art activities as pre-writing strategies. Their findings indicate that drawing became an effective planning strategy for the students who appeared to rely on their drawings as a reference point to prompt them toward what they should come up with next in their writing. Comparing the writing products of third-graders who either drew before writing on a self-selected topic to those who wrote before drawing, the researchers discovered significant differences in the writing products. Thd students in the group that drew before writing tended to produce more words, more sentences and more idea units, and their overall writing performance was higher than the students who wrote without drawing. The findings were consistent for boys, and as well as for girls. Such results indicate that the act of drawing before writing appeared to be beneficial to writing performance among the children in the experimental group.Caldwell and Moore (1991) illustrate a second approach to using drawing as a practical and effective 'form of rehearsal for narrative writing. The researchers compared the effects of planning activities involving drama and drawing with the traditional planning activity, discussion, oh the quality of narrative writing of second and third graders. The results of the analysis of the writing quality of both the drawing-group and the control-group indicates that there was a statistically significant difference and that the average gain of students in the drawingWeaving Words and Images 7group was above the average gain of students in the control group (Caldwell and Moore, 1991). The researchers’ data clearly support their hypothesis that participation in drawing leads to a difference in writing quality, in comparison with participation in discussion. The researchers concluded that “drawing is a viable and effective form of rehearsal for narrative writing at the second- and third-grade levels and can be more successful than the traditional planning activity, discussion” (Caldwell and Moore, 1991, p. 216).In her informal research project, Carroll (1991) observed middle- and high-school students in the act of writing and wondered if drawing, scribbling, and doodling could be a powerful writing tool in middle and high schools. Using drawing as a prewriting technique and as a springboard for further writing, Carroll's (1991) data suggest that students tend to “use drawing as a basic response then move in hierarchical, heuristical ways from the known, or graphical representations, to discoveries, to transformations, and on to higher levels of knowing” (p. 38). She hypothesized that meaning embodied in a graphic symbol leads to symbolic expression. More clearly explained perhaps is her notion that perceptual skills used when drawing enhance thinking skills. She proposes that along with brainstorming, mapping, and other prewriting strategies, students should be encouraged to draw into meaning, whether as prewriting for their impromptu or extensive pieces, or as initial responses to literature.Valuing the Process of Weaving Stories and Images: The Art of WritingTeacher attitudes play an important role in giving visual expression value. It is evident that in most primary grades, visual expression has a more esteemed place because the writing skills of children are not as refined or well developed as their visual skills. As writing skills improve, the Value placed on visual skills in older grades decreases. With devaluation, the visual and verbal partnership can easily break down, and consequently I would argue that the two formsWeaving Words and Images 8would no lonjger benefit from their initial, and in my view, quite; natural, complementarities. Indeed there seems to be an overriding concern in much of the literature reviewed, specifically that somehow as they travel up the ladder of academe, students are educated out of using drawing as a Way of meaning; that somehow drawing belongs to little kids (Millard and Marsh, 2001; Carroll; 1991). Although “drawing can also act as a bridge from one symbol system to another, from image to word” (Kendrick and McKay, 2004, p. 124), the use of drawing in schools as a way o f representing meanings and as a tool for learning is depressingly restricted. The concerns that on entering formal school, the messages children receive from the culture of classrooms is that the modes of representation that are valued are formal symbolic modes of literacy and numeracy whereas teachers perceive drawing as useful for occupational or recreational piurposes. Ironically as children are cultured into academic achievements, they lose out on opportunities to engage in alternative modes of representation/symbolic systems, which may offer opportunities for cognitive challenge at higher levels. Thus, while pushing children to perform academically in the early stages of schooling, we underestimate them intellectually and their capabilities in using alternative modes of representation as tools for learning wither away.Teachers and educators need to be more understanding of differences in the modes in which pupils choose to make sense o f their social and cultural contexts (Millard and Marsh, 2001). There are several studies (e.g., Frankel, 1993; Olshansky, 2006) that have shown dramatic increases in writing skills after implementation o f Image-Making Within the Writing Process. In her study, Olshansky's (2006) primary instructional focus was on integrating art into her dailyiclassroom curriculum, and to validate children as authors and illustrators. She soon developed a greater vision of an image making or “picture writing” process as a stimulus for writing. She contends that because visual imagery, kinesthetic experience, and oral and written language areWeaving Words and Images 9equally valued and supported, the program gives children the freedom to follow their unique creative processes as they discover and weave stories in picture and images. Her approach serves to “awaken the imaginations and creativity of young authors and illustrators” (Olshansky, 1994,jp. 351) and as numerous studies have shown, is most beneficial with groups of students categorized as at-risk.•iIn her two-year research study, Dr. Susan Frankel (1993) also examined the effect ofImage-Making Within the Writing Process on student writing. Several aspects of story*development such as beginning, middle, end, plot development, cohesiveness, and the use of descriptive language as well as the overall quality of the story were looked at. When comparing the writing samples from the treatment group to those of the comparison group, research findings revealed students in the treatment group significantly outperformed students in the comparison group. While'writing topics were more varied and imaginative, story plots were-more fully developed, had a stronger sense of beginning, middle, and ending, were better crafted, and often had a more literary quality. Rich descriptive language was also more prevalent, even in the stories of emerging first grade writers (Frankel, 1993). If  one considers the crafting of stories and poems as an art form, then one must view children's use of written language and visual arts as an expression o f ideas generated through their image making. By being encouraged to use their imaginations to draw images, children are free to explore new ideas. Significant improvement in the use and quality of visual elements for the purpose of conveying their ideas, was markedly evident in the writing of students who had participated in the picturing writing and image- making processes as compared to students who had not (Frankel, 1993).Weaving Words and Images 10Bridging Symbol Systems: A Pedagogical ShiftViewing writing as a multimodal experience looks at alternative expressions of language, such as speaking, listening, and reading, and the alternative communication systems, such as oral language, art,' music, and drama, as they are included in the writing event. Young children convey meaning to others using many different communication systems and they use what isknown about one system to support understanding of another system (Karnowski, 1986). Writingiis but one system of communication. It is one way to transform meaning. Just as children seem to be actively constructing their knowledge about written language, they also seem to be going through the same active construction with the various alternative communications. In other words, they use the more familiar communication systems to add depth and meaning to their newly acquired skill of writing (Karnowski, 1986).By looking at the visual arts as a pathway for engaging children in the writing process, educators might explore looking-to-write as a different way to start writing and to explore how visual arts expresses meaning in different ways than other modes of representation common to the school experience. Several researchers suggest that educators can weave opportunities to engage with the visual arts and to write from the arts into writing workshop and into other curricula (Norris, Mokhtari & Reichard, 1998; Olshanky, 2006; Skupa, 1985). If educators can think of schooling as a place where they open up spaces of imagination, they can weave familiarity with forms of representation other than the written ones into literacy. In doing this, educators are; rising to the challenge o f recognizing that education ought to enable the young to learn how to access the meanings that have been created through many forms of representation.Weaving Words and Images 11Looking Forward: Educational ImplicationsResearchers, whose work is reviewed above, support and encourage methods of writing that address the visual learner. The reviewed literature included some studies initiated by teachers to help students and their classroom teachers to organize thoughts and write more effectively using visual modes o f representation. Each study in this review of drawing and writing differed slightly, and in some cases broadly, from others with each considering visual modes and writing from different perspectives. They all, however, emphasized the need for a major pedagogical shift towards helping children transmediate (Short, Harste, & Burke, 1996), or manipulate sign systems or codes that are meaningful to them, into modes of representation that allow for a full range of expression and human experience and make some fairly global recommendations as to how the shift may be achieved.First, educators need to enable students to'recenter texts in visual, non-threatening ways. Drawing and 'other visual modes of representation reduce the cognitive demands on young learners and serve to enable children to master more complex cognitive relationships than they can through verbal language alone. Even young children can decode the meaning of pictures and encode meaning into pictures with ease, without instruction. Because drawing is a largely invented and personal symbol system, it does not require learned interpretation, as does writing. Children using their own personal symbol systems do so with more confidence, ease, andenjoyment, which in turn allow for a prolific flow of ideas.(Secondly, teachers need to consider “drawing an initial graphic probe, a strategy foritapping deeper or other awarenesses” (Carroll, 1991,p. 35). Children need to imagine. Their imaginative abilities must be cultivated and sensory systems refined to explore visions of possibility beyond their experiences. The most complex or subtle forms of thinking take placeWeaving Words and Images 12when students have an opportunity either to work meaningfully on the creation of images, or toscrutinize them appreciatively. As Hubbard explained, “15% of the population thinks exclusivelyIin the visual modes, another 15% thinks only in verbal terms, and the remaining 70% uses a mixture of approaches” (Hubbard as quoted by Carroll, 1991, p. 35). Final written or artistic products are 6nly representations, or perhaps interpretations of what goes on in our minds. The noted statistics strongly suggest why so many children naturally! turn to drawing while writing, which emphasizes why we must try to facilitate an environment where children discover and value the power of visual modes.Thirdly, educators need to encourage the use of drawing as a prewriting technique. Drawing is one of the primary ways young children can communicate. Young writers use drawing to explain and embellish their writing, usually as a prewriting strategy.Lastly, educators need to allow for appropriate drawing as a springboard for further writing. Beginning writers spontaneously use alternative symbolic forms such as drawing to add depth and meaning to their writing (Caldwell and Moore, 1991;Karnowski, 1986). Drawing as a previously developed form of expression facilitates the exploration of ideas and children use drawing to support their first attempts at writing. They are able to move fluidly between the two modes and “drawing brings ideas to be verbalized bubbling to the surface” (Caldwell and Moore, 1991, p. 208).My study draws on the reviewed literature as I examine the value of allowing grade two and three students to use visual strategies, specifically drawing, in the planning stages and throughout the writing process. I seek to consider the role that drawing has in the writing process of learners in my classroom and hope to understand how drawing is used in both an iterative and recursive means during students’ writing tasks.Weaving Words and Images 13! METHODSWeaving Words and Images 14Research Designused to allow close observationIn this study, a qualitative descriptive research design was o f children in the form of anecdotal records, informal conference interviews, informal student surveys, and portfolios consisting of samples of students’ own writing and drawing. To ensure the data could be properly examined, I employed qualitative and descriptive quantitative measures and analyses. Many people are drawn to this research approach, closely associated with action research, because it is firmly located in the realm of the practitioner. Elliot Eisner (1993),I believe, expresses and embodies my own beliefs about the role of researcher-practitioner in the following quote:We do research to understand. We try to understand to make our schools a better place fo r  the children and the adults who spend their lives there. In the end, our work lives its ultimate life in the lives that it enables others to lead. (Eisner, p. 10)Research SiteiPhoenix School is part of a vibrant and changing West Coast village community within a larger urban city. The school site is located in an area that has evolved from being an active commercial fishing centre to a trendy tourist destination and high-density waterfront residential area reflecting the changing school population. This public school serves students from a range of socio-economic backgrounds. A 600 plus school population of students from working families fifteen years ago, school boundary changes ten years ago, and the recent declining enrollment in the school district, have resulted in a gradual reduction of the student population.The population for the 2009-2010 school year was 330 students, and included 14 divisions spread out between Kindergarten and Grade 7, close to 18 full-time equivalent teachingstaff and several educational assistants and staff. A blended-model of delivering for learning assistance, learning resource and English language instruction provides students with needed curriculum supports. Phoenix School houses a before and after school daycare that served students from Phoenix and the surrounding neighbourhood.The Phoenix student population is mixed, with the exception of a moderately highi !number of students with special needs. In 2009-2010, there were approximately 24 students with special needs as defined by the Ministry of Education (7% of the school population). Phoenix had 67 English Language Learners enrolled with the majority being level 3, 4, and 5 (20% of the school population). There were four students of Aboriginal descent in the school. Twenty-five percent of students came from homes where English was not their home language and the top three languages in 2008-2009 were Chinese (4%), Cantonese (4%), and Spanish (2%). The student population had remained quite stable over the years. In 2008-2009, 10 students moved to other districts, other parts o f Canada or out of the country. At the same time, 32 students moved into the area and enrolled at Phoenix.ParticipantsThe s(udy involved twenty of my own second- and third-grade students from one classroom; they were between 7 and 8 years o f age at the time o f the study. The heterogeneously mixed academic class consisted of 10 boys and 10 girls. Within this population, three children were identified as being special needs and were on adapted and/or modified programmes. A full time Educational Assistant supported these learners in the class, as required. In addition, four students were identified as English Language Learners, with varying levels of English language proficiency. Students requiring additional language and learning support were pulled out from the classroom for small group instruction by the Resource/Language Assistance/ESL teacher for three 45 minute blocks a week.Weaving Words and Images 15Informed consent was obtained for 17 out of the 20 students in my class. The children, without parental consent participated fully in the classroom writing activities, but their writings and talk were- excluded from the data. In addition, two children who had informed consent were excluded from the conference portion of the data collection process as they were frequently pulled from the classroom for additional support in English as a Second Language during the writing sessions; however, all 17 students are included in survey! data. The children were assigned pseudonyms to maintain confidentiality.Procedures /; Data Sources and CollectionData were gathered for this study daily for a ten-week period during the winter term fromJanuary 30, 2010 to April 9, 2010. Data were triangulated using multiple sources relying on the intersections of student surveys, observations, conferences, and artifacts. The data were collected primarily in tjie morning during the children's scheduled Writers’ Workshop periods. To create a comprehensive approach to teaching primary students' writing skills, I generally use a combination o f whole group, small group, and individual instruction, along with teacher and peer conferencing ito develop all areas of writing. During the study, topics for writers’ workshop were assigned by me or chosen by the student. Students worked at their own pace, following the steps of the writing process, to create authentic pieces of writing. This process allowed them to develop and internalize effective writing strategies. Word walls, primary dictionaries, thesauruses, revising and editing rubrics, and publishing supplies were readily available to assist students in their writing. I actively circulated around the room answering questions, providing mini-lessons, hnd conferencing with students. The students were seated at tables or desks writing, conferencing with a peer, and using laptop computers to type their final copies.Weaving Words and Images 16Pre-instructional observations and mini-lessons.Data collection proceeded through three overlapping phases. During the first phase (weeks 1-4), I observed and interacted daily with the children as they worked independently on their writing. I kept notes on students' behavioural approaches to initiating and sustaining theirt ;daily writing. This unstructured observational and instructional period also allowed the students and me to continue exploring a variety o f visual strategies introduced earlier in the school year. The emphasis was on using sketching to capture ideas rather than producing a polished drawing. Activities were designed to encourage confidence in drawing and to develop awareness ofI . :aspects of story writing such as plot, characterization, and setting. Some of the strategies modeled and utilized in whole class instructional mini-lessons included sketching in the margins, drawing illustrations on a blank page, and using picture storyboards (Appendix A). The latter were used to explore and organize ideas rather than to produce a finished product. The children were encouraged to add details to their drawing that they might use later in their writing. They then shared their stories with a partner, using the storyboard as a guide, and later as visual prompts for writing.As I walked around the room in the initial weeks of the study, I made notes as to how children were using drawing and sketching throughout the process of writing, as planning tools for initiating writing events, and as a means of illustrating during and after writing events. Occasionally, students would invite me to “look at” their stories. I took the opportunity to ask them to “share with me what they wrote and, or drew” in their writers' notebooks. Specifically, I was interested in seeing how children engaged in drawing before, or during, the writing process and whether or not there was a preference for one mode over the other.Weaving Words and Images 17Based on the literature, and my field notes and reflections from this first phase, I developed both a conference guide (Appendix B) and a survey (Appendix C). The conference guide, consisting of a series of questions intended to explore children's iterative use o f visual strategies throughout the writing process, was used in subsequent phases o f the study (week 3- 10), while the survey was administered in the final phase of the study (week 9-10).Writing process and conferencing.The second phase (weeks 3-10) was the major data collection period. During this stage of the data collection, I conferenced directly with children one or more times on an individual basis. These conferences, beginning early in the third week of the study, were an integral component of the Writers' Workshop model, as previously described, and were' meant to be semi-structured and spontaneous. The questioning allowed students to lead the conferences and to let the conversations take their own course. Questions were kept open-ended and general, designed to probe into the children's creative process. Using the conference guide created in the initial phase of the study, I began each conference by asking the children to tell me about their piece of writing, and about their drawings and images, if any. I relied on student portfolios referring directly to students’ drawings, sketches, graphic organizers, and texts. Responses to questionsand information shared were scribed by hand in a conference notebook.*Finally, I asked each conference participant to walk me through the steps of the writing/ image creating process by asking which was done first, the writing or the drawing. I questioned the student further by asking if the writing influenced the drawing, or if  the drawing influenced the writing. Each participant was asked to talk about whether any changes were made to the writing or the drawings/images as the participant went through the process, and if so what influenced any changes. Students were also asked to identify what was easier to begin theWeaving Words and Images 18process with, writing or drawing, and to elaborate on why they felt this way. They were then encouraged to read the story and to tell about any drawings and images they wished to share.Post-instructional assessment.In the third and final overlapping phase of the study, beginning in the eighth week of the data collection period, I had each of the students in the class complete a class-wide write on the topic, “My Olympic Experience.” In addition to participating in a whole class discussion and brainstorming about shared and individual experiences, students were encouraged to use a storyboard to'plan for the writing experience. All students were given fifteen minutes to sketch/ draw before writing. The total time permitted for the planning and writing of this recount writing sample was 60 minutes, at which time all related materials were collected.In the week following the class-write, I conferenced with individual children about their recount o f the Olympic experiences and enquired how the storyboard was used, if  at all, as a planning tool for their writing. Specifically, I sought information on when it was used and how it might have supported the child in his or her ability to write for the allotted time, using the semi­structured and spontaneous conference questions used throughout the second phase of the study.Finally, students were asked to complete the survey I had developed at the end o f the first phase. The survey statements developed to delve into the children's use of drawing and writing during the writing process became themes, slightly elaborated, that I used to code the conference data.Data SourcedI employed an overall qualitative research approach by collecting data in the form of observations,-conferences, portfolios. In addition, the survey data produced descriptiveWeaving Words and Images 19quantitative data. Triangulation was used to enhance the credibility o f the findings using multiple sources relying on the intersections of student surveys, observations, conferences, and artifacts.Anecdotal/observational notes.My observational notes, taken during Writers’ Workshop, focused on children's writing strategies, the strengths each child exhibited, and the problems each child encountered while writing throughout the process from idea generation through to publishing. Because many of these experiences were informal and I wanted them to be as unobtrusive as possible, I often did not record these conversations until the end of the school day.Portfolios of writing and drawing samples.Each student’s completed drawing and writing samples were collected and photocopied, most in black and white and a few in colour, and stored in a portable filing system throughout the study period. At the end of the eight-week observational period, one or more dated writing samples were collected from each of fifteen students following conferencing, as well as fifteen recounts. Embedded in and separate from the written texts, 73 drawings and sketches were also documented and collected.Portfolio data collection provided me with outcome data that I used as starting points for conversations with students and to capture student work samples over time. I began each conference with samples of students’ art (drawing and sketches) and writing. Over the course of this study, each student shared with me with one or more pieces o f writing. As I was not concerned with the overall quality or length o f the written pieces, I chose not to assign an overall score, holistic or otherwise. Instead, I collected these strictly for delving into how children use, or do not use, drawing and sketching throughout the writing process.Weaving Words and Images 20!'Conferences/interviews.I conducted 32 conferences with the fifteen students throughout the final eight weeks of the study. Om average, each student participated in one to three conferences. Transcripts of the conferences were scribed by hand, with dated copies kept in a conference journal, and subsequently transcribed verbatim.Student surveys.During the final two weeks of the study, surveys were administered to descriptively measure student attitudes, confidence levels, and writing behaviours using a five-point Likert scale. Each student, following a conference about a piece of writing, was read the survey statements and asked to circle one o f five scaled responses that best described their view of themselves as writers and image makers. Students were asked to not identify themselves on the survey to ensure confidentiality.Analysis Organizing and coding the survey data.Upon collecting completed surveys from 17 of 20 participants, I counted the number ofLikert scale category responses. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the survey data. Datai -were analyzed and represented by means of tables and bar graphs.Each item was analyzed separately and in some cases responses were summed to create a score for a group of items (see Table 1). The mode, or the most frequent response categories, was used as a measure of the Likert scale, or survey, data.Organizing and coding qualitative data - conferences, field notes, portfolios.With the bulk analysis being left until the data had been collected, a form of qualitative, analysis such as content analysis seemed to be the method most conducive to examining the dataWeaving Words and Images 21in detail in order to understand it better and to draw conclusions from it. Content analysis is “a systematic, replicable technique for compressing many words o f text into fewer content categories based on explicit rules o f coding” (Stemler, 2001).A significant amount of the data was derived from the open-ended questions that were embedded in the conferences. I scrutinized each transcribed conference (Appendix D) and used the survey statements as themes for the initial coding o f the data. Themes that emerged included the students' preference for planning the writing process with text or images, types of changes or additions made, if  any, to students' drawings and writing, and idea generation. The data were organized, common statements by theme were highlighted, and emerging codes noted. Students' comments and talk about their writing and drawing were isolated and coded, then organized in a table (Appendix E). In reporting the conference data, I embedded data from my field notes and the portfolios!FINDINGS Identifying Themes and Patterns in Quantitative Survey DataFindings from the survey are discussed around several major themes: Drawing as pre­writing; drawing to overcome writer’s block and reduce cognitive demands; drawing as an idea bank; affective responses to writing and drawing. I begin by presenting a table of survey data before discussing each theme.Weaving Words and Images 22Table 1: Student Survey: Visual Strategies to Improve Idea Generation and Writing Stamina o f  Primary WritersWeaving Words and Images 23; Survey Responses Not At Al l /  Seldom SometimesUsually / All the TimeI enjoy writing 0 4 13I enjoy drawing 0 2 15Finding ideas to write about is easy 4 9 4Drawing helps me to begin writing 4 5 8I begin writing first and then draw 7 1 9I begin drawing first and then write 10 1 6I add to or change my writing when I draw 7 7 3I add to or change my drawings as I write 7 6 4I am a good writer 0 2 15I am a good drawer/image maker 2 1 14Drawing as a pre-writing or planning strategy.The analysis o f student responses to the survey suggests that most respondents, 9 o f 17, usually or always wrote first before drawing (see Table 1). It would appear that 6 of 17 students usually or always used drawing and sketching to begin writing tasks. One of the 17 studentsindicated that only sometimes did they either draw first, or write first, to begin writing (see1Figure 1).IN o t A t  A ll S e ld om  S om e t im e s  U su a lly  AM th e  T im eMl T w r i t i n g  f i r s t  a n d  tii«m  < l r « w  ®  I  d r a w i n g  f i r s t  a n d  th en  w r i t eFigure 1: Student Survey: Preference fo r  Initiating ProcessUtilizing drawing to overcome writer's block and reducing cognitive demands.The analysis of student responses to the survey suggests that some respondents make|Vadditions and1 changes to either, or both, their writing or their drawings during the writing process (see Figure 2). In 10 of the 17 survey responses, students sometimes, usually or always made changes to their drawings and/or text, supporting the notion that many students operate in a recursive manner when approaching the drawing/writing process.Weaving Words and Images 24Figure 2: Student Survey: Changing and Adding to Writing and /o r  Drawing Drawing as an idea bank.Interestingly, many of the students admitted that finding ideas to write about was easy and some also felt drawing helped them to begin writing. I can only surmise that drawing was an important means by which the children accessed ideas for their writing tasks. O f the 17 respondents, 8 usually or always felt drawing helped them begin writing, while another fivestudents sometimes felt drawing helped them in the writing process. It may be that for many!children, drawing provided an idea bank and a means of clarifying and elaborating on their ideasjiiin such a way as to make the recall o f their ideas more accessible (Skupa, 1985).Weaving Words and Images 25ss|sS3ST.12108642 INot A t A l l S eldom Som etim es I s.ia lU AH t In* 1 line: ■  1 en jo y  w r i l in |> 0 0 4 6 7: I en jo y  i lr to  m g 0 0 2 4 nI am  a good  w r ite r 0 0 2 6 9. w  I  am  a g o od  d raw e r  / im age 0 2 I 2 12i m akerFigure 3: Student Survey: Students' Affective Response to Writing and Drawing Children's affective response to drawing and writing.For most students in my study, writing and drawing were enjoyable activities. Many of the children saw themselves as good writers, as well as good image-makers or drawers (see Figure 3). While the survey’s data are not robust enough to conclude that allowing children toidraw before dr during writing tasks improves their enjoyment and/or confidence in these pursuits. They do suggest the students’ overall affinity towards drawing and writing in my classroom where drawing and writing are equally priveleged, giving credence to my rationale that children would benefit from opportunities to enter into academic pursuits from places they are most comfortable, from and through alternate modes of understanding.Identifying Themes and Patterns in Qualitative DataSimilar to the findings of the quantitative survey data, findings from the qualitative data, namely the conferences, portfolios and observations, are also discussed around several major themes: drawing as a pre-writing or planning strategy; utilizing drawing to overcome writer’s block and red.ucing cognitive demands; drawing as an idea bank; and mode-switching: use ofwriting and drawing recursively. Additionally, upon closer examination of the portfolio data, an unexpected finding was revealed in that the graphic nature of writing was often embedded in the children's drawings.Drawing as a pre-writing or planning strategy.As a means of brainstorming, some children used drawing to flesh out ideas for their writing and as symbol weavers (Dyson, 1986) they found it easier to draw first. During conferences, When asked if beginning the process with writing or drawing was easier, 6 childreniclearly preferred drawing first, and 7 expressed a preference for writing first. Susie, as an example of preferring writing first, had pictures in her “mind that were hard to make words for.” Another student, Julio, made similar statements to the effect that the pictures helped him because when he looked at them, they gave him ideas for writing and it was then easier to draw then write a bit and draw again.Two other children expressed no preference for either writing or drawing first in the writing process, but indicated that on some level “drawing was perhaps more helpful or easier for them.” One of the children stated that drawing “gave him more details for writing.” A second child felt looking at the picture helped him to write because if he wrote first, he would not want the story to go out of his head and he would have to write fast. It would seem then that for roughly half o f the participants, or 8 o f 15 children, drawing was preferred over writing as a means of using drawing to help plan or access ideas for writing.Of the 7 children who preferred beginning the writing process with written text rather than a sketch or drawing, 4 children's writing samples were void o f any marks that could be classified as a drawing or sketch. When asked about their choice of not including or using drawing, they made statements to the effect that they just did not feel like they needed to draw toWeaving Words and Images 26write because they made pictures in their heads and they already had ideas for their writing. For one of the students, drawing was something done only if it was expected o f him and he reserved this action for “good copies, not drafts” and for publishing. Three of the seven students who preferred writing first to drawing said they simply liked to write more, and that for at least one student, it is just what he had been doing all along as a writer.Even though the children learned other ways to organize their ideas, many of them continued to draw pictures, because they felt that drawing presented more details for writing. While creating his initial image for his story during the pre-instructional observation phase of the study, Ethan stated, “I like to draw instead of write. Drawing helps me to see stories and stuff better. Right how, that is all I have on my page, but I might think of more details to put into my picture, and then my story will be longer when I write.” Indeed, Ethan valued drawing as a means of seeing people and events in his story more clearly offering up the notion that drawing is “like a journal,” a means of keeping ideas and as a means of seeing the story better.Using both pictures and memories helped another student, Adriano, to plan his Olympic write, “Because when you get the picture done, it helps you to think about what to put on your plan. That helps me write my story so it makes sense.” For David too, drawing helped to retrieve a “little bit o f the story in his head and helped him a bit to add to his writing.” Pointing to a picture spread out over two pages in his writer’s notebook of his mother’s car and the school, he wondered aloud if he should write a story. For David, the opportunity to draw and tell about what he experienced provided rich fodder for his story about his experiences. Used as a conduit for constructing meaning, drawing for these children benefited them in ways that allowed them to show their thinking more easily than if asked to simply write about their ideas.Weaving Words and Images 27The qualitative descriptive data garnered from the conferences, field notes and portfolios does not clearly align with the survey data, yet still acknowledges there exists for some young writers the nded for choice as to how, or by what means, they might begin a writing task. For children who initially drew, drawing seemed to provide them time to think about the details theywanted to include and may help children come to know the power of writing.■ 1 iUtilizing drawing to overcome writer's block and reducing cognitive demands.Observations made of the writing behaviours indicate that drawing may also be helpful in dealing with Writer's block. Many of the children utilized their drawings to restart the writing process when1 their train of thought had come to an end. The drawing served as a retrieval cue to prompt them as to what to write next. For example, Ethan carefully scrutinized his drawings, of which there are many, picked up a felt pen to add more men, then put down his felt pen, picked up his pencil, and preceded his addition with, “Drawing helps me write because it helps me explain the stbry because I can see the pictures” (Figure 4). The very act o f looking at and making additions to and changing his drawings often incited Ethan to keep on writing.For Julio, like many other children, sketching and drawing helped him to be “focused and on task” when writing. While drawing, he asked himself how he could make his story more interesting and decided to add people, a spaceship) and a robot (Figure 5). It was only then that he began to write. Drawing some pictures to help him when he “got stuck on writing” was a strategy used by Christopher to add to his story. This was a common tactic for many of the children, like Caitlin, for whom drawing was helpful in that it allowed her to write more because she thought more about what she had drawn and “kept on going after the picture.”Weaving Words and Images 28Weaving Words and Images 29Figure 4: Ethan's drawing helps to explain the storys3Figure 5: Drawing helps Julio continue writingDrawing as an idea bank.Some children used drawings as idea banks, as concrete external cues to prompt them to produce more ideas in their writing. Drawing provided some children with inducements to revisit written texts and in some cases extending or adding to ideas or in rare cases changing what had been previously recorded, as evidenced in Susie's addition o f a sentence to her story upon realizing her character had a sparkly dress on in her picture. Approaching his revisions in a similar manner, Michael noted that he made changes to his writing when he realized he had drawn more people so added “his family” to the written text. He also shared an additional change to his writing when he stated he had drawn and wanted to include lava spraying out and some action so he wrote, "the lava squirted onto Jamie, Neville, and Isaiah." For other children, like Christopher, the pictures served to provide springboards for new ideas and additions, and did not result in changes to pre-existing text (Figure 6). Drawing for Simon made it easier to think of aWeaving Words and Images 30title and helped him to do more writing and to add more details. Julio, too, shared that pictures helped him get ideas, and helped him to add details to his writing, and expressed that he would often add to, but would not change his writing.Figure 6: Drawing serves as an idea bank fo r  ChristopherFigure 7; Becky illustrates when there is roomOften children were more likely to make changes or additions to their drawings as a result o f something they may have written or thought of. The addition of setting elements (e.g., trees, candy, shields, grass), characters, and graphic elements (e.g., speech bubbles) were easily added to existing drawings and illustrations. Becky saw drawing as something she would do as a means to illustrate a text, and then sometimes only when there is enough room where words do not need to be (Figure 7). For these children, drawing was done more as a means o f matching pictures with text and was something "done mostly when finished writing."For tllis theme, the descriptive data gleaned from the conferences and portfolios would seem to parallel the analysis of the survey data. Interestingly, the children were very aware of their propensity to use their illustrations as idea banks for their writing, as the conferences support, with'9 children of 15 using their drawings to add details to their writing. Whether thechildren were able to recognize the pull that drawing had on their revision and editing practices is unclear, but the data suggest that indeed the children's use o f drawings and sketches was integral to their adding details to, and in some cases changes to, their writing. After a review of the conference data, I determined that most children recognized the ease with which they made additions and; changes to their drawings during and following the writing process, suggesting again that the writing / drawing process is a recursive one.Mode-switching: Use of writing and drawing recursively.The children repeatedly referred to ideas forming and changing during the writing process and as they adopted a multimodal form of expression, they shifted from one action to another, namely drawing and writing, often avoiding possible difficulties in writing a cohesive story. iO f the fifteen students I conducted conferences with, ten children approached drawing and writing in a recursive, or iterative, way to varying degrees. For many of the children, the act of writing a story was a dual one, in which they adopted strategies that enabled them to execute the task of making meaning using the two symbol systems. For no one was this more true than for Ethan, who repeatedly returned to his drawings before making an explicit reference to his text concerning additional comments indicating a strength in the writing process that should not be ignored. For Ethan, the use of drawing and writing became inseparable, one feeding and supporting the other. For him, “drawing helps to see the story better and allows my readers to understand it better too.” His ease with which to use both modes is reflected in his view of their importance, “Stories could have both pictures and words. You don’t have to have both, but they make the story better when together.”Weaving Words and Images 31Caitlin echoed many of her classmates with her thoughts 'of the writing process by sharing that she writes first, then draws a picture, and then keeps on writing. Romina went back and forth between her writing and her drawings as well. First, she did some writing and then did a little picture and went back to writing stating that writing helped her with the picture and the picture helped her with the writing. David, too, expressed that he started with a drawing and some writing,5 and then some more writing.The remaining five voiced a clear preference for the written mode or form of expression over the visual mode o f expression. For these students, the act of drawing was unwarranted and unnecessary in their view and unless instructed to they were reluctant to include drawing in their writing attempts. For one of the five students, drawings were included and meant to fill the spaces left at ithe bottom of the page and served no additional purpose other than to illustrate the story. At no time, as indicated by the student, were the drawings used to provide her with ideas for writing, or to add details. The drawings happened linearly with a page of writing completed and then an accompanying picture drawn to illustrate the text.Writing embedded in drawing.An unexpected, but perhaps not surprising, finding was the students’ combined use of both writing and drawing on a page. For some children it would appear that switching from onet ;sign system to another, from language to visual aft, prolonged their engagement; that is, when they used both drawing and writing, they engaged in writing tasks with more stamina. In many cases, the actual drawings, some just sketches with things crossed out, added, or changed, served a purpose of holding ideas still for a moment so that they could mine them for details for writing. Because some children have a proclivity for drawing, there seems to exist a value in moving between words and images as they think about and writing tasks.Weaving Words and Images 32For many of the children, drawing contained elements that needed to be elaborated upon and clarified (Skupa, 1985) and for them, it was the writing and not the drawing that conveyed the meaning in their message. O f the seventy-three visible drawings produced for the writing tasks, forty-three o f the drawings contained writing.I can attribute the students’ embedded use of various text features to two possible[ , influences. Iri the fall of the school year, the class spent a significant amount of time exploringthe use o f text features in non-fiction texts, and secondly there was an increased awareness ofand interest in graphic novels in the classroom. In fact, some o f the favourite reading material formany children included such titles as Jeffrey Kinney’s Diary o f  a Wimpy Kid (2007) and JeffISmith's Bones (2004). Because of the prevalence of writing embedded in the drawings and illustrations, I felt it worthy of some analysis. The following is a list o f the various text features used by students in their drawings and their respective uses and functions:Table 2:Written Text Features Embedded in DrawingsWeaving Words and Images 33: Text Features ExampleLabels Characters, objects) buildingsSpeech Bubbles "Oh, I am it!"Environmental Print Postcards, party banners, signs, mapspnomatopoeia Devices BOOM, Aw, WOW, screechSetting Descriptors CloudyPlot Descriptors / Captions "Having trouble with pipe"Within the scope of the study, these text features carry significant meaning in the students’ presentation o f their stories, and without them vital information and detail would be lost. In Ethan’s richly illustrated and contextualized drawings, the text features are integral to the overall reading of the story while in others’ stories the additions o f text in the illustrations themselves are simply labels for concrete things such as people, places, sounds, and objects. TheWeaving Words and Images 34use o f speech bubbles serve to give voice to the character’s in the story, a literary device often used by young writers’ not yet familiar with the use of dialogue in story writing. More interesting was Ethan’s use of captions noting or foreshadowing events to come, helping to moveI did not at the time o f the conferences see or realize the significance o f these embeddedappear that the act of integrating drawing and writing is an exercise in which picture-writing offers children a means o f weaving meaning into the two symbol systems (Dyson, 1986).Reflecting back on my study, the data supports the notion that there is an inherent value in allowing children to use drawing as a visual strategy to plan and compose written texts. For many o f the children, a dual approach to writing tasks was most evident. Many scholars such as James Gee (1*590), and Gunther Kress (1997) advocate for the acceptance o f an interactive, interlaced approach to literacy instruction, one in which both visual and linguistic literacies are privileged. That is, a form of mode-switching, from drawing to writing and back again, wasthe story along from one page to the next (Figure 8).vw tf a a p f e r 7  JFigure 8: Writing and drawing intermingle in Ethan's picturetext features; Instead I am only inferring their intention and function. For many children it wouldDISCUSSIONbeneficial to many children in my study. This recursive process seemed to allow some children to tap into their "funds of knowledge" (Moll, Amanti, Neff, & Gonzalez, 1992), to glean ideas and details arid to tap into their memories and experiences in ways that perhaps they would not have been able to if they were to only write. Given the very diversity in personal learning styles, and ways o f knowing, some students clearly embraced drawing as a method of planning for writing narratives while others reserved their enthusiasm for drawing for the final stages o f the process. The data suggests, though perhaps not in a robust way, that there is a real benefit for children to approach the writing process using drawing, before and during the writing process, at least in terms of the generation of ideas and their stamina for writing tasks.Further evidence that children need more than words to learn can be found in the research literature on young children's literacy learning. Young children turn writing into a multimodalevent involving drawing, talking, singing, writing, and so on (Dyson, 1986) unlike older students|who are schooled to adhere to the conventional boundaries between sign systems. The ease with which most children in my study valued and used:both the visual and the linguistic modes is reflected in Efhan's view o f their importance, “Stories could have both pictures and words. You don’t have to have both, but they make the story better when together.” By weaving together symbols of both kinds to represent and convey their meanings, most children made it possible to successfully orchestrate literacy events perhaps with more stamiria and development of ideas than if language alone had served them (Dyson, 1986; Harste, Woodward, & Burke, 1984; Hubbard, 1989).Similar to my findings, Rowe (1994) observed children using art and written language to create texts, rind concluded that young children integrate different systems o f signs and that the primary purpose o f their doing so is to express different aspects of meaning. She developed aWeaving Words and Images 35multimodal view of literacy, using semiotic theory to support her view. Her interpretation of semiotic theory is influenced by cognitive psychology and theories o f the social construction of literacy. From these various theories, Rowe (1994) argued, “meanings formed in one communicative mode are cognitively available to guide communication in other modes” (p. 21). Communication involves multiple sign systems, and the same process of semiosis underlies the interpretation of signs, regardless o f sign systems.My data supports the point of view that writing that includes thinking, listening, reading, planning, talking, and drawing opens our eyes to all sorts of possibilities (Dyson, 1986; Eisner, 1993; Kress, 1997). If  children are to be able to transform what they know about print into a mode of representation that allows for a full range of their experiences then we as educators need to make a pedagogical shift (Kendrick & McKay, 2004). Teachers, urged to embrace children's “multifaceted ways of knowing” (Kendrick et al, p. 109), need to recognize the unrealized potential for Understanding how children use alternative symbol systems to make sense. As Kress (1997) points out,If  limitations to one mode of representation is a limitation, then we should do everything we can to overcome that limitation. If it is a limitation on the totality of human potential, if it favours one aspect only, to the detriment of others, then we have, I believe, no justifiable reason for sustaining it. (Kress, p. 29).When these findings are considered in light of the need for educational environments that support students as makers of knowledge and meaning, it seems clear that we must reexamine our bias toward language in teaching-learning and consider curricular possibilities that do not marginalize other ways of knowing.Weaving Words and Images 36REFERENCESCaldwell, H., & Moore, B. H. (1991). The art of writing: Drawing as preparation for narrative writing in the primary grades. Studies in Art Education, 32(4), 207-219.Carroll, J. A. (1991). Drawing into meaning: A powerful writing tool. English Journal, 80(6), 34-3&iDyson, A. H. (1986). Transitions and tensions: Interrelationships between the drawing,talking, and dictating of young children. Research in the Teaching o f  English, 20, 379- 409. 1Eisner, E.W. (1993) Forms of understanding and the future of educational research.Educational Researcher, 22(7), 5-11.Flower, L., & Hayes, J. R. (1981). A cognitive process theory o f writing. College Composition and Communication, 32(4), 365-387.Frankel, S. (1993). Image-making within the writing process initial research findings. Retrieved 03/26, 2009, from http://ww', J. P. (1990). Social linguistics and literacies: ideology in discourses. Critical perspectives on literacy and education. London: Falmer Press.Harste, J., Woodward, V., & Burke, C. (1984). Language Stories and Literacy Lessons. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.Hubbard, R. (1989). Inner designs. Language Arts, 66(2), 119-136.tKarnowski, L. (1986). How young writers communicate. Educational Leadership, 44(3), 58-60.Kendrick, M., & McKay, R. (2004). Drawings as an alternative way of understanding youngchildren's constructions o f literacy. Journal o f  Early Childhood Literacy, 4(1), 109-128.Kinney, J. (2007). Diary o f  a Wimpy Kid. New York: Amulet Books.Weaving Words and Images 37Weaving Words and Images 38IKress, G. (1997). Before Writing: Rethinking Pathways to Literacy. London: Routledge Leigh, S., & Heid, K.(2008), First graders constructing meaning through drawing and writing. Journal fo r  Learning through the Arts, 4(1). Retrieved from:5 Millard, E., & Marsh, J. (2001). Words with pictures: The role of visual literacy in writing and its implication for schooling reading literacy and language. Reading, 35(2), 54-61.Moll, L., Amanti, C., Neff, D., & Gonzalez, N. (1992). Funds o f Knowledge for Teaching: Using a Qualitative Approach to Connect Homes and Classrooms. Theory Into Practice, 31(2), 132. Retrieved from Professional Development Collection database.Norris, E., Mokhtari, K. and Reichard, C. (1998). Children's use of drawing as a pre-writingistrategy. Child Language Teaching and Therapy, 14(1), 69-74.Olshansky, B. (1994). Making writing a work of art: Image-making within the writing process.Language Arts, 77,350-357.Olshansky, B. (2006). Artists/Writers workshop: Focusing in on the ART of writing. Language Arts, 83(6), 530-533.Rowe, D.W. (1994). Preschoolers as authors: Literacy learning in the social world o f  the classroom. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press, Inc.Short, K. G., Harste, J. C., with Burke, C. L. (1996). Creating classrooms fo r  authors and inquirers. (2nd ed.). Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.Weaving Words and Images 39Skupa, J. (1985). An Analysis o f  the Relationship Between Drawing and Idea Production in Writing fo r  Second Grader Children Across Three Aims o f  Discourse (Propostional Analysis, Planning). Ph.D. dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin, United States — Texas. Retrieved October 6 , 2010, from Dissertations & Theses: Full Text. (Publication No. AAT 8609589)Smith, J. (2004). Bone. Columbus, Ohio: Cartoon Books.Stemler, Steve (2001). An overview of content analysis. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 7(17). Retrieved October 23, 2010 from http://www.statistics.eom/resources/glossary/f/facevalid.php Vygotsky, L.S. (1962). Thought and Language. Cambridge, MA: MIT. Press.APPENDICESAppendix 1: ° Storyboard Planning Sheet...........................................................................................40Appendix 2: Conference G uide .........................................................................................................41Appendix 3: Student Survey.............................................................................................................. 42Appendix 4: ; Conference Guide Transcriptions of Semi-structured and Spontaneous; Conferences....................................................................................................................43Appendix 5: Coded Conference Transcripts....................................................................................51Weaving Words and Images 40Appendix A: Artist's Storyboard Planning SheetWeaving Words and Images 41A r t i s t 's  S to ry b o a rdHere's how I  picture the main character...Here's how I see the setting...Here's the problem... Here's the solution...Here's an important event...And another important event...And another important event...Here's what happens at the end...© 2005 Sigmon and Associates, Inc.Weaving Words and Images 42Appendix B: Conference GuideSemi-structured and Spontaneous ConferencesDate o f Conference____________________Student ID  __________________________Name o f Written P iece_________________  Dates Written1. Can you tell me about this piece of writing?a) What did you write about?b) How / why did you choose the topic?c) Did you do anything before you began writing?d) What did you think / feel about this piece?2. Can you tell me about your drawing / images?a) What does this drawing / image mean to you?b) How / why did you choose to create this?c) Did you do anything that helped you to create the drawing / image? Why?d) What did you think / feel about the image?3. Walk me through the steps of your writing / image creating process.a) For this piece, which did you do first, the writing or the drawings / images?b) Did you make changes or add to your writing as you went through; this process? If yes, did your drawings influence your writing?e) Did you make changes or add to your drawings / images as you went through this process? If  yes, did your writing influences the changes?f) Is it easier for you to begin the process with writing or drawing? Why?4. Is there anything else you want to tell me about your writing or drawing/ images?Weaving Words and Images 43 Appendix C: Student SurveyStudent Survey:Using Visual Strategies To Improve Idea Generation and Writing Stamina of Primary WritersPlease do not put your name on this paper. This is an anonymous survey. No one will know who has completed it other than you. Your teacher will read out each question and you will circle the response that best describes you.    1 2  3 - 4 * 5 ..........................(not at all) (seldom) (sometimes) (usually) (all the time)I enjoy writing. 1 2 3 4 5I enjoy drawing. 1 2 3 4 5Finding ideas to write about is easy. 1 2 3 4 5Drawing helps me to begin writing. 1 2 3 4 5I begin writing first and then draw. 1 2 3 4 5I begin drawing first and then write. 1 2 3 4 5I add to or change my writing when I draw. 1 2 3 4 5I add to or change my drawings as I write. 1 2 3 4 5I am a good writer. 1 2 3 4 5I am a good drawer / image maker? 1 2 3 4 5Appendix D. Conference GuideTranscriptions of Semi-structured and Spontaneous Conferences44Student ID Susie David Kayden1 • a) a) She was leaving the ball a) My mom ran over my foot with her car a) 1 enjoyed writing story so I wanted to writeb) b) I like Cinderella because she thought she was in park but anotherc) c) I drew the picture actually was in reverse c) I just thought back about what happens andd) d) I feel good because I wrote my own story b) I used my imagination to add to my story looked at books and sometim es titles. I changeand used good action words c) I drew a picture and I talked about it the words like my poem  "Monday's Dog"d) I don’t know2. a) a) She's just about to go into the carriage and a) I memorized the time when it happened. I c) I don't really feel Like I need to draw whenb) the man is sitting in the carriage didn't colour my mom's car red because I was I write because I make "pictures in my head"c) b) my imagination and thinking. I put my bleeding, but because it is red and sometimes when I look at books I getd) imagination cap on and thinking hard b/c) I used my memories ideas from the picturesc) I imagined it in my mind and drew it to look like a pumpkind) Good. The car is on the side but actually it is /  was down there but by the YMCA3. a) a /  b) I drew the picture first. My picture a) I believe I did start with the drawing and a) I started to write firstb) reminded me that she had a sparkle dress so I some writing and then some more writing b) noc) added a sentence afterwards b) No not really c) nod) f) It is easier to draw first because I have c) N o the pictures did not help f) Writing is easiere) pictures in my mind that is hard to make d e) no0 words for f) Begin with drawing, because i f  I would  have my story in my head and it helps me alittle bit to add to my writing4. Not really4^ U)Q- 0“ ^ a  a* E a. cr EStudentIDa) Writing was firstb) Yah! It really helped me do what I should do c / d) maybe the picture, I could make speech bubblesf) To draw, because it makes it easier to just think of a title and then you can do more writing and kind of add more detailsa) I didn't do a lot of drawing, at first it was a novel and then you saw other children drawing, and I thought hmmmm I want to do it because my stories are just novelsb) I wrote than I found a place to write that. A place to fit the planec) I just thought of a sentence about the whole thing and I drew a pictured) I feel I should do more. More detail like snow falling and the monkey dashing to see what is the mattera) It's just a fiction book so I wanted to write thatb) our sloth storyc) I just thought of writing mored) I am really proud because it is a really long story and it took me a whileSimona) I did the drawing first. It can be kinda hard. I add details.b) I have too many ideas and sometimes I don't know what to draw next, so I keep the pictures in my mind. I wanted to do more pictures but' need other paper and I have to skip pages.a) They're cool. I am thinking there will be a cool picture with him going into a volcano and the lava people escape, and he, the Lava Man, dies in a tragic death.b) I wondered if the paper will bleed through. Maybe I could have some other paper, but not from the box near the sink.c) The castle was supposed to be the Wall of China like in the sloth storyd) You can't really see the background only the wall of lava flooding the castle and the people have lava bucketsa) There are volcano people and the volcano erupted and the king sent the knights on a quest but they failed and died. It will be about a sloth who will come and help to bring good to the land.b) I like castles and Lego castles.c) I drew the picture (inside front cover)d) It's pretty good. It might end up being seven chapters. I keep going until I know it is the end. If you paint too long and you need to know when to stop otherwise it will be a big blob.EthanI need a title now.a) Writing and then I did a little picture and went back to write because I wanted to know where the fairies come from so I added them to my story at the bottom.b) Yes, the writing helped me with the picture and the picture helped me with my writing. I thought, "I’m going to write about the picture." f) It was easier to draw the picture firsta) The picture is showing fairies sprinkling fairy dust on the puppies so they can fly. The puppies were watching the news and it said "Flying Dogs"b) When I was writing I was stuck about it, so I thought okay, I'll draw a picture and I thought Hmmmm what can I add. So I added a play castle, a bed, two fairies, and a tv, and the fairy dust.c) After I drawed it, I thought okay I will write about it so I squeeze two fairies in. Their names were....d) Good, because I really like fairies and dogsa) Two puppies who want to be rock starsb) I used the silly sentence starters to get my ideac) I thought about the character, a puppy, and I thought of it being a movie stard) Good, because I thought of what I wanted. I've seen the Chipmunks and it gave me ideas for my own. When I watched the movie at the theatre I thought I could write about puppies.Romina|8 LO onCD CL O CT CL O CT CL O O' l_H Co  e*3I can't think of anything to share.have been doing for all my writing.e) it was easier to do the writing first. It's just what Ishield to my picture.d) I thought since 1 wrote about a shield, I added aand Isaac."action, I wrote "the lava squirted onto Jake, NicoleBecause I wanted to add lava spraying out and someIsaac and my family.d) I made changes. I did the people. I did more than I should, so I added more people in my writing likethe volcano erupts.clubhouse, a hotel, two homes, a safe place in casedrew a map of the town. There's a hospital, hero'sb) Yes, it just helped me. There was a town so Ia) The writing came came, d) It's good.c) I thought of the story I wanted to write and theit serious. I wanted to make it believable like.1 had him come from somewhere I wanted to makeand starts fighting the people.people are about to do. In every picture there is a man on the volcano. Later in the story, he comes outa) The pictures tell me the setting and like what thegoing to write.used brain power and I already knew what I wasd) I feel like it was a really good idea. My brain was hurting to think about it. Before I planned it out, Ishould draw my picturesc) I thought about what I should do and how Ivolcanoes.b) It's just because I thought of it and I likeExcept some boys, everybody stayed inside. They wanted to stop the volcano from erupting.a big volcano and it shot out lava every Saturday.a) My story is about a town called Adam. There wasMichaelipictures when doing a good copy, not a draft)Response was that he/she just wanted to dochoose not to create / include images or pictures.a) I did not draw pictures (asked why studentd) I like it.c) Nob) the booksa) Scaredy Squirrel and the OlympicsHardeepsometimes, yes, but writing is preferred)pictures and the response was thatpictures (asked if student ever drewa) I just wanted to write the stoi^, nowill be pretty cool to have a talking bookc) No, I just started writingd) Good, because I like it a lot because ita) I thought it would be funnyb) I saw a book called Story StartersTyler46: ;U>- ^  ^  G. c r  Q a .  o  a* Cl c r  ^StudentIDa) I mostly did the writing first on each page.b) It gave me a good idea, sort of chasing something, and he was so full of energy something isn't faster than him.c) I added a little more to my drawing like grass.d) No.e) No. not really .f) Writing, just because.a) They're chasing the ball. They're running for it. .......That's a house. He was running and he sort of wanted to see his owner and he jumped. It's the same house. I gave Maxwell a bone but she said he should share with his friends. Maxwell really didn't want to share. It's getting closer to dinnertime and Maxwellis not hungry because he had a squeaky bone. His owner was surprised. He was left outside and a bug flew past. He said ruff ruff and the bug poked him.He was scratching at the door.b) It meant the same thing as my words and it’s the same thing on every page mostly.d) I took a long time on the details and I liked my work.a) I wrote about the three dogs on my DSb) I looked in the flip book called story startersc) I thought about Maxwell being the fastest because he was full of energyBecky47a) Drawing firstb) A little, I already thinked it and wrote it. Then I drawed it and write it and then I drew the boat. The writing helped me a little.c) After I wrote I made him kneeling on the ground instead of standing and I put a palm tree on the island because f feel like adding it on. “ ■d) I didn’t really make changes to my writing.f) It is easier to do both for me, but drawing is a little easier 'cause it gives me more detail for my writing.a) It shows me a nice invisible island. It is a make believe one.b /c) I created it by using the flip book for an idea. I used my imagination to draw it. d) I feel happy about it 'cause I like drawing and it's my favourite thing to do.a) There's a boy who wanted to sail. He promised his mom he'd stay near the shore, but it isn't really in the story. He came to an island that was invisible.b) I decided to do it because islands are neat and I like going on boats and I like seeing fishes, dolphins, and whales and stuff.c) I drew a picture first to give me some ideas.d) I don't really know. I choose it to share because I really worked hard on it and wanted to share it.CaitlinI would draw first so I could look at my picture to help me. If I was writing first, I don't want the story to go out of my head, so I write fast.a) Writing firstb) Yes, I could see the pictures better. The drawing helped me with looking at the picture and I pictured what was happening in my brain on this page only because it did not help me with the other pages.c) I forgot to add the candy part so I added some candy. I added Jake too. .............. - -.............................................-d) They're both pretty good for me. I could do either first.a) One is a postcard from Pluto and one from Neptune and Saturn. That's me. We're making sailboats out of food and candy.b) I was thinking about books and movies smooshed together with parts I made up.c) Some parts I forgot to write about. Jake is up here but I forgot to put him in the picture, so I added him to the picture.a) It's like Cloudy and A Chance of Meatballs, but funnier.b) I thought of a silly starter and made it a cloud with a a chance of meatballs kind of.c) I sort of did a few sketches, but erased it. (Why?) I don't really know but I started sketches later in the story.d) It's pretty good. I like to read. It is kinda cool.Some parts are weird. Then there’s a part when Jake is in the story and turns into a fairy.Lexi48StudentID A llie Julio Christopherl .a )b)c)d)b) J and I had been talking about itc) A lot o f  thinking and talkingd) I think I like it because I like Scaredy Squirrel storiesa) It's about a stinky library. One person can not smell it other people had to break their houses and moved.b) Originally, I used the Silly Starters and I continued on.c) I drew pictures.d) Pretty good, because it’s the longest story I've ever wrote and it's a good storya) I like cars and I know lots o f  different kinds o f  cars. I thought about what to write before writing.2. a)b)c)d)a) I did not draw any pictures 'cause I kind o f  already knew what I was going to write it.a) It's a picture o f  a really stinky library, Jake's house, me pointing at Jake 'cause he can not smell. It's so stinky, the stink cracked the windows and they had to board it up.b) I added more because I started to draw and then I erased a line and drew Jake and his house because I decided you needed someone to go into the library. I also made him unable to smell.c) Just thinkinga) The different kinds o f  cars are going to race. It is a parking lot that they're in.b) I learned how to draw a car at home.c) I feel pretty good. I could improve a little, like the front bumper because it doesn't really connect with the body.3. a)b)c)d)e)f)a) I drew the picture firstb) The picture helped because when I looked at it, it gave me ideas for writingc) It changed my story and helped me to add to itd) I wrote about 'A page and then drew the broken house. It gave me an idea for something. About everybody breaking their house and movingf) It's easier to draw then write a bit and draw. I add to my writing but ! don't go back to change my writing.a) I did the writing first.b)The writing helped me to draw. The writing gave me ideas for drawing.c)d)e) Not reallyf) I write first because I like to write more than drawing.4. In chapter 2 , 1 wrote a little and drew a little. I got stuck on my writing so I drew some pictures to help me. It gave me a lot o f  ideas to write. The driver upgraded his car with nitro. I learned about it from a video game. I didn't change my writing. I just added.49StudentID Simon Caitlin Ethanl .a )b)c)d)a) I saw C's drawing o f  an astronaut so I drew my own. And then I drew a cowboy and wrote about how they met.b) Normally, I m ight use the Silly Starters and now I think o f  my own stuff.a /  b) I really like dogs and I like to make new  friends. I chose the topic by using the Silly Starters to begin writing.c) I thought about it. I thought about a picture in my head and then I wrote about the picture.d) I like the pictures. I'm still working on them. I'm still colouring.The pictures are drawn first I usually do not write first because I have all these ideas so I draw them first, then I write, and copy almost everything in the picture. The pictures help me.2. a)b)c)d)d) I think my drawings really look good and they actually look like a cowboy , an astronaut, and a spaceshipa) The flowerbed has flowers. Rosy lives here and N ico le  is the new  dog, Rosy's friends.3. a)b)c)d)e)f)a) I prefer the drawing. I drew first and then came up with the title and made up a little story. I do a lot o f  changes in a picture like I usually do long hair and you wanted to do a boy, but made it a girl. I erased it though because I wanted to do something else.a) I write first and then draw. I wrote, did a picture, wrote, then did a picture, c) The drawings helped me write more because I thought about what I drew and I kept on going  after the picture and wrote about Rosie. I did not change my writing though.(Q: By allow ing you to draw first and then write, how does the process help you? It’s like a journal and it helps me see the people and events o f  my story more clearly)50StudentID Julio Caitlin KaydenL a )b)c)d)I drew the house and then thought about how to make the story interesting and then started drawing the people.Usually I use people in my stories. I drew a spaceship / robot then began writing. If I have ideas in my head I can get distracted. The drawing helps me stay focused and on task.a) it is about Rosy who took a pet to school for Show and Tellb) I just think o f  things that pop into my headc) I plan it in my head like a huge picture and more in my head o f  my writing.d) I like it because it sort o f  interesting. What will happen to Rosy at school? Will she listen, or be bad, or will she stay with Danielle?The Winter Olympics2. a)b)c)d)Drawing helps me write and gives me ideas. It helps me brainstorm to make a good story.a) I drawed snakes, snails, and cats. This is Danielle and the teacher. Rosie was scared at first and than came in. It was sort o f  a zoo with all the creatures. Rosy is by the desk with the leash.b) I like drawing with some details. I still need to add more background like kids, animals, and desks.c) Not really no.If I did have to do it (draw) I would draw first to get it over with. I probably would not look at my drawing to get ideas.3. a)b)c)d)e)f)Usually I do a drawing at the beginning a) Writing first, then a picture and then I keep  on writing and then I did a picture when I knew  I had a big space. I just kept on drawing and writing.c) Not exactly, I had to write more 'cause I only wrote some. I f  I added some more to my pictures, I might add details.e) I changed my drawings but not my writing.f) Write first 'cause than I know what to draw and know what to do before drawingIf my writing is published I'll draw pictures to illustrate like in a book, but not to help me write or to tell me what to write.4 . .......... M ike drawing and writing. Sometimes I g e t -----stuck on things to write about. I might look at a book to get ideas but drawing does not help me to write.51StudentID Ethan Michael Beckyl .a )b)c)d)The Winter OlympicsI used the planning sheet and drew about my memoriesThe Winter OlympicsI sketched and it helped me plan for writing and gave me ideas for writing.I wrote about how  the events happened, and sort o f  who and where it happened.Winter OlympicsPictures helped me remember all o f  the Olympic stu ff I did. I did not really use the pictures from the planning sheet to help plan my writing.2. a)b)c)d)The drawing helped me to write because it helps me explain the story because I can see pictures. It helps make me understand the story.I looked to see what was next and then wrote it down. The pictures helped me tell me what to write about.3. a)b)c)d)e)a) I drew firstb)Yes I like to write, drawing is my best actually. I would draw instead o f  write. It's kind o f  a rough copy.Drawing helps me to see the story better and readers can understand it better too. Stories could have both pictures and words. You don't have to have both, but they make the stoiy  better when together.I usually write first. I prefer to write, but I do enjoy drawing. Sometimes I change my writing like a time I drew a superhero I drew him flying  so I wrote it down.Sometimes drawing helps me to write and helps me get ideas. I draw randomly to get ideas for stories. I just draw to go along with a story usually, and sometimes drawing will help me write.I like to draw more than write. I usually draw to match my writing and draw mostly when  finished writing.When I was writing, ideas came to me when I sketched other things.Sometimes drawing helps me with writing, sometimes when I draw it helps me write a different story. I usually write first and then draw if  there's room. When I have enough space where words do not need to be I draw after the first page and 1 don't really draw first; ........52Appendix E: Coded Conference TranscriptsStudent ID Susie David KaydehI add to or change my drawings as I writeN o  n o t rea lly . N o .I add to or change my writing when I drawM y  p ic tu re  rem ind ed  m e  that sh e  had a spark le  d re ss  on  so  I added  a  sen ten ce  afterw ards.N o  the p ic tu re s  d id  no t h e lp . N o .I begin to draw first and then writeI d rew  th e  p ictu re  first. It is  ea sie r  to  draw  first b ecau se  I h a v e  p ic tu re s  in m y  m in d  that is  hard to  m ake  w ord s  for.I d rew  a  p ic tu re  and I ta lk ed  abou t it.I b e lie v e  I d id  start w ith  th e  d raw in g  and som e  w ritin g  and  th em  som e  m ore  w r itin g .1 d o n ’t r ea lly  fe e l  lik e  I n e ed  to  w r ite  b e c a u se  I m ak e  p ic tu res  in m y  h ead  and  s om e t im e s  w h en  1 lo o k  at b ook s  I g e t  id ea s  from  th e  p ic tu re sI begin writing and then drawI started to  w r ite  first. W r itin g  is  e a sie r .Drawing helps me to begin writingIt is  e a s ie r  to  draw  first b ecau se  I h a v e  p ic tu res  in  m y  m ind  that is hard to  m ake w ord s  for.B eg in  w ith  d raw ing , b e cau se  i f  I w o u ld  h a v e  m y  story  in m y  head  and it h e lp s  m e  a little  b it  to  add to  m y  w ritin gFinding ideas to write about is easyI im ag in ed  it in  m y  m ind  and drew  it to  lo o k  lik e  a pum pk in .1 created  the d raw ing  by  pu tting  m y  im ag in a tion  cap  on  and  th ink in g  hard.1 u sed  m y  im ag in a tion  to  add  to  m y  story. I u sed  m y  m em or ie s ( to  d raw  th e  p ic tu re s)I ju s t  th ou gh t back  ab ou t w h a t h ap p en s  and  lo o k ed  at b o o k s  and s om e t im e s  t it le s53Student ID Simon Allie JulioI add to or change my drawings as I writeYah! It rea lly  h e lp ed  m e  to  do  w h a t I sh ou ld  do .I fe e l  I sh ou ld  d o  m ore . M ore  d eta il lik e  sn ow  fa ll in g  and th e  m on k ey  d a sh in g  to  s e e  w h a t is  th e  matter.I w ro te  abou t h a l f  a  p a g e  and  th en  d rew  th e  broken  h ou se . It g a v e  m e  an id e a  fo r  s om e th in g .I add to or change my writing when I drawIt ch an g ed  m y  story  and  h e lp ed  m e  to  add  to  it.I add to  m y  w r it in g , bu t I d on 't g o  b a ck  to  ch a n g e  m y  w ritin g .I begin to draw first and then writeM aybe  the p ictu re, I co u ld  m ak e  sp e ech  bubb le s . I drew  th e  p ic tu re  first. T h e  p ic tu re  h e lp ed  m e  b ecau se  w h en  I lo o k ed  at it, it  g a v e  m e  id ea s  fo r  w ritin g .It's e a s ie r  to  draw  th en  w r ite  a b it  and  draw .I begin writing and then drawI ju s t  th ou gh t o f  a s en ten ce  abou t th e  w h o le  th in g  and I drew  a p ictu re. I w ro te  and  than I fo u nd  a  p la ce  to  w r ite  that. A  p la ce  to  fit th e  p ictu re .W ritin g  w a s  first.Drawing helps me to begin writingI d idn't do  a  lo t  o f  d raw ing , at first it w a s  a  n o v e l and  then  y o u  saw  o th er  ch ild ren  d raw ing , and  I th ough t  Hmmmm  I w an t to  d o  it b e c au se  m y  s to r ie s  are ju s t  nov e ls .T o  draw , b ecau se  it m ak e s  it e a s ie r  to  th ink  o f  a tit le  and  th en  y o u  can  do  m ore  w r it in g  and  k in d  o f  add  m ore  d e ta ils .I d id  n o t draw  any  p ic tu re s  'cau se  I k ind  o f  a lready  kn ew  w ha t I w a s  g o in g  to  w r ite  abou t.Finding ideas to write about is easyOur s lo th  story w a s  w h a t I th ou gh t abou t. 1 ju s t  th ou gh t o f  w r itin g  m ore .A  lo t o f  th in k in g  and  ta lk in g . O r ig in a lly  I u sed  th e  S i l ly  S tarters and  I con tin u ed  on .54Student ID Ethan Romina BeckyI add to or change my drawings as I writeW hen  I w a s  w r itin g , I w a s  stuck  abou t it, so  I th ough t  ok ay , I'll d raw  a  p ic tu re  and I th ou gh t hm mm  what  can  I add. S o  I added  a p lay  c a s t le , a  b ed , fa ir ie s , and  a T V  and  fa iry  dust.Y e s , th e  w r itin g  h e lp ed  m e  w ith  th e  p ic tu re  and the  p icture  h e lp ed  m e  w ith  th e  w r itin g .It (the  d raw in g ) m ean t th e  s am e  th in g  a s  m y  w o rd s  and it's th e  sam e  th in g  on  e v e r y  p ag e  m o s tly .I added  a  little  m ore  to  m y  d raw in g  lik e  grass.N o ,  n o t rea lly .I add to or change my writing when I drawA fter  I d raw ed  it, I th ou gh t ok ay  I w il l  w r ite  abou t it so  I sq u e e ze  tw o  fa ir ie s  in.I th ou gh t, "I'm g o in g  to  w r ite  abou t th e  picture."N oI begin to draw first and then write1 drew  th e  p ic tu re  b e fo r e  I b egan  w r iting .I d id  the d raw in g s  first. It can  be  k inda  hard. I add  deta ils .. . .  th e  p ictu re  h e lp ed  m e  w ith  th e  w r it in g . ..I begin writing and then d rawW ritin g  and  th en  1 d id  a  little  p ic tu re  and  w en t  back  to  w r ite  b ecau se  I w an ted  to  k n ow  w h ere  th e  fa ir ies  com e  from  so  I added  th em  to  m y  s to ry  at th e  b o ttom .I m o s tly  d id  th e  w r it in g  first o n  ea ch  p age .It (the  w r itin g ) g a v e  m e  a g o o d  id ea , sort o f  c h a s in g  som e th in g , and h e  w a s  so  fu ll o f  e n e r g y . . . .It is  e a s ie r  to  b eg in  w ith  w r it in g .Drawing helps me to begin writing1 d id  th e  d raw in g s  first. It can  b e  k inda  hard. I add  deta ils .I h av e  to o  m an y  id ea s  and  som e tim e s  I don 't k n ow  what to  d raw  n ex t, s o  I k e ep  th e  p ic tu res  in m y  m ind .Finding ideas to write about is easyI h a v e  to o  m an y  id ea s  and  som e tim e s  I don 't k n ow  w hat to  d raw  n ex t, s o  I k e ep  th e  p ic tu res  in m y  m ind .I u sed  th e  s i l ly  sen te n c e  starters to  g e t  m y  idea . I've  seen  th e  C h ipm unk s  and  it g a v e  m e  id ea s  fo r  m y  ow n  id eas . W hen  I w a tch ed  th e  m o v ie  at th e  th ea tre  I th ou gh t I co u ld  w r ite  abou t p upp ies .I w ro te  abou t th e  th ree  d o g s  o n  m y  D S  I lo ok ed  at th e  f lip  b o o k  c a lle d  S tory  Starters55Student ID Michael Caitlin LexiI add to or change my drawings as I writeI th ough t o f  the story  I w an ted  to  w r ite  and  th e  p ic tu res  cam e.Y e s , it h e lp ed  m e . T here  w a s  a  tow n  so  I d rew  a m ap  o f  the tow n . There's  a h o sp ita l.. .1 th ou gh t s in c e  I w ro te  abou t a  sh ie ld , I added  a sh ie ld  to m y  pictureA  lit t le , I a lready  th ink ed  it and w ro te  it. T hen  I d raw ed  it and  w r ite  it and  then  I d rew  th e  boat. T he  w ritin g  h e lp ed  m e  a  little . A fte r  I w ro te  I m ade h imk n e e l in g ......... and  I pu t a  pa lm  tree on  th e  islandb e ca u se  I fe e l  lik e  add in g  it on .S om e  parts I fo r g o t  to  w r ite  abou t. Jake is  up  h ere  but I fo rgo t to  pu t h im  in  th e  p ic tu re , so  I a d d ed  h im  to  th e  p icture.I add to or change my writing when I drawI m ad e  ch an g e s . I d id  th e  p e o p le .  I d id  m ore  than 1 shou ld , so  I added  m ore  p e o p le  in m y  w r it in g  lik e  Isaac and m y  fam ily . B e c a u se  I w an ted  to  add  lava  sp ray ing  o u t and som e  a c tion , I w ro te  "the la v e  squ irted  on to  Jake, N ic o le  and  I saa c .”I r ea lly  d id  n o t m ak e  ch an g e s  to m y  w r iting .I begin to draw first and then writeI d rew  a  p ic tu re  first. I d rew  a  p ic tu re  first to  g iv e  m y s e l f  id eas .I sort o f  d id  a  f e w  sk e tch e s , b u t e ra sed  it. I d on 't rea lly  k n ow  w h y  bu t I started  sk e tc h e s  la ter  in  th e  story.I begin writing and then drawThe  w r itin g  cam e first.M y  brain w a s  hurting to  th ink  abou t it. B e fo r e  I p lanned  it ou t, I u sed  brain p ow e r  and I a lready  k n ew  w ha t I w a s  g o in g  to  w r ite .It w a s  ea sier  to  do  the w r itin g  first. It's ju s t  w h a t I have  b een  d o in g  for  all m y  w r itin g .W riting  first. I co u ld  s e e  th e  p ic tu re s  better .Drawing helps me to begin writingThe  p ic tu res  te ll m e  th e  se tt in g  and  lik e  w ha t th e  p eop le  are abou t to  do . In e v ery  p ictu re  th ere  is  a man on  th e  v o lc a n o  ... I had  h im  c om e  from  som ew h er e  ser iou s . I w an ted  to  m ak e  it b e lie v a b le .It is  e a s ie r  to d o  bo th  fo r  m e , but d raw ing  is  a little  ea s ie r  'cau se  it g iv e s  m e  m ore  d eta il for  m y  w riting .I w ou ld  draw  fir s t so  I c o u ld  lo o k  at m y  p ic tu re s  to  he lp  m e . I f  I w a s  w r it in g  fir st, I d on 't w an t th e  sto ry  to  g o  ou t o f  m y  h ead  so  I w r ite  fa st.Finding ideas to write about is easyI ju s t  th ou gh t o f  it and I lik e  v o lc a n o e s . I th ou gh t  abou t w ha t I sh ou ld  d o  and h ow  I w o u ld  d raw  th e  pictu res.I d e c id ed  to d o  it b e c a u s e  is la n d s  are n ea t and 1 lik e  g o in g  on  boats  and  I lik e  s e e in g , f ish e s , d o lph in s , and w h a le s  and  s tu ff . I u sed  m y  im ag in a tion  to draw  it.I th ough t o f  a  s i l ly  starter and  m ad e  it a  C lo u d y  w ith  a  C hance  o f  M ea tb a lls  k in d  o f .  I w a s  th in k in g  o f  b ook s  and m o v ie s  sm o o sh ed  to g e th er  w ith  parts  I m ade up.56Student ID Christopher Simon CaitlinI add to or change my drawings as I writeN o  not rea lly . I d o  a  lo t o f  ch an g e s  in a  p ictu re  lik e  I u su a lly  d o  lo n g  hair and y o u  w an ted  to d o  a  b o y , bu t I did a  g ir l. I e ra sed  it th ough  b ecau se  I w an ted  to  d o  som e th in g  d ifferen t.I add to or change my writing when I drawI g o t  s tu ck  on  m y  w r itin g  so  I d rew  som e  p ic tu re s  to  he lp  m e . It g a v e  m e  lo ts  o f  id ea s  to w r ite . I didn't change  m y  w r itin g , I ju s t  added .T he  d raw ings h e lp ed  m e  to  w r ite  m ore  b e c a u se  I th ough t abou t w h a t I d r ew  and  I k ep t o n  g o in g  after  the p ictu re and  w ro te  ab ou t R o s ie .  I d id  n o t ch an g e  m y w ritin g  th ough .I begin to draw first and then writeI p re fer  th e  d raw ing . I drew  first and  th en  cam e up  w ith  th e  tit le  and  m ad e  up a  lit tle  story.........................  -.............I begin writing and then drawI d id  th e  w r itin g  first. T h e  w r itin g  g a v e  m e  id ea s  for  draw ing.I w r ite  first b e ca u se  I lik e  to  w r ite  m ore  than  draw ing.I w ro te  a  little  and d rew  a  little .I w rite  first and  th en  d raw . I w ro te , d rew  a p ictu re , wrote , th en  d id  a  p ic tu re .Drawing helps me to begin writing -Finding ideas to write about is easyI lik e  cars  and  I k n ow  lo ts  o f  d if fe ren t k in d s  o f  cars. I th ou gh t abou t w ha t to  w r ite  b e fore  w r itin g .I s aw  C 's d raw in g  o f  an astronaut so  I d rew  m y ow n .  I th ink  o f  m y  ow n  s tu f f  n ow .I used  a S il ly  S tarter. I r ea lly  lik e  d o g s  and  I lik e  to  make n ew  fr iend s. I th o u g h t  ab ou t it. I th ou gh t abou t  a  p icture in m y  h ead  and  1 w ro te  abou t the p ic tu re .57Student ID Ethan Julio CaitlinI add to or change my drawings as I writeI lik e  d raw in g  w ith  s om e  d e ta ils . I s till n e ed  to  add  m ore  b ack ground  lik e  k id s , a n im a ls , and  d e sk s.I f  I added  s om e  m ore  to  m y  p ic tu res , I m ig h t  add  deta ils.I changed  m y  d raw in g s  bu t n o t  m y  w r it in gI add to or change my writing when I draw-N o t  e x a c t ly , I h ad  to  w r ite  m ore  'cau se  I o n ly  w ro te  som eI begin to draw first and then writeIt's lik e  a  jou rn a l and  it h e lp s  m e  to  s e e  p e o p le  and  - e v en ts  o f  m y  story m ore  c lea r ly .U su a lly  I d o  a  d raw in g  at the b eg in n in g .I begin writing and then drawW ritin g  first, th en  a  p ic tu re , th en  I k e ep  on  w r it in g  and then  I d id  a  p ic tu re  w h en  I k n ew  I had  b ig  sp a ce . I ju s t  k ep t o n  d raw in g  and  w r itin g .W rite first 'cau se  than I k n ow  w ha t to  d raw  and  kn ow  w ha t to  d o  b e fo r e  d raw in gDrawing helps me to begin writingThe  p ic tu re s  w ere  drawn first. I u su a lly  d o  n o t w rite  first b e ca u se  I h ave  a ll th e se  id ea s  so  I d raw  them  first, th en  1 w r ite , and c o p y  a lm o st e v ery th in g  in the  p ictu re . T he  p ic tu res  h e lp  m e.I f  I h a v e  to o  m any  id ea s  in m y  head  I g e t  d istracted . T he  draw ing  h e lp s  m e  stay  fo cu s ed  and  on  task. D raw in g  h e lp s  m e  w r ite  and g iv e s  m e  id ea s . It h e lp s  m e bra instorm  to  m ak e  a  g o o d  story .I draw ed  sn ak e s , sn a ils , and  ca ts . T h is  is  D a n ie l le  and th e  teach er . R o s i e . . . .Finding ideas to write about is easyI d rew  the h ou se  first and  th en  th ou gh t abou t h ow  to  m ake the story  m ore  in tere st in g  and  th en  started  draw ing  p eop le . U su a lly  I u se  p e o p le  in  m y  s tor ies . I drew  a  sp a cesh ip  and  robo t th en  b egan  w r iting .I ju s t  th ink  o f  th in g s  that p op  in to  m y  h ead . I p lan  it in  m y  h ead  lik e  a  h u g e  p ic tu re  and  m ore  in m y  head  o f  m y  w r itin g . I lik e  d raw in g  and  w r itin g . S om et im e s  I g e t  stu ck  on  th in g s  to  w r ite  abou t. 1 m igh t lo o k  at b o o k s  to  g e t  id e a s  bu t d raw in g  d o e s  n o t h e lp  m e  to  w r ite .58Student ID Michael Ethan Kayden1 add to or change my drawings as I writeI f  m y  w r itin g  is  p u b lish ed , I'll d raw  p ic tu re s  to  illu strate  lik e  in  a  b o ok , bu t n o t to  h e lp  m e  w r ite  or  to  te ll m e  w ha t to  w rite .I add to or change my writing when I drawI lo o k ed  to  s e e  w ha t w a s  n ex t and  th en  w ro te  it dow n . T he  p ic tu res  h e lp ed  m e  te ll m e  w ha t to  w r ite  about.S om e t im e s  I d o  ch an g e  m y  w r itin g  lik e  a  tim e  I drew  a  superhero  I d rew  h im  f ly in g  so  I w ro te  itd ow n . ■ .....................-I ju s t  draw  to g o  a lon g  w ith  a story  u su a lly , and  som e tim e s  d raw ing  w ill  h e lp  m e  w rite .- : -........  .............  .........I begin to draw first and then writeI sk e tch ed  and it h e lp ed  m e  p lan  for  w r itin g  and  g a v e  m e  id ea s  for  w r iting .1 u sed  a  p lan n in g  sh e e t  and drew  abou t m y  m em or ie s . I d rew  first.1 lik e  to w r ite , d raw in g  is  m y  b e s t th ou gh . I w ou ld  draw  in stead  o f  w r ite . It's (the  d raw in g ) k ind  o f  a rough  c o p y . D raw in g  h e lp s  m e  to  s ee  th e  s to iy  better  and  readers can  understand  it b etter  to o . S tories  cou ld  h ave  b o th  p ic tu re s  and w ord s. Y o u  don 't h ave  to  h ave  bo th , bu t th ey  m ak e  th e  story b etter  w hen  togeth er .I begin writing and then drawI u su a lly  w rite  first. I p refer  to  w r ite , bu t I d o  en joy  draw ing .Drawing helps me to begin writingS om et im e s  d raw ing  h e lp s  m e  to w r ite  and  h e lp s  m e  g e t  id eas .I sk e tch ed  and it h e lp ed  m e p lan  for  w r itin g  and  g a v e  m e  id ea s  for  w r itin g . I w ro te  abou t h ow  the  ev en ts  h appened , and sort o f  w h o  and  w h ere  it happened .T h e  d raw in g  h e lp ed  m e  w r ite  b ecau se  it h e lp s  m e  exp la in  th e  story  b e c a u se  I can  s ee  p ic tu res . It h e lp s  m e understand  th e  story .I f  I had  to d o  it, I w o u ld  d raw  fir s t to  g e t  it o v e r  w ith . I w ou ld  n o t lo o k  at m y  d r aw in g s  to  g e t  id ea s .Finding ideas to write about is easyI draw  random ly  to g e t  id ea s  for  s tor ies .59Student ID Becky Hardeep TylerI add to or change my drawings as I writeI u su a lly  draw  to m atch  m y  w ritin g  and  d raw  m o s t ly  w hen  f in ish ed  w r itin g .I add to or change my writing when I drawW hen  I w a s  w r itin g , id ea s  cam e  to  m e  w h en  I sk e tch ed  o th er  th in g s . S om e t im e s  d raw in g  h e lp s  m e  w ith  w r it in g , som e tim e s  w h en  I draw  it h e lp s  m e  w rite  a  d if fe r en t story .I begin to draw first and then writeI d id  n o t r ea lly  u se  the p ic tu res  from  th e  p lan n in g  sh eet to  h e lp  p lan  m y  w r itin g .I begin writing and then draw1 u su a lly  w r ite  first and  th en  draw  i f  th ere 's  room . W hen  I h a v e  en ou gh  sp ace  w h ere  w o rd s  d o  n o t n eed  to  b e  1 draw  after  th e  fir s t p ag e  and I don 't r ea lly  draw  fir s t.1 ju s t  b egan  w r it in g . I d id  n o  p ic tu res .Drawing helps me to begin writingI lik e  to  draw  m ore  than w r ite . 1 d id  n o t draw  p ic tu res . I do  p ic tu re s  w h en  I do  a  g o o d  c o p y  n o t a  draft.I som e tim e s  w i l l  d o  p ic tu re s  bu t w r itin g  is preferred .Finding ideas to write about is easyP ictu res  h e lp ed  m e  r em em ber  all th e  O lym p ic  s tu f f  1did . jB o o k s  g iv e  m e  id ea s S tory  starters h e lp ed  m e  w ith  an idea .


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