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Higher Education in Urban Forestry in North America and Europe: Profiling Skills and Competencies for… Baumeister, Christoph Florian Sep 30, 2014

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HIGHER&EDUCATION&IN&URBAN&FORESTRY&IN&NORTH&AMERICA&AND&EUROPE:&PROFILING&SKILLS&AND&COMPETENCIES&FOR&THE&LABOR&MARKET&OF&TODAY&AND&TOMORROW&by#Christoph#Florian#Baumeister## #A#FINAL#PAPER#SUBMITTED#IN#PARTIAL#FULFILLMENT#OF#THE#REQUIREMENTS#FOR#THE#DEGREE#OF##MASTER#OF#FORESTRY#in#THE#FACULTY#OF#GRADUATE#AND#POSTDOCTORAL#STUDIES#(Forestry)#THE#UNIVERSITY#OF#BRITISH#COLUMBIA#(Vancouver)#September#2014#©#Christoph#Florian#Baumeister,#2014## # # # #2#&& PART&I&EDUCATION&# &# # # # #3#Abstract&&(Part#I#Education)#Urban# forestry# is# an# increasingly# important# issue# worldwide.# City# dwellers,#scientists# and# politicians# are# concerned# about# how# to# create,# manage# and# design#urban# forests# for# the#benefit#of#all.#However,#higher#education# in#urban# forestry# is#fragmented#around# the#world#and# institutions#with#multiple#disciplines# just# touch#the#field.#Only#a#few#publications#illuminate#how#higher#education#in#urban#forestry#takes# place# and# what# the# future# trends# are.# This# work# used# a# descriptive#methodology#to#identify#institutions#and#to#describe#how#higher#education#in#urban#forestry# takes#place# today.#More# than#120# resources# in# the# first#part#of# this# study#and#160#resources#in#the#second#part#of#this#study#were#reviewed#in#their#original#forms.# # Databases,# journal# articles# and# webpages# of# higher# institutions# were#scanned.# Furthermore,# summits# and# workshops# were# examined# for# current#challenges# and# future# trends.# This# study# identified#more# than# 200# institutions# in#North# America# and# more# than# 50# institutions# in# Europe# that# offer# some# kind# of#higher# urban# forestry# education.# There# were# 127# distinct# degree# names# at# the#baccalaureate,# masters# or# doctoral# level# associated# with# urban# forestry.# Fifteen#higher#institutions#in#the#United#States#and#2#in#Canada#offered#degrees#with#the#key#words# “urban# forestry”# in# their# name.# The# main# associated# disciplines# were#Landscape#Architecture,#Horticulture,#Forestry,#Landscape#Planning,#Arboriculture,#Biology,# Ecology# and# Soil# Sciences.# Innovative# universities# put# emphasis# on# a#stronger# integration# of# Social# Sciences,# but# also# on# Economics,# Business,# Law,#Politics#and#Medicine.#Experts#called#for#a#more#holistic#education#in#urban#forestry#that# is#multidisciplinary,#problem^based#and# includes# field#experiences.# Innovative#teaching# methods# encompass# group# work,# discussion# as# well# as# cooperative,#interactive# and#web^based# learning.# I# conclude# that# the# effectively# offering# urban#forestry#as#a#distinct#educational#discipline#will#depend#on#the#ability#of#universities#to#identify-the#challenges#cities#are#facing#and#to#provide-solutions#for#cities’#visions#of#a#sustainable#future.## # # # #4#Preface&#This# work# is# original,# unpublished,# independent# work# by# the# author,# Christoph#Florian# Baumeister.# Some# contents# have# been# used# for# weekly# meetings# with#members#of#the#University#of#British#Columbia,#Faculty#of#Forestry.##Table&of&Contents&1. Table&of&Contents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—THE#NEED#FOR#URBAN#FORESTRY#EDUCATION# 35#4.7# URBAN&FORESTRY&EDUCATION&AS&A&DISTINCT&DISCIPLINE& 37#5# CONCLUSION& 39#5.1# APPLICATION&OF&THIS&WORK& 41#5.2# FUTURE&RESEARCH&AND&DEVELOPMENT& 41#5.3# CONCLUDING&REMARKS& 42#REFERENCES& 43#APPENDICES& 55#APPENDIX—A:&LIST&OF&INSTITUTIONS&WITH&DEGREES&IN&URBAN&FORESTRY& 55#APPENDIX—B:&DEGREE&NAMES&OF&URBAN&FORESTRY&AND&ASSOCIATED&DISCIPLINES& 56#APPENDIX—C:&PROFILES&OF&HIGHQRANKED&UNIVERSITIES&IN&URBAN&FORESTRY&AND&ASSOCIATED&DISCIPLINES& 59## # # # #6##List&of&Figures&&Figure&1:&&Higher&institutions&in&Europe&with&degree&programs&in&urban&forestry&or&related&disciplines& 19#Figure&2:&Higher&institutions&in&North&America&with&course&offerings&in&urban&forestry&or&related&disciplines& 19##List&of&Abbreviations&#ACTrees# # Alliance#for#Community#Trees#COST# # # European#Cooperation#in#Science#and#Technology#EFUF# # # European#Forum#on#Urban#Forestry#FAO# # # Food#and#Agriculture#Organization#of#the#United#Nations#ICLEI# # # International#Council#For#Local#Environmental#Initiatives#IFSA# # # International#Forestry#Students’#Association#ISA# # # International#Society#of#Arboriculture#IUFRO## # International#Union#of#Forest#Research#Organizations#OECD# # # Organization#for#Economic#Co^operation#and#Development#SAF# # # Society#of#American#Foresters#UNESCO# United#Nations#Educational,#Scientific#and#Cultural#Organization## # # # #7#Acknowledgement&#I# would# like# to# acknowledge# the# contributions# of# my# committee,# Peter# Marshall,#Stephen# Sheppard,# Jorma# Neuvonen# and# Ulrich# Schraml.# Thank# you# for# your#constructive# feedbacks,# your# inspiring# suggestions# and# your# ongoing# support.#Furthermore,#I#would#like#to#acknowledge#the#help#I#received#from#various#contacts#in# the# University# of# British# Columbia# and# the# contributions# from# the# Albert^Ludwigs^University# Freiburg.# Finally,# thank# you# to# my# family# for# the# ongoing#encouragement.## ## # # # #8#1 Introduction&1.1 Context&#Interactions# between# nature# and# humans# have# become# an# issue# for# researchers#around# the# world.# The# current# world# population# of# 7.2# billion# is# projected# to#increase# by# 1# billion# over# the# next# 12# years# and# is# likely# to# pass# the#mark# of# 9.6#billion# by# 2050# (United# Nations,# 2013).# Moreover,# there# has# been# a# clear# trend#towards# urbanization# over# the# last# few# decades.# In# 2012,# 53%# of# the# world#population# lived# in# cities# or# suburban# areas# (World# Bank,# 2014).# In# Europe,# the#United# States,# and# Canada,# the# figures# are# even# higher,# at# 76%,# 83%# and# 80%#respectively# (Index#Mundi,# 2013).#The#European#Environment#Agency#expects# the#share# of# the# EU’s# population# living# in# urban# areas# to# increase# to# 80%# by# 2020#(European#Environment#Agency,#2010).#The#figures#in#the#United#States#reflect#the#same#dramatically#rising#tendency#(Nowak#et#al.,#2010).#Furthermore,#it#is#estimated#that#the#area#of#built#environment#will#increase#worldwide.#In#the#United#States,#for#instance,#it#is#projected#to#double#by#2025#(Nowak#et#al.,#2010).#On#a#global#scale,#it#has# become# a# challenging# task# for# policy# makers# and# scientists# to# find# the# right#balance# between# built–up# areas# and# green# spaces# so# as# to# maintain# the#environmental#quality#in#high#populated#countries#(Wijayanti,#2003).###1.2 The&Benefits&of&Urban&Forests&#Urban#green# space# is# considered# to#provide#multiple,#highly#demanded#goods#and#services#for#city#dwellers.#In#fact,#the#European#Environment#Agency#associates#the#quality# of# life# and# health# of# urban# dwellers# directly#with# the# quality# of# the# urban#green#environment#(European#Environment#Agency,#2010)## # # # #9#Woodland,#in#particular,#has#a#great#share#of#this#urban#green#space#and#researchers#around#the#world#have#called#attention#to#the#question#of#how#to#design#and#manage#urban#forests.#A#study#that#seeks#to#answer#the#question#of#how#to#balance#natural#forest#environments#with#higher#density#housing#in#suburbs#has#been#awarded#with#the# world’s# largest# forest# research# scholarship,# the# Future# Forests# Fellowship#(Faculty# of# Forestry,# 2013).# In# fact,# urban# forests# provide# a# variety# of# important#functions# for# human’s# well# being.# People’s# perception# of# the# city,# for# instance,# is#strongly# influenced# by# urban# woodlands.# Moreover,# urban# green# space# provides#recreational# opportunities# and# habitat# for# wildlife# (European# Commission,# 1997;#FAO,#2012).#The#production#function#of#urban#forests#is#mostly#of#minor#importance,#while# social# and# environmental# services# are# more# essential.# Aesthetics,# health#services# and# recreation# as#well# as# noise# abatement# are# central# functions# of# urban#woodlands.# Additionally,# services# such# as# shading# and# energy# saving,# cooling,#reduction#of#air#pollution,#safeguarding#of#soils#and#drinking#water#resources,#flood#protection,#biodiversity#protection,#and#climate#change#mitigation#are#indispensable#for#a#healthy#human#environment#(Jones,#2003;#Konijnendijk#et#al.,#2006;#Nowak#et#al.,#2010).##Urban# forests# are# a# scarce# resource# in# many# cities# of# the# world# and# differ#significantly.# The#Dutch# city#Amsterdam,# for# instance,# has# less# than#1%#woodland#whereas# the#German#green#city#Freiburg# im#Breisgau#has#an#urban# forest#share#of#42%.#The#average#green#space#of#Europe’s#cities#is#about#30%#(Konijnendijk,#2003).#A#more#demonstrative#indicator#for#the#multifunctional#demands#on#urban#forests#is#the# forest# area# per# city# inhabitant.# The# figures# range# from# 1.5# m2# in#Amsterdam/Netherlands# to# 750#m2# in# Joensuu,# Finland# (Palo# et# al.,# 2001).# These#figures#illustrate#the#demands#on#urban#forests#and#indicate#potential#conflicts#on#a#scarce#resource.#The# above–mentioned# functions# of# urban# woodlands# have# a# high# value# for# city#inhabitants.#Several#studies#have#been#conducted#to#estimate#the#financial#benefits#of# urban# forests.# In# the#United# States,# for# instance,# urban# forests# are# estimated# to#have#a#structural#asset#value#of#US$2.4#trillion#(Nowak#et#al.,#2002).#It# is#estimated## # # # #10#that#the#US#State#of#California#had#annually#expenditures#of#about#US$1#billion#in#the#1990s# to# obtain# urban# forestry# related# products# and# services,# such# as# aesthetic,#recreational,# health# and# environmental# benefits.# On# the# other# hand,# urban# forests#accounted#for#US$3.7#billion#in#total#sales,#US$2#billion#in#income#to#individuals#and#64,000# jobs# in# the# same# period# of# time# (Templeton# &# Goldman,# 1996).# A# recent#study# on# urban# forests# of# Toronto# number# the# total# value# of# the# cities’# trees# at#CAD$7,#about#CAD$700#per#tree#(Alexander,#2014).#With# respect# to# the# multiple# benefits# of# urban# forests,# rising# attention# has# been#called# to# the# question# of# how# to# design# and# manage# these# green# spaces.#Stakeholders,# politicians,# city# dwellers# and# researchers# are# concerned# about# this#question.#A#rising#number#of#publications#about#urban#forestry#issues#and#about#the#role# of# green# space# in# cities# indicate# an# increasing# importance# of# this# field# of#research.###1.3 Research&Objectives&and&Questions&#Professionals# who# are# responsible# for# designing,# managing# and# creating# urban#forests# and# green# spaces# have# various# educational# and# professional# backgrounds.#The# challenges# of# the# 21st# century,# in# fact,# seem# to# call# for# practitioners# with# a#holistic# education.# However,# neither# professions# in# urban# forestry# nor# (higher)#education#in#urban#forestry#are#clearly#profiled#worldwide.#As#a#matter#of#fact,#little#research#has#been#done# to#define#how#urban# forestry#education# takes#place# in# the#world# today.# Moreover,# only# a# few# journal# articles# have# been# published# to#synthesize#the#opinion#of#experts#regarding#how#urban#forestry#education#should#be#designed#to#account#for#current#and#future#demands.#Google#Scholar#and#the#Web#of#Knowledge,# for# instance,# list# only# 63# and# 9# resources# respectively# with# the# key#words# “urban# forestry# education”# in# their#databases.#Publications# that# include# the## # # # #11#often#similar#used#term#“community#forestry#education”#are#even#rarer#(Google#Inc.,#2014;#“Web#of#knowledge,”#2014).#This# study#has#been#done# to# fill# the# gap#of# knowledge.# Firstly,# the# study# analyzed#how#present#higher#education#in#urban#forestry#takes#place#globally#with#the#focus#on#North#America#and#Europe.#This#study#sought#to#find#an#answer#for#the#following#questions:#How#do#colleges#and#universities#profile# their#program?#What#does# the#design#of#urban#forestry#curricula#look#like?#What#are#taught#competencies?#Secondly,# this# study# also# sought# to# look# into# the# future# to# find# answers# for# the#following#questions:#What#are# innovative#urban# forestry#programs#with#respect# to#the#institutional#resources,#curricula,#course#content#and#teaching#methods?#Finally,#this# study# identified# future# challenges# that# universities# with# urban# forestry#programs# are# facing.# A# related# work# has# been# done# to# identify# skills# and#competencies#that#are#in#demand#by#the#labor#market#of#today#and#tomorrow#(see#Part-II:-Labor-market).##1.4 Definitions&#Understanding#of#the#term#urban#forestry#is#not#consistent.#It#was#first#mentioned#in#1894# in# the# United# States# (Konijnendijk# et# al.,# 2006).# However,# it# was# the# 1960s#before# it# became# a# topic# for# scientific# research# for# the# Canadian# Eric# Jorgenson#(Wassenaer#van,#2003).#Since#that#time,#the#understanding#of#the#term#has#changed#and# is# likely# to# continue# to# change# (Konijnendijk,# 1997).# There# is# a# difference#between#arboriculture#and#forestry.#Arboriculture#is#associated#with#maintenance#of#individual#trees.#The#maintenance#of#urban#trees#at#the#stand#level#can#be#described#with#the#term#urban#forestry#(European#Commission,#1997).#Several# authors# have# tried# to# substantiate# the# term# over# the# last# few# decades.#However,# a# translation# into# another# language# is# often# difficult# since# the## # # # #12#understanding#of#the#term#varies.#Alan#Simson#points#out#that#“where#urban#green#space# does# occur,# it# is# either# on# the# one# hand# extremely# ornamental,# or# more#commonly#it#is#at#the#other#end#of#the#spectrum#and#pseudo–naturalistic”#(Simson,#2003,#p.#114).#So,#to#determine#the#understanding#of#urban#forestry#in#14#European#countries,# Konijnendijk# (2003)# identified# categories# that# refer# to# associated#objectives,#structural#elements,# location,#benefits#and#values#of#urban#forests.#Most#consensuses#seem#to#exist#in#management#objectives#and#the#location#as#well#as#in#some# benefits# of# urban# woodlands.# # Konijnendijk# et# al.# (2006)# # pointed# out# that#urban#forestry#as#a#term#might#be#widely#unknown#in#many#European#countries,#in#contrast#to#the#United#Kingdom.#Most#Europeans#might#have#a#stronger#association#with#urban#green#structure,#woodland#and#neighbourwood.#In#contrast#to#Europe,#urban#forestry#in#North#America#is#well#known#and#refers#less#to#the#ecosystem#(Europe)#and#more#to#street#and#park#trees.#Community# forestry#and#urban#forestry#are#often#similarly#used#in#the#United#States.#Agreement#in#North#America# and# Europe# seem# to# exist# with# respect# to# the# multifunctional# and#multidisciplinary#character#of#the#term#(Konijnendijk#et#al.,#2006).#The#University#of#Lancashire# defines# Arboriculture# as# the# science# and# practice# of# tree# care# and#management#whereas#urban#forestry#is#about#greening#towns#and#cities#to#create#a#healthy# and# sustainable# urban# environment.## Together,# these# two# closely# related#disciplines#have#a#vital#role#to#play#in#creating#a#livable#environment#(University#of#Lancashire,#2014).##1.4.1 Urban&Forestry&#To# find# a#working#definition# for# this# study,# the#European#Commission# stated:# “An#urban#forest#can#be#defined#by#its#placement#in#or#near#urban#areas#and#by#its#multi–functional#aspects#given#shade,#amenity#values,#etc.#Therefore,#urban#forestry#can#be#defined# as:# planning,# design,# establishment# and# management# of# trees# and# forest## # # # #13#stands# with# amenity# values,# situated# in# or# near# urban# areas”# (European#Commission,#1997,#p.#5).##A#more#holistic#approach#is#the#one#proposed#by#Erik#Jorgensen#from#the#University#of# Toronto,# who# coined# the# term# in# 1965.# His# characterization# has# been# cited# by#many# authors:# “Urban# forestry# is# a# specialized# branch# of# forestry# and# has# as# its#objectives# the#cultivation#and#management#of# trees# for# their#present#and#potential#contribution# to# the# physiological,# sociological# and# economic# well# being# of# urban#society.#These#contributions#include#the#over–all#ameliorating#effect#of#trees#on#their#environment,#as#well#as#their#recreational#and#general#amenity#value”#(Konijnendijk,#2005,#p.#12;#Konijnendijk#et#al.,#2006;#Kuser,#2007,#p.#2;#Morsink#et#al.,#1989,#p.#98)###1.4.2 Urban&Forestry&Education&#A# general# definition# for# urban# forestry# education# could# refer# to# all# educational#institutes# that# are# concerned# with# the# education# of# professionals,# who# deal# with#urban#forests#and#green#space.#This#study#shines#a#light#on#the#variety#of#disciplines#that#are#dealing#with#education#in#urban#forestry.#Konijnendijk#et#al.#(2005,#p.#466)#define# urban# forestry# education# as# learning# with# focus# on# one# or# more# of# the#following# topics:# “function,# planning,# design,# selection,# establishment# and#management#of#urban#and#peri–urban#woodland,#parks,#street#trees#and#other#tree#resources”.#The#term#in#this#work# is#used#to#refer#to#higher#education# leading#to#a#BSc.,#MSc.#or#PhD#in#urban#forestry#or#related#disciplines.#In#order#to#define#related#fields# the# study# uses# the# key#words#mentioned# in# the# European#Memorandum# of#Understanding#(1997)#that#are#also#defined#by#Konijnendijk#(2005,#p.#466).#Hence,#formal# institutions# that# have# major# or/# and#minor# degrees# with# course# offerings#using# these# key#words#have#been# considered# in# this# analysis.# Formal# education# is#defined# as# the# form# of# education# practiced# within# traditional# institutions,# for#example#universities#and#colleges#(Mirth,#2003).## # # # #14#1.4.3 Skills&and&Competencies&&#Several#authors#use#the#terms#“skills”#and#“competencies”#synonymously.#However,#social#scientists#differentiate#between#the#terms.#Williams#(2005),#for#instance,#sees#competencies# as# something# that# can# be# learned# by# education.# Raggers# (2003)#describes# competencies# as# a# cluster# of# related# knowledge,# skills# and# attitudes# to#fulfill# a# task.#A#more#detailed#definition# is#described# in#Part# II# of# this#work:#Labor-market.-This#study#mostly#uses#the#term#competency#since#it#refers#more#to#“things”#that#are#learnable#(Williams,#2005,#p.#34)#rather#than#to#personal#preconditions#and#abilities#of#people.#Where#appropriate,#both#terms#are#used#in#this#work.## ## # # # #15#2 Materials&and&Methods&&#2.1 Materials,#In# order# to# identify# higher# institutions# of# urban# forestry# and# related# disciplines,# I#used#databases#of#parent#organizations,# such#as# the#North#American# International#Society#of#Arboriculture#(ISA)#database#(2014)#and#the#European#COST#Action#E12#reports# (1999;# 2002;# 2005;# 2001).# Both# resources# were# essential# for# this# work,#since# the# ISA# is# the# world’s# largest# non^governmental# association# with# 20.000#members#working#in#the#field#of#urban#forestry.#The#COST#Action#E12#task#force#has#been# established# to# promote# urban# forestry# as# a# holistic# discipline# within# the#members#of#the#European#Union.#Furthermore,#this#work#is#based#on#roughly#120#references—books,#journal#articles#and#webpages#of#universities,#summits,#associations#and#governmental#institutions.#Additionally,#160#references#were#used#in#the#part#II#of#this#work:#Labor-market.#All#references#were#viewed#in#their#original#form#and#are#available#to#the#author.#Hence,#this#work#might# also# serve#as# an#anthology#of# relevant#publications# in# the# field#of#urban#forestry#education#for#further#studies.###2.2 Methods,#Given# the# few# publications# in# the# field# of# urban# forestry# education,# this# research#used# a# descriptive# approach,# considered# to# be# an# appropriate# methodology# for#circling# a# new# field# of# research# by# observing# and# describing# realities# (Grimes# &#Schulz,#2002).#The#study#mainly#describes#how#urban#forestry#education#takes#place#in# North# America# (mainly# the# United# States)# and# Europe.# However,# all# available## # # # #16#publications#about#urban#forestry#education#in#English#and#German#have#been#taken#into# account.# The# few# represented# descriptions# of# how# urban# forestry# education#takes#place#in#other#parts#of#the#world#reflect#the#few#available#publications.#As# a# first# step,# I# reviewed# publications# and# databases# to# identify# institutions# that#offer#urban#forestry#education.#In#order#to#find#“urban#forestry”#related#disciplines,#I#used# the#key#words# listed# in# the#European#Memorandum#of#Understanding#Urban-Forests- and- Trees# (1997)—as# described# in# the# chapter# Definitions.# Secondly,# I#scanned# online^accessible# syllabi# and# course# offerings# of# higher# institutions# to#identify# contents# of# courses# and# taught# competencies.# In# order# to# describe#innovative#universities#and#course#programs,#insights#and#criteria#resulting#from#the#related# second# part# of# this# work# were# used—reflecting# experts’# opinions# and#expectations#on#an#innovative#urban#forestry#education.#These#criteria#encompass:#the#call#of#experts#for#access#to#lifelong-learning;#An#education#that#is-designed-to-be-multidisciplinary- and# unifies- urban- forestry- disciplines- instead# of# teaching# them#separately;#An#education#that#is#orientated-on-competencies#rather#than#on#teaching#subject#matter;# An# education# that#manages# to# close# the# gap# between#natural-and-social-sciences#and#teaching#them#integratively.#An#education#that#enables#graduates#to# gain# superordinate- key>competencies,# such# as# problem# solving,# team^work,#leadership^skills,# and# communication# skills.# Furthermore,# an# urban# forestry#education# that# also# accounts# for# current# and# future# issues# of# the# labor# market#instead#of#educating#in#an#ivory#tower.#Thirdly,# I# described# how# future# education# in# urban# forestry# should# be# designed#according#to#the#opinion#of#experts.#In#the#chapter#Higher#Urban#Forestry#Education#of#Tomorrow#(Chapter#4),#I#used#speeches#of#experts#from#summits#as#well#as#other#publications# and# surveys.# Presented# results# of# surveys# refer# to# the# number# of#respondents—not# questionnaires# that# were# sent.# Furthermore,# I# conducted# a#second#study# to#deduce#needs#and# requirements#of# the# labor#market#by# reflecting#multiple#points#of#view.#Additionally,#in#order#to#identify#future#challenges#in#urban-forestry# education,# the# extent# of# reviewed# papers# was# expanded# to# forestry#education#with#respect#to#urban#forestry#issues.#This#approach#seemed#necessary#to## # # # #17#me# given# the# few# publications# that# only# focus# on# challenges# higher# educational#institutions#are# facing# in#urban-forestry.# In#summary:# issues# in#urban# forestry#deal#with#the#question#of#how#people#and#nature# interact# in#a#complex#urban#structure#for#the#benefit#of#all.#This#is#increasingly#also#true#for#many#forestry#issues.#To#use#the#words#of#Larson#(2013)#and#Vanclay#(1996,#p.#2):#“Forestry#is#about#people”.#### ## # # # #18#3 Higher&Urban&Forestry&Education&Today&#3.1 Overview&&#The# United#Nations# Educational,# Scientific# and# Cultural# Organization# (UNESCO)# is#the# only# United# Nations# Agency# with# a# mandate# to# encompass# all# aspects# of#education.# UNESCO# sees# one# important# cornerstone# for# an# education# of# the# 21st#century#as#developing#knowledge#and#competency#for#a#sustainable#future#(United#Nations#Educational#Scientific#and#Cultural#Organization,#2014).#So,#does#the#current#higher# education# in# urban# forestry# relate# to# this# objective?# On# a# global# scale,#university#education#in#urban#forestry#is#still#fragmented#and#in#the#early#stages#of#development#in#most#parts#of#the#world#(Herzele#van,#2005).#However,#a#variety#of#attempts# have# been# made# to# profile# university# urban# forestry# around# the# world.#Nevertheless,# there# are# only# a# few# programs# leading# to# a# degree# called# urban-forestry.# I# identified# only# 17# institutions# worldwide,# mainly# located# in# North#America#and#the#United#Kingdom#that#offer#a#BSc.,#MSc.#or#PhD.#degree#called#“urban#forestry”;#see#Appendix—A:#List#of#Institutions#with#Degrees#in#Urban#Forestry.#By#contrast,#at#least#252#colleges#and#universities#in#Europe,#Canada,#the#United#States#and#New#Zealand#offer#127#degrees# that# include#course#offerings# related# to#urban#forestry;# see# Appendix—B:# Degree# Names# of# Urban# Forestry# and# Associated#Disciplines.# Figure# 1# and# Figure# 2# illustrate# the# locations# of# higher# institutions# of#urban#forestry#and#related#disciplines.#Figure#1#is#based#on#a#Europe^wide#survey#of#higher#institutions#conducted#by#the#European#Commission#(Randrup#et#al.,#2001).#The#map#represents#institutions#that#stated#they#offer#some#kind#of#urban#forestry#education.#The#map#is# incomplete:# the#questionnaire#was#sent#to#180#departments#and# 158# educational# European# institutions,# but# only# 61# departments# and# 49#institutions#in#19#European#countries#responded#to#the#survey.#Institutions#in#some#countries,#such#as#France,#did#not#respond#at#all#and#are#not#represented#in#the#map.## # # # #19##Figure&1:&&Higher&institutions&in&Europe&with&degree&programs&in&urban&forestry&or&related&disciplines&&Data#base:#Randrup#et#al.#2001;#ISA,#2014#(incomplete/supplemented)#Map:#Google,#2014##-Figure& 2:& Higher& institutions& in& North& America& with& course& offerings& in& urban& forestry& or& related&disciplines&Data#base:#ISA,#2014#(supplemented)#Map:#Google,#2014### # # # #20#3.2 Higher&Urban&Forestry&Education&Today&in&Europe&#The# European#Union# currently# has# 28#members# (European#Union,# 2014).# Despite#the# efforts# of# the# Bologna# process,# which# wanted# to# remove# dissimilarities# in#university# education,# the# standardization# of# higher# European# education# is# still# in#process.#Hence,#in#order#to#give#an#overview#of#urban#forestry#education#in#Europe,#the# variety# of# educational# institutes# of# all# European# countries# with# unequal#traditions#have#to#be#taken#into#account.#The#COST#Action#E12#task#force#was#established#in#1997#to#conduct#research#in#the#field#of#urban#forestry#and#higher#education#in#Europe.#A#declared#aim#was#also#to#equalize#standards#in#urban#forestry#education#among#the#members#of#the#European#Union.# Hence,# higher# educational# institutions# of#members# of# the# European# Union#(and#some#non^members#in#addition)#were#surveyed#for#their#program#offerings#in#urban#forestry^related#disciplines.#To#identify#the#course#offerings#related#to#urban#forestry,# the#questionnaire#used#key#words#of# the#Memorandum#of#Understanding#(European#Commission,# 1997).# These#words#were# function,-planning,-design,-plant-selection,- establishment# and# management# of# urban# woodlands,# urban# parks# and#trees—considered#to#be#related#to#urban#forestry.&The# work# of# the# COST# Action# Task# Force# was# never# fully# completed# due# to#insufficient# responses# of# countries# to# the# survey.# However,# the# study# provided#important#information#for#the#status#of#urban#forestry#in#Europe#at#the#turn#of#the#20th#century.#Some#results#of#the#study#are#described#below#based#on#Randrup#et#al.#(2001).##At# least#49#European#colleges#and#universities#have#degree#programs# that# include#(partly#elective)#urban#forestry^related#courses#in#the#following#countries:#Belgium,#Croatia,#Denmark,#Estonia,#Finland,#Germany,#Greece,#Ireland,#Latvia,#Lithuania,#the#Netherlands,#Norway,#Portugal,#Slovakia,#Slovenia,#Spain,#Sweden,#Switzerland#and#the#United#Kingdom.#Urban# forestry^related# courses#and#degree#programs#exist# at## # # # #21#all# academic# levels,# leading# to# Bachelor# (BSc.),# Master# (MSc.)# and# Doctoral# (PhD)#degrees.# However,# the# majority# of# the# courses# are# mainly# at# the# bachelors# and#masters#level#(89%).#The#scientific#disciplines#vary#strongly,#reflected#in#numerous#associated#faculties.#The#eight#main#faculties#are#the#following#in#order#of#relevance:#Landscape# Architecture,# Landscape# Ecology,# Horticulture,# Forestry,# Planning#Sciences,#Arboriculture,#Biology,#and#Soil#Sciences#(Randrup#et#al.,#2001).##However,#5# out# of# 6# central# disciplines# in# European# higher# urban# forestry# education# are#related# to# crop# production# and# natural# sciences.# Social# sciences# approaches# are#much# less# represented.# # Konijnendijk# et# al.# # (2005)# point# out# that# students# with#various# educational# backgrounds# enter# the# Masters# or# PhD# level,# having# had#previous#BSc.# degrees# in#Horticulture,# Forestry,# Arboriculture,# Biology,# Landscape#Ecology,# Landscape# Architecture,# Agriculture,# Architecture,# Botany,# and# Leisure#Studies#in#order#of#relevance.##The# academic# staff# has# various# educational# backgrounds# in# Biology,# Horticulture,#Landscape#Ecology,#Arboriculture,# Forestry,# Soil# Sciences,# Landscape#Architecture,#Plant# Pathology,# Planning# Sciences,# Economics,# Leisure# Studies# and# Sociology# in#order# of# relevance# (Randrup# et# al.,# 2001).# Programs# seem# to# be# expensive# with#respect# to# labor# costs;#most#degree#programs# involve#more# than#5# staff#members.#According# to# Randrup# et# al.# (2001)# the# course# offerings# in# urban# forestry# # are#interdisciplinary#and#use#various#teaching#methods.#Andersen#et#al.#(2002)#mention#that#the#main#teaching#methods#are#lectures,#practical#training#and#field#experience,#essay#writing,# group#works,# laboratory# experiments#workshops# and# excursions# in#order#of#relevance#(Andersen#et#al.,#2002).##Finally,# the# results# of# COST# Action# E12# revealed# that# urban# forestry# education# is#only#established#to#a# limited#extent#as#an# independent# field#of#higher#education# in#Europe#(Andersen#et#al.,#2002).#### # # # #22#3.3 Higher&Urban&Forestry&Education&Today&in&North&America&#Urban# forestry#has# a# long# tradition# in#North#America.#The# roots# of# urban# forestry#education# reach#back# to# 1907#when#private# firms# started# to# commercialize# urban#forestry#education#(Elmendorf#et#al.,#2005).#According#to#Miller#(1994),#it#was#in#the#late#1960s#and#early#1970s#that#forestry#schools#began#to#offer#courses#specifically#focused#on#urban#forestry#in#the#United#States.#A#survey#conducted#in#1975#revealed#that#29#universities# in# the#United#States#offered#programs# in#Arboriculture#at# that#time# (Andresen# &# Williams,# 1975).# At# this# early# stage,# urban# forestry# programs#already# developed# curricula,# options,# specializations# or# tracks# based# on#interdisciplinary#support# from#other#university#departments,#such#as#Regional#and#Urban#Planning,#Landscape#Design,#Business,#Sociology,#and#the#Humanities.#A#later#survey# in# 1990# revealed# that# 30# universities# offered# at# least# one# or# more#undergraduate#courses#in#this#field#(Elmendorf#et#al.,#2005).##Twenty^four# years# later,# the# International# Society# of# Arboriculture# lists# in# its#database# 203# universities# and# colleges# that# offer# degree# programs# or# courses#related#to#urban#forestry#at#all# levels#of#higher#education#in#North#America.#Nearly#all#of#them#are#located#in#the#United#States,#with#only#two#in#Canada#(International#Society# of# Arboriculture,# 2014).# In# Canada,# arboricultural# (and# urban# forestry#training)# is# mostly# facilitated# in# programs# offered# at# various# community# colleges#throughout# the# country# (Wassenaer# van,# 2003).# With# respect# to# the# ISA# listed#institutions,#it#has#to#be#taken#into#account#that#no#clear#distinction#is#made#between#the# term# arboriculture# and# urban# forestry.# Hence,# the# listed# courses# reflect# the#variety#of#educational#disciplines#in#urban#forestry#that#are#related#to#Horticulture,#Landscape#Architecture,#Arboriculture#and#others.#In#fact,#a#survey#of#urban#forestry#educators# in#2002# revealed#how# instructors#define# the#difference# in# arboriculture#and# urban# forestry:# only# 57%# of# respondents# agreed# that# urban# forestry# and#arboriculture# could# be# taught# together# (Elmendorf# et# al.,# 2005).# This# result# may## # # # #23#indicate# that# there# is#no# insurmountable#distance#between# the# two#closely# related#disciplines,#but#underlines#an#existing#divergence.###3.4 Taught&Competencies&&#In# most# parts# of# Europe,# the# competencies# being# taught# at# universities# refer# to#various# disciplines.#Well^established# traditional# urban# forestry# programs# that# are#comparable#to#the#United#States#only#exist#in#the#United#Kingdom.#In#North#America,#research# has# been# done# to# identify# taught# competencies# in# several# institutions#related# to# urban# forestry.# Elmendorf# et# al.# (2005)# reviewed# eight# syllabi# of# US#universities#and#colleges#that#offer#urban#forestry#courses.#They#identified#the#most#common# competencies# being# reflected# in# conventional# urban# forestry# syllabi# as#follows:#Arboriculture,#tree#benefits#and#values,#tree#and#park#inventory,#street#tree#ordinance,# shade# tree# commissions,# tree# management# plans,# tree# evaluation# and#removal,#work#planning#and#budgeting,#funding,#conflict#resolution,#public#relations,#volunteer#management,#land#use#planning,#preserving#trees#and#utility#forestry.#Other# fields# related# to# social# sciences# were# also# present,# for# example# conflict#resolution# and# public# relations.# Wiseman# et# al.# (2011)# assessed# 68# arboriculture#courses#being#taught#at#U.S.# institutions#of#higher#education.#The#results#show#that#the# most# common# topics# are# pruning# (85%),# disorders# (81%),# physiology# and#biology# (79%),# risks# and# hazards# (79%),# and# soils# (75%).# According# to# the# same#study,# the# most# interdisciplinary# topics# include# business# issues,# writing# skills,#organizations,#ethical#issues,#professional#skills#development,#and#consulting.#### # # # #24#4 Higher&Urban&Forestry&Education&of&Tomorrow&4.1 ,Overview,#Educating#students#for#the#labor#market#of#tomorrow#has#been#a#challenging#task#for#universities# around# the# world.# This# chapter# reflects# challenges# urban# forestry#institutions# and# forestry# institutions# are# facing# based# on# results# from# ongoing#working# groups# about# an# appropriate# (urban)# forestry# education,# such# as# the#annually#SILVA#proceedings,#and#experts’#opinions#as#stated#in#various#publications.#Additionally,#opinions#of#experts#are#synthesized#to#find#answers#for#the#question#of#what# future# education# in# urban# forestry# should# look# like.# Further# tendencies# and#needs#arise#from#results#of#the#second#part#of#this#study#Labor-market.#The#question#of#how#to#design#future#education#in#urban#forestry#has#been#discussed#among#experts#around#the#world.#Langenfelder#and#Rahlf#(2008)#point#out#that#the#complexity# and# diversity# of# the# labor# market# are# changing# rapidly# and# call# for#forging#new#paths#in#university#education.#Several#workshops—#such#as#the#ongoing#SILVA# proceedings# in# Europe—explore# how# university# forestry# education# should#take#place#to#reflect#the#needs#and#requirements#of#the#future#labor#market.#The#first#step#to#find#answers#for#this#question#is#to#identify#fields#of#employment#of#graduate#students.#Schmidt#et#al.# (1997),# for# instance,#did#a# comprehensive#study#with# respect# to# the#employment# of# forestry# graduates# in# 17# European# countries.# They# found# that#forestry#graduates#found#their#engagement#in#a#niche#job#market.#Efthymiou#(2009)#points#out#that#forestry#education#needs#to#fulfill#demands#for#both#generalists#and#specialists#to#account#for#this#niche#job#market.#A#study#in#Switzerland#was#designed#to# find# out# what# occupation# group# is# best# qualified# to# tackle# environmental#problems.# For# that# purpose,# Mieg# and# de# Sombre# (2004)# surveyed# 3360# Swiss#professionals# with# degrees# in# Agriculture,# Forest# Science,# Biology,# Environmental#Science,#Engineering,#Geology#and#Landscape#Planning.#The#scientists#revealed#that## # # # #25#forestry#and#agricultural#professionals#were#at#an#advantage#over#other#disciplines#since# their# education# is# more# general,# encompassing# natural# sciences,# social#sciences,# landscape#planning,# law#and#economics.#Although#this#study#reflects#only#an# expedient# forestry# education# in# Switzerland,# there# is# an# important# finding# that#the# generalist# best# deals# with# environmental# problems.# Hence,# higher# forestry#institutions#need#to#impart#a#range#of#competencies,#but#also#an#in^depth#knowledge#of#basic#disciplines.##In# order# to# predict# trends# in# the# labor# market,# a# close# relationship# between# the#university# and# the# labor#market# seems# to# be# essential.# Connaughton# et# al.# (2014)#suggested# that# advisory# councils,# social# media# connections,# blind# surveys,# and#alumni# networks# were# effective# mechanisms# to# promote# the# dialogue# about#employer#needs.#Bos^Boers#and#Schmidt#(2008)#describe#a#solution#to#this#problem.#At# a# Dutch# university,# there# is# an# ongoing# working# group.# Participants# from#universities,# governmental# decision#makers,# alumni# graduate# students,# employers,#career# advisors# and# headhunters# meet# frequently# to# discuss# current# and# future#requirements#of#the#labor#market.##4.2 A,Framework,for,Future,Urban,Forestry,Education,,#Deneke# (1978)# formulated# a# future# vision# of# an# appropriate# urban# forestry#education# that# included# a# multidisciplinary# approach.# Hildebrandt# et# al.# (1993)#stated#more#than#a#decade#later#that#the#challenge#in#urban#forestry#education#is#to#account# for#both# forestry# and# society# as# a#whole.# The#discipline#urban# forestry# is,#according# to# Hildebrandt,# “the# best# place# to# begin# seizing”# the# social# and# natural#dimensions#of#forestry#(Hildebrandt#et#al.,#1993,#p.#42).#A#holistic#education#in#urban#forestry# needs# to# incorporate# expertise# from# a# range# of# disciplines# (Konijnendijk,#2005).#Kenney#(2003)#points#out#that#separate#disciplines#such#as#ecology,#planning,#landscape#architecture,#and#arboriculture#cannot#provide#the#background#needed#to## # # # #26#effectively#manage#urban#forests#at#the#ecosystem#level.#The#COST#Action#E12#task#force# of# the# European# Commission# (2001)# and# Konijnendijk# and# Gauthier# (2006)#call# for# new# developments# in# interdisciplinary# approaches# to# urban# forestry—including# social# sciences# and# aesthetics.# Gustavsson# (2006)# pointed# out# that# a#multidisciplinary# approach# is# not# enough# to# provide# a# better# understanding# of#urban# forestry# issues.# She# regretted# that#multiple# disciplines#were# still# not# linked#enough# and# were# often# only# “overlapping”.# She# believed# that# a# new# “language”#among# various# disciplines# needed# to# be# found# to# approach# urban# forestry#holistically.#Moreover,#experts#need#to#come#together#to#“speak”#this#language#and#to#find#solutions#for#an#appropriate#urban#forestry#education.#Hamm#(2006)#suggests#using# the# concept# of# a# landscape# laboratory# to# bring# scientists# and# practitioners#from#different#educational#backgrounds# to#work#cooperatively#on#problem^solving#strategies.#Hence,# a#major# future#need#has# to#be#defined# for# creating#a# learning#environment#supportive#of#a# future#urban# forestry#education.#Furthermore,#content#needs#to#be#defined#that#should#be#reflected#in#innovative#urban#forestry#curricula.#So,#what#are#the#subject#matters#that#need#to#be#given#more#emphasis#for#future#urban#forestry#education?#A#more#holistic#answer#to#this#question#is#provided#in#the#second#part#of#this#work#(Labor-Market)-where#needed#competencies#are#profiled.--Konijnendijk# (2005)# indicated# that# urban# green# issues# need# to# be# connected# to# a#range# of# social,# economic# and# environmental# agendas.# In# fact,# agreement# seem# to#exist# that# social# dimensions# in# an# appropriate# higher# education# need# to# be# given#more#emphasis—not#only#for#urban#forestry,#but#also#for#general#forestry.#A#survey#conducted#in#British#Columbia,#Canada#asked#507#people—students,#members#of#the#Faculty# of# Forestry# at# UBC# and# a# selected# group# of# British# Columbia’s# population#related#to#forestry—about#their#opinion#as#to#whether#social#science#should#be#given#more# emphasis# on# in# forestry# curricula.# The# results# revealed# that# all# three#participating# groups# answered# this# question# positively# (Tindall,# 2001).#Moreover,#Kennedy#and#Koch#(2008)#share#the#opinion#that#a#forestry#university#education#has#to# better# account# for# the# complex# relationship# between# humans# and# nature# by## # # # #27#managing#not#just#for#ecosystems#or#just#for#people,#but#for#their#complex,#diverse,#short# and# long^term# sustainable# relationship.# Kennedy# (1990)# points# out# that#graduates# ideally#are#good#at#analyzing,#synthesizing#and#are#able#to#communicate#their# stewardship# of# a# public# resource.# Also,# Miller# (1993)# claims# that# forestry#curricula# should#more# reflect# societal# needs.#He# pointed# out# that# it# is# essential# to#teach# students# how# changing# objectives# in# forest#management# have# an# impact# on#silviculture# and# policy.# # Additionally,# Bentley# (1999,# p.# 30)# claims# that# university#education#should#impart#competencies#most#employees#are#likely#to#be#looking#for:#“a# clear# understanding# of# ethics”,# “communication# skills”,# “scientific# knowledge”,#“the#ability#to#solve#problems”#and#“leadership”#skills.#Langenfelde#and#Rahlf#(2008)#equally# saw# the# most# important# competencies# in# specialist# knowledge,#methodological#skills,#team#skills#and#communication#skills.#In#order#to#prepare#students#for#increasing#societal#demands#in#urban#and#suburban#forests,# Konijnendijk# (2000)# indicated# that# new# communication# tools# need# to# be#developed,#including#elaborated#participation#tools#for#various#stakeholders.##Ball# (2004)# referred# to# the# findings#of# the#XII#World#Forestry#Congress# in#Quebec#(Canada)# and# points# out# that# writing# skills# need# to# be# improved# in# the# future# to#enable# professionals# to# communicate# with# the# public.# He# suggests# that# stronger#inclusion# of# technical#writing# in# university# education# is# a# necessity.# Finally# Klenk#and# Brown# (2007)# and# Luckert# (2006)# pointed# out# that# ethical# issues# in# forestry#syllabi# need# to# be# given# more# emphasis,# reflecting# professional# as# well# as#environmental#ethics.### ## # # # #28#4.3 Future,Teaching,Methods,#Several# authors# point# out# that# future# urban# forestry# education# needs# to# involve#innovative#teaching#methods#to#prepare#students#for#the#multi^faceted#labor#market.#Redelsheimer# et# al.# (2014)# suggested# that# more# emphasis# should# be# given# on#teaching# students# how# to# access,# synthesize# and# apply# new# knowledge.# Brown#(2003)# supported# a# solution# using# problem–based# learning.# Pelkonen# (2008)#pointed# out# that# challenged^based# project# work# and# a# move# from# teaching# to#learning# promises# to# be# most# expedient.# Raggers# (2003,# p.# 51)# reports# on#experiences#in#designing#a#curricula#in#urban#forestry#and#sees#the#most#advantage#in#problem#orientated#education:#“One#of#the#major#advantages#of#this#approach#is#that# students# are# trained# to# co–operate# and# have# good# communication# skills”.#Thompson#et#al.#(2003)#and#Kammesheidt#et#al.#(2007)#suggested#cooperative#and#interactive#learning#methods.#They#indicated#that#the#role#of#educators#has#to#be#re^defined—from#teaching# to#supervising# the# learning#process.#Randrup#et#al.# (2001)##suggested# practical# training,# field#work,# group#work# and#workshops# for# a# holistic#urban#forestry#education.#The#Society#of#American#Foresters#(2010)#suggested#new#methods,#such#as#discussions,#simulations,#computer#applications,#group#work#and#fieldtrips#for#a#holistic#education#in#urban#forestry.#Buiting#(2003)#pointed#out#that#urban# forestry# education#has# to# include#presentations,# interviews,#workshops#and#inquiry#technics,#as#well#as#popular#writing#and#media#techniques.#Finally,#several#authors#called#for#a#stronger#inclusion#of#practical#work#experience#in#urban# forestry.# From# (2003)# asked#50#professionals# in# Sweden#about# the#ways#they#have#developed#competency#in#urban#forestry#and#related#disciplines.#Practical#work# was# considered# to# be# the# most# important# way.# Dunn# and# Gornicki# (1978)#revealed#at#an#early#stage#of#urban#forestry# in#the#United#States#that#professionals#called# for# a#mandatory# internship# that# should#be# included# in# college#or#university#urban# forestry# education.# Godbout# (1997)# stated# that# the# challenges# of# forestry#education# could# be# seen# in# adapting# programs# to# society’s# new# requirements.# In## # # # #29#order#to#face#these#requirements,#he#also#gave#preference#to#practical#and#real–life#training.##4.4 Lifelong,and,WebEbased,Learning,#Kennedy# (1990)# from# the# University# of# British# Columbia# stated# that# the#baccalaureate# degree# is# only# a# ticket# to# life–long# learning.# Furthermore,# Bentley#(1999)# # pointed# out# that# an# appropriate# education# should# result# in# professionals,#who# are# problem# solvers,# leaders# and# life^long# learners.# A# nationwide# survey#conducted#in#Canada#asked#employers#for#the#most#urgent#steps#to#be#done#in#order#to#prepare#the#forestry#workforce#for#the#future.#Lifelong#learning#was#seen#as#one#of#the#most#important#issues#(Canadian#Council#of#Forest#Ministers,#2004).#Probably#the# most# important# tools# for# professionals# to# get# access# to# lifelong# learning# are#online# resources.# Several# experts# called# for# a# stronger# emphasis# on# interactive#learning#and#for#an#integration#of#online#learning#methods#in#urban#forestry#(Forrest#&# Moore,# 2003;# Johnston# &# Hirons,# 2012).# Web# based# learning# is# seen# to# be#advantageous# to# increase# equality# between# countries# for# raising# the# quality# and#availability# of# resources# (Tahvanainen# &# Pelkonen,# 2003).# With# respect# to# vast#Canada,#online# learning#can#manage#to#encourage#professionals#to#become#lifelong#learners,#which#is#according#to#the#opinion#of#many#experts,#an#urgent#need#in#urban#forestry.##Web^based# education# for# students# and# professionals# can# enhance# intercultural#exchange#and#are#regarded#being#the#crucial#first#action#to#climb#the#next#steps#up#the#professional#ladder#of#urban#forestry#(Ratnasingam#et#al.,#2013;#Simson,#2003).#Experts#on# the#North#American#Summit#on#Forestry#and#Forest#Science#Education#pointed# to# the# advantages# of# distance# and# web# based# learning:# the# gathering# of#teaching# excellence# and# enhanced# flexibility# of# students#with# respect# of# time# and#location# that#allows# (senior)#professionals# to#get#access# for# lifelong# learning.#They## # # # #30#predicted#that#future#forestry#education#will#include#online^courses#offered#between#multiple#universities#and#cooperative#programs#(Standiford#et#al.,#2014).####As#mentioned# in# section#4.5,# the#University#of#Lancashire#offers# an#urban# forestry#degree# program# that# is# online# based# and# therefore# designed# for# access# by#professionals,#who# do# not# have# time# for# a# full^time# student# enrollment.# A# further#resource# for# urban# forestry# practitioners# is# the# urban# forestry# web# page# of# the#Society#of#American#Foresters#(2014).#Moreover,#17#urban#forestry#associations#are#accessible# online# and# offer# valuable# publications# and# online# tools# on# their# web#pages.#These#associations#are#described# in# the#Appendix#of# the#second#part#of# this#work#Labor-Market.##Beside# online# tools,# frequent# conferences# are# important# resources# to# give#professionals#access#to#lifelong#learning#and#to#advance#urban#forestry#(From,#2003)#Other# valuable# resources# for# professionals# are# manuals# and# guidebooks.# A# good#example#is#the#one#from#the#United#States#Department#of#Agriculture#that#has#been#published#to#assist#urban#forestry#professionals#in#their#daily#jobs#(Urban#Forestry#South,# 2005).# Included# therein# are# recommendations# with# respect# to# technical#aspects#of#urban# forestry# as#well# as# tools# for#working#with# the#public# and#dealing#with#local#politics.##4.5 Innovative&Universities&&#Some#universities#have#taken#innovative#steps#to#meet#the#tomorrow’s#challenges#in#urban# forestry.# The# criteria# considered# as# being# innovative# are# described# in# the#chapter# 2.2# Methods—as# stated# from# experts’# and# resulting# from# insights# of# the#second#part#of#this#work.#In#Europe,#the#University#of#Lancashire#(2014)#has#recently#established#a#program#in# urban# forestry# and# arboriculture.# The# program# is# advertised# as# being# the# only## # # # #31#existing#online#urban#forestry#program#that#leads#to#a#stand^alone#graduate#degree.#This#innovative#approach#not#only#accounts#for#the#frequently#claimed#introduction#of# new# teaching# tools,# but# gives# also# professionals# access# to# lifelong# learning.#Moreover,# it# helps# to# exchange# knowledge# among# urban# forestry# institutions#worldwide—a# frequently# mentioned# advancement# approach# for# urban# forestry.#Furthermore,#the#University#of#Lancashire#is,#according#to#my#knowledge,#currently#the#only#university#that#has#published#“translated”#contents#of#urban#forestry#syllabi#into# learning# outcomes.# A# dedicated# description# of# desired# competencies# of#graduates# has# been# published.# This# approach# goes# beyond# only# listing# course#contents#as#used#by#most#universities#that#offer#urban#forestry#education.##The# university# of# Copenhagen# (2014)# is# another# example# of# innovative# urban#forestry#education.#Vanclay#(1996)#pointed#out#that#the#Faculty#of#Geosciences#and#Natural# resource# Management# in# Copenhagen# was# well# positioned# with# a# good#linkage#to#politics#and#international#contacts#to#other#related#institutions.#Moreover,#it#offers#a#holistic#education#in#urban#forestry#that#encompasses#the#participation#of#other# faculties# such# as# economics,# forestry,# land^use# planning# and# nature#conservation.# In# addition,# the# university# has# a# close# relationship# with# urban#forestry^related#faculties#of#the#Swedish#University#of#Agricultural#Sciences#(2014)#in# landscape# planning# and# green# space#management.# A# further# Danish# innovative#example# can# be# seen# in# the# urban# tree# arboretum# in# Hørsholm.# It# is# thought# to#improve#basic#and#advanced#education#for#students#and#professionals#working#with#tree#establishment#and#management#in#urban#areas#(Bühler#&#Kristoffersen,#2009).#In# North# America,# the# University# of# Wisconsin# Stevens# Point# (2014)# and# the#University#of#Michigan#State#(2014)#have#been#offering#urban#forestry#education#for#decades.#Innovative#are#the#close#ties#with#municipal#authorities#(as#potential#labor#market),#and#a#strong#integration#of#public#issues#by#cooperation#with#schools#and#the# city’s# population.# The# University# of# Illinois# (2014)# offers# a# degree# program#called# # “Human#Dimensions#of# the#Environment”,#which#appears# to#be#designed#to#close# the# gap# between# social# sciences# and# natural# sciences.# The# University# of#California–Berkeley# (2014)# and# the# Yale# University# (2014)# are# high# ranked## # # # #32#universities#according#to# the#World#University#Rankings#(Thomson#Reuters,#2014)#and# both# offer# degree# programs# with# strong# integrative# courses# in# landscape#architecture#and#social#sciences#(California^Berkeley)#and#forestry#(Yale).##For#more#detailed#profiles#of#these#universities,#see#Appendix—C:#Profiles#of#High^Ranked#Universities#in#Urban#Forestry#and#Associated#Disciplines.##4.6 &The&Future&of&Urban&Forestry&Education&on&a&Global&Scale,#On#a#global#scale,#urban#forestry#and#education#in#urban#forestry#is#on#the#rise.#An#indication# of# the# increasing# importance# of# topics# in# this# field# is# identifiable# from#agendas#of#the#Advisory#Committee#on#Forestry#Education#(ACFE).#This#association#existed#between#1965#and#1996#and#was#based#on#international#participation#from#Africa,#Asia,#Europe,#Latin#America#and#North#America.#Temu#and#Ogweno# (2008)#reviewed#agendas#of# the#Advisory#Committee#on#Forestry#Education# (ACFE).#They#found# that# the# topic#of# community# forestry#was# the# second#most# frequent# issue—#only# exceeded# by# the# topic# forestry# education# for# industries.# Aoki# (2008)# also#pointed#out# that# there#had#been#a#clear#shift# towards#community# forestry#projects#over# the# last# few#decades.#Aoki# (2008)#reviewed#663#projects#and#activities#of# the#International# Tropical# Timber# Organization# (ITTO)# between# 1987# and# 2005.#Twenty^three#percent#of#all#projects#in#Latin#America,#Asia#and#Africa#covered#topics#related# to# community# involvement.# Even# in# developing# countries,# such# as#Afghanistan,# urban# resource# management# has# become# an# issue.# Policy# initiatives#seek#to#link#natural#resource#development#with#improvements#in#quality#of#life#and#protection#of#vulnerable#populations#(Groninger,#2006).##Many#higher#institutions#in#the#world#offer#degrees#or#courses#in#urban#forestry#or#are# preparing# to# introduce# them.# Liu# et# al.# (2006)# indicated# that# urban# forestry#education#has#been# launched# in# several# colleges#within# the# last#20#years# in#China.## # # # #33#One#reason#for#this#was#seen#in#a#rapid#process#of#urbanization#in#China—between#1983# and# 2003# the# number# of# cities# in# China# increased# 2.5# times# and# the# urban#population# made# up# about# 40%# of# China’s# total# population.# Another# reason# was#seen#in#the#governments#declared#objective#to#increase#the#urban#forest#coverage#to#45#percent#in#70%#of#all#Chinese#cities#by#2050#(Liu#et#al.,#2006).#In#Africa,#the#Njala#University#in#Sierra#Leone#for#example#has#introduced#courses#to#prepare#students# for# jobs# in#urban# forestry#or# related#disciplines.#Courses# such#as#communication# skills,# landscape# horticulture,# urban# forest# management# and#techniques# as# well# as# remote# sensing# have# been# established# in# their# curricula#(Ikotun#&#Alghali,#2008).#Other#African#countries,# such#as#South#Africa#and#Kenya,#are# discussing# about# giving# more# emphasis# on# urban# forestry# in# their# higher#education.#Kenya#even#considers#to#establish#a#Bachelor#of#Urban#Forestry#(Laengin#&#Ackerman,#2008;#Wanjohi#&#Muthuri,#2008).#The#Makerere#University#in#Uganda#currently# offers# a# degree# program# in# urban# forestry# (Kaboggoza# &# Eilu,# 2008).##Other#new#introduced#programs,#such#as#the#one#of#the#University#Putra#in#Malaysia#in# 2010,# concentrate# on# parks# and# recreation# management.# These# examples#underline#the#increasing#trend#of#urban#forestry#education#worldwide#(Ratnasingam#et#al.,#2013).###4.6.1 ,Chances,for,an,Urban,Forestry,Education,#Experts#of#the#European#COST#Action#Task#force#agree#that#urban#forestry#has#been#and#is#likely#to#continue#to#be#an#expanding#field#in#higher#education#(Randrup#et#al.,#2001).# The# rising# number# of# degree# programs# in# urban# forestry# also# reflects# the#increasing#employment#in#the#urban#green#job#market.#Hence,# introducing#degrees#in# urban# forestry# may# potentially# ameliorate# the# downward# trend# of# forestry#enrollments.#Course#offerings#and#degrees#that#deal#with#urban#forestry# issues#are#likely#to#attract#students,#who#would#not#have#been#interested#in#traditional#forestry## # # # #34#programs# alone.# Females# are# still# underrepresented# in# traditional# forestry#programs.# According# to# statistics# from# a# German# forestry# university,# only# 23%#of#forestry#graduates#between#2005#and#2010#were#female#(Schönfeld,#2011).#Sharik#et#al.# (2014)# indicated# that# Forestry# in# the# United# States# has# only# 18%# female#enrollments,# as# apposed# to# 50%# in# interdisciplinary# programs.# Furthermore,# the#authors# found# that# Natural# Resources# and# Agriculture# in# the# United# States# has# a#female# workforce# of# only# 30%,# which# appears# to# be# the# lowest# share# second# to#Engineering.# Kuhns# et# al.# (2002)# underlined# in# his# study# the# male# dominated#forestry# profession# in# the# United# States.# Furthermore,# the# Government# of# Canada#(2014)#lists#89%#male#forestry#professionals#in#their#2011#occupation#statistics.##On# the#other#hand,#Kuhns’# study# revealed# an#overrepresented# share#of# females# in#municipal# forestry,# research# and# education,# park# management,# horticulture# and#landscape#architecture#(Kuhns#et#al.,#2002).#Moreover,#the#promising#job#outlook#in#the#field#of#urban#forestry#(as#described#in#Part#II#of#this#work)#is#likely#to#result#in#higher#students#enrollments#in#future#urban#forestry-degree#programs.#Sharik#et#al.#(2014,#p.#30)#stated:#“From#a#marketing#perspective,# females#could#be#targeted”.#A#more# detailed# analysis# of# the# labor# market# in# urban# forestry^related# jobs# is#described#in#part#II#of#this#work#Labor-Market.--##4.6.2 ,Challenges,for,an,Urban,Forestry,Education,#The#number#of#students#choosing#general-forestry#education#is#declining#globally—#publications#about#trends#for#especially#urban-forestry-enrollments#are#not#available.#Studies# in# Canada# (Kan,# 2012),# in# the# United# Kingdom# (Leslie# et# al.,# 2006),# and#Germany# (Miller,# 2003)# have# revealed# a# shrinking# education# market# for# the#traditional# forestry# sector.# According# to# Temu# and# Kiwia# (2008)# the# number# of#forestry#graduates#in#Asia,#Africa#and#Europe#has#decreased#by#30%#since#the#1990s.#The# authors# see# the#major# reason# for# this# trend# as# a# fast# paced# change# of# social,## # # # #35#economic# and# political# environment# and# a# failure# of# the# forestry# education# to#adequately# respond# to# this# change.# In# fact,# the# International# Forestry# Students#Association# (IFSA)# (2009)# sees# the#main# reason# for# the#declining#enrollments#and#the# shrinking# labor# market# as# a# lack# of# environmental# awareness# among# the#urbanized#population.#The#chief#of#the#Forest#Economics#Service#from#the#Food#and#Agricultural#Organization#of# the#United#Nations# (FAO)#points#out# that# the# forestry#sector# has# changed# in# many# respects# and# a# stronger# emphasis# on# community#participation# nowadays.# This,# in# turn,# is# likely# to# have# an# impact# on# the# forestry#labor#market#and#should#influence#existing#concepts#of#“what#professional#forestry#education#really#means”#(Nair,#2004,#p.#6).#Furthermore,# a# fast# paced# change# of# the# environment# due# to# climate# change# and#human#impacts#on#nature#challenge#existing#concepts#of#(urban)#forestry#education.#The#past#and#present#science#base#is#no#longer#a#reliable#guide#to#the#future,#neither#with#respect#to#data#sources,#nor#with#respect#to#social#demands#(Sheppard,#2014).##4.6.3 ,Facing,the,Challenges—the,Need,for,Urban,Forestry,Education,,#It#is#a#challenging#task#for#universities#with#forestry#programs#around#the#world#to#compete# among# themselves# and# to# face# shrinking# enrollments.# Universities# try# to#gain#an#advantage#by#tailoring#curricula#to#the#needs#and#requirements#of#the#labor#market.#The#need#to#do#so#is#described#in#previous#chapters#and#also#in#the#second#part#of#this#work.#In#fact,#Schmidt#(2007)#points#out#that#higher#forestry#institutions#are#facing#three#conflicts:#to#fulfill#society’s#needs,#to#be#attractive#and#accessible#to#students#from#all#over#the#world,#and#to#produce#graduates#that#are#in#high#demand#of#the#labor#market.##Temu#et#al.#(2005)#conducted#a#comprehensive#survey#in#six#Asian#and#nine#African#countries#that#asked#educational#institutions#how#to#face#this#challenge.#The#results#indicate# that# urban# forestry# topics# need# to# be# given#more# emphasis# in# the# future.## # # # #36#Universities#see#an#urgent#need#for#improving#the#understanding#of#tree#and#forest#systems#outside#forests.#Another#main#issue#is#realizing#that#forests#go#beyond#the#domain#of#traditional#timber#management.##Temu# et# al.# (2005)# # indicated# that# forestry# institutions# in# Indonesia,# for# instance,#predict# a# shift# towards# community# based# forest# management.# Laos# sees# a# rising#importance# of# ecotourism# and# non–timber# forestry# products.# The# Philippines#project# a# new# role# for# foresters# shifting# to# environmental# preservation# and# from#specialists# to# generalists.# Vietnam# sees# the# future# role# of# foresters# as# being# a#facilitator# for# working# with# communities.# Thailand# predicts# an# increasing#importance# in# the# human# dimension# for# managing# natural# resources.# The#International# Forestry# Students# Association# (2009)# as# well# as# Temu# and# Kiwia#(2008)#see#a#solution#in#re^thinking#the#world’s#higher#forestry#education#by#placing#more# emphasis# on# learning# (rather# than# teaching)# and# focusing# research# on# the#benefit#for#people#and#the#environment.#Innes#(2010)##suggests#incorporating#more#social# science# in# forestry# programs# as# one# of#many# solutions# to# face# current# and#future#global#challenges#in#higher#forestry#education.#Furthermore,#Ratnasingam#et#al.# (2013)# pointed# out# that# a# future# forestry# education#has# to# shift# towards# social#forestry#and#community#forestry.#Finally,#a#nameless#respondent#of#a#recent#survey#suggested:#“We#also#need#to#be#flexible#enough#to#allow#folks#with#varied#interest#in#forestry# to# find# their# career# path# (e.g.,# outdoor# recreation# […]# urban/community#forestry,#and#so#much#more).#So#a#core#curriculum#with#some#flexibility#is#essential.”#(Pinchot#Institute#for#Conservation,#2014,#p.#14)##In#conclusion,#many#forestry#institutes#worldwide#suggest#giving#more#emphasis#to#issues#that#are#subject#matters#of#a#holistic#urban#forestry#education#and#conform#to#the#key#words#mentioned#in#the#European#Memorandum#of#Understanding#(1997).#### # # # #37#4.7 ,Urban,Forestry,Education,as,a,Distinct,Discipline,#Current#challenges#in#forestry#and#shrinking#enrollments#in#forestry#programs#have#led#to#the#question#of#whether#forest#sciences#as#its#own#discipline#should#still#exist#(Oesten# &# Detten# von,# 2008).# Moreover,# Nair# (2004,# p.# 8)# pointed# out# that# “the#concept#of#a#specialization#called#forestry#may#itself#become#obsolete”#and#would#be#better# termed# “natural# resource# management”.# # Two# nameless# respondents# of# a#recent#survey#stated#that#“forestry#has#a#poor#reputation#in#our#increasingly#urban#populous”#and#“the#more#urban#the#population#becomes#the#less#relevance#natural#resources# has# a# career# option”# (Pinchot# Institute# for# Conservation,# 2014,# p.# 15).#Furthermore,# key# findings# of# the#North#American# Summit# on# Forestry# and# Forest#Science#Education#indicate#that#the#term#forestry#supposed#to#be#“not#attractive”#in#many#contexts#(Bullard#et#al.,#2014,#p.#11).#The#future#of#urban#forestry#as#a#distinct# field# is#even#less#predictable,#since#it#has#never# been# established# on# a# global# scale.# Ottitsch# and# Krott# (2005)# assume# that#urban#forestry#will#only#be#successful#as#a#distinct#profession,#if#urban#demands#are#appropriately#addressed.#Furthermore,#they#state#that#the#success#of#urban#forestry#will# depend# on# the# ability# of# professionals# to# improve# competitiveness# and# the#image#of#cities.#They#indicate#that#only#the#kind#of#university#discipline#will#survive#competition#with#other#scientific#disciplines#that#are#able#to#define#future#problems#and#to#impart#sufficient#knowledge#to-solve# these#problems.# #Hence,#urban#forestry#as#distinct#discipline#may#have#a# future,# if# solutions# for#problems#were# superiorly#addressed# in# competition# with# other# disciplines,# such# as# landscape# planning,#engineering# or# environmental# and# natural# sciences.# Mieg# and# Sombre# (2004)#pointed#to#the#history#of#other#occupations,#for#example#medicine.#They#apparently#have# found# a# means# to# establish# their# profession.# Medicine# discovered# a# way# to#define-the#human#health#problem#and#have#managed#to#provide#solutions#to#become#the#professional#authority#responsible#for#human#well^being.##However,#Guppy#(2013)#stated#that#one#of#the#most#challenging#problems#the#health## # # # #38#system#is#facing#nowadays#is#a# lack#of#multidisciplinary#among#medical#specialists.#Increasing# research#has#been#done# to# forge#new#paths# for#a#more#holistic#medical#system# encompassing# all# aspects# of# human# health.# Are# these# issues# in# medicine#transferable# to# urban# forestry?# Similar# to# patients,# who# seek# help# by# visiting# a#doctor,# modern# cities# need# professionals# who# are# able# to# address# problems.# It# is#crucial# that#university#urban# forestry#education#enables#graduates# to#diagnose# the#problems#of# todays# cities# and# to# have# the# knowledge# to# find# solutions# for#healing#them.#Hence,#an#appropriate#education#in#urban#forestry#should#take#the#big-picture#of# a# sustainable# city# into# account.# A# visionary# approach# is# needed# to# educate#managers#and#designers#of#the#sustainable#green#city#of#tomorrow.## ## # # # #39#5 Conclusion&#This# study# provides# an# overview# over# urban# forestry# education# worldwide,# with#focus# on# Europe# and# North# America.# Contents# following# the# conventional#understanding# of# urban# forestry# education#may# be# overrepresented# in# this#work,#mirroring# disciplines# that# are# closer# to# forest,# engineering# and# natural# sciences—rather#than#social#sciences#or#arts#sciences.#However,#the#latter#are#equal#important#fields#of#a#holistic#urban#forestry#education,#as#stated#in#this#work.#Furthermore,#the#stronger# emphasis# on# the# conventional# disciplines# also# reflects# the# availability# of#publications#and#the#difficulty# to#draw#the# line# for#what#social#and#arts#disciplines#may# be# considered# as# urban# forestry# related# disciplines# and# what# might# be# not.#Educational#challenges#faced#by#urban#forestry#associated#disciplines#could#be#given#more#emphasis#to#in#future#research.#Innovative#approaches#to#urban#forestry#education#are#described#in#this#work.#The#European# E12# Cost# Action# Task# Force,# as# well# as# publications# of# Cecil#Konijnendijk—#an#expert#in#the#field#of#urban#forestry#with#over#90#publications—were#essential#resources#for#this#review.##Current#education#in#urban#forestry#has#to#be#adapted#to#the#needs#of#the#21st#century.#New#student^centered#teaching#methods#are# called# for,# including# group# work# and# work# experiences# to# improve#communication#skills#and#problem^solving#strategies.#Moreover,#a#holistic#education#in# urban# forestry# needs# input# from# multiple# disciplines# that# are# linked# to# some#aspect#of#urban#forestry.#Educators#from#these#disciplines#should#be#able#to#address#all# dimensions# of# urban# forestry# by# including# knowledge# and# perspectives# from#related#disciplines.#University# education# should# lead# to# graduates#who#are# able# to#“think#outside#the#box”,#but#who#have#learned#to#“deal#with#forestry#issues#outside#the#forest’”#(Temu#et#al.,#2006,#p.#118).#Generalists#with#a#holistic#understanding#of#all# disciplines# that# touch# urban# forestry# are# required.# However,# these# generalists#may#need#in#depth#knowledge#in#the#field#of#their#employment#to#be#learned#by#on^the^job# training.# Multi–# and# trans^disciplinary,# as# well# as# innovative# educational## # # # #40#approaches# are# needed# for# future# urban# forestry# education# (Randrup# &#Konijnendijk,#2003).##Finally#future#education#in#urban#forestry#needs#to#deal#with#the#question#of#what#a#green#and#sustainable#city#of#tomorrow#should#look#like,#as#described#in#the#second#part# of# this# work# (Labor- Market).# In# fact,# a# holistic# education# in# urban# forestry#should# impart# how# to# create,# design# and#manage# green# spaces# and# forests# of# the#sustainable# city# of# tomorrow.# The# United# Nations# Educational,# Scientific# and#Cultural# Organization# (UNESCO)# has# declared# in# their# vision:# “Technological#solutions,# political# regulation# or# financial# instruments# alone# cannot# achieve#sustainable# development.# We# need# to# change# the# way# we# think# and# act.# This#requires# quality# education# and# learning# for# sustainable# development# at# all# levels#and# in# all# social# contexts”# (United# Nations# Educational# Scientific# and# Cultural#Organization,# 2014).# Cortese# (2003,# p.# 17)# has# formulated# his# vision# of# education#that# can# create# a# sustainable# future# for# higher# educational# institutions.# Cortese#suggests# that# universities# could# operate# as# fully# integrated# communities# “that#models#social#and#biological#sustainability#itself#and#in#its#interdependence#with#the#local,#regional,#and#global#communities”.#He#suggests#a#close#cooperation#with#local#cities#to#meet#the#challenges#of#a#sustainable#university#education.#Cortese’s#vision#is#not#especially#about#urban#forestry#education,#but#rather#about#a#future#for#higher#education.### ## # # # #41##5.1 Application&of&this&Work&#It# is# apparent# that# this#work# can# only# provide# an# overview#of# the#more# than# 250#institutions# that# offer# programs# in# urban# forestry# or# related# disciplines# in# North#America#and#Europe.#Hence,#this#study#is#exemplary#and#regarded#as#starting#point#for#further#research.#Likewise,#as#mentioned#in#the#chapter#Methods,#this#study#is#descriptive—results#do#not#have#any#statistical#significance.#Nevertheless,#no#study#has#been#done#similar#to#this#work.# The# large# number# of# reviewed# references#may# serve# as# a# resource# for#responsible#people,#who#are#aspiring#after#an#appropriate#urban#forestry#education.#Furthermore,# this# work# might# be# a# good# beginning# for# a# dialogue# between#educational# institutions,# practitioners# and# the# labor# market,# as# described# in# the#second#part.##5.2 Future&Research&and&Development&#Further#research#would#have#to#be#done#to#find#out#how#to#design#a#curriculum#in#urban# forestry# that# accounts# for# four# tasks:# 1)# reflecting# the# current# and# future#needs# of# the# labor#market;# 2)# providing# skills,# competencies# and# knowledge# that#impart# the# big- picture# by# including# all# associated# disciplines;# 3)# accounting# for#interests# of# various# stakeholders;# and# 4)# attracting# students# (Schmidt,# 2007).# In#order# to# realize# these# objectives,# the# labor# situation# and# the# political# framework#need# to# be# analyzed.# Moreover,# aims,# content,# methods# and# materials# for# the#program#need#to#be#discussed#(Taylor,#2001).#### # # # #42#5.3 ,Concluding,Remarks,#This#work# is# based#on#a# review#of#multiple# resources.#All# publications# encompass#various#aspects#of#an#urban#forestry#education#and#describe#challenges#forestry#and#urban#forestry#education#are#facing.#Many#of#the#resources#used#indicated#that#key#for#successful#higher#education#in#urban#forestry#is#a#stronger#integration#of#various#disciplines,# more# emphasis# on# social# dimensions# and# on# superordinate#competencies.#This#needs#to#be#more#discussed#and#further#developed.## ## # # # #43#References&Alexander,#C.#(2014).#Urban-Forests:-The-value-of-trees-in-the-city-of-Toronto#(p.#4).#Toronto,#Canada.#Retrieved#from#http://www.td.com/document/PDF/economics/special/UrbanForests.pdf#Andersen,#F.,#Konijnendijk,#C.#C.,#&#Randrup,#T.#B.#(2002).#Higher#education#on#urban#forestry#in#Europe:#an#overview.#Forestry,#75(5).#Retrieved#from#www.forestry.oxfordjournals.org#Andresen,#J.#W.,#&#Williams,#B.#M.#(1975).#Urban#forestry#education#in#North#America.#Journal-of-Forestry,#(December),#786–790.#Retrieved#from#www.auf.isa^arbor.com#Aoki,#C.#(2008).#ITTO’s#holistic#approach#to#forestry#and#environmental#education.#In#A.#B.#Temu,#S.#A.#O.#Chamshama,#J.#Kung’u,#J.#Kaboggoza,#B.#Chikamai,#&#A.#Kiwia#(Eds.),#New-Perspectives-in-Forestry-Education#(First#Edit.).#Nairobi,#Kenya:#African#Network#for#Agriculture,#Agroforestry#&#Natural#Resources#Education.#Retrieved#from#http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=Cf9mBqtGI30C&oi=fnd&pg=PR17&dq=New+Perspectives+In+Forestry+Education&ots=FgYJDyZJrN&sig=ICCUxdRldd_BcyAG0z3kp4vjur4#Ball,#J.#(2004).#Written#communications:#essential#skills#for#forestry#professionals.#In#C.#T.#S.#Nair,#P.#G.#Rudebjer,#I.#Siregar,#A.#B.#Temu,#J.#L.#Kiyiapi,#O.#Hamid,#…#M.#H.#El^Lakany#(Eds.),#Reinventing-forestry-education#(Vol.#55#2004/1).#Quebec,#Canada:#Unasylva.#Retrieved#from#http://www.fao.org/docrep/007/y5382e/y5382e00.htm#Bentley,#W.#R.#(1999).#Professional#forestry#education#in#New#York.#An#old#lesson,#a#new#model.#Journal-of-Forestry,#(September).#Retrieved#from#http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/saf/jof/1999/00000097/00000009/art00009#Bos^Boers,#M.,#&#Schmidt,#P.#(2008).#changes#in#the#job#market#for#university#graduates#in#the#Netherlands.#In#P.#Schmidt,#S.#Lewark,#&#N.#Strange#(Eds.),#What-do-we-know-about-our-graduates?-Graduate-analysis-for-forest-sciences-and-related-curricula.#Joensuu,#Finland:#SILVA#Network.#Retrieved#from#http://www.silva^network.eu/#Brown,#N.#(2003).#A#critical#review#of#forestry#education.#Bioscience-Education,#1(1).#Retrieved#from#http://journals.heacademy.ac.uk/doi/abs/10.3108/beej.2003.01010004#Bühler,#O.,#&#Kristoffersen,#P.#(2009).#The#Urban#Tree#Arboretum#in#Hørsholm,#Denmark:#A#new#tool#towards#an#improved#education#of#arborists#and#tree#managers.#Urban-Forestry-&-Urban-Greening,#8(1),#55–61.#Retrieved#from#http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1618866708000575#Buiting,#R.#(2003).#Managing#the#urban#forest:#better#do#nothing!#In#R.#Vreese#de,#K.#J.#M.#Bonsen,#G.#Borgman,#B.#Alfen#van,#H.#Rooijen#van,#&#M.#Borgman#(Eds.),#Educating-the-urban-foresters.-Proceedings-of-the-06th-European-Forum-on-urban-Forestry,-Arnheim-(The-Netherlands),-May-21st–23rd,-2003.#Arnhem,#Netherlands/#Flanders,#Brussels:#Proceedings#of#the#sixth#IUFRO#European#Forum#on#Urban#Forestry.#### # 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# # #53#University#of#Illinois.#(2014).#NRES.#Department#of#Natural#Resources#and#Environmental#Sciences.#Retrieved#February#02,#2014,#from#http://nres.illinois.edu/#University#of#Lancashire.#(2014).#Myerscough#College.#Retrieved#February#01,#2014,#from#http://www.myerscough.ac.uk/?page=subjects^arboriculture^fe#University#of#Maryland.#(2014).#College#of#Agriculture#&#Natural#Resources.#Retrieved#February#02,#2014,#from#http://agnr.umd.edu/#University#of#Michigan#State.#(2014).#Department#of#Forestry.#Retrieved#February#01,#2014,#from#http://www.for.msu.edu/#University#of#Toronto.#(2014).#Faculty#of#Forestry.#Retrieved#February#02,#2014,#from#www.forestry.utoronto.ca#University#of#Wisconsin#Stevens#Point.#(2014).#College#of#Natural#Resources.#Retrieved#February#01,#2014,#from#https://www.uwsp.edu/forestry/Pages/default.aspx#University#of#Yale.#(2014).#Yale#School#of#Forestry#&#Environmental#Studies.#Retrieved#February#01,#2014,#from#http://environment.yale.edu/#Urban#Forestry#South.#(2005).#SUrban#forestry.#A#manual#for#the#state#forestry#agencies#iSn#the#southern#region.#Urban-Forestry-and-Public-Policy.#Retrieved#January#29,#2014,#from#www.urbanforestrysouth.org#Vanclay,#J.#K.#(1996).#The#future#of#forestry#education.#Institute-of-Foresters-of-Australia-Newsletter,#37(1996).#Retrieved#from#http://espace.library.uq.edu.au/eserv.php?pid=UQ:8270&dsID=U080_ifa_pp.pdf#Wanjohi,#N.,#&#Muthuri,#C.#(2008).#Forestry#education#for#sustainable#development#in#Kenya:#the#case#of#JKUAT.#In#A.#B.#Temu,#S.#A.#O.#Chamshama,#J.#Kung’u,#J.#Kaboggoza,#B.#Chikamai,#&#A.#Kiwia#(Eds.),#New-Perspectives-in-Forestry-Education#(First#Edit.).#Nairobi,#Kenya:#African#Network#for#Agriculture,#Agroforestry#&#Natural#Resources#Education.#Retrieved#from#http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=Cf9mBqtGI30C&oi=fnd&pg=PR17&dq=New+Perspectives+In+Forestry+Education&ots=FgYJDyZJrN&sig=ICCUxdRldd_BcyAG0z3kp4vjur4#Wassenaer#van,#P.#J.#E.#(2003).#Educating#urban#foresters#in#Canada:#past,#present#and#future.#In#R.#Vreese#de,#K.#J.#M.#Bonsen,#G.#Borgman,#B.#Alfen#van,#H.#Rooijen#van,#&#M.#Borgman#(Eds.),#Educating-the-urban-foresters.-Proceedings-of-the-06th-European-Forum-on-urban-Forestry,-Arnheim-(The-Netherlands),-May-21st–23rd,-2003.#Arnhem,#Netherlands/#Flanders,#Brussels:#The#European#Forum#on#Urban#Forestry#IUFRO.#Retrieved#from#http://homepages.vub.ac.be/~ridevree/efuf/ProceedingsEFUF6.PDF#Web#of#knowledge.#(2014).#Thomson-Reuters.#Retrieved#from#http://apps.webofknowledge.com/WOS_GeneralSearch_input.do?product=WOS&search_mode=GeneralSearch#### # # # #54#Wijayanti,#M.#(2003).#Urban#forestry#in#Indonesia—a#matter#of#learning#by#doing.#In#R.#Vreese#de,#K.#J.#M.#Bonsen,#G.#Borgman,#B.#Alfen#van,#H.#Rooijen#van,#&#M.#Borgman#(Eds.),#Educating-the-urban-foresters.-Proceedings-of-the-06th-European-Forum-on-urban-Forestry,-Arnheim-(The-Netherlands),-May-21st–23rd,-2003.#Arnhem,#Netherlands/#Flanders,#Brussels:#Proceedings#of#the#sixth#IUFRO#European#Forum#on#Urban#Forestry.#Retrieved#from#http://homepages.vub.ac.be/~ridevree/efuf/ProceedingsEFUF6.PDF#Williams,#C.#(2005).#The#discursive#construction#of#the#“competent”#learner^worker:#from#key#competencies#to#“employability#skills”1.#Studies-in-Continuing-Education,#27(1),#33–49.#doi:10.1080/01580370500056422#Wiseman,#P.#E.,#Hoffman,#J.#W.,#Day,#S.#D.,#&#Clements,#T.#L.#(2011).#A#syllabus^based#review#of#collegiate#arboriculture#course#content#in#the#United#States.#Arboriculture-&-Urban-Forestry,#37(March),#51–59.#Retrieved#from#joa.isa^arbor.com#World#Bank.#(2014).#Urban#development.#Retrieved#February#01,#2014,#from#http://data.worldbank.org/topic/urban^development#        #  # # # # #55#Appendices&Appendix—A:,List,of,Institutions,with,Degrees,in,Urban,Forestry,,Listed#are#only#colleges#and#universities#that#offer#degrees#with#the#key#words#“urban#forestry”#in#its#name.##College/University Country Degree Name    Auburn University US Forestry—Urban Forestry emphasis Clemson University US Minor urban forestry, landscape horticulture Southern University and A&M College US Urban Forestry Stephen F Austin University US Urban Forestry emphasis University of Maryland US Urban Forestry University of Wisconsin Stevens Point US Urban Forestry, Forest management, Forest Recreation Virginia Tech University US Forestry, Urban Forestry option Western Illinois University US Arboriculture, Urban Forestry University of Massachusetts Amherst US Arboriculture, Urban Forestry University of Minnesota  US Urban & Community Forestry specialization Mississippi State University US Urban Forestry concentration PennState University US Urban Forestry concentration Purdue University US Urban Forestry minor Ohio State University US Urban Forestry specialization Fleming College, UNB CAN Urban Forestry Technician co-op Inverness College UK Arboriculture and Urban Forestry Conservation University of Lancashire UK Arboriculture and Urban Forestry #Sources:#(International#Society#of#Arboriculture,#2014;#UNB,#2014)######## # # # #56#Appendix—B:,Degree,Names,of,Urban,Forestry,and,Associated,Disciplines,,Listed#names#of#degrees#at# the#baccalaureate,#masters#or#doctoral# level.#Urban#forestry#and#related#disciplines#according#to#the#Memorandum#of#Understanding#(European#Commission,#1997).#Amenity(Horticulture( Horticulture,(Plant(&(Soil(Science(Arboriculture(&(Urban(Forestry( Horticulture:(Greenhouse(&(Floral(Agricultural(Business( Horticulture:(Landscape(Design,(Construction,(&(Management(Agricultural(Sciences( Horticulture:(Nursery(&(Landscaping(Agriculture(D(Plant(&(Soil(Science(( Horticulture(Science(Agriculture(&(Biotechnology:(Landscape(Gardening( Human(Dimensions(of(the(Environment(Agriculture(&(Natural(Resources( Industrial(Engineering(in(Horticulture(Agriculture,(Land(&(Forest(Management( Landscape(&(Commercial(Horticulture(Applied(Ecology(&(Environmental(Sciences( Landscape(&(Environmental(Horticulture(Applied(Environmental(Science( Landscape(&(Horticulture(Management(Applied(Science( Landscape(&(Horticulture(Science(Arboriculture(&(Community(Forest(Management( Landscape(&(Turf(Services(Arboriculture(&(Urban(Forestry(Conservation( Landscape(Architecture(Arboriculture,(Urban(Forestry(&(Plant(Healthcare( Landscape(Architecture(&(Environmental(Planning(Architecture(&(City(Planning( Landscape(Construction(BioDEngineer:(Horticulture(&(Green(Care( Landscape(Creation(Design,(Forest(Parks(&(Recreation(Biology( Landscape(Design(Botany( Landscape(Design(&(Horticulture(City(&(Regional(Planning( Landscape(Design(&(Management(Community(&(Urban(Forest(Management( Landscape(Engineering,(Garden(&(Landscape(Design(Conservation(and(Resource(Studies( Landscape(Gardening(Countryside(Management( Landscape(horticulture(Dendrology( Landscape(Maintenance,(Design(&(Construction(Environmental(Design( Landscape(Management(Environmental(Horticulture( Landscape(Management(&(Design(Environmental(Management( Landscape(Management(Technology(Environmental(policy( Landscape(Technology(Environmental(Science( Leisure(&(Environments(Environmental(studies( Natural(Resources(&(Environmental(Science(# # # # #57#Floriculture(&(Greenhouse(Management( Natural(Resources(&(Forestry(Floriculture(&(Ornamental(Horticulture( Natural(Resources(Planning(&(Decision(Making(Forest(&(Nature(Management( Natural(Resources(Technology(Forest(&(Woodland(Management( Ornamental(Horticulture(Forest(Conservation(Arts( Ornamental(Horticulture(Technology(Forest(Management( Park(&(Recreation(Management(Forest(Management(Technology( Park(Arrangement(&(Natural(Recreational(Areas(Forest(Resource(Management( Parks,(Recreation(&(Wildlife(Forest(Sciences( Plant(Biology(Forestry( Plant(Biology(&(Pathology(Forestry(&(Conservation( Plant(Production(Forestry(&(Natural(Resources( Plant(Science(Forestry(&(Nature(Conservation(Policy( Plant(Science:(Urban(Forestry(Forestry(Management(Technology( Production(Horticulture(Forestry(Science( Public(Horticulture(Forestry,(Horticulture(&(Landscape(Architecture( Regional(Planning,(Town(Planning(&(Landscape(Planning(Garden(&(Landscape(Architecture( Resource(Management(Gardening( Social(&(Community(Forestry(Gardening,(Horticulture(&(Fruit(Crops( Society(&(Environment(Golf(Course(Management( Tree(ID(&(Landscape(Horticulture(Horticulture( Turf(Management(Horticulture(D(Landscaping( Turf(grass(Management(Horticulture(&(Crop(Sciences( Urban(&(Community(Forestry(Horticulture(&(Landscape(Design( Urban(&(Regional(Planning(Horticulture(&(Landscape(Management( Urban(Forest(Management(Horticulture(&(Landscape(Technology( Urban(Forestry(Horticulture(&(Natural(Resources( Urban(Forestry(Technology(Horticulture(&(Turf(Grass(Technology( Urban(Forestry,(Forest(Management(&(Forest(Recreation(Horticulture(Business( Urban(Horticulture(Horticulture(Science( Urban(Tree(Management(Horticulture(Services(Operation(Technology( Vegetation(Management(Horticulture(Technology( Wildlife(Ecology(&(Management(Horticulture(Technology(&(Turf(grass(Management(Technology( Wood(Products(Manufacturing(&(Marketing(Horticulture,(Landscape(&(Garden(Design(Schemes( Woodland(Management(Horticulture,(Park(Management(&(Conservation( (# # # # #58##Sources:#(Georgia# Tech,# 2014;# International# Society# of# Arboriculture,# 2014;# Konijnendijk,# 2005;# PennState#University,#2014;#Purdue#University,#2014;#Randrup#et# al.,# 2001;#University#of#California–Berkeley,#2014;#University#of#Illinois,#2014;#University#of#Maryland,#2014;#University#of#Toronto,#2014)## ## # # # #59#Appendix—C:,Profiles,of,HighERanked,Universities,in,Urban,Forestry,and,Associated,Disciplines,&University# University&of&California—Berkeley&Faculty# College&of&Natural&Resources&World#Rank# 9/400&(Thomson&Reuters,&2014)&Offered#degrees# Undergraduate&majors&in&Forestry&and&Natural&Resources&Society&and&Environment&Conservation&and&resource&studies&Key#courses##(Elective)#Forestry&and&Natural&Resources&• Sociology#of#Natural#Resources##• International#Rural#Development#Policy##• Political#Ecology##• The#Idea#of#Planning#• #Society&and&Environment&• Culture#&#Natural#Resource#Management&• Natural#Resources#&#Population&• Sociology#of#Natural#Resources&• Natural#Resource#Policy&• Environmental#Policy,#Administration#&#Law&• Organizations#&#Institutions&• Environmental#Justice&• Philosophy#&#Value&• Public#Health&• Environmental#Economics&• Public#Health&• Society#and#the#Environment&• City#Planning&Conservation&and&resource&studies&• Culture#and#Natural#Resource#Management#• Environmental#and#cultural#History#• Environmental Justice: Race, Class, Equity, and the Environment. #Profile/#Careers/#Miscellaneous#Students#learn:#• Public#speaking#and#technical#writing#• Communication#with#the#public#• Interacting#collaboratively#• Working#interdisciplinary## # # # #60#• Problem#solving#• Leadership##FORESTRY&AND&NATURAL&RESOURCES:&• Planning#• Implementing#forest#management#projects#• Urban#forestry#• Environmental#consulting##SOCIETY&AND&ENVIRONMENT/&CONSERVATION&AND&RESOURCE&STUDIES&Careers#in:#• Education#• Health#• Law#• Conservation#and#environmental#studies#• Community,#urban#or#regional#planning### ## # # # #61##University# Georgia&Tech&University&Faculty# School&of&City&and&Regional&Planning&World#Rank# 25&/400&(Thomson&Reuters,&2014)&Offered#degrees# Bachelor&of&City&and&Regional&Planning&Master&of&City&and&Regional&Planning#Key#courses# Undergraduate&courses&• Introduction#to#Urban#Regional#Planning#• Fundamentals#of#Geographic#Information#Systems##Graduate&courses&• Planning#Theory###• Advanced#Planning#Methods#• Economic#Analysis^Planning###• Urban#Regional#Development###• Land#Conservation##• Land#Use###and#Planning#Methods####• Urban#Environmental#Planning#&#Design#• Sustainable#Urban#Development###• Environmental#Law###• Urban#Development#Policy###• Introduction#to#GIS###• Introduction#To#Remote#Sensing####• Environmental#GIS#• Community#Development###• Public#Sector#Finance#&#Budget###• Introduction#to#Urban#Design###• Urban#Ecological#Design##Profile/#Careers/#Miscellaneous#Career#examples#in##• Community#Planning#• Environmental#planning### ## # # # #62##University# University&of&Illinois&at&Urbana&Faculty# NRES&(Department&of&Natural&Resources&and&Environmental&Sciences&World#Rank# 33/400&(Thomson&Reuters,&2014)&Offered#degrees# BSc.&Human&Dimensions&of&the&Environment&(major) MSc.&Human&Dimensions&of&the&Environment##Key#courses# • Public#Speaking#• Communication#Skills#I#&#Ii#• Cultural#Studies#• Current#Issues#• Environmental#Economics##• Natural#Resource#Economics##• Natural#Resource#Policy##• Natural#Resource#Law#&#Policy##• Environ#Social#Science#Research#Methods##• Environmental#Justice#&#Policy##• Renewable#Energy#Policy##• Community#in#Environmental#Social#Movements##• Environmental#Psychology##• Environmental#Law##• Environmental#Sociology#Profile/#Careers/#Miscellaneous#Careers#in:#• Environmental#attorney#• Recreation#land#manager#• Environmental#politics### ## # # # #63##University# University&of&Lancashire&Faculty# Myerscough&college&&World#Rank# Not&listed&Offered#degrees# BSc.&(Hons)&Arboriculture&and&Urban&Forestry&MSc.&Arboriculture&and&Urban&Forestry&(ONLINE)#Key#courses# BSc.&(Hons)&Arboriculture&and&Urban&Forestry&• Arboriculture#Practices#• Dendrology#• Tree#Production#&#Establishment#• Personal#Skill#development#• Tree#Survey#Technics#• Tree#Inspections#• Pests,#Diseases#&#Weeds#• Tree#&#Woodland#Management#• Trees#&#the#Legal#Framework#• Urban#Forest#Management#• Management#of#Tree#Risk#• Professional#Practice#&#Consultancy#• Contemporary#Issues#in#Horticultural#Industries#MSc.&Arboriculture&and&Urban&Forestry&(ONLINE)&• The#Science#of#Tree#Production#and#Establishment&• Trees#and#Urban#Planning&• Urban#Development#and#Urban#Greening&• Social#Science#and#Urban#Forestry&• Tree#Risk#Management&• Research#Methodology#and#Design&Profile/#Careers/#Miscellaneous#Careers#in:#• Arboriculture#• Urban#Forestry#• Other#Fields######### # # # #64#University# University&of&Maryland&Faculty# College&of&Agriculture&and&Natural&Resources&World#Rank# 97/400&(Thomson&Reuters,&2014)&Offered#degrees# B.S.&in&Plant&Science:&Urban&Forestry&&Key#courses# • Introduction#to#Landscape#Architecture#• Introduction#to#Urban#Ecosystems#• Introduction#to#Writing#• Introduction#to#Horticulture#• Principles#of#Arboriculture#• Urban#Forest#Project#Management#Profile/#Careers/#Miscellaneous#Career&Opportunities&• Consultants#for#urban#forest#management#and#tree#care#• Urban#foresters#and#land#managers#with#federal,#state,#and#local#jurisdictions#• Managers#and#corporate#administrators#of#urban#tree#care#companies#• Policy#makers#for#government#and#private#organizations#• Researchers#investigating#the#ecology#of#urban#forests ################ # # # #65#University# Michigan&State&University&Faculty# Faculty&of&Forestry&World#Rank# 94/400&(Thomson&Reuters,&2014)&Offered#degrees# BSc.&Urban&and&Regional&Planning&MSc.&Urban&and&Regional&Planning&B.S.&Forestry&M.S.&Forestry#Key#courses# BSc./&MSc&Urban&and&Regional&Planning&• Introduction#to#Urban#and#Regional#Planning#• Land#Use#Planning##• Planning#Law#and#Ethics##• Geographic#Information#Systems#and#Design#Tools#for#Planning#• Local#Economic#Planning#• Planning#Practicum#• Environment#• Urban#Society#• Government#B.S./&M.S.&Forestry&• Dual#curriculum#• Choice#between#the#biological#or#managerial^administrative#specialty.###Profile/Careers/#Miscellaneous#• Addresses#a#variety#of#variety#of#urban#environmental#problems#### ## # # # #66##University# The&Ohio&State&University&Faculty# Environment&and&Natural&Resources&World#Rank# 53/400&(Thomson&Reuters,&2014)&Offered#degrees# BS&Forestry,&Fisheries&and&Wildlife&• Elective#specialization#in#Urban#Forestry#Key#courses# • Wildlife#Conservation#Policy#• Interpretation#&#Visitor#Services#• Principles#of#Effective#Public#Speaking#• City#and#Regional#Planning#• Forest#Plants#and#Landscape#Plants#• Management#of#Public#Lands#• Arboriculture#• Ecology#and#Management#of#Pathogens#and#Insects#Affecting#Trees#in#Urban#Areas#• Principles#of#Agribusiness#Management#and#Marketing#Profile/#Careers/#Miscellaneous#Elective#programs:#• Forestry#and#Wildlife#• Urban#Forestry#and#Wildlife#• Fisheries#and#Wildlife#Potential#Careers#• Land#Management#Forester#• Fisheries#Biologist#• Restoration#Ecologist#• Sustainable#Habitat#Manager#• Wildlife#Biologist#• Veterinarian#• Law#Enforcement### ## # # # #67##University# University&of&Toronto&Faculty# Faculty&of&Arts&and&Sciences&Faculty&of&Forestry&World#Rank# 21/400&(Thomson&Reuters,&2014)&Offered#degrees# BSc.&(major/&minor/&specialist)&Forest&Conservation&Arts&MFC&(Master&of&Forest&Conservation)#Key#courses# • Urban#Forestry#and#Green#Infrastructure#• Urban#Forest#Conservation#• Urban#Forest#Field#Camp#• (Urban)#Forest#Fire#Management#• Community#Ecology#• Nature,#Culture#and#The#City#• Environmental#Laws#• Environmental#Policy#• Forest#Conservation#Planning#In#Cultural#Landscapes#• GIS#Field#and#Laboratory#Methods#Profile/#Careers/#Miscellaneous#Careers#in:#• Forestry#• City#planning##• Conservation#and#restoration#• Policy#development#and#decision^making### ## # # # #68##University# University&of&Wisconsin&Stephens&Point&Faculty# Faculty&of&Forestry&World#Rank# Not&listed&Offered#degrees# BSc.&Urban&forestry&BSc.&Forest&Recreation#Key#courses# BSc.&Urban&forestry&• Communication#• People,#Resources#and#the#Biosphere#• Tree#Care#Technics#• Fundamentals#to#GIS#• Arts#• Arboriculture#• Urban#Trees#and#Shrubs#• Environmental#Ethics#• Tree#Physiology#• Wellness#• Landscape#Architecture#• Urban#Forestry#• Public#Relations#BSc.&Forest&Recreation&• Forest#Protection#• Park#or#Oral#Interpretation#• Forest#Recreation#• Forest#Recreation#Management#• Forest#Management#&#Finance#• Recreation#Planning#&#Site#Design#• Forest#Recreation#&#Tourism##Profile/#Careers/#Miscellaneous#Urban&Forestry&Careers#in:#urban,#municipal#or#community#forestry#and#landscape,#nursery#or#vegetation#management#professions#in#urban,#peri^urban,#and#rural#settings.##Forest&Recreation&Careers#in:#managing#public#use#of#forestland,#visitor#services,#and#public#land#administration.###### # # # #69#University# University&of&Yale&Faculty# Yale#School#of#Forestry#and#Environmental#Studies#World#Rank# 11/400#(Thomson#Reuters,#2014)#Offered#degrees# BSc&Environmental&Studies&Elective#grounded#in#chemistry,#biology,#and#math,#and#is#then#combined#with#humanities#and#social#science#courses#that#focus#on#the#environment.)&(MEM)&Master&of&environmental&Management&&• Specialization#in#Climate#science,#Adaption#and#Mitigation#• Specialization#in#Human#Dimensions#of#Environmental#Mangm.#• Specialization#in#Urban#Ecology#(MF)&Master&of&Forestry&(MFS)&Master&of&Forest&Science&(MESc)&Master&of&Environmental&Science Key#courses# (MEM)&Master&of&environmental&Management&&Specialization-in-Climate-science,-Adaption-and-Mitigation-• Climate#and#Air#Pollution#• Climate#Modeling##Specialization-in-Human-Dimensions-of-Environmental-Mangm.-• Social#Science#Qualitative#Research#Methods#• Remote#Sensing#of#Land#Cover#and#Land#Use#Change#• Urbanization,#Global#Change#and#Sustainability#• Environmental#Justice#• Property#Rights#and#Natural#Resource#Management#• The#Politics#and#Practice#of#Environmental#and#Resource#Policy#• Institutions#and#The#Environment#• Indigenous#Silviculture#• Society#and#Natural#Resources##Specialization-in-Urban-Ecology-• Economics#of#Natural#Resources#• Forest#Ecosystem#Health:#Urban#to#Wilderness#• Land#Use#Law#And#Environmental#Planning#• Ecological#Urban#Design#• Old#And#New:#Landscape#and#Urbanism#of#East#Asia#• Emerging#Markets#For#Ecosystem#Services###### # # # #70#MF/&MFS/&MESc.&• Elective#courses—specialization#with#courses#mentioned#above#Profile/#Careers/#Miscellaneous#Careers#in:#• Environmental#policy#and#analysis#• Green#business#• Design#and#planning#• Conservation#and#stewardship#• Education#• Consulting#• Journalism##Sources:#(Georgia#Tech,#2014;#Ohio#State#University,#2014;#Toronto,#2012;#University#of#California–Berkeley,#2014;# University# of# Illinois,# 2014;# University# of# Lancashire,# 2014;# University# of# Maryland,# 2014;#University#of#Michigan#State,#2014;#University#of#Wisconsin#Stevens#Point,#2014;#University#of#Yale,#2014)##!! PART!II!LABOR!MARKET!!!Abstract!!(Part&II&Labor&Market)&As&described& in& the& first&part& of& this&work,& education& in&urban& forestry& is& fragmented,&encompassing& multiple& disciplines.& The& same& is& true& for& the& fields& of& occupation—professionals&in&urban&forestry&work&in&a&multi@faceted&labor&market.&Little&research&has&been& done& to& describe& the& fields& of& employment& in& the& urban& forestry& sector.&Furthermore,& there& is& a& lack& of& knowledge& with& respect& to& skills& and& competencies&professionals& should& have& to& manage,& create& and& design& urban& woodlands.& Using& a&descriptive&methodology,&this&study&identified&fields&of&employment&by&analyzing&labor&statistics& as& well& as& books,& journals& and& webpages.& Additionally,& I& used& multiple&approaches& to& profile& needed& skills& and& competencies:& job& descriptions,& opinions& of&practitioners&and&employers&were&used&to&give&voice&to&the&labor&market.&Existing&urban&forest&management&plans&were&scanned&for&components—assuming&that&these&need&to&be&addressed&by&urban& forestry&professionals& to& turn&plans& into&action.&Finally,& I&have&examined&research&topics,&opinions&of&educators&of&higher&urban&forestry&institutions,&as&well& as& visions& of& cities& to& predict& competencies& needed& for& the& labor& market& of&tomorrow.&The&results& indicate&that&an& ideal&urban&forester&should&have&competencies&in&arboriculture&and&engineering,&in&assessing&natural&hazards&and&diseases,&as&well&as&a&good& understanding& of& environmental& and& ecological& issues.& Practitioners& should& also&be& competent& in& urban& planning& and& design& as&well& as& in& politics& and& administration&with& a& good& understanding& of& economics.& Furthermore,& professionals& need& to& be&acquainted&with& recreational& values.& Finally,& the&majority&of& reviewed&papers&point& to&the& crucial& importance& of& having& competencies& in& communicating& with& the& public.& I&conclude&that&urban&forestry&as&scientific&discipline&needs&to&be&redefined&to& justify& its&right& to& exist.& There& will& be& a& demand& for& professionals,& who& unify& the& existing&disciplines& natural& sciences,& engineering,& (landscape)& arts,& economics,& politics,& human&sciences,&and&sociology&with&respect&to&urban&green&environments.&Future&competencies&will&be&needed&to&address&climate&change,&energy&consumption,&public&access&to&urban&green&spaces,&biodiversity,&and& integrated&policy.&These& issues&reflect&cities’& increasing&efforts&to&manage&resources&sustainably.&Future&professionals&will&need&competencies&to&provide& solutions& for& cities’& visions& by& addressing& urban& forests’& contribution& to&sustainability.&Today’s&innovative&actions&of&cities&will&be&the&responsibility&of&the&urban&forester&of&tomorrow.&&& & & & &3&Table!of!Contents!1. Table!of!Contents!ABSTRACT! 2&TABLE!OF!CONTENTS! 3&LIST!OF!FIGURES! 5&1& INTRODUCTION! 6&1.1& CONTEXT! 6&1.2& RESEARCH!OBJECTIVES!AND!QUESTIONS! 7&1.3& DEFINITIONS! 7&1.3.1& URBAN&FORESTRY&AND&URBAN&FORESTRY&EDUCATION& 7&1.3.2& SKILLS&AND&COMPETENCIES& 8&2& MATERIALS!AND!METHODS! 9&2.1& MATERIALS! 9&2.2& METHODS! 10&3& LABOR!MARKET! 11&3.1& OVERVIEW! 11&3.2& FIELDS!OF!EMPLOYMENT! 11&3.3& JOBS! 15&3.4& EDUCATIONAL!BACKGROUND!OF!PRACTITIONERS! 15&3.5& INCOME!AND!JOB!OUTLOOK! 16&3.6& CERTIFICATION! 19&3.7& ACCREDITATION! 20&3.8& SUMMARY! 21!&&&& & & & &4&4& PROFILING!NEEDED!COMPETENCIES! 22&4.1& OVERVIEW! 22&4.2& PROFILING!COMPETENCIES!ACCORDING!TO!THE!LABOR!MARKET! 23&4.2.1& URBAN&FORESTRY&PROFESSIONALS& 23&4.2.2& FORESTRY&PROFESSIONALS& 25&4.3& PROFILING!COMPETENCIES!ACCORDING!TO!JOB!OFFERS! 29&4.4& PROFILING!COMPETENCIES!ACCORDING!TO!URBAN!FOREST!MANAGEMENT!PLANS! 32&4.5& PROFILING!COMPETENCIES!ACCORDING!TO!UNIVERSITY!EDUCATORS! 36&4.6& PROFILING!COMPETENCIES!ACCORDING!TO!RESEARCH!TOPICS! 37&5& DIMENSIONS!OF!COMPETENCIES! 39&5.1& COMPETENCY!IN!ARBORICULTURE,!ENGINEERING!AND!URBAN!FOREST!MANAGEMENT! 39&5.2& COMPETENCY!IN!NATURAL!SCIENCES,!ENVIRONMENTAL!SCIENCES!AND!ECOLOGY! 40&5.3& COMPETENCY!IN!ASSESSING!HAZARDS!AND!DISEASES! 41&5.4& COMPETENCY!IN!SUSTAINABILITY!AND!RESOURCE!MANAGEMENT! 42&5.5& COMPETENCY!IN!PLANNING,!DESIGN!AND!AESTHETICS! 43&5.6& COMPETENCY!IN!COMMUNITY!ENGAGEMENT! 44&5.7& COMPETENCY!IN!RECREATION!AND!HUMAN!HEALTH! 46&5.8& COMPETENCY!IN!POLITICS,!ADMINISTRATION!AND!LAW! 47&5.9& COMPETENCY!IN!ECONOMICS! 48&5.10& SUMMARY! 49&6& A!PROFILE!OF!AN!URBAN!FORESTRY!PROFESSIONAL! 50&6.1& A!PROFILE!OF!AN!URBAN!FORESTRY!PROFESSIONAL!TODAY! 50&6.2& A!PROFILE!OF!AN!URBAN!FORESTRY!PROFESSIONAL!TOMORROW! 51&7& THE!FUTURE!LABOR!MARKET:!CITIES!ARE!REACHING!FOR!SUSTAINABILITY! 53&7.1& OVERVIEW! 53&7.2& THE!FUTURE!LABOR!MARKET!IN!EUROPE! 54&7.3& THE!FUTURE!LABOR!MARKET!IN!NORTH!AMERICA! 55&7.4& SUMMARY! 57!&&& & & & &5&8& DISCUSSION! 59&9& CONCLUSION! 60&9.1& APPLICATION!OF!THIS!WORK! 60&9.2& FUTURE!RESEARCH!AND!DEVELOPMENT! 60&9.3& CLOSING!REMARKS! 61&REFERENCES! 63&APPENDICES! 77&APPENDIX—A:!LIST!OF!URBAN!FORESTRY!ORGANIZATIONS! 77&APPENDIX—B:!LIST!OF!JOB!TITLES! 78&&List!of!Figures!&Figure!1:!Employers!of!ISA!and!SAF!members!in!urban!forestry!(USA)!(percentage)! 13&Figure!2:!Fields!of!employment!ISA!and!SAF!members!in!urban!forestry!(USA)!(percentage)! 13&Figure!3:!Employers!in!the!urban!forestry!sector!(Europe)!(percentage)! 14&Figure!4:!Number!of!jobs!in!urban!forestry!disciplines!(USA)!(in!thousands)! 18&Figure!5:!Estimated!increase!in!the!urban!forestry!sector!2012`2022!(USA)!(percentage)! 18&Figure!6:!Skills!in!demand! 31&Figure!7:!Practitioners!operations! 31&Figure!8:!Required!competencies!according!to!management!plans! 35&Figure!9:!Disciplines!in!urban!forestry!education! 49&Figure!10:!Cities'!actions!and!practitioners!future!responsibilities! 58&&&&&&& & & & &6&1 Introduction!1.1 Context!&Currently,&7.2&billion&humans&live&on&our&planet&and&the&number&is&predicted&to&grow&by&1&billion&people&over&the&next&12&years&(United&Nations,&2013).&&Since&the&turn&of&the&century,&the&majority&of&the&population&have&lived&in&cities&or&in&suburban&areas&(World&Bank,&2014).&This&trend&is&projected&to&continue&substantially—making&life&quality&in&cities&a&global&issue.&Urban&forests&play&a&crucial&role&in&the&well@being&of&city& dwellers.& They& are& considered& to& provide&multiple,& highly@demanded& benefits&for&urban&inhabitants&(European&Commission,&1997;&FAO,&2012).&Demands&on&urban&forests&are&changing&rapidly—reflecting&the&multiple&implications&of&climate&change,&the& scale& of& urbanization,& rising& expectations& of& city& dwellers& for& engagement& in&decision@making,&and&loss&of&biodiversity&(Sheppard& &Neuvonen,&2014)&.&&Urban& green& spaces& and& urban& forests& have& several& benefits& for& city& dwellers& as&described&in&Part&I:&Education&of&this&work.&For&example,&urban&forests&in&the&United&States&are&estimated&to&have&a&structural&asset&value&of&US$2.4&trillion&(Nowak&et&al.,&2002).& Templeton& and& Goldman& (1996)& pointed& to& numerous& green& jobs& in& the&urban&forestry&sector.&The&question&of&how&to&design&and&manage&urban&forests&for&enhanced& livability&has&become&a&challenge& for&researchers&around& the&world.&The&recent&number&of&publications&in&this&field&of&research,&as&well&as&the&fact&that&cities&are& creating& professional& urban& forest& management& plans& exemplifies& a& rising&importance&of&urban&forestry.&&&&& & & & &7&1.2 Research!Objectives!and!Questions!&As&described&in&Part&I:&Education&of&this&work,&several&authors&worldwide&have&tried&to& describe& urban& forestry& as& a& technical& term,& a& distinct& education& path& and& a&unique& profession& (Konijnendijk,& 2005;& Konijnendijk& et& al.,& 2006;& Kuser,& 2007;&Morsink&et&al.,&1989).&However,&the&occupation&is&still&fragmented&on&a&global&scale.&Urban& forestry& training& can& be& found& in& a& variety& of& institutions& and& disciplines.&Little& research& has& been& done& to& provide& an& overview& of& the& labor& market& for&professionals&working&in&the&field&of&urban&forestry.&Moreover,&there&are&only&a&few&publications& that&profile&skills&and&competencies&on& the&needs&of& the& labor&market&(Konijnendijk,&2005).&&In& order& to& fill& this& knowledge& gap,& I& sought& to& find& answers& to& the& following&questions:&(1)&What&are&fields&of&employment&in&the&urban&forestry&sector?&(2)&what&will& the& future& labor& market& look& like?& (3)& what& skills& and& competencies& may& be&demanded&by&the&current&and&future&labor&market?&&&1.3 Definitions!&1.3.1 Urban!Forestry!and!Urban!Forestry!Education!&An& overview& of& definitions& is& provided& in& Part& I:& Education& of& this& study.& Many&authors&refer&to&the&definition&of&Jorgensen&(Konijnendijk,&2005,&p.&12;&Konijnendijk&et& al.,& 2006;& Kuser,& 2007,& p.& 2;& Morsink& et& al.,& 1989,& p.& 98):& “Urban& forestry& is& a&specialized& branch& of& forestry& and& has& as& its& objectives& the& cultivation& and&management& of& trees& for& their& present& and& potential& contribution& to& the&physiological,& sociological& and& economic& well–being& of& urban& society.& These&contributions&include&the&over–all&ameliorating&effect&of&trees&on&their&environment,&& & & & &8&as&well&as&their&recreational&and&general&amenity&value”.&Urban&forestry&education&in&this&work&is&used&to&refer&to&higher&(university&and&college)&education&that&leads&to&degrees&in&urban&forestry&or&related&disciplines.&&1.3.2 Skills!and!Competencies!!&The& terms& competencies& and& skills,& although& often& similarly& used,& are& not&interchangeable.& A& competency& can& be& defined& as& a& cluster& of& related& knowledge,&skills&and&attitudes&to&fulfill&a&task&(Raggers,&2003).&Williams&(2005,&p.&34)&regarded&competencies& as& “things&which& can& be& developed& by& education& and& training”.& It& is&mentioned& in& the& report& of& the& Committee& to& advise& the& Australian& Education&Council& that& skills& are& often& associated& with& a& set& of& personal& capabilities.& By&contrast,&competency&recognizes&“that&performance&is&underpinned&not&only&by&skill&but& also& by& knowledge& and& understanding”.& Furthermore,& “competency& involves&both&the&ability&to&perform&in&a&given&context&and&the&capacity&to&transfer&knowledge&to&a&new&tasks&situation”&(Australian&Education&Council&and&Ministers&of&Vocational&Education&Employment&and&Training,&1992,&p.&10).&This&study&used&mainly&the&term&competency& in& this& way& since& it& refers& typically& to& “things”& that& are& learnable&(Williams,&2005,&p.&34)&rather&than&to&personal&abilities&and&preconditions&of&people.&Where&appropriate,&both&terms&are&used&in&this&work.&&&&&& & & & &9&2 Materials!and!Methods!!&2.1 Materials!&This& review& is& based& on& 160& references—books,& journal& articles& and&webpages& of&universities,& summits,& associations& and& governmental& institutions.& All& references&were&viewed&in&their&original&form&and&are&available&to&the&author.&Hence,&this&work&might&be&also&used&as&an&anthology&of&relevant&publications&for&further&studies.&&As&a&first&step,& job&descriptions&for&urban&foresters&(Alliance&for&Community&Trees,&2014),&as&well&as&publications&from&the&International&Society&of&Arboriculture&(ISA)&(2014a),& the&European&COST&Action&E12& task& force& (1999;&2002;&2005;&2001)&and&labor&statistics&(United&States&Department&of&Labor,&2014)&&were&scanned&to&identify&the&current&job&market.&Secondly,&manuals&for&urban&foresters&as&well&as&current&city&management& plans& were& used& to& illustrate& best& management& practices.& Thirdly,&publications& and& talks& given& at& urban& forestry& summits,& as& well& as& web& pages& of&urban& forestry&associations&and& job&offers&were&used& to& identify&needed& skills& and&competencies.& A& list& of& international& organizations& is& attached& in& the& Appendix& A.&Fourthly,& studies& that& point& to& fields& of& research& in& urban& forestry& were& used& to&identify& current& and& future& issues.& Finally,& action& plans& by& innovative& cities& were&scanned&to&identify&trends&in&the&field&of&urban&forestry.&&&&&&& & & & &10&2.2 Methods!&I&used&a&descriptive&methodology,& considered& to&be&appropriate& for&approaching&a&new&field&of&research&(Grimes&&&Schulz,&2002).&Reviewing&relevant&publications,&job&descriptions& and& the& US& labor& statistics& revealed& fields& of& employment& in& urban&forestry& and& related& disciplines.& I& used&multiple& approaches& to& identify& skills& and&competencies&that&are&in&demand—following&in&part&Guppy&(2013).&&Firstly,&opinions&of&professionals&working&in&the&field&of&urban&forestry&as&stated&in&summits,&workshops,&surveys&and&other&publications,&were&reviewed.&Secondly,&job&descriptions& published& within& a& one@year& period& (2013@2014)& were& scanned& to&identify&employers’&desired&competencies&and&skills.&Only&job&descriptions&with&the&key&words& “urban& forestry”& or& “urban& forester”&were& used& for& this& approach.& This&method& assumes& that& job& descriptions& describe& an& ideal& set& of& competencies.&Thirdly,&current&city&management&plans&were&scanned&to&identify&components.&This&approach& assumes& that& urban& forestry& professionals& need& to& be& experts& in&addressing& these& components& in& order& to& implement& the& management& plans.&Fourthly,& opinions& of& researchers& and& educators&were& analyzed& to& predict& trends.&This&approach&assumes&that&urban&forestry&practitioners&need&to&be&acquainted&with&fields& of& research.& Lastly,& action& plans& by& innovative& cities& were& used& to& identify&potential& future& directions& in& urban& forestry.& This& approach& assumes& that& current&actions& of& innovative& cities& will& be& the& responsibility& of& the& urban& forester& of&tomorrow.&&&&&& & & & &11&3 Labor!Market!!&3.1 Overview!&This& chapter& provides& an& overview& of& the& current& labor& market,& fields& of&employment,&incomes&and&job&outlook&in&the&urban&forestry&sector&and&related&fields&of& occupation.& The& figures& presented& reflect& primarily& the& US& labor& market& since&there&is&no&similar&information&available&for&the&European&or&Canadian&job&markets.&&3.2 Fields!of!Employment!&The& Food& and& Agriculture& Organization& of& the& United& Nations& (FAO,& 2011)& stated&that& urban& forests& are& highly& valuable& in& sustaining& employment& and& income& for&future&generations.&Most&of&the&larger&towns&and&cities&in&the&United&States&employ&a&municipal&arborist&or&urban&forester&(Herzele&van,&2005).&A&study&in&2008&asked&30&US&States&to&describe&the&most&common&structure&of&employees& in&state&urban&and&community& forestry& programs.& Fifteen& States& affirmed& they& employ& urban& and&community&forestry&specialists&who&spend&the&majority&of&their&time&in&an&urban&and&community&forestry&role.&Seven&states&described&the&jobholders&as&general&forestry&specialists& with& multiple& roles.& Those& individuals& were& responsible& for& urban&forestry&activities,&and&also& for& fire&control,&private& forestry&assistance,&and& timber&sales&(Hauer& &Johnson,&2008).&&In& the& 1990s,& a& US& study& was& conducted& to& identify& the& fields& of& employment& of&urban& foresters.&Nine&hundred& forty@three&urban& forestry&students&graduated& from&accredited& forestry& schools& in& that& decade.& Seven& hundred& seventy@two& of& these&were& employed& in& the& arboricultural& or& urban& forestry& profession.& The& fields& of&& & & & &12&employment&were& urban& forestry& (265),& arboriculture& and& tree& care& (279),& urban&forestry&consultancy&(120)&and&utility&forestry&(57)&(Hildebrandt&et&al.,&1993).&A&comprehensive&survey&in&the&United&States&asked&7370&members&of&the&Society&of&American& Foresters& (SAF)& and& members& of& the& International& Society& of&Arboriculture& (ISA)& about& their& field& of& employment.& Three& thousand& twenty@one&professionals& stated& they& worked& part& or& fulltime& in& urban& forestry,& public& and&private&(Kuhns&et&al.,&2002).&Figure&1&and&2&illustrate&the&fields&of&engagement.&The&result& is&based&on&470&responding& ISA&and&SAF&members,&of&whom&68%&and&93%&respectively& have& had& higher& education& in& urban& forestry& or& related& disciplines.&Unfortunately&the&study&did&not&differentiate&the&fields&ISA&and&SAF&members&were&working&in.&& && & & & &13&&Figure!1:!Employers!of!ISA!and!SAF!members!in!urban!forestry!(USA)!(percentage)!Database:&Kuhns&et&al.&2002&&Figure!2:!Fields!of!employment!ISA!and!SAF!members!in!urban!forestry!(USA)!(percentage)!Database:&Kuhns&et&al.&2002&& & & & &14&The&COST&Action&task&force&revealed&that&private&and&public&sectors&in&Europe&were&equally& important& in& employing& graduates& with& degrees& in& urban& forestry& and&related& disciplines& (Randrup& et& al.,& 2001).& Professionals& worked& for& a& variety& of&stakeholders,& dealing& with& planning,& design,& establishment,& and& management& of&urban& forests.&The&private&green& sector&provided&employment& in&nursery,& forestry&and&arboriculture,&planning&and& landscape&architecture,& as&well& as& in&planting&and&maintenance& of& urban& vegetation.& The& public& green& sector&was& equally& important,&providing& jobs& in&municipal&green&services,&parks&and&gardens,& local,& regional,& and&national& administrations,& environment& departments& and& arboriculture.&Furthermore,&educational&and&research&institutes&were&mentioned&as&potential&fields&of&employment.&&Figure!3:!Employers!in!the!urban!forestry!sector!(Europe)!(percentage)!Database:&Randrup&et&al.,&2001&&&& & & & &15&3.3 Jobs!&The&Society&of&Arboriculture& (2014a)&published&an&overview&of& & jobs& in& the&urban&forestry& and& arboriculture& field.& Portrayed& are& 31& job& types& in& urban& forestry& and&arboriculture,&of&which&11&suggested&a&college&or&university&degree&as&a&minimum&entry.& These& included:& educator,& researcher,&municipal& forester,& consultant,& utility&forester,& arboricultural& crew& leader,& utility& forestry& manager,& company& manager,&manufacturing& salesmen,& community& college& instructor& and& tree& care& salesperson.&When&using& the& term&urban&forestry& broadly,&more& job& types& should&be& taken& into&account.&&In& order& to& provide& an& overview& of& the& variety& of& jobs,& I& reviewed& jobs& being&advertised& by& universities& as& potential& field& of& employment.& Participants& in& urban&forestry&symposia&were&scanned&for&their&job&title.&This&revealed&83&job&titles.&These&jobs&are&listed&in&the&Appendix&B.&&3.4 Educational!Background!of!Practitioners!&In&the&early&1980’s,&15&US&Midwest&cities&indicated&that&the&main&disciplines&of&urban&forestry& professionals& were& in& Horticulture,& Landscape& Architecture& and& Forestry&(Sievert&et&al.,&1982).&A&more&recent&study&conducted&by&Kuhns&et&al.&(2002)&revealed&that&72%&male&professionals&and&76%&female&urban&forestry&professionals&(ISA&and&SAF&members)& had& degrees& in& natural& or& biological& sciences,& such& as&Horticulture&and& Forestry.& Nine& percent& female& and& 5%& male& professionals& had& a& degree& in&Landscape& Architecture& (Kuhns& et& al.,& 2002).& Unfortunately,& Kuhns’& study& did& not&reveal&the&professional&background&in&detail.&&& & & & &16&There& is& also& no& information& available& in& Europe& generally& about& the& educational&background&of&professionals&who&work&in&the&urban&forestry&sector.&However,&there&are& figures& published& for&Germany.& The& educational& background&of& German&urban&forestry& practitioners& is& Horticulture& (25%),& Landscape& architecture& (16%),&Arboriculture& (14%),& Nature& conservation& (13%),& Forestry& (9%),& Urban& planning&(6%),&and&others&(14%)&(Gerhardt,&2010).&&3.5 Income!and!Job!Outlook!&The&US&Bureau&of&Labor&Statistics&(2014)&&provided&income&and&job&outlooks&for&the&urban&forestry&sector&and&related&disciplines.& &The&median&annual&salary& for&urban&and& regional& planning&was& US$65.000& in& 2012.& Other& salaries&were& US$59.000& in&conservation& sciences& and& (urban)& forestry,& US$60.000& in& community& service&management,& US$64.000& in& landscape& architecture,& and& US$22.000& in& recreation&and&park&management&(without&a&required&university&degree).&The&occupational&outlook& for& the&conventional& forestry&sector&was&predicted& to&be&low&in&the&United&States&(Lacey&&&Wright,&2009).&The&United&States&Department&of&Statistics& (2014)& predicted& in& its& outlook& for& the& period& 2012& to& 2022& a& slight&increase& of& only& 3%& in& the& conventional& forestry& sector,& which& is& below& average.&&The& Canadian& government,& by& contrast,& predicted& a& slightly& larger& increase& in&employment& in& the& forestry& sector& for& the& next& years—also& due& to& an& increasing&public&demand&on&environmental&issues&(Service&Canada,&2014).&&The& projection& for& urban& forestry@related& disciplines& is& promising.& Many& cities& in&North&America&signed&agreements&to&create&jobs&in&the&green&sector&(Apollo&Alliance&and&Green& for&All,& 2008).& For& example& the& ten@year& action&plan&of& the&US&National&Urban&and&Community&Forestry&Advisory&Council& (2006)& intended& to& increase& the&number&of&communities&with&urban&forestry&professionals&by&15%&within&a&decade.&Wiseman& et& al.& (2011,& p.& 51)& & pointed& out& that& “it& seems& likely& that& there&will& be&& & & & &17&greater& demand& for& well–educated,& highly–skilled& employees& in& the& arboriculture&industry&over&the&next&decade”&&Figure&4&illustrates&the&number&of&jobs&in&urban&forestry&and&related&disciplines&that&require&higher&education.&Figure&5&shows&the&predicted&increase&in&urban&forestry@related&professions—outlook& for&2012@2022& (Source:&United&States&Department&of&Statistics&(2014)).&Unfortunately,&the&US&statistics&only&publishes&a&summarized&job&outlook.&The&statistics&do&not&specify&the&jobs&that&stand&behind&the&numbers.&Hence,&category&(1)&Community&Service&Management&contains&jobs&that&require&a&university&degree&in&social&work,&urban&studies,&public&administration,&public&health&or&related&fields.& Category& (2)& Environmental& Sciences& contains& jobs& that& require& a& higher&degree& in& biology,& chemistry,& physics,& geosciences,& and& engineering.& Category& (3)&Urban&and&Regional&Planning&covers&jobs&that&require&higher&degrees&in&economics,&geography,& political& sciences,& environmental& design,& public& administration& or&landscape& architecture.& Category& (4)& Arboriculture,& Horticulture,& Agriculture& and&Food& Sciences& compromises& jobs& with& degrees& in& biology,& chemistry,& physics,&engineering,& agricultural& sciences,& horticulture& or& forestry.& Category& (5)&encompasses& previous& degrees& in& forestry,& agricultural& sciences& or& environmental&sciences.&Finally,& category&(6)&Landscape&Architecture&contains& jobs&with&exclusive&degrees&in&Landscape&Architecture.&&&&& && & & & &18&&Figure!4:!Number!of!jobs!in!urban!forestry!disciplines!(USA)!(in!thousands)!Database:&United&States&Department&of&Labor,&2014&&&&&&&&&&&& &Figure!5:!Estimated!increase!in!the!urban!forestry!sector!2012`2022!(USA)!(percentage)!Database:&United&States&Department&of&Labor,&2014&&& & & & &19&3.6 Certification!&Experts& regard& certification& as& essential& step& in& establishing& urban& forestry& as& a&distinct& profession.& A& survey& conducted& in& the&United& States& asked& urban& forestry&and& arboriculture& educators& about& the& importance& of& certification.& Eighty@seven&percent&regarded&certification&as&being&necessary& for&unifying&standards,&and&89%&agreed& that& certification& will& raise& the& level& of& professionalism& (Elmendorf& et& al.,&2005).&There& is& presently& no& defined& standard& that& requires& collegiate& or& university&education& for&urban& foresters& in& the&United& States.&Nevertheless,& the& International&Society& of& Arboriculture& is& hoping& to& introduce& certification& for& arboriculture& and&urban&forestry.&Employees&working&in&the&field&of&urban&forestry&and&arboriculture&can&participate&in&a&theoretical&examination&to&become&an&ISA@certified&arborist.&The&ISA& does& not& require& any& higher& education& to& be& eligible& for& this& program& (RUAF&Foundation,& 2006).&Wiseman& et& al.& (2011)& indicated& that& the& fields& covered& in& the&exams& are& mainly& technically@orientated,& focusing& more& on& arboriculture& than& on&urban&forestry.&&There& are& further& good& examples& that& demonstrate& efforts& to& improve& the&unregulated& labor& market& in& urban& forestry.& California,& for& instance,& has& its& own&urban& forestry&certification&program&that&defines&requirements& for& the&work& force.&The&prerequisites&to&be&eligible&for&this&program&are&high.&Professionals&must&either&have&thirteen&years&professional&experience&in&urban&forestry&or&must&hold&at&least&a&bachelor’s&degree&and&have&5&years&professional& experience.&Accepted&educational&backgrounds& are& Forestry,& Horticulture,& Arboriculture,& Natural& Resource&Management,& Landscape& Architecture,& Environmental& Sciences& or& Urban& Planning&(California& Urban& Forests& Council,& 2014).& Another,& less& dedicated& effort& has& been&undertaken& by& Louisiana.& In& the& jurisdiction,& professionals& need& to& participate& in&continuing&education&at&least&once&a&year&to&guarantee&and&improve&safety&in&urban&forestry&(Dozier& &Machtmes,&2005).&& & & & &20&3.7 Accreditation!&Despite& the& apparently& unregulated& standards& for& urban& forestry& professionals& in&the& United& States,& the& following& section& indicates& that& many& municipalities—especially& larger& cities—require& collegiate& or& university& degrees& as& a& minimum&entry& level& for& applicants& for& urban& forestry& positions.& Hence,& colleges& and&universities& advertise& their& degree& program& by& referring& to& the& success& of& their&students& in& entering& the& labor& market& after& graduation.& In& order& to& enhance& the&employment& chances& for& their& graduates,& universities& aspire& after& accreditation& of&offered& (urban)& forestry& degree& programs.& In& the& United& States,& the& Society& of&American&Foresters&(SAF)&instituted&an&accreditation&procedure&with&a&broad&scope&in&2007&especially&for&urban&forestry&programs&(Wiseman&et&al.,&2011).&More&recently,&the&Society&of&American&Foresters&issued&an&accreditation&handbook&(2010),&describing&skills&and&competencies&that&need&to&be&addressed&by&universities&which&offer&urban&forestry&degree&programs.&According&to&SAF&accreditation,&higher&education& should& impart& knowledge& in& ecology,& biology,& tree& measurement,&management,& policy,& economics,& business& administration& and& law.& Moreover,&students&need&to&learn&skills&in&communication&(written&and&oral),&natural&sciences&and&mathematics,&and&in&social&sciences&and&humanities.&The&Society&of&American&Foresters&lists&nine&urban&forestry&universities&with&urban&forestry& electives& in& the& United& States& that& have& been& certified:& California&Polytechnic&State&University,&University&of&Florida,&Southern&Illinois&University,&Iowa&State& University,& University& of& Maryland,& University& of& Minnesota,& Pennsylvania&State& University,& Virginia& Polytechnic& Institute& and& State& University,& and& the&University&of&Wisconsin@Stephens&Point.&However,&only&3&universities&(University&of&Maryland,&Virginia&Polytechnic&Institute&and&State&University,&and&the&University&of&Wisconsin@Stephens& Point)& offer& accredited& stand@alone& degrees& in& urban& forestry&(Society&of&American&Foresters,&2013).&& & & & &21&3.8 Summary!&There&are&multiple&job&positions&in&the&field&of&urban&forestry.&Practitioners&work&in&the& private& and& public& job& market& equally.& An& analysis& of& job& titles& revealed& 83&distinct& positions& in& the& broader& field& of& urban& forestry.& The& job& outlook& in& the&United& States& is& promising&with& predicted& increases& between& 3%& to& 21%.&Despite&the& examples&mentioned& in& this& chapter,& certification&of&professionals& is& still& in& its&infancy.& The& same& is& true& for& accredited& institutions.& The& Society& of& American&Foresters& (SAF)& lists& only& nine& certified& institutions& of& higher& education& in& urban&forestry.&&& & & & &22&4 Profiling!Needed!Competencies!4.1 Overview!&UNESCO& published& an& analysis& of& why& current& education& often& does& not& lead& to&competencies& that& are& in& demand& by& the& labor&market.& They& thought& responsible&factors&were&unfavorable&political&conditions,&inappropriate&learning&environments,&and& curricula& that& do& not& reflect& the& labor& market’s& needs& (United& Nations&Educational& Scientific& and& Cultural& Organization,& 2014).& Some& universities& have&realized&this&problem&and&are&in&dialog&with&the&labor&market&and&politicians&to&find&solutions.& In& the& case& of& urban& forestry,& appropriate& curricula& are& even& more&challenging&due&to&the&multi@faceted&character&of&this&field&of&education.&Leslie&et&al.&(2006)& indicated& that& the&management& of& forests& according& to& social,& cultural& and&economic& dimensions& has& become&more& complex& and& requires&many& skills&within&the&forestry&profession.&&This&section&describes&this&complexity&and&seeks&to&profile&skills&and&competencies&that&are&in&demand.&As&described&in&chapter&2.2&Methods,&five&methods&were&used&to&profile& competencies& urban& forestry& professionals& should& have:& Firstly,&professionals’&opinions&as&stated&in&publications&were&analyzed.&Secondly,&job&offers&were&scanned&to&identify&fields&of&employment&and&employers&perspectives.&Thirdly,&current& urban& forest& management& plans& were& examined& to& identify,& which&operations& urban& forest& professionals& might& undertake.& Fourthly,& educators& and&researchers& as& well& as& current& field& of& research& are& described& in& this& section& to&identify&desirable&competencies&from&various&points&of&view.&&&&! !& & & & &23&4.2 Profiling!Competencies!According!to!the!Labor!Market!&Results& arising& from& surveys& of& urban& forestry& professionals& are& strong& indicators&for& skills& in& demand.& This& section& covers& professionals’& opinions,& as& stated& in&conferences&and&summits,&surveys&and&publications.&&&4.2.1 Urban&Forestry%Professionals%&A& survey&was& conducted& in& the& late&1970s& in& the&Eastern&United&States& that&asked&120&professional& urban& foresters& to& name& fields& of& education& they& regarded&being&most& beneficial& for& their& daily& job.& The& most& frequently& mentioned& topics& were&landscape& design,& pathology,& entomology,& dendrology,& horticulture,& and& public&speaking&(Dunn&&&Gornicki,&1978).&A&few&years& later,&a&survey&in&the&United&States&asked& urban& forestry& professionals& for& their& responsibilities& (Sievert& et& al.,& 1982).&Respondents& mentioned& budget& planning,& work& schedule& planning& and& public&relations.&Sievert&et&al.&(1982)&concluded&that&an&urban&forestry&professional&needed&to&be&a&technically&competent&vegetation&manager&and&should&have&skills&in&business&and&personnel&management&as&well&as&in&communication&and&public&relations.&Two&years& later,& McPherson& (1984)& conducted& a& survey& asking& employers& about& their&perspective&on&the&most&needed&competencies&for&urban&foresters.&A&questionnaire&was& sent& to& over& 170& municipalities& in& the& Mountain& West& Region& in& the& United&States.&Ninety&percent&identified&insect&and&disease&control&as&important.&However,&general&botany&(89%),&shade&and&street&tree&selection&(89%),&plant&materials&(88%),&and& planting& techniques& (86%)& were& also& seen& as& being& important.& The& most&mentioned& competencies& lacking& in& urban& forestry& were& public& relations& (35%),&budgeting&(27%),&public&speaking&(17%),&writing&(17%),&and&public&administration&(15%).&&& & & & &24&Almost&20&years&later,&Schroeder&et&al.&(2003)&conducted&a&comprehensive&survey&by&asking& 1200& small& communities& and& 79& larger& cities& in& Illinois& to& identify& existing&problems&cities&have&in&managing&their&urban&green&space.&Kuhns&et&al.&(2005)&did&a&similar& study& in& Utah.& Although& the& smaller& cities& did& not& hire& professionals& with&degrees& in& urban& forestry@related& disciplines,&most& of& the& problems&were& growing&trees& into& utility& lines,& hazardous& trees,& loss& of& green& space& due& to& community&development,& and& insect& diseases.& These& studies& underlined& the& demand& on&competencies&related&to&design,&planning&and&pest&management.&&Several& summits& of& the& European& Forum& on&Urban& Forestry& (EFUF)& revealed& that&professionals& felt& insufficiently& educated& for& their& daily& tasks.& There& has& been&agreement&about&that&many&skills&needed& in&urban&forestry&relate&more&to&“people&management”&than&to&tree&or&forest&management,& including&communication,&public&involvement,& conflict& management,& marketing,& and& policy–making& (Konijnendijk,&2003).& A& nationwide& US& survey& asked& 800& SAF& members& about& their& attitudes&regarding&specific&urban&forestry&objectives.&Eighty&six&percent&agreed&that&the&issue&of& how& to& manage& trees& in& public& green& areas& was& most& important.& However,&educating&urban&people&about&the&importance&of&trees&(85%)&and&improving&health&of& urban& trees& (82%)&were& further& topics& of& high& interest& (Ricard& &&McDonough,&2007).& A& survey& conducted& in& Sweden& asked& 50& professionals& to& rank& the& most&important&topics&that&should&be&covered& in&urban&forest&conferences.&Although&the&small& number& of& participants& did& not& allow& drawing& inferences& from& this& survey,&most&practitioners&desired&to&learn&tools&for&communicating&with&the&general&public.&Secondly&mentioned&was&the&desire&to&learn&tools&for&planning&of&urban&woodlands.&Finally,& urban& foresters& desired& to& improve& their& knowledge& in& urban& forestry&policy–making&and&in&learning&development&strategies&(From,&2003).&&Prittinen&(2003)&used&a&pioneering&method&called&“competency&mapping”&to&define&needed&competencies&for&urban&forestry&professionals&in&Helsinki.&A&working&group&was& created& that& included& 58& urban& forestry& professionals& with& a& broad& range& of&duties& in& the& city.& Personal&management,& organization,& communication& and& public&participation,& decision& making,& community& ethics,& group& and& teamwork,& client&& & & & &25&services& and& writing& skills& were& regarded& as& being& essential,& reflecting& the&responsibility& of& experts& to& respond& to&public& demands.& Furthermore,& information&technology,& the& use& of& specific& computer& programs,& tools& for& city& planning& and& a&good& understanding& of& economic& issues& and& funding& resources& were& desired&competencies.&Additionally,&an&understanding&of&environment&protection,&including&applicable& laws,& and& the& knowledge& of& flora& and& fauna,& were& regarded& as& being&crucial&for&an&urban&forestry&professional.&&&4.2.2 Forestry%Professionals%&Not&all&surveys&dealing&with&the&question&of&an&appropriate&university&education&in&urban& forestry& specify& the& working& environments& of& questioned& professionals.&Hence,& this& section& reflects& results& of& major& surveys& that& questioned& forestry&professionals& whose& working& environments& were& not& specified& in& the& study,& but&whose& results& indicated& an& urban& setting.& A& comprehensive& study& in& Switzerland&surveyed& 328& alumni& graduate& students& of& forestry& and& natural/environmental&sciences& for& their& most& needed& skills& in& their& daily& job& (Hansmann& et& al.,& 2004).&Switzerland&is&a&dense&populated&country&in&the&heart&of&Europe&and&many&forestry&graduates&work& in& forestry& jobs& in& urban& or& suburban& areas.& The&most& important&non@subject@specific&skills&were&seen&in&problem&identification,&problem&assessment&and&problem&solving.&These&non@subject@specific&skills&were&regarded&as&being&little&promoted&in&university&forestry&education.&The&same&study&also&revealed&that&skills&were&lacking&in&dealing&with&problems&arising&from&the&public.&The&study&identified&the& widest& gap& in& sociological& and& political& dimensions& of& university& forestry&education.&Sample&et&al.&(2000)&conducted&a&similar&survey&by&asking&employers&and&graduates&in&the&United&States.&The&most&lacking&skills&were&seen&in&communication,&ethics,& collaborative& problem& solving,& and& managerial& leadership.& Based& on& this&study,&the&Pinchot&Institute&for&Conservation&(2014)&conducted&a&follow@on&survey&of&employers,&who&hired&a&forestry&graduate.&This&study&asked&67&representatives&from&& & & & &26&federal& agencies,& forest& industries,& forestry& consultants& and& nongovernmental&institutions&as&well&as&44&forestry&graduates&to&rank&a&list&of&proposed&most&needed&skills& on& a& scale& 1& to& 5.& The& results& verify& the& findings& from& the& study& in& 2000,&although& it& did& not& exclusively& focus& on& urban& forestry.& The& four& highest& ranked&skills& referred& to& human& dimensions& of& forestry:& “Effective& communication& in&workplace”& (4.24),& “Ethical& behavior”& (4.22),& “Effective& listening”& (4.16)& and&“Effective& communication&with& the& clients& and&public”& (4.16)&were& regarded&being&most& important.& The& graduates& ranked& the& same& categories& highest& but& felt& least&prepared&in&these&skills.&Employers&dealing&with&land&management&systems&ranked&“Remote&sensing&by&using&GPS&and&GIS”&(3.83),&“Best&management&practices”&(3.82)&and&“Forest&measurement”& (3.81)&highest.&Finally,& the&results&of& this&recent&survey&identified& skills& that& are& also& assumed& to& be& key& for& urban& forestry& professionals.&Surprisingly,& employers& in& the& urban& forestry& sector,& who& stated& dealing& with&“Recreation&and&Tourism”,&were&least&represented&in&this&study.&A&similar& study& in&Germany&was&conducted& that&asked& forestry&alumni&students&of&the& University& of& Freiburg& about& the& most& desired& offerings& for& further& training.&While&most&of&the&respondents&answered&they&were&properly&prepared&for&their&jobs&in&the&subject&matter,&most&graduates& felt&poorly&educated& in&project&management,&dealing&with&and&educating&the&public,&as&well&as&in&the&management&of&knowledge&(Lewark& et& al.,& 2006).& Another& recent& survey& in& Spain& asked& university& forestry&graduates& about& the& topics& that& should& diminish& from& general& forestry& education:&Only& 0.7%& of& the& respondents& stated& that& project& development& and& management&should& no& longer& be& content& of& forestry& syllabi.& Business& administration& (1.4%),&landscape& architecture& (1.4%)& and& land& use& planning& (1.8%)& were& the& other& less&frequently& mentioned& topics& (Robredo,& 2008).& The& results& can& be& interpreted& as&interest&of&students&in&these&fields&of&education&and&the&need&for&stronger&emphasis&on&urban&forestry&topics&in&general&forestry&education.&&&& & & & &27&A& study& in& Finland& surveyed& forestry& students& and& stakeholders& to& ask& for& their&opinion&on&the&most&desirable,&subject–specific&competencies&that&should&be&taught&in& forestry& programs.& Surprisingly,& urban& forestry& was& ranked& low,& whereas&planning,& economics,& and& law& were& regarded& as& being& most& important.& These&disciplines& can& be& associated& with& the& European& definitions& of& urban& forestry&education& (European& Commission,& 1997).& The& same& group& was& asked& about& the&importance& of& co–operation& of& forestry& education& units& with& other& disciplines.&Language,& legal& sciences,&political& science,& sociology,& tourism&and&psychology&were&most& frequently& given& answers& (Schuck,& 2009).& A& survey& in& Australia& asked& 186&professional&foresters&for&fields&they&wished&to&have&given&more&emphasis&to&in&their&university& forestry& education.& Although& most& of& these& professionals& did& not& only&work& in& community& forestry& positions,& the&mentioned& topics& confirmed& results& of&other& studies& that& focused& on& urban& forestry& in& particular.& The& majority& of&respondents& stated& that& they& wished& to& have& given& more& emphasis& to& human&resource& management& (36%),& followed& by& business& skills& (27%),& forest& policy&(15%),& communication& skills& (14%)& and& community& engagement& (13%)& (Vanclay,&2007).& A& survey& in& the& United& States& revealed& similar& results:& 211& forestry&consultants& were& asked& for& the& most& important& topics& in& university& forestry&education.& The&most& repeatedly&mentioned& disciplines&were& technical&writing& and&public&speaking&(Straka& &Childers,&2006).&&Another& study& asked& 500& US& employers& in& various& fields& of& the& forestry& sector—public& and& private,& as& well& as& profit& and& non@profit—to& rank& the&most& important&competencies& the& work& force& should& have:& the& ability& to& work& in& teams& and& to&address& public& questions& and& concerns&were& regarded& being&most& important.& The&same& survey& revealed& that& the&most& important& technical& competencies&needed& for&long@term& success& in& forestry& were& ethics,& and& written& and& oral& communication&skills.&Also&highly&rated&were&managerial& leadership,&collaborative&problem@solving&and& resource&management&planning& (Sample&et& al.,& 1999,&2000).&A& comprehensive&study& asked& employers& in& the& forestry& sector& and& coordinators& of& over& 80& MSc.&programs&from&72&universities&in&35&European&countries&to&identify&most&important&& & & & &28&competencies.& The& coordinators& saw& the&most& important& generic& competencies& in&the&capacity&to&learn,&team&work,&problem&solving,&planning&and&organization.&Both&university& and& employer& additionally& saw& the& ability& to& communicate& with&specialists&and&non@specialists&as&crucial&important&skill&(Arevalo&et&al.,&2010).&&&The& results& described& in& this& chapter& represent& 16& research& studies& conducted& in&North&America,&Europe&and&Australia&over&the&last&36&years.&They&reflect&opinions&of&more&than&400&urban&foresters&and&2100&forestry&professionals.&Experts&working&in&the& narrow& field& of& urban& forestry& identified& the&most& important& competencies& as&technical&and&managerial&competencies&and&in&knowledge&of&planning&instruments,&diseases,&vegetation,& laws&and&business.&Every&study&underlined& the& importance&of&social&dimensions&and&social& competencies.&Urban& forestry&professionals&called& for&more& emphasis& on& social& sciences& in& urban& forestry& education,& including& tools& for&policy@making,&conflict&management,&educating&the&public,&community&engagement,&ethics,&and&oral&and&written&communication&skills.&&&&&& && & & & &29&4.3 Profiling!Competencies!According!to!Job!Offers!&Job&descriptions&are&useful& resources& to& identify& required&skills&and&competencies.&The&association&Alliance&for&Community&Trees&(2014)&lists&on&its&web&page&job&offers&from&cities&located&all&over&the&United&States.&Job&descriptions&published&within&the&last& twelve&months&were& examined& for& entry& job& requirements.& Only& job& offerings&that&included&the&key&words&“urban&forestry”&or&“urban&forester”&in&their&title&were&considered& in& this& section.& An& examination& of& jobs& in& the& broader& field& of& urban&forestry,&such&as&landscape&architecture&and&landscape&planning,&would&have&led&to&other&results.&The& outcomes& of& this& analysis& indicate& that& almost& all& positions& in& urban& forestry&required&a& collegiate&or&university&degree&at& the&baccalaureate&or&masters& level& in&Forestry,& Horticulture,& Biology,& Botany,& Landscape& Architecture,& Leisure& Studies,&Public& Administration& or& closely& related& fields.& Furthermore,& an& ISA@arborist&certification,&the&possession&of&a&pest&applicators&license,&and&a&driving&license&were&frequent& minimum& entry& qualifications.& Additionally,& most& cities& required& 3& to& 5&year& work& experience& in& forestry& in& an& urban& environment.& Job& descriptions& also&indicated& that& employers& desired& professionals& who& are& acquainted& with& tree&species,& landscape&aesthetics,& tree&ordinance,&and&conservation.&Acquaintance&with&designing&tools&and&software&programs,&such&as&GIS,&were&frequently&mentioned&in&cities’& job& descriptions,& and& also& competencies& in& planting,& pruning,& pest& control,&fertilization,&tree&inventory,&tree&nursery,&tree&removal&and&watershed&management.&Finally,& acquaintance& with& municipal& laws,& land& management& policies,& and&experience&with&budget&planning,&and&the&development&of&grant&proposals&were&key&competencies& from&the&employers’&point&of&view.&Cities’&employers&also&pointed& to&the&importance&of&social&competencies:&practitioners&should&be&able&to&lead&working&groups,&seminars,&conferences,&and&sustainable&forest&management&projects.&Hence,&communication&skills&both&oral&and&written,&supervisory&techniques,&and&customer&service&techniques&were&desired&competencies&of&applicants.&&& & & & &30&In&summary,&a& review&of&descriptions&of&US&urban& forestry& job&offerings&within&12&months& (2013& to& 2014)& indicated& minimum& qualifications.& Pre@requisites& were& a&baccalaureate&degree&or&higher&in&Forestry,&Horticulture,&Biology,&Botany,&Landscape&Architecture,& Leisure& Studies& or& Public& Administration.& Some& cities& required& a&degree& from& a& SAF@accredited& institution.& Additionally,& certificates& issued& by& the&International&Society&of&Arboriculture&and&work&experience&in&an&urban&setting&were&frequently&mentioned&pre@requisites.&&Figures&6&and&7&below&are&based&on&US&job&descriptions&as&published&on&the&ACTrees&web&page&(2014).&Figure&6&illustrates&skills&in&demand;&Figure&7&illustrates&operations&of&urban&forestry&practitioners.&Only&job&descriptions&with&the&key&words&“urban&forestry”&or&“urban&forester”&have&been&used&for&these&figures.&&& && & & & &31&Retrieved&from:&Alliance&for&Community&Trees,&2014&&Retrieved&from:&Alliance&for&Community&Trees,&2014&&&Figure!6:!Skills!in!demand!&Figure!7:!Practitioners!operations!& & & & &32&4.4 Profiling!Competencies!According!to!Urban!Forest!Management!Plans!&Components&of&urban&forest&management&plans&are&useful&sources&to&identify&issues&that&professionals&are&facing&in&their&daily&job.&This&section&describes&the&content&of&existing&urban&forestry&management&plans,&assuming&that&relevant&competencies&are&needed&to&put&these&plans&into&action.&&Over&the&last&few&decades,&many&cities&have&created&management&plans&to&describe&how& urban& forests& and& green& space& should& be& managed.& The& rising& trend& for&management&plans&can&be&understood&as&step&towards&professionalism&in&the&urban&forestry& sector.& A& study& in& 2003& revealed& that& 75%& out& of& 34& surveyed& European&cities& had& detailed& city& plans& (Schmied& && Pillmann,& 2003).& A& study& in& the& United&States& reviewed& 135& cities& nationwide,& of& which& 95%& had& some& kind& of& tree&management&ordinances&(Diaz&et&al.,&2008).&Furthermore,&there&were&7000&US&cities&that&acknowledge&practical&help&by& forest&service&assistance&(USDA&Forest&Service,&2013).& The& implementation& of& urban& and& community& forestry& programs&approximately& doubled& between&1986& and&2002& and& all& 50&US& States& had& specific&state& programs& that& gave& cities& assistance& in& urban& forestry& issues& (Hauer& et& al.,&2008;& Ries& et& al.,& 2007).& In& contrast,& the& Canadian& Urban& Forest& Network& lists&currently&only&24&cities&with&urban&forest&management&plans& in& its&database&(Tree&Canada&Foundation,&2014).&Three&surveys&conducted&in&Canada&indicate&that&urban&forestry&management& plans& are& still& in& the& early& stage& of& development& (Kenney&&&Idziak,&2000;&Rosen&et&al.,&2006;&Wassenaer&van&et&al.,&2000).&&Urban&forestry&plans&are&common&in&the&United&States.&Europe’s&and&Canada’s&cities&are& progressively& in& the& process& of& introducing& them.& In& general,& plans& of& smaller&cities&are&often&more&rudimentary&and& larger&cities’&management&plans&are&usually&more&holistic.&These&holistic&plans&include&a&synthesis&of&several&disciplines&and&seek&to&give&a&respond&to&the&question&of&how&to&manage&urban&green&spaces&sustainably.&& & & & &33&Some&studies&have&been&done&to&identify&elements&of&city&plans&by&analyzing&them&or&by&comparing&elements&of&them&among&each&other.&Clark&et&al.&(1997)&and&&Kenney&et&al.&(2011)&examined&what& issues&holistic&management&plans&should&encompass.&An&example&of&enhanced&urban&forest&management&planning&is&grounded&in&the&German&Federal& State& Baden@Wurttemberg.& City& foresters& have& access& to& forest@function&maps& that& illustrate& deliberate&management& objectives& for& city& forests.& This& forest&function& mapping& graphically& illustrates& three& main& forest& functions,& namely&protection,&recreation&and&nature&conservation&and&is&developed&by&including&strong&public& participation.& The& plan& was& discussed& among& various& stakeholders& before&being&published& (Gudurić&et&al.,&2011).&Additionally,& framing& laws&of& the&European&Union,&the&Federal&Republic&of&Germany,&the&Federal&Province&Baden@Wurttemberg,&and&the&city&are&legally&binding&for&urban&foresters&when&creating&the&forest&function&map.& Hence,& practitioners& need& to& know& how& to& create& these& management& plans,&how&to&ensure&public&engagement&in&the&planning&process&the&framing&laws.&A&few&noteworthy&forestry&management&plans&have&been&published&in&Canada.&The&city& of& Surrey,& for& instance,& encompasses& public& participation,& education,& human&health,& property& law,& conflict& management& and& biodiversity& in& its& strategic& urban&forest& management& plan& (Ward,& 2001).& Other& city& plans& address& issues& such& as&vegetation,& community& framework,& and& resource& management& (Blackwell,& 2011,&2012;&Kenney& et& al.,& 2011).& The&management& plans& of& the& Canadian& cities& London&and&Kelowna&include&four&categories,&namely&protection,&enhancement,&monitoring&and&engagement.&The& first&protection& addresses& the& framework&of& local&authorities&and&politics.&The&second&enhancement&covers&biodiversity,&leaf&coverage&of&the&city,&and&forest&health.&Monitoring&includes&a&comprehensive&urban&forest&inventory,&and&research&for&tree&adaption&to&a&future&city&climate.&Finally,&engagement&accounts&for&a& collaboration& between& private& landholders,& professionals,& citizens,& and& local&authorities.&Ordóñez&and&Duinker&(2013)&recently&studied&urban&forest&management&plans&of&14&Canadian&cities.&Ordóñez&and&Duinker&identified&the&following&four&main&categories&to&be& essential& parts& in&holistic&urban& forest&management&plans:& environment& and&& & & & &34&ecology,&society,&politics&and&administration&and&economics.&These&categories&were&also& used& in& the& Compendium& of& Best& Management& Practices& for& Canadian& Urban&Forests,& published& by& the& Canadian& Urban& Forest& Network& (2014).& Ordóñez& and&Duinker& identified& roughly& 40& sub@categories& to& be& essential& for& sustainable&planning&of&urban&forests.&In& summary,& this& section& described& city& management& plans& for& urban& forests& to&identify& issues& professional& urban& foresters& should& be& able& to& address& with&occupation@inherent&knowledge,&competencies&and&skills.&Figure&8&shows&the&major&components&of&holistic&urban&forestry&plans@&to&be&addressed&by&practitioners&when&plans&are&being&turned&into&action.&&& && & & & &35&&&Figure!8:!Required!competencies!according!to!management!plans!Source:&Following&Ordóñez&and&Duinker,&2013&(modified)& && & & & &36&4.5 Profiling!Competencies!According!to!University!Educators!&This& section& describes& educators’& opinion& on& most& important& skills& and&competencies&in&urban&forestry.&A&comprehensive&study&in&the&United&States&asked&university& teachers& for& their& opinion& about& appropriate& urban& forestry& education.&Elmendorf& et& al.& (2005)& asked& 192& university& and& college& educators& of& urban&forestry&courses& for& the&most& important& taught&competencies.&The&study& identified&the& following& five& fields:& urban& forest& management,& benefits& and& values& of& trees,&street&tree&ordinances,& landscape&design,&and&tree&inventory.&The&same&survey&also&identified& the& top& five&most& lacking& fields& in&urban& forestry&education&at& that& time:&land& use& planning,& zoning& and& subdivision& ordinances,& urban& fire& ecology,& urban&wildlife,&and&tree&commissions.&Educators& pressed& for& a& stronger& emphasis& on& technical& components,& such& as&management& practices& and& tree& inventory.& However,& street& tree& ordinances,&landscape& design,& and& values& and& benefits& of& trees& were& also& regarded& as& being&essential.& A& recent& working& group& of& educators& and& researchers& at& the& North&American& Summit& on& Forestry& and& Forest& Science& Education& concluded& that&innovative& curricula& need& to& elevate& people@related& skills& and& should& explicitly&include&the&science&of&social&systems&(Bullard&et&al.,&2014).&& && & & & &37&4.6 Profiling!Competencies!According!to!Research!Topics!&This&section&describes&possible&research&projects&to&identify&important&current&and&future& issues& in& urban& forestry.& Research& also& may& reflect& demands& of& various&stakeholders& on& urban& forestry& since& they& often& fund& research& projects.& Urban&forestry&professionals& should&have& research& skills&when& they& try& to& solve& complex&problems.& Competencies& should& be& up& to& date& and& should& enable& practitioners& to&know& what& current& research& is& dealing& with.& Additionally,& urban& forestry&professionals&should&be&aware&of&stakeholders’&demands.&A& comprehensive& overview& of& research& projects& was& done& in& Europe& in& the& late&1990s.& The& COST& Action& E12& task& force& asked& representatives& of& 20& European&countries& about& important& fields& of& current& and& future& research& in& urban& forestry&(Forrest& et& al.,& 1999).& This& work& classified& existing& research& projects& into& three&categories,& namely& (1)& objects& and& functions,& (2)& establishment& and& selection,& and&(3)& management& of& urban& forests& and& trees.& These& three& categories& were& equally&represented.& Konijnendijk& et& al.& (2005;& 2000)& stated& that& research& category& 1&included&projects& such&as& green& structure&planning&and&design,& recreation& studies,&monitoring&of&ecological&values&and&benefits.&Research&category&2&&included&projects&dealing&with&tolerance&of& trees&and&diseases,&such&as& tree&adaption&to&air&pollution&and& climate& change,& as& well& as& studies& concerning& the& technical& aspects& of&establishment&of&trees&and&urban&soil&studies.&The&third&category&included&projects&that&were&about&preventing&and&managing&of&anthropogenic&and&abiotic&stress,&GIS&mapping,&as&well&as&vitality&and&health&assessment&of&urban&trees.&&A& more& recent& study& in& Europe& asked& 76& researchers& in& six& European& countries&about& the& most& important& fields& of& study& in& urban& forestry& (Konijnendijk& et& al.,&2007).&These&were&planning,&ecology&and&management.&Additionally,&the&same&study&asked& also& for& presumed& future& projects.& Researchers& believed& that& urban& forest&management,&social&and&cultural&values&and&urban&forest&planning&could&be&the&most&important&fields&of&future&studies&in&Europe.&& & & & &38&A& similar& study&was& conducted& in& the& United& States& (Elmendorf& et& al.,& 2005).& The&&survey& asked& educators& of& colleges& and& universities& in& urban& forestry& and&arboriculture&about&the&most&important&fields&of&research.&Respondents&mentioned&the&following&studies&most&frequently:&(1)&tree&health,&(2)&tree&pruning,&(3)&benefits&of& urban& forestry,& (4)& social& and& economic& aspects& of& urban& forestry,& (5)& tree&structure& and& mechanics,& (6)& disease& and& insect& control,& (7)& and& plant& selection.&Wolf&and&Kruger&(2010)&asked&US&municipalities,&nonprofit&organizations,&scientific&institutions,& governmental& authorities& and& business& what& they& presumed& as&important& future& fields& of& research& in& urban& forestry.& Results& indicate& that&urbanization&and&development& impacts,& adequate& funding&and& staff,& and& improved&public&appreciation&and&understanding&were&placed&highest.&&Kenney&(2003)&saw&the&main&disciplines&of&research&to&be&benefits&of&urban&forests&for& the& public,& genetic& improvement& (for& a& changing& urban& climate),& and& in& the&analysis&of& long–and&short&term&stress& factors&that&endanger&urban&forests.&Trends&for& research& can&be& seen& in&projects& that&deal&with& the&question&of&how& to& engage&urban& stakeholders& in&management& plans& (Herzele& van& et& al.,& 2005).& Additionally,&increasing&research&has&been&done&about&impacts&of&urban&forests&on&human&health&(Grahn&&& Stigsdotter,& 2003).& Furthermore,& studies& that& seek& to& quantify& economic&values&of&urban&forest&benefits&are&on&the&rise&(Tyrväinen&et&al.,&2005).&Finally,& the&use& of& information& systems& and& visualization& are& further& expanding& fields& of&research& (Schipperijn& et& al.,& 2005).& Current& and& future& fields& of& research& in& urban&forestry&indicate&the&issues,&practitioners&of&today&and&tomorrow&are&likely&facing.&&&&&& & & & &39&5 Dimensions!of!Competencies!&Five&methods&are&described&in&the&previous&chapter&to&figure&out&what&competencies&urban& forestry&professionals& should&have.& Since& the& structure&of& chapter&4& follows&the& logic& of& methods& being& applied,& a& synthesis& of& identified& and&most& important&competencies&seemed&to&be&necessary.&This&chapter&names&identified&competencies&and&discusses&them&against&the&background&of&a&holistic&education&in&urban&forestry.&&5.1 Competency!in!Arboriculture,!Engineering!and!Urban!Forest!Management!&As&described&in&the&chapter&“Profiling&Competencies&According&to&the&Labor&Market”,&urban& forestry& professionals& need& to& be& acquainted& with& the& technical& basics& of&arboriculture& and& should& have&managerial& skills& to& deal& with& forests& in& an& urban&environment.& These& competencies& are& mainly& taught& in& universities& with& a&conventional&urban& forestry&program&and& in& smaller& colleges& in&North&America.& In&Europe,&universities&of&applied&sciences&mainly&cover& this& field&of&education.&Many&institutions&or&associations&below&the&college&level&are&also&concerned&with&training&in&arboriculture.&The&International&Society&of&Arboriculture&ISA&(2014a)&for&example&puts&emphasis&on&arboricultural&and&technical&aspects&of&urban&forestry&as&described&on& its&web& page.& The&majority& of& the& 20.000& ISA&members&work& in& arboricultural&jobs.&&Professionals&should&have&equally&balanced&competencies&in&urban&park&silviculture&and&management&as&well&as& in&arboriculture.&They&should&be&knowledgeable&about&tree&health,&planting&and&removement&techniques,&fertilization&and&pruning.&In&order&to&respond&to&public&demands&and&fears,&professionals&need&to&know&tree&survey&and&assessment& technics,& inventory,& measurement& and& tree& statics.& Furthermore,& in&& & & & &40&order&to&fulfill&the&role&as&instructor&and&leader,&to&give&guidance&for&the&subordinate&work& force& and& to& reasonably& plan& a& budget,& professionals& need& to& know& best&management& practices& and& must& be& able& to& evaluate& work& processes.& Finally&professionals& are& responsible& for& work& safety& and& need& to& be& familiar& with&arboricultural&equipment&(Lilly,&2001).&&5.2 Competency!in!Natural!Sciences,!Environmental!Sciences!and!Ecology!&Raggers&(2003)&stated&that&a&good&basic&knowledge&of&the&forest&ecosystem&should&be& core& for& an& urban& forestry& education.& Competencies& in& this& field& should&encompass& the& basics& in& natural& sciences,& ecosystems,& biodiversity& and&conservation.&&Simard&(2014)&pointed&out&that&urban&forestry&professionals&need&to&know& the& complex& structure& and& function& of& urban& ecosystems.& This& includes&processes& and& regulating& and& ecological& interactions& shaping& urban& forest&ecosystems.& In& order& to& be& prepared& for& a& changing& urban& forest& due& to& climate&change,&professionals&need&to&know&adaptive&systems,&including&diversity,&resilience,&complexity& and& stability.& Professionals& should& be& familiar& with& urban& wildlife&species& and& should& know& how& to& manage,& preserve,& enhance& and& restore& their&habitat&(Simard,&2014).&&Urban&forest&professionals&are& likely& to&be& involved& in&community&committees&and&working&groups&who&are&dealing&with&city&development.& In& this& role,&professionals&need&to&be&experts&in&ecology&and&environmental&science&basics,&and&should&manage&to&respond&to&public&demands&and&requests& from&nongovernmental& institutions&by&giving&advice&on&environmental&issues&for&other&authorities&in&the&city.&&&& & & & &41&&5.3 Competency!in!Assessing!Hazards!and!Diseases!!&Duntemann&(2006)& indicated& that&urban& forestry&professionals&need& to&be& familiar&with&hazard&tree&assessment.&He&saw&potential&for&an&increasing&job&market&in&urban&forestry—either&because&of&worried&city&dwellers&or&because&of&financial&interests&of&cities,&which&need&to&have&an&expert&in&tree&assessment.&Hamelin&(2014)&underlined&that&the&cities’&major&interests&for&hiring&urban&forestry&professionals&are&likely&to&be&driven&by&economic&decisions:&“to&safe&money”.&Urban& foresters& are& probably& most& frequently& consulted& in& matters& pertaining& to&concerns&of&the&publicity&about&hazards&resulting&from&diseased&trees.&Konijnendijk&and& Gauthier& (2006)& indicated& that& the& negative& effects& should& be& kept& in& mind&despite&the&benefits&of&urban&forests.&Professionals&should&be&aware&of&endangered&houses&because&of&wildfires&and&root&growth.&Furthermore,& they&should&be&able& to&diagnose&and&treat&tree&diseases&caused&by&biotic&and&abiotic&disturbances,&such&as&insects& and& fungi.& Furthermore,& professionals& should& be& able& to& address& stress&factors& of& climate& change& on& urban& forests,& such& as& temperature& extremes,& storm,&forest& fire&danger,&and& invasive&plant&and&animal&species& (Matzarakis,&2013).&They&should& be& aware& of& shifting& atmospheric& gas& concentrations,& hydrological& cycles,&natural& vegetation& abundance,& and& vegetation& period& to& preserve& existing& urban&vegetation&and&to&find&best&adaptive&plant&species.&In&summary,&professionals&should&have&special&knowledge&in&fire&management,&pest&management,& fungi& treatment,& entomology,& tree& adaption& and& stress& factors& of&climate&change.&&&& & & & &42&5.4 Competency!in!Sustainability!and!Resource!Management!&The&demands&for&professionals&who&help&to&create&sustainable&cities&are&on&the&rise.&The& future& labor&market& will& need& experts& who& are& able& to& provide& solutions& for&cities&main&concerns,&such&as&city&climate,&air&pollution,&low&carbon&footprint,&carbon&sequestration& and& energy& consumption.& Cities& are& searching& for& solutions& for&reasonably&manage&natural&resources,&such&as&water,&soil,&green&infrastructure&and&biodiversity.&Holistic&educated&urban&forestry&professionals&should&be&able&to&name&these& problems,& to& provide& solutions& and& should& be& familiar&with& specific& tools& to&illustrate&these&issues&for&publicity&and&policy&makers.&&Furthermore,& professionals& should& know& all& ecological& and& social& dimensions& of&sustainability.& They& should& be& able& to& evaluate& what& effects& urban& greenspace&management&has&with&respect&to&climate&change&and&carbon&sequestration.&In&order&to& promote& sustainable& concepts,& professionals& need& to& know& the& local& and&international&political&frameworks&(Sheppard,&2014).&Finally,&they&should&be&able&to&contribute&to&global&sustainability&by&developing&local&concepts&of&wise&urban&forest&and&greenspace&management.&The&sections&“The&Future&Labor&Market:&Cities&are&Reaching&for&Sustainability”&and&“A&Profile&of&an&Urban&Forestry&Professional”&describe&this&issue&in&more&detail.&Both&underline&the&increasing&importance&of&competencies&in&this&area.&&&&&&& & & & &43&5.5 Competency!in!Planning,!Design!and!Aesthetics!&Planning& of& urban& green& space& and& woodlands& has& various& dimensions.& It&encompasses&functional&and&aesthetical&planning&of&urban&forests,&budget&planning,&political& strategic& planning,& sustainable& forest& management& planning,& and& socio@economic& impact& planning.&Wassenaer& et& al.& (2012)& indicated& that& urban& forestry&professionals&need&to&have&competency&in&collaborative,&long–term,&strategic&urban&forest&management&planning.&This&should&include&management&goals&and&objectives&against& the&background&of&history&and&politics.&Tikkanen&(2003)&saw&an& important&competency&of&urban&foresters&as&understanding&the&role&and&power&of&collaborative&planning.& Van& Herzele& (2005)& saw& the& most& important& role& of& planning& in&guaranteed& public& participation.& This& process& is& likely& to& be& conflict@laden& since&municipality& interests& and& local& populations’& demands& are& likely& to& differ.& Van&Herzele& (2005)& indicated& that& strategic& socio@political& planning& should& holistically&reflect&these&multiple@level& interests.&Konijnendijk&(2002)&stated&that&conflicts&may&arise& in& defining& the& objectives& of& urban& development& by& equally& accounting& for&conservation&and&recreation.&Moreover,&the&author&saw&even&disagreements&in&types&of&recreation,&such&as&leisure&sports&and&hiking&that&has&to&be&weighed&in&planning.&&On& the&other&hand,&urban&green&space&planning& is&also&concerned&with&design&and&aesthetics.& These& are& traditional& disciplines& of& landscape& architects& and& landscape&planners.& Forrest& and& Moore& (2003)& saw& a& major& competency& of& urban& forestry&professionals& in& designing& and&managing& tree& planting& schemes& in& urban& settings.&Gustavsson& (2006)& called& attention& to& environmental& aesthetics& and& claimed& that&professionals& need& to& have& competency& in& this& subject& matter& above& all.& Urban&foresters&need&know&how&to&visualize&planning&for&public&requests&and&engagement&in&order&to&ameliorate&potential&conflicts.&Hence,&urban&forestry&professionals&need&to&have&competency&in&modeling&and&restructuring&of&urban&green&space,&should&be&able&to&develop&a&sustainable&design&of&urban&forests&and&should&be&acquainted&with&environmental& impact& assessment& (Sheppard,& 2014).& Urban& forestry& professionals&& & & & &44&should&be&able&to&use&spatial&analysis&methods,&should&manage&to&handle&3D&datasets&such& as& LiDAR& (Sheppard,& 2008)& and& should& be& acquainted&with& various& software&tools& for&visualizing,& simulating,&modeling&and&predicting&urban&site&developments&as&part&of&a&communication&with&the&urban&publicity.&These&tools&encompass&2D&and&3D& visualization& programs& (Sheppard,& 2001)& & GIS@based& software& programs& like&CommunityViz,&Place3s&(Salter&et&al.,&2009),&remote&sensing&(De&Ridder&et&al.,&2004)&and&i@Tree&(USDA&Forest&Service&et&al.,&2014).&&5.6 Competency!in!Community!Engagement!!&Urban& forestry& professionals& need& to& engage& with& and& respond& to& the& public.& De&Donlebún& (2011)&described& in&his& dissertation& society’s& increasing& involvement& in&forestry& issues& concerning& utilization.& This& reflects& the& increasing& urbanization&worldwide&with&increasing&demands&on&scarce&forest&resources.&Ferrini&et&al.&(2006,&p.&20)&predicted&an&increasing&use&of&urban&green&spaces&as&places&of&participation&where& “people& can& share& and& compare& ideas& and&opinions& and&where&we& can& find&meeting&points&and&mediation& inside& the&present& society.”&Blok& (2003)& referred& to&forest& management& strategies& in& the& Netherlands—one& of& the& densest& populated&countries&on& earth:& &We&work& “towards& a& sustainable& living& environment& for&man,&flora& and& fauna.& Our& work& is& not& just& for& nature,& but& also& for& people.& People& and&nature&belong&together,&and&can,&and&should&not&be&separated.&We&should&therefore&invest& in& broadening& support& for& nature& management,& in& further& societal&embedding”&(Blok,&2003,&p.&38).&Social& dimensions& in& urban& forestry& are& of& rising& importance.& Educators,&professionals,& employers& and& experts& underline& the& crucial& significance& of& social&competencies& and& urge& for& more& emphasis& on& this& concern.& Urban& forestry&professionals&have&various& roles& to&play&when&dealing&with& the&public.& First& of& all,&practitioners&are&educators&for&city&dwellers&to&sensitize&the&publicity&for&nature&in&& & & & &45&urban&and&suburban&areas.&Gilbert&(2006)&developed&a&guide&for&educating&pupils&in&Wisconsin.&She&suggested&that&holistic&education&of&the&public&should&encompass&the&topics& (1)&what&urban& forests& (in&Wisconsin)&are,& (2)&what& function& they&have,& (3)&how& they& can& be& preserved& and& (4)& what& future& challenges& and& dangers& urban&forests&are&facing.&&Secondly,& forestry&professionals& are& facilitators& for& conflicts.&A& study& conducted& in&Switzerland&was&done&to&identify,&what&forest&management&objectives&synergize&well&and& what& objectives& have& potential& for& conflicts.& By& far,& the& most& conflicts& were&identified& in& socio–economic& objectives& for& forest& management& (Zingerli& et& al.,&2004).& Kirkpatrick& et& al.& (2013)& examined&potential& conflicts& the&Australian& urban&forestry&professionals&are&exposed&to&and&identified&four&opposing&parties:&(1)&urban&forest& planners,& (2)& urban& forest& managers,& (3)& public,& (4)& and& land& owners.& Van&Herzele&and&Heyens&(2003)&made&a&proposal& for&how&to&reduce&potential&conflicts.&They& called& for& a& stronger& public& engagement& and& mutual& responsibility& of& both&stakeholders& and& professionals& in& defining& objectives& for& how& to& manage& urban&forests& and& the& cultural& heritage& of& the& city.& This& approach& could& allocate& city&dwellers& a& new& role& by& becoming& “co–owners”& of& their& green& heritage,& “mutual&learners”& of& nature& and& “collaborators”& (Herzele& van& && Heyens,& 2003,& p.& 95).&Kirkpatrick&et& al.& (2013)&and& Janse&and&Konijnendijk& & (2007)& suggested&mitigating&conflicts&by&intense&consultative&processes&with&stakeholders&and&by&educating&the&public.&Harshaw&et&al.& (2009,&p.&87)&pointed&out&that& it&needs&special&knowledge&of&participation& tools&when& planning& urban& forest&management& objectives& to& getting&closer& to& the& “silent& majority”.& They& suggested& that& public& opinion& surveys,& focus&groups& and& visioning& workshops,& Future& Search,& open& space& technologies,& mind&mapping& activities,& as& well& as& participatory& multi& criteria& analysis& were& effective&tools& for& engaging& urban& city& dwellers.& Sheppard& and&Meitner& (2005)& proved& that&using& the& latter& by& addressing& ecological,& economic& and& social& values& were&applicable&technics&as&decision@support&tools&in&conflict@prone&areas.&In& summary,& urban& forestry& jobs& unify& roles& of& educators,& conflict& managers,&teachers&and&experts&at&once.&In&order&to&play&this&role,&urban&forestry&professionals&& & & & &46&need& to& have& a& variety& of& social& skills& and& competencies& and& should& know&participatory&tools&to&engage&the&urban&publicity.&&5.7 Competency!in!Recreation!and!Human!Health!!&The&rising&number&of&publications&about&the&linkage&between&urban&woodlands&and&human&well@being&indicate&the&great&relevance&of&this&field&of&research&today.&Grahn&and& Stigsdotter& (2003)& revealed& in& a& Swedish& study& that& statistically& significant&relationships& existed& between& cities’& green& spaces& and& illness& and& stress& of& city&dwellers.& Professionals& need& to& know& the& linkage& between& physical& and& psychic&conditions&and&urban&forest&design.&Raggers& (2006)& indicated& that& the& demand& for& urban& forests& will& increase& due& to&proven& positive& effects& on& humans’& health.& Raggers& claimed& that& urban& forestry&education&needs&to&encompass&nature,&health&and&recreation&disciplines&equally.&The&Van&Hall&University&Larenstein&(Netherlands)&and&the&Han&University&(Netherlands)&have& both& introduced& innovative& educational& approaches& in& urban& forestry&education& by& offering& a& joint& degree& program& between& four& faculties:& Landscape&Architecture,& Sports,&Health,& and&Management.& This& unique& step&has& been&done& to&work& cooperatively& on& the& question& of& how& to& account& for& benefits& of& green&environments.&Finally,&urban&forestry&professionals&are&likely&to&spend&the&most&time&in&their&daily&work& in& responding& to& inquiries& of& city& inhabitants&who& seek& recreation& in& urban&forests.& Urban& foresters& in&Germany,& for& instance,& are& responsible& for& recreational&resources& within& the& forest& boundaries.& Creating,& controlling& and& managing&recreational&facilities&have&a&notable&share&of&urban&foresters’&job&description&there.&Furthermore,&professionals&need&to&know&principles&of&tourism&planning,&since&cities&often&regard&this&as&major&source&for&community&incomes&and&primary&factor&for&the&cities’& image.& Therefore,& urban& foresters& need& to& know& tourist& target& groups& and&& & & & &47&their&favorite&design&of&urban&forests.&&Tahvanainen&et&al.&(2001)&proved&that&various&forest& management& practices& have& distinct& recreational& values.& The& Ministry& of&Forests,& Lands& and& Natural& Resource& Organizations& BC& (2010),& for& instance,&estimates& the& recreational& value& of& British& Columbia’s& forests& at& $13& CAD& billion.&Hence,&urban& forestry&professionals&need& to&be&aware&of& recreational&values&when&defining&and&planning&objectives&for&urban&forests.&McPherson&(2003,&p.&24)&stated&with& respect& to&management& of& urban& green& spaces:& “During& the& past& century&we&have&learned&how&to&manage&forests&for&spotted&owls&and&songbirds.&We&can&design&zoos& that& approximate&natural&habitats& for& giraffes& and& chimpanzees.&Yet&we&have&not& succeeded& in&protecting&green&space&near&cities&or& creating&environments& that&make&people&happy”.&&&5.8 Competency!in!Politics,!Administration!and!Law!&Urban& forestry& professionals& work& in& a& political& and& administrative& environment&that&is&framed&by&laws&and&regulations.&Practitioners&need&to&know&this&framework&for& their&daily&work.&A& study& in&Europe&was&done& to& identify& cities’& regulations&on&urban&forests.&Thirty@four&European&cities& in&10&countries&were&examined&for&their&urban& forest& laws.& The& study& found& out& that& 74%& had& applicable& laws& for& tree&protection& in&public&and&private&areas,&encompassing& felling,&damaging,&modifying,&pruning&and&decay&(Schmied&&&Pillmann,&2003).&Urban&forestry&professionals&should&be& competent& in& informing& the& public& about& these& laws,& should& have& an&understanding& of& a& range& of& laws,& policies,& and& legal& issues& pertaining& to& urban&forests& and& urban& forestry,& and& should& be& able& to&monitor&municipal& regulations.&Relevant& regulations& encompass& public,& property,& forest,& wildlife& and& habitat&conservation,&and&natural&resource&laws&(Kozak,&2014b).&Urban&forestry&professionals&also&act&as&facilitators&among&multiple&city&authorities.&Practitioners&need&to&know&municipal,&regional&and&federal&bureaucracies,&their&role,&& & & & &48&outreach&and&responsibility.&Practitioners&should&be&active&policy@makers&to&have&a&determining&influence&on&urban&forests&future&(Raggers,&2003).&Jones&(2003,&p.&49)&&indicated& that& urban& foresters& should& “maximize& political& support& for& trees”& by&capitalizing&on&the&“natural&enthusiasm&which&most&people&have&for&their&local&green&space”.&Urban&forestry&professionals&also&have&the&role&of& “green&space&politicians”&and& might& be& confronted& with& the& questions& of& how& city& dwellers& are& going& to&manage& their& cultural& green& space&heritage& (Kozak,& 2014a),& how& local& politics& can&respond&to&global&issues&and&how&to&engage&city&dwellers.&&5.9 !Competency!in!Economics!&Economics&has&multiple&dimensions&with&respect& to&urban& forestry.&Firstly,&budget&planning& is& one& important& part& of& strategic& urban& forest& management& plans&(Wassenaer& et& al.,& 2012).& Urban& forestry& professionals& should& be& acquainted&with&budget&planning,&controlling&and&funding.&Secondly,&in&order&to&contribute&to&cities’&incomes,& urban& foresters& need& to& keep& economic& aspects& in&mind.&Raggers& (2003)&stated&that&urban&forestry&professionals&need&to&find&income&sources&resulting&from&urban& forests& to& make& green& cities& not& only& sustainable& with& respect& to& the&environment,&but&with&respect&to&sustainable&income.&New&ways&have&to&be&found&to&market& the& benefits& and& ecosystem& services& of& urban& forests.& This& should& also&encompass& the& question& of& how& “real”& values& of& timber& resulting& from& cut& street&trees& can& be& marketed& (Kozak,& 2014a).& The& question& also& has& a& socio@cultural&dimension,&asking&more&broadly,&how&to&deal&with&the&cultural&heritage&of&a&city.&The&first& part& of& this& work& Education& describes& studies& that& attempt& to& put& monetary&numbers&on&these&values.&In& conclusion,& urban& forestry& professionals& need& to& be& competent& in& dealing&with&finances&and&economic&issues.&Urban&forestry&professional&are&exposed&to&conflicting&priorities& of& politicians&who& “want& beautiful& forests& and& no& troubles& at& low& costs”&& & & & &49&and& the& local& population& for&whom& living& trees& are& “living& emotions”& (Houtzagers,&2003,&p.&81)&&5.10 !Summary!&Urban& forestry& education& should& encompass& the& above@mentioned& competencies&holistically.& &Urban& forester& should&be&acquainted&with& relevant& tools,& and&a& set&of&personal&and&social&skills.&Figure&9&illustrates&main&disciplines&in&urban&forestry.&&&&Figure!9:!Disciplines!in!urban!forestry!education! !& & & & &50&6 A!Profile!of!an!Urban!Forestry!Professional!6.1 A!Profile!of!an!Urban!Forestry!Professional!Today!&&This&chapter&describes&the&profile&of&an&ideally&educated&urban&forestry&professional.&Blok& (2003)& stated& that& & above& all,& practitioners& should& have& personal& skills& in&entrepreneurship,& creativity,& flexibility,& initiative@taking,& integrity& and& in& open&communication.&It&appears&to&be&apparent&that&multidisciplinarity&is&the&key.&Miller&(1994)& pointed& out& that& graduates& from& urban& forestry& programs& ideally& have& a&good&understanding&of&biology&and&ecosystems&and&competency&in&managing&urban&forests& at& a& single& tree&or& forest& stands& level.&Wassenaer& (2003)& stated& that&urban&foresters& need& to& have& competencies& in& a& combination& of& forestry& and& natural&resource& management& and& a& good& knowledge& of& the& principles& of& ecological&planning,&as&well&as&of&arboricultural&technology.&Most& authors& point& to& the& desired& set& of& social& competencies& for& ideally& educated&urban& forestry&professionals.&Röling& (2000,&p.&5)& indicated& that& “foresters&must&be&able&to&foster&the&required&local&knowledge,&the&agreements,&the&shared&monitoring&systems,& the& institutions,& and& the& collective& action& of& the& stakeholders& who&collectively&de& facto,& if& not&de& jure,& control& the& future& of& the& forest”.& & Konijnendijk&(2005)& indicated& that& urban& foresters& need& to& speak& the& language& of& various&professionals& and& stakeholders,& from& general& public& and& local& politicians& to&engineers&and&city&planners&(Konijnendijk,&2005).&Urban&forestry&professionals&need&to&have&“an&understanding&of&both&a& tree–based&natural& resource& located&on&high–pressure& sites& and& the&urban& society&who& is& using& this& resource& in&many&different&ways”& (Konijnendijk,& 2005,& p.& 474).& Urban& forestry& professionals& need& to& be&acquainted& with& tools& for& facing& potential& conflict@laden& environments.& Raggers&(2003)&and&Konijnendijk& (2005)& indicated& that&practitioners&should&have&excellent&communication& skills,& since& urban& foresters& communicate& with& various& interest&groups,& give& information& to& the& public& about&management& objectives& and&must& be&& & & & &51&able&to&appropriate&delegate&tasks&to&other&people.&Sievert&et&al.&(1982)&pointed&out&that&urban&forestry&professionals&should&be&acquainted&with&mass&media,&and&with&organizing& and& facilitating& public& and& private& meetings.& Finally,& Knol& (2003)&mentioned& that& practitioners& should& also& have& know@how& in& acquiring,& & engaging&and&motivating&volunteers.&&Houtzagers&(2003)&described&an&ideal&profile&of&an&urban&forester&by&pointing&to&the&following& competencies:& a& solid& basis& of& the& subject& matter& to& be& able& to& identify&management&objectives;&a&strategic&insight&to&deal&with&various&interest&groups&such&as& local& population,& authorities& and& politicians& and& open& attitudes& to& understand&needs&and&concerns&of& the& local&population;&Urban&foresters&should&be&respectable&communicators&and& teachers& to& fulfill& the&role&of&public& relations&managers&and& in&order&to&make&people&aware&of&how&to&achieve&a&sustainable&city.&Hunt&(2003)&draw&another& picture& of& an& ideal& urban& forestry& practitioner.& He& saw& the&main& skills& of&urban&foresters&to&be&the&ability&to&interact&with&other&professions,&to&communicate&with&the&general&public&and&to&respond&to&the&technical&challenges&of&managing&trees&in& urban& areas.& Hunt& also& stated& that& urban& foresters& need& to& understand& a& wide&range& of& issues& involving& health,& social& inclusion,& economic& regeneration,&biodiversity,&sustainability&and&tourism.&&&6.2 A!Profile!of!an!Urban!Forestry!Professional!Tomorrow!&Morsink& et& al.& (1989)& draw& a& profile& of& the& future& urban& forester& whereupon&professionals& need& to& be& best& at& finding& long@term& solutions& to& complex& urban&problems.& According& to& the& Canadian& Urban& Forest& Strategy& 2013& to& 2018,& urban&forestry& professionals& need& to& be& competent& in& inventories,& GIS,& quantification& of&urban& benefits,& tree& risk& assessment,& plant& health& care,& planning,& tree& bylaws& and&modeling& (Canadian&Urban&Forest&Network,& 2012).& The& chapter&The& Future& Labor&Market:&Cities&are&Reaching&for&Sustainability&identifies&potential&future&directions&in&& & & & &52&urban&forestry&and&indicates&the&need&for&future&competencies.&Those&future&urban&foresters&must&be&able&to&provide&solutions&for&cities’& future&challenges&and&should&have&competencies& in&creating,&planning,&designing,&and&managing&the&“sustainable&city&of&tomorrow”&for&the&benefit&of&all.&Future&urban&foresters&need&to&be&acquainted&with&the&term&sustainability&with&its&multifaceted&dimensions.&They&need&to&be&able&to& address& current& and& future& challenges& that&municipalities& are& facing.& Sheppard&and&Neuvonen&(2014,&p.&3)&stated&that&the&new&kind&of& forest&managers&and&forest&planners&should&be&“knowledgeable&about&climate&change&adaptation&and&mitigation&measures”,& should& “understand& system& thinking& across& urban& and& wild& land&boundaries&and&multiple&disciplines”&should&be&comfortable&with&“working&with&the&public& and& stakeholders”& and& should& have& “strong& skills& in& planning& and&decision@making”.& Moigneu& (2003)& stated& that& a& forestry& professional& need& to& know& the&complex& relation& between& forest& ecosystems& and& human& beings.& Salwasser& et& al.&(2014,& p.& 25)& pointed& out& that& future& professionals& should& manage& to& “deal& with&change& and& innovation”& and& should& be& able& to& “solve& complex& problems”.& Vanclay&(1996,&p.&4)&stated&that&forestry&professionals&of&tomorrow&should&be&able&to&“read&widely,& think& literally,& communicate& fluently”,& “are& adept& with& numbers& and&comfortable&with&computers”.&& && & & & &53&7 The!Future!Labor!Market:!Cities!are!Reaching!for!Sustainability!&7.1 Overview!&Todays& labor&market& in&urban& forestry& is&multi@faceted.&This&chapter&describes& the&future&job&market&by&mirroring&and&discussing&expert’s&opinions&and&visions,&and&by&analyzing&cities’&action&plans.&Cities’& innovative&actions&may&give&an&answer&for&the&question& of& what& a& future& labor& market& in& urban& forestry& may& look& like.& When&visions&of&policy&makers,&nongovernmental&institutions&and&city&dwellers&will&come&true,& new& fields& of& employment& will& arise.& Blaser& et& al.& (2000)& indicated& that&powerful&stakeholders&are&working&on&a&vision&whereupon&40%&of&the&global&forest&will& have& multiple& functions& and& will& be& managed& by& communities& under& strong&public&participation&by&2050.&Simson&(2003)&saw&the&urban&city&of&the&21st&century&not& determined& so& far.& He& said& it& will& “almost& certainly& be& different& than& we& see&today,&and&will&not&conform&to&previous&ideas&of&what&urban&areas&are&about”.&Urban&foresters& need& to& be& “at& the& top& table,& where& all& the& key& decisions& are& made,& to&influence&this&future&development”&(Simson,&2003,&p.&114).&&Beside& the& uncertainty& regarding& how& future& municipalities& will& be& designed,& the&future& labor&market&will& call& for& a&work& force& that& is& able& to&provide& solutions& for&how& city& resources& can& be& managed& sustainably.& Cities& are& increasingly& taking&actions&to&prepare&themselves&for&a&sustainable&future.&The&largest&association&that&is& concerned& about& sustainable& city& development& is& the& International& Council& for&Local& Environmental& Initiatives& (ICLEI)& (2014).& ICLEI& has& 1012& participating&municipalities& around& the& world& and& has& declared& 8& objectives& for& making& cities&more& sustainably:& (1)& integrated& sustainable& policy,& (2)& resource& efficiency,& (3)&biodiversity,& (4)& climate& neutrality,& (5)& community& resilience,& (6)& green&infrastructure,&(7)&green&economy&and&business,&and&(8)&community&health.&Yadong&& & & & &54&and&Zhiqiang&(2003)&stated&that&future&sustainable&cities&should&put&more&emphasis&on& natural& ecosystems& into& the& built& infrastructure,& and& should& include& citizen&stewardship& and& public& education& in& their& concept.& In& order& to& turn& the& vision& of&sustainable& cities& into& action,& many& cities& around& the& world& have& addressed& the&objectives& in& municipal& laws& and& management& plans.& These& will,& in& turn,& create&future& jobs& in& new& fields& of& employment.& The& predictions& of& the& United& States&Department&of&Labor&(2014)&reflect& this& trend,&as&described& in&chapter&3.5& Income&and&Job&Outlook.&&7.2 The!Future!Labor!Market!in!Europe!&Many&European&cities&have&made&effort&to&concretize&the&declared&ICLEI&initiatives.&More& outreaching& actions& in& Europe&were& done& by& the& initiative& of& 15& foundation&cities& that&established&the&Green&Capital&City&Award& (European&Commission,&2014).&Publications&of&these&innovative&cities&are&valuable&resource&for&predicting&a&future&job& market.& Since& 2010,& 5& cities& have& received& awards& for& sustainable& concepts,&being& entitled& to&using& the& awarding&name& “green& capital”.& Twelve& experts& review&the&municipalities’& application&process.&There& are&6&disciplines& that& can&be& closely&associated& with& urban& forestry,& as& follows:& (1)& local& contribution& to& ameliorate&climate&change,&(2)&sustainable&land&use,&(3)&nature&and&biodiversity,&(4)&ambient&air&quality,& (5)&quality&of& the&acoustic& environment,& (6)&and& integrated&environmental&management.&These&disciplines&may&also&be&seen&as&fields&of&an&innovative&education&for&future&urban&foresters.&They&can&indicate&future&fields&of&employment—following&the& logic& that& today’s& initiatives&of& cities&will& be& the& responsibility& of& future&urban&forestry&practitioners.&&The&Danish&city&Copenhagen& (2014)&had&applied& for& the&green&city&award& in&2014&with& the& following& key@concepts& in& sustainability:& creating& parks& for& enhanced&accessibility& of& citizens& to& greenspaces,& planting& trees,& enhancing& the& quality& of&& & & & &55&urban& forests,& improving& the& design& of& green& space& for& an& enriched& recreational&value,&and&protection&and&enhancement&of&the&city’s&biodiversity.&An&intensive&public&participation,&engagement&and&education&of&Copenhagen’s&city&dwellers&are&part&of&the&cities’&concept.&&The& German& city& Hamburg& (2011)& received& the& award& three& years& earlier& for& a&concept& that& encompasses& an& improved& resource& management,& eco@partnerships&with&the&private&sector,&the&expansion&of&nature&reserves,&and&tree&planting&projects&by&strong&collaboration&with&authorities,&industries,&nongovernmental&organizations&and&citizens.&Another&example&of& sustainable&cities& is& the&German&city&Freiburg& im&Breisgau,&labeled&as&the&green&city&of&Germany.&The&municipality&has&an&urban&forest&share& of& 41%,& one& of& the& highest& values& in& Europe& (Palo& et& al.,& 2001).& The& city’s&approach& to& sustainability& encompasses& the& thoughtful& management& of& urban&forests,& green& spaces,& and&parks,&with& respect& to& amelioration&of& air& pollution& and&climate& change& and& soil& and& water& protection.& It& includes& concepts& for& people’s&increasing&demand&on& recreation&and&human&health.&Urban& forests&are&devoted&as&place& of& learning& and& education& for& tourists& and& the& local& population& (Salomon,&2011).&&7.3 The!Future!Labor!Market!in!North!America!&Similar& to& Europe,& North& American& cities& have& been& doing& effort& to& become&more&sustainably.& Elmendorf& et& al.& (2003)& asked& various& stakeholders& in& Pennsylvania&how& to& achieve& the& objective& of& a& sustainable& city.& The& respondents&mentioned& a&well@educated&governing&body,&professional&help,&dedicated&management&plans&and&an&intensive&participation&of&various&stakeholders.&Dwyer&et&al.&(2000)&mentioned&in&their&critique&about&US&cities&that&a&holistic&approach&to&sustainability&should&include&a& broad& participation& of& owners,&managers& and& users.& These& participants& need& to&know&the&effects&of&urban&forest&design&on&benefits&and&human&health.&&& & & & &56&The&7th&American&Forest&Congress&in&1996&asked&1009&participants&for&their&vision&of& a& future& forest:& 88%& percent& agreed,& that& the& future& forest& “will& sustainably&provide& a& range& of& goods,& services,& experiences,& and& values& that& contribute& to&community& wellbeing,& economic& opportunity,& social& and& personal& satisfaction,&spiritual&and&cultural& fulfillment,&and&recreational&enjoyment”&(Sample&et&al.,&2000,&pt.&Appendix&A).&Seventy@four&of&the&same&respondents&agreed&that&the&future&forest&“will&contribute&to&strong&and&vital&rural&and&urban&communities&that&benefit&from,&protect,&and&enhance&the&forests&in&their&vicinity”&(Sample&et&al.,&2000,&pt.&Appendix&A).&The& 9th& Canadian& National& Forest& Congress& resolved& in& 2003& the& following& key&objectives& for& a& nationwide& urban& forestry& vision:& advanced& planning,& ecosystem–based& urban& forest& management,& developing& tools& to& protect& urban& forests& and&watersheds& from& pollution,& engaging& the& public& and& youths& in& urban& forestry&programs,& and& developing& strategies& to& ensure& the& conservation& of& urban& forests&(Wassenaer& van,& 2003).& These& objectives& were& also& established& in& the& Canadian&National& Forest& Strategy& (2008a,& 2008b).& One& of& the& innovative& municipalities& in&North&America& is&Vancouver& (2014).& The&Canadian& city& released& an& action&plan& to&become&the&greenest&city&of&the&world&by&2020.&Its&announced&objectives&include&the&following& key@concepts:& (1)& A& reduction& in& greenhouse& gas& emissions—also& by&creating&deduced&urban&forest&management&plans;&(2)&Fewer&energy&consumption—also& by& planting& climate@ameliorating& trees;& (3)& Improved& transportation& with& a&higher& share& of& bicyclists& and& pedestrians—also& by& creating& greener& and& more&attractive&pathways;&(4)&Easier&access&to&green&space—also&by&creating&local&parks;&(5)&Cleaner&water—also&by&enhanced&watershed&management;&and&(6)&Cleaner&air—also&by&planting&trees.&Likewise&approaches&were&undertaken&by&the&city&of&Toronto.&This& municipality& has& declared& six& strategic& goals& to& be& achieved& by& 2022:& (1)&Increasing&the&canopy&cover&from&currently&28%&to&40%;&(2)&achieving&an&equitable&distribution&of&the&urban&forest;&(3)&increasing&biodiversity&to&improve&urban&forest&resiliency&and&respond&to&climate&change;&(4)& increasing&awareness&of& the&value&of&trees,&the&natural&environment&and&the&sensitivity&of&these&resources;&(5)&promoting&& & & & &57&stewardship& and& education& of& the& multiple& benefits& of& the& urban& forest;& (6)&improving& information&management&systems&and&enhance& the&ability& to& inventory,&monitor&and&analyze&the&urban&forest&(Toronto,&2012).&&7.4 Summary!&Innovative&cities&actions&were&reviewed&to&identify&trends&in&urban&green&space&and&urban&forest&management.&The&actions,&visions&and&objectives&of&cities&are&likely&to&be&urban&foresters’&future&responsibility.&The&cities’&efforts&for&getting&a&green&image&will&create&multiple&“green”&jobs&in&the&field&of&urban&forestry.&These&jobs&may&reflect&the& disciplines& declared& in& innovative& city& action& plans,& encompassing& a& holistic&approach& to& sustainability.& Policymaking,& resource& management,& city& climate,&biodiversity,&community&health&and&public&engagement&are&future&fields&that&urban&forestry& professionals& should& be& able& to& address.& Future& urban& foresters& need& to&have&knowledge,& skills&and&competencies& in& these& fields&and&need& to&have& the& “big&picture”&in&mind&when&working&in&and&on&the&green&environment&for&the&benefit&of&all.&& & & & &58&&Figure!10:!Cities'!actions!and!practitioners!future!responsibilities!Based&on&categories&from&ICLEI&2014,&European&Commission&2014,&City&of&Vancouver&2014&&& && & & & &59&8 Discussion!!&Insights& resulting& from&Part& I& (Education)&and&Part& II& (Labor&Market)&of& this& study&may& imply&how&higher&education& in&urban& forestry&should&be&designed& to&prepare&for&today’s&and&tomorrow’s& labor&market.& It& is&a&bone&of&contention&to&what&extent&university& education& should& reflect& the& desires& of& the& labor&market& in& contrast& to&occupational&training.&Miller&and&Lewis&(1999,&p.&38)& & indicated&that&the&discussion&about&this&question&is&as&old&as&forestry&education&itself:&“The&two&main&options&for&education—depth& in& technical& forestry& and& breadth& in& natural& resource&management—reflect& equally& old,& and& fundamentally& opposing,& views& of& forestry&and&the&profession’s&place&in&society”&&Tombaugh&(1998)& indicated&that& the&time&has&come&to&adapt& forestry&education&to&the& requirements& of& the& labor& market& by& learning& from& forestry& professionals.&Marshall&(2009,&p.&339)&asked&how&to&make&forestry&university&education&and&labor&market& dancing& partners?& “Both& groups& ought& to& have& useful& things& to& say& with&respect&to&the&direction&in&which&forestry&education&and&forestry&practice&need&to&go&in& the& future”.&Raggers& (2003)& and&Ball& (2004)&pointed& to& the&necessity& of& a& close&twinning&between&university&and&the&labor&market&to&face&the&future.&In&order&to&adapt&urban&forestry&education&to&the&current&and&future&labor&market,&Raggers&(2003)&saw&a&solution&in&describing&job&profiles.&These&job&profiles&could&be&translated&in&terms&of&related& job&competencies,&desired&and&required&by&the& labor&market&and&considered&when&creating&curricula.&However,&Connaughton&et&al.&(2014,&p.& 22)& stated& that& competency& is& only& one& consideration& for& employment:&“employers& favor& graduates& who& have& demonstrated& initiative,& intelligence,&perseverance,&imagination,&performance&and&maturity”&&& & & & &60&9 Conclusion!9.1 Application!of!this!Work!&Due&to&the&broad&scope&of&this&study&and&the&variety&of&educational&disciplines&and&an& even& more& diverse& job& market,& this& work& provides& an& overview.& The& profiled&skills& and& competencies& in& this& work& may& lack& competencies& that& are& needed& in&other& than& described& job& positions& in& the& urban& forestry& sector.& Profiled&competencies& can& only& be& as& good& as& profiled& jobs.& This& study& is& exemplary& and&descriptive.& Presented& results& are& not& entitled& to& have& statistical& significance.&Nevertheless,& no& study& has& been& done& similar& to& this& work.& The& field& forestry&education& is&a&rare&subject&to&research&and&extremely&rarely&with&respect&to&urban&forestry.& The& large& number& of& reviewed& resources& may& give& references& to&responsible& people,& who& are& aspiring& after& appropriate& urban& forestry& education.&Furthermore,&this&study&might&serve&as&basis&for&future&research&in&this&field.&&9.2 Future!Research!and!Development!&In& order& to& give& a& more& holistic& answer& to& the& question& of& what& skills& and&competencies&current&and&future&practitioners&in&urban&forestry&need&and&will&need,&further& research&needs& to&be&done.& Firstly,& redefining&urban& forestry& to&determine&boundaries&of&this&discipline&could&manage&to&concentrate&further&research&on&needs&of& targeted& jobs.&Conducting&a& survey&by&asking&employers&and&practitioners& from&various&fields&of&occupation&to&answer&specific&research&questions.&It&could&be&given&more&emphasis&to&skills&and&competencies&that&are&needed&not&only&by&employers&in&the&narrow&field&of&urban&forestry&but&also&in&related&disciplines.&This&survey&could&be& designed& following& McPherson’s& study& (1984),& which& appears& to& be& the& only&& & & & &61&existing& that& focused&on&skills&and&competencies& required& from& the&urban& forestry&labor&market.&Secondly,& competency& mapping& would& be& an& appropriate& methodology& to& ideally&reflect& the& needs& of& the& labor& market.& A& workshop& could& be& initiated& with&representatives&from&multiple&fields&of&urban&forestry.&The&only&study&that&used&this&methodology& in& my& field& of& research& was& Prittinen& (2003).& He& established& a&workshop& with& representatives& of& the& Finnish& city& of& Helsinki.& However,& Morier&(2013)& used& a& similar& approach& by& concentrating& on& the& forestry& (not& exclusively&urban& forestry)& labor&market& in& the&Swiss&State&of&Aargau.&Based&on&these&studies,&further&research&could&examine&carefully&the&globes’&cities&with&holistic&approaches&to&urban&forest&and&green&space&management&by&analyzing&their&workforce.&&&9.3 Closing!Remarks!&The&“undefined”&nature&of&urban&forestry&calls& for&further&profiling&occupation&and&education&on&a&global& scale.& Similar& to& the& recent& statement&of&Redelsheimer&et& al.&(2014)&who& called& for& redefining& forestry& as& scientific& discipline,&urban& forestry& as&own& discipline& needed& to& be& determined& and& established.& The& need& for& a& distinct&occupation&and&education&could&be&justified&by&pointing&to&the&lack&of&experts,&who&unify& the& existing& disciplines& natural& sciences,& engineering,& (landscape)& arts,&economics,& politics,& human& sciences,& and& sociology& with& respect& to& urban& green&environments.& This& complex& merging& of& various& disciplines& may& speak& for& the&superiority&of&generalists&and&for&broad&educated&urban&foresters&who&could&direct&specialists’&activities&and&their&contribution&to&a&green&urban&future.&&A&fast@paced&labor&market&and&a&wide@ranging&field&of&employment&in&urban&forestry&indicate& that& superordinate& competencies& seem& to& be& key& for& an& unknown& job&description& in& an& unknown& future.& Hence,& innovative& educators& in& urban& forestry&may& place& teamwork,& communication& skills,& multidisciplinarity,& decision@making&& & & & &62&and& the& ability& to& solve& problems& higher& than& subject&matter.& This& is& a& frequently&stated& opinion,& found& in& many& publications.& This& also& may& be& the& benchmark& for&higher&institutions&when&educating&the&urban&forester&of&the&21st&century.&&& && & & & 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&Kruger,&L.&E.&(2010).&Urban&forestry&research&needs:&a&participatory&assessment&process.&Journal&of&Forestry,&(February),&39–44.&Retrieved&from&http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/saf/jof/2010/00000108/00000001/art00009&World&Bank.&(2014).&Urban&development.&Retrieved&February&01,&2014,&from&http://data.worldbank.org/topic/urban@development&Yadong,&Q.,& &Zhiqiang,&Z.&(2003).&Introduction&to&Urban&and&Community&Forestry&in&the&United&States&of&America:&History,&Accomplishments,&Issues&and&Trends.&Retrieved&from&http://d.wanfangdata.com.cn/periodical_zglx@e200304010.aspx&Zingerli,&C.,&Bisang,&K.,& &Zimmermann,&W.&(2004).&[National&forestry&programs:&context,&requirements&and&the&example&“forest&program&Switzerland”.]&(In&German)&(No.&32).&Zuerich.&&& & & & &77&&Appendices!!Appendix—A:!List!of!Urban!Forestry!Organizations!& &&&&&&&&&&&&Sources:&(Alliance&for&Community&Trees,&2014;&Arbor&Day&Foundation,&2013;&Duinker&et&al.,&2014;&EFI,&2014;&European&Commission,&2014;&FAO,&2014;&ICLEI,&2014;&International&Society&of&Arboriculture,&2014a,&2014b;& IUFRO,& 2014;& NUFU,& 2014;& RUAF& Foundation,& 2014;& SAF,& 2014;& TCIA,& 2014;& Tree& Canada&Foundation,&2014;&U.S.&Department&of&Agriculture&Urban&and&Community&Forestr,&2014;&UCLG,&2014;&USDA&Forest&Service,&2014)&& &ACTrees.(Alliance(for(Community(Trees(Arbor(Day(Foundation(Canadian(Urban(Forest(Network(Canadian(Urban(Forest(Research(Group(European(Forest(Institute(European(Green(Capital(Food(and(Agriculture(Organization(of(the(United(Nations(ICLEI(International(Council(For(Local(Environmental(Initiatives(International(Society(of(Arboriculture((ISA)(International(Union(of(Forest(Research(Organizations((IUFRO)(National(Urban(Forestry(Unit(PennDel(Chapter(RUAF(Foundation.(Resource(Centers(on(Urban(Agriculture(&(Food(Security(Society(of(American(Foresters.(Urban(Forestry(The(Global(Network(of(Cities,(Local(and(Regional(Governments(Tree(Canada(Tree(Care(Industry(Association(U.S.(Department(of(Agriculture(Urban(and(Community(Forestry(Urban(Forestry(South(& & & & &78&&Appendix—B:!List!of!Job!Titles!!&Account(Manager( Landscape(Designer(Administrative(Secretary(Fire( Landscape(Planner(Amenity(Horticulturist( Law(Enforcement(Beautification(Specialist( Manager(Community(Based(Climate(Adaption(Business(Developer( Manager(Design(&(Construction(Services(Cemetery(Administrator( Manager(Distribution(Forestry(Center(Manager( Manager(Landscape(Maintenance(Chief(Financial(Officer( Manager(Park(Services(City(Arborist( Manager(Policy(and(Planning(City(Forester( Manager(Public(Relations(Commissioner(of(Shade(Trees( Manager(Urban(and(City(development(Communications(Coordinator( Manager(Urban(City(development(Community(Action(Forester( Municipal(Arborist/(Forester(Community(College(Instructor( Natural(Resource(Specialist(Community(Development(Coordinator( Neighborhood(trees(specialist(Community(Partnerships(director( NGO(Coordinator(Community(Planner( Outreach(Coordinator(Conservation(Manager( Parks(and(Landscape(Planner(Convener( Parks((operation)(Manager(Crew(Leader(in(Arboriculture( Plant(Buyer(Deputy(director( Principal(Development(Manager(in(Streets(and(Parks( Professor(of(Landscape(Architecture(Director(of(Communications( Program(Leader(for(Urban(Research(Director(of(Park(Management(and(Maintenance( Program(Manager(Director(of(Street(Tree(Planting( Project(Coordinator(Green(Cities(Educator( Public(Management(Environmental(Attorney( Recreation(Land(Manager(Environmental(Politician( Researcher(Equipment(and(Manufacturing(Sales( Restoration(Ecologist(Executive(Commercial(Tree(Care( Rural(Sociologist(Field(Coordinator( Supervisor(of(Park(Resources(Forest(Service(Liaison(Officer( Supervisor(of(Horticulture(Forestry(Superintendent( Sustainable(Habitat(Manager(Green(Space(Manager( Tree(Care(Salesperson(Horticulturist( Urban(Ecologist(Information’s(manager( Urban(Forester(& & & & &79&Innovation(director( Urban(Forestry(Consultant(Journalist( Urban(Forestry(Program(Analyst(Land(Management(Forester( Urban(Forestry(Supervisor(Land(Use(Planner( Urban(Planner(Landscape(Manager( Utility(Arborist(Landscape(Architect( Utility(Forestry(Manager(Landscape(Crew(Leader( Volunteer(Coordinator(( (&Sources:&(Arbor& Day& Foundation,& 2013;& Blackwell,& 2011;& Georgia& Tech,& 2014;& International& Society& of&Arboriculture,&2014a;&Konijnendijk,&2005;&Kuhns&et&al.,&2002;&Ohio&State&University,&2014;&PennState&University,&2014;&Purdue&University,&2014;&Randrup&et&al.,&2001;&Sievert&et&al.,&1982;&Stadt&Freiburg&im&Breisgau,&2014;&University&of&California–Berkeley,&2014;&University&of&Illinois,&2014;&University&of&Maryland,&2014;&University&of&Michigan&State,&2014;&University&of&Toronto,&2014;&University&of&Yale,&2014;&Vreese&de&et&al.,&2004)&&&

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