Open Collections

UBC Graduate Research

Why manage when you can govern? : metadata in the Canadian legal system Rowe, Joy 2013

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
42591-Rowe_Joy_Metadata_in_Canadian_2013.pdf [ 40.83MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 42591-1.0075797.json
JSON-LD: 42591-1.0075797-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 42591-1.0075797-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 42591-1.0075797-rdf.json
Turtle: 42591-1.0075797-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 42591-1.0075797-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 42591-1.0075797-source.json
Full Text
42591-1.0075797-fulltext.txt
Citation
42591-1.0075797.ris

Full Text

Informa?on	 ?Governance	 ?A	 ?comprehensive	 ?program	 ?of	 ?controls,	 ?processes,	 ?and	 ?technologies	 ?designed	 ?to	 ?help	 ?organiza?ons	 ?maximize	 ?the	 ?value	 ?of	 ?informa?on	 ?assets	 ?while	 ?minimizing	 ?associated	 ?risks	 ?and	 ?costs.	 ?Includes:	 ???All	 ?informa?on	 ?types	 ?-??	 ?structured	 ?and	 ?unstructured	 ?content	 ???Highest-??level	 ?descrip?on	 ?for	 ?your	 ?informa?on	 ?management	 ?ac?vi?es	 ???Information governance is the specification of decision rights and an accountability framework to encourage desirable behavior in the valuation, creation, storage, use, archival and deletion of information. It includes the processes, roles, standards and metrics that ensure the effective and efficient use of information in enabling an organization to achieve its goals Metadata	 ?as	 ?digital	 ?evidence	 ?Metadata	 ?are	 ?part	 ?of	 ?business	 ?records.	 ?Metadata	 ? like	 ?classifica?on	 ?codes	 ?or	 ? func?onal	 ? categories	 ? capture	 ? crucial	 ? elements,	 ? linking	 ? one	 ? record	 ? to	 ?another.	 ? Digital	 ? records	 ? require	 ? their	 ? accompanying	 ? metadata	 ? to	 ? prove	 ?admissibility	 ?criteria	 ?such	 ?as	 ?authen?city	 ?and	 ?reliability.	 ?	 ??? This	 ?type	 ?of	 ?metadata	 ?is	 ?substan?ve	 ?or	 ?embedded	 ?metadata.	 ??? Reflects	 ?human	 ?statements	 ?or	 ?human	 ?inten?ons.	 ?	 ??? Considered	 ?documentary	 ?evidence	 ?in	 ?a	 ?court	 ?of	 ?law.	 ?	 ?Your	 ? informa?on	 ? assets	 ? also	 ? include	 ? automa?cally	 ? generated	 ? metadata	 ?where	 ?no	 ?human	 ?statements	 ?are	 ?made.	 ?	 ??? This	 ?type	 ?of	 ?metadata	 ?is	 ?system	 ?or	 ?substan?ve	 ?metadata.	 ??? Automa?cally	 ? generated	 ? metadata	 ? =	 ? no	 ? human	 ? statements	 ? =	 ? not	 ?documentary	 ?evidence.	 ?	 ??? Considered	 ?real	 ?evidence	 ?in	 ?a	 ?court	 ?of	 ?law.	 ?	 ?	 ?System	 ? metadata	 ? must	 ? also	 ? be	 ? effec?vely	 ? managed	 ? as	 ? poten?al	 ? digital	 ?evidence.	 ?What	 ?is	 ?metadata?	 ?Definition.	 ?	 ?Metadata	 ?is	 ?discoverable.	 ?It	 ?is	 ??data	 ?and	 ?information	 ?in	 ?electronic	 ?form?	 ?and	 ?is	 ?considered	 ?a	 ??document?	 ?for	 ?discovery	 ?purposes.Types	 ?of	 ?metadata	 ?There	 ?are	 ?three	 ?main	 ?types	 ?of	 ?metadata,	 ?and	 ?they	 ?are	 ?created	 ?with	 ?varying	 ?levels	 ?of	 ?human	 ?input.	 ??? system	 ?metadata	 ??? substan?ve	 ?or	 ?applica?on	 ?metadata	 ??? embedded	 ?metadata	 ?evidence	 ?evidence,	 ?and	 ?they	 ?[?vary	 ?by	 ?the	 ?level	 ?of	 ?exp ana?on	 ?they	 ?require	 ???].	 ?real	 ?evidence:	 ?Trier	 ?of	 ?fact	 ?can	 ?use	 ?their	 ?own	 ?senses	 ?and	 ?reasoning	 ?to	 ?understand	 ?real	 ?evidence	 ?documentary	 ?evidence:	 ?a	 ?recording	 ?of	 ?an	 ?out-??of-??court	 ?statement	 ?of	 ?fact	 ?made	 ?by	 ?a	 ?person	 ?who	 ?is	 ?not	 ?called	 ?as	 ?a	 ?witness,	 ?and	 ?tendered	 ?for	 ?the	 ?truth	 ?of	 ?the	 ?statement	 ?it	 ?contains	 ?demonstra?v 	 ?evidence:	 ?not	 ?strictly	 ?materials	 ?to	 ?the	 ?case	 ?but	 ?can	 ?help	 ?trier	 ?of	 ?fact	 ?to	 ?interpret	 ?material	 ?facts	 ?Informa?on	 ?Gov rnance:	 ?	 ?fram work	 ?for	 ?all	 ?digital	 ? vidence	 ?Metadata	 ?can	 ?be	 ?both	 ?real	 ?and	 ?documentary	 ?evidence.	 ?	 ?In	 ?the	 ?digital	 ?realm,	 ?metadata	 ?may	 ?be	 ?a	 ?document	 ?itself,	 ?a	 ?fact	 ?itself,	 ?or	 ?a	 ?component	 ?of	 ?a	 ?digital	 ?record.	 ?	 ?	 ?Records	 ?managers	 ?who	 ?occupy	 ?themselves	 ?with	 ?metadata	 ?only	 ?	 ?as	 ?a	 ?component	 ?of	 ?a	 ?record	 ?create	 ?an	 ?ar?ficial	 ?divide	 ?that	 ?does	 ?not	 ?exist	 ?in	 ?the	 ?digital	 ?world,	 ?nor	 ?in	 ?the	 ?legal	 ?treatment	 ?of	 ?digital	 ?evidence.	 ?	 ?To	 ?properly	 ?manage	 ?metadata	 ?as	 ?poten?al	 ?evidence,	 ?consider	 ?a	 ?wider	 ?framework	 ?like	 ?informa?on	 ?governance.	 ?Different	 ?metadata,	 ?different	 ?poten?al	 ?legal	 ?evidence	 ??The	 ?informa?on	 ?being	 ?sought	 ?does	 ?not	 ?fit	 ?the	 ?ordinary	 ?or	 ?intui?ve	 ?concept	 ?of	 ?a	 ?document,	 ?electronic	 ?or	 ?otherwise.	 ?	 ?What	 ?is	 ?being	 ?sought	 ?by	 ?the	 ?defendants	 ?is	 ?a	 ?report	 ?of	 ?recorded	 ?data	 ?(i.e.,	 ?the	 ?metadata)	 ?that	 ?is	 ?generated	 ?by	 ?computer	 ?so?ware.	 ?	 ?That	 ?data	 ?is	 ?not	 ?something	 ?created	 ?by	 ?the	 ?user,	 ?but	 ?it	 ?is	 ?based	 ?on	 ?what	 ?the	 ?user	 ?does	 ?with	 ?her	 ?so?ware.	 ??	 ?[I]t	 ?appears	 ?clear	 ?that	 ?the	 ?metadata	 ?is	 ??informa?on	 ?recorded	 ?or	 ?stored	 ?by	 ?means	 ?of	 ?[a]	 ?device?	 ?and	 ?is	 ?therefore	 ?a	 ?document	 ?under	 ?Rule	 ?1(8).?	 ?[now	 ?Rule	 ?1-??1(1).]	 ?Desgagne	 ?v.	 ?Yuen,	 ?2006	 ?	 ?[I]t	 ?seems	 ?to	 ?me	 ?that	 ?metadata	 ?is	 ??data	 ?and	 ?informa?on	 ?in	 ?electronic	 ?form?.	 ?	 ?Hummingbird	 ?has	 ?determined	 ?that	 ?certain	 ?of	 ?the	 ?documents	 ?located	 ?on	 ?the	 ?hard	 ?drive	 ?and	 ?certain	 ?of	 ?the	 ?metadata	 ?was	 ?relevant.	 ?	 ?In	 ?my	 ?view,	 ?once	 ?Hummingbird	 ?has	 ?determined	 ?that	 ?a	 ?par?cular	 ?document	 ?is	 ?relevant,	 ?the	 ?metadata	 ?in	 ?rela?on	 ?to	 ?such	 ?document	 ?should	 ?be	 ?produced.	 ?	 ?In	 ?my	 ?view,	 ?the	 ?metadata	 ?is	 ?akin	 ?to	 ?a	 ???me/date	 ?stamp?	 ?affixed	 ?to	 ?a	 ?le?er	 ?or	 ?the	 ??fax	 ?header?	 ?that	 ?indicated	 ?the	 ??me/date	 ?of	 ?faxing	 ?and	 ?receipt.	 ?	 ?Hummingbird	 ?v.	 ?Mustafa,	 ?2007	 ?Superior	 ?Court	 ?of	 ?Jus?ce	 ??	 ?Ontario	 ?	 ?Electronic	 ?informa?on	 ?may	 ?be	 ?considered	 ?either	 ?real	 ?or	 ?documentary	 ?evidence.	 ??	 ?if	 ?electronic	 ?informa?on	 ?does	 ?not	 ?meet	 ?the	 ?criteria	 ?for	 ?admission	 ?as	 ?real	 ?evidence,	 ?it	 ?may	 ?s?ll	 ?be	 ?admi?ed	 ?if	 ?it	 ?sa?sfies	 ?the	 ?requirements	 ?for	 ?admission	 ?of	 ?documentary	 ?evidence.	 ?	 ?It	 ?is	 ?possible	 ?that	 ?a	 ?given	 ?item	 ?of	 ?electronic	 ?informa?on	 ?may	 ?have	 ?aspects	 ?of	 ?both	 ?real	 ?and	 ?documentary	 ?evidence.	 ?	 ?For	 ?example,	 ?an	 ?e-??mail	 ?...will	 ?include	 ??	 ?data	 ?iden?fying	 ?the	 ?computer	 ?on	 ?which	 ?it	 ?was	 ?created	 ?and	 ?when	 ?it	 ?was	 ?sent.	 ?	 ?That	 ?informa?on	 ?is	 ?added	 ?automa?cally	 ?by	 ?the	 ?computer	 ?so?ware	 ?and	 ?would	 ?likely	 ?cons?tute	 ?real	 ?evidence.	 ?	 ?If	 ?the	 ?content	 ?of	 ?the	 ?e-??mail	 ?is	 ?being	 ?introduced	 ?for	 ?its	 ?truth,	 ?it	 ?would	 ?be	 ?considered	 ?a	 ?document	 ?and	 ?subject	 ?to	 ?admissibility	 ?as	 ?such.	 ?	 ?Saturley	 ?v.	 ?CIBC	 ?World	 ?Markets	 ?Inc.,	 ?2012	 ?Supreme	 ?Court	 ?of	 ?Nova	 ?Sco?a	 ?Metadata	 ?are	 ?part	 ?of	 ?a	 ?business	 ?record.	 ?Metadata	 ?like	 ?a	 ?classifica?on	 ?code	 ?or	 ?func?onal	 ?category	 ?captures	 ?crucial	 ?elements,	 ?linking	 ?one	 ?record	 ?to	 ?another.	 ?This	 ?type	 ?of	 ?metadata	 ?is	 ?substan?ve	 ?or	 ?embedded	 ?metadata.	 ?It	 ?reflects	 ?human	 ?statements	 ?or	 ?human	 ?inten?ons	 ?and	 ?is	 ?considered	 ?documentary	 ?evidence	 ?in	 ?a	 ?court	 ?of	 ?law.	 ?	 ?But	 ?courts	 ?do	 ?not	 ?ignore	 ?other	 ?types	 ?of	 ?metadata	 ?and,	 ?therefore,	 ?you	 ?must	 ?not	 ?either.	 ?	 ?Your	 ?informa?onal	 ?assets	 ?include	 ?system	 ?metadata	 ?and	 ?substan?ve/applica?on	 ?metadata	 ?where	 ?no	 ?human	 ?statements	 ?are	 ?made.	 ?No	 ?human	 ?statements	 ?=	 ?not	 ?documentary	 ?evidence.	 ?	 ?But,	 ?it	 ?can	 ?s?ll	 ?be	 ?real	 ?evidence.	 ?	 ?Informa?on	 ?Governance	 ?Informa?on	 ?governance	 ?is	 ?built	 ?on	 ?records	 ?management	 ?components	 ?but	 ?goes	 ?beyond	 ?reten?on	 ?and	 ?disposi?on	 ?of	 ?records	 ?to	 ?consider	 ?how	 ?data	 ?is	 ?held	 ?and	 ?controlled	 ?for	 ?e-??discovery	 ?and	 ?compliance.	 ?	 ?	 ?Includes:	 ??? All	 ? informa?on	 ?types	 ??	 ?structured,	 ?semi-??structured,	 ? 	 ?and	 ?unstructured	 ?content	 ??? Highest-??level	 ?descrip?on	 ?for	 ?your	 ?informa?on	 ?management	 ?ac?vi?es	 ?Metadata	 ?and	 ?the	 ?evidence	 ?it	 ?generates	 ??The	 ?informa?on	 ?being	 ?sought	 ?does	 ?not	 ?fit	 ?the	 ?ordinary	 ?or	 ?intui?ve	 ?concept	 ?of	 ?a	 ?document,	 ?electronic	 ?or	 ?otherwise.	 ?	 ?What	 ?is	 ?being	 ?sought	 ?by	 ?the	 ?defendants	 ?is	 ?a	 ?report	 ?of	 ?recorded	 ?data	 ?(i.e.,	 ?the	 ?metadata)	 ?that	 ?is	 ?generated	 ?by	 ?computer	 ?so?ware.	 ?	 ?That	 ?data	 ?is	 ?not	 ?something	 ?created	 ?by	 ?the	 ?user,	 ?but	 ?it	 ?is	 ?based	 ?on	 ?what	 ?the	 ?user	 ?does	 ?with	 ?her	 ?so?ware.	 ??	 ?Desgagne	 ?v.	 ?Yuen,	 ?2006	 ?	 ?Admissibility	 ?Proper	 ?characteriza?on	 ?of	 ?ESI	 ?determines	 ?how	 ?rules	 ?of	 ?evidence	 ?will	 ?be	 ?applied	 ?to	 ?determine	 ?admissibility	 ?	 ?All	 ?ESI	 ?Authen?city	 ?Threshold	 ?reliability	 ?	 ?Best	 ?evidence	 ?rule	 ??	 ?proof	 ?of	 ?integrity	 ?of	 ?the	 ?system	 ?	 ?Documentary	 ?Hearsay	 ?excep?on	 ?	 ?From	 ?these	 ?decisions	 ?a	 ?principle	 ?can	 ?be	 ?distilled.	 ?	 ?Where	 ?evidence	 ?is	 ?automatically	 ?recorded	 ?by	 ?any	 ?means,	 ?other	 ?than	 ?by	 ?human	 ?labour,	 ?and	 ?the	 ?evidence	 ?so	 ?recorded	 ?can	 ?be	 ?reproduced	 ?in	 ?any	 ?form,	 ?intelligible	 ?to	 ?the	 ?human	 ?mind,	 ?the	 ?reproduction	 ?is	 ?admissible	 ?as	 ?real	 ?evidence.	 ?	 ?The	 ?recording	 ?may	 ?be	 ?mechanical,	 ?chemical,	 ?electronic,	 ?photographic,	 ?or	 ?auditory,	 ?to	 ?name	 ?a	 ?few	 ?examples?	 ?.	 ?R.	 ?v.	 ?McCulloch,	 ?1992ADMISSION	 ?OF	 ?ELECTRONIC	 ?EVIDENCE	 ?[11]	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?Electronic	 ?informa?on	 ?may	 ?be	 ?considered	 ?either	 ?real	 ?or	 ?documentary	 ?evidence.	 ?If	 ?it	 ?is	 ?real	 ?evidence,	 ?it	 ?simply	 ?needs	 ?to	 ?be	 ?authen?cated	 ?and	 ?the	 ?trier	 ?of	 ?fact	 ?will	 ?then	 ?draw	 ?their	 ?own	 ?inferences	 ?from	 ?it.	 ?[13]	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?If	 ?electronic	 ?informa?on	 ?is	 ?determined	 ?to	 ?be	 ?real	 ?evidence,	 ?the	 ?eviden?ary	 ?rules	 ?rela?ng	 ?to	 ?documents,	 ?such	 ?as	 ?the	 ?best	 ?evidence	 ?and	 ?hearsay	 ?rules,	 ?will	 ?not	 ?be	 ?applicable.	 ?	 ?	 ?[28]	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?if	 ?electronic	 ?informa?on	 ?does	 ?not	 ?meet	 ?the	 ?criteria	 ?for	 ?admission	 ?as	 ?real	 ?evidence,	 ?it	 ?may	 ?s?ll	 ?be	 ?admi?ed	 ?if	 ?it	 ?sa?sfies	 ?the	 ?requirements	 ?for	 ?admission	 ?of	 ?documentary	 ?evidence.	 ?	 ?It	 ?is	 ?possible	 ?that	 ?a	 ?given	 ?item	 ?of	 ?electronic	 ?informa?on	 ?may	 ?have	 ?aspects	 ?of	 ?both	 ?real	 ?and	 ?documentary	 ?evidence.	 ?	 ?For	 ?example,	 ?an	 ?e-??mail	 ?...will	 ?include	 ??	 ?data	 ?iden?fying	 ?the	 ?computer	 ?on	 ?which	 ?it	 ?was	 ?created	 ?and	 ?when	 ?it	 ?was	 ?sent.	 ?	 ?That	 ?informa?on	 ?is	 ?added	 ?automa?cally	 ?by	 ?the	 ?computer	 ?so?ware	 ?and	 ?would	 ?likely	 ?cons?tute	 ?real	 ?evidence.	 ?	 ?If	 ?the	 ?content	 ?of	 ?the	 ?e-??mail	 ?is	 ?being	 ?introduced	 ?for	 ?its	 ?truth,	 ?it	 ?would	 ?be	 ?considered	 ?a	 ?document	 ?and	 ?subject	 ?to	 ?admissibility	 ?as	 ?such.	 ?Saturley	 ?v.	 ?CIBC	 ?World	 ?Markets	 ?Inc.,	 ?2012	 ?System	 ?metadata	 ?Automa?c	 ?capture	 ?of	 ?data	 ?from	 ?the	 ?system	 ?that	 ?created	 ?the	 ?electronic	 ?e.g.	 ?Date	 ?Last	 ?Modified	 ?No	 ?human	 ?statements	 ?Does	 ?not	 ?record	 ?any	 ?out-??of-??court	 ?statements	 ?made	 ?by	 ?human	 ?declarants	 ?Real	 ?evidence	 ?Embedded	 ?metadata	 ?Informa?on	 ?placed	 ?into	 ?a	 ?na?ve	 ?file	 ?by	 ?user	 ?e.g.	 ?Spreadsheet	 ?formula	 ?Rarely	 ?automa?cally	 ?generated	 ?Tends	 ?to	 ?be	 ?admi?ed	 ?to	 ?prove	 ?the	 ?truth	 ?of	 ?the	 ?content	 ?of	 ?the	 ?document	 ?Documentary	 ?evidence	 ?Recent	 ?Case	 ?Law	 ?Metadata	 ?as	 ?digital	 ?evidence	 ?Metadata	 ?are	 ?part	 ?of	 ?your	 ?digital	 ?business	 ?records.	 ?	 ?Common	 ?reasons	 ?to	 ?create	 ?and	 ?maintain	 ?a	 ?records	 ?management	 ?program	 ?include:	 ??? Speed	 ?legal	 ?discovery	 ?requests,	 ?and	 ??? Protect	 ?against	 ?spolia?on	 ?from	 ?tampering	 ?with	 ?or	 ?destroying	 ?records	 ?during	 ?a	 ?legal	 ?proceeding.	 ?Records	 ?that	 ?are	 ??created	 ?during	 ?the	 ?normal	 ?course	 ?of	 ?business	 ?ac?vi?es?	 ?may	 ?be	 ?entered	 ?as	 ?documentary	 ?evidence	 ?in	 ?a	 ?legal	 ?proceeding,	 ?and	 ?digital	 ?records	 ?require	 ?their	 ?accompanying	 ?metadata	 ?to	 ?prove	 ?admissibility	 ?criteria	 ?such	 ?as	 ?authen?city	 ?and	 ?reliability;	 ?however,	 ?digital	 ?records	 ?are	 ?not	 ?the	 ?only	 ?type	 ?of	 ?digital	 ?evidence	 ?that	 ?must	 ?be	 ?managed	 ?as	 ?poten?al	 ?evidence.	 ?A	 ?framework	 ?for	 ?all	 ?digital	 ?evidence	 ?Metadata	 ?can	 ?be	 ?both	 ?real	 ?and	 ?documentary	 ?evidence.	 ?	 ?In	 ?the	 ?digital	 ?realm,	 ?metadata	 ?may	 ?be	 ?a	 ?document	 ?itself,	 ?a	 ?fact	 ?itself,	 ?or	 ?a	 ?component	 ?of	 ?a	 ?digital	 ?record.	 ?	 ?	 ?Records	 ? managers	 ? who	 ? occupy	 ? themselves	 ? with	 ? metadata	 ? only	 ? as	 ? a	 ?component	 ?of	 ?a	 ?record	 ?create	 ?an	 ?ar?ficial	 ?divide	 ?that	 ?does	 ?not	 ?exist	 ?in	 ?the	 ?digital	 ?world,	 ?nor	 ?in	 ?the	 ?legal	 ?treatment	 ?of	 ?digital	 ?evidence.	 ?	 ?If	 ? the	 ? ability	 ? to	 ? produce	 ? digital	 ? informa?on	 ? during	 ? li?ga?on	 ? is	 ? a	 ? goal	 ? of	 ?your	 ? program,	 ? consider	 ? informa?on	 ?governance	 ? as	 ? a	 ?means	 ? to	 ? "govern"	 ?your	 ?organiza?on's	 ?poten?al	 ?digital	 ?evidence.	 ?Why	 ?Manage	 ?when	 ?you	 ?can	 ?Govern?	 ?Metadata	 ?in	 ?the	 ?Canadian	 ?legal	 ?system	 ?Joy	 ?Rowe,	 ?Master	 ?of	 ?Archival	 ?Studies	 ?	 ?Introduced	 ?for	 ?the	 ?truth	 ?of	 ?its	 ?content	 ?Documentary	 ?evidence	 ?Substan?ve	 ?metadata	 ?Generated	 ?by	 ?the	 ?applica?on	 ?so?ware,	 ?it	 ?captures	 ?the	 ?crea?on	 ?and	 ?edi?ng	 ?history	 ?of	 ?the	 ?electronic	 ?document	 ?e.g.	 ?Date	 ?Last	 ?Modified	 ?Automa?cally	 ?captured	 ?Introduced	 ?to	 ?prove	 ?text	 ?in	 ?ques?on	 ?has	 ?included	 ?in	 ?the	 ?document	 ?Real	 ?evidence	 ?Types	 ?of	 ?metadata	 ?Metadata	 ?examples	 ?Court	 ?considera?ns	 ?Types	 ?of	 ?evidence	 ?System	 ?	 ?Automa?c	 ?capture	 ?of	 ?data	 ?from	 ?the	 ?system	 ?that	 ?created	 ?the	 ?electronic	 ?	 ?e.g.	 ?Date	 ?Last	 ?Modified	 ??? No	 ?human	 ?statements	 ??? Does	 ?not	 ?record	 ?any	 ?out-??of-??court	 ?statements	 ?made	 ?by	 ?human	 ?declarants	 ?Real	 ?Speaks	 ?for	 ?itself	 ?and	 ?requires	 ?no	 ?explana?on.	 ?Judge	 ?can	 ?use	 ?own	 ?reasoning	 ?to	 ?understand	 ?the	 ?evidence.	 ?Substan?ve	 ?	 ?Generated	 ?by	 ?the	 ?applica?on	 ?so?ware,	 ?it	 ?captures	 ?the	 ?crea?on	 ?and	 ?edi?ng	 ?history	 ?of	 ?the	 ?electronic	 ?document	 ?e.g.	 ?Prior	 ?edits	 ?	 ?or	 ?editorial	 ?comments	 ??? Automa?cally	 ?captured	 ??? Introduced	 ?to	 ?prove	 ?text	 ?in	 ?ques?on	 ?has	 ?included	 ?in	 ?the	 ?document	 ?	 ?OR	 ?Real	 ?	 ?Documentary	 ?An	 ?out-??of-??court	 ?statement	 ?of	 ?fact	 ?and	 ?is	 ?tendered	 ?for	 ?the	 ?truth	 ?of	 ?the	 ?statement	 ?it	 ?contains.	 ??? Introduced	 ?for	 ?the	 ?truth	 ?of	 ?its	 ?content	 ?Embedded	 ?Informa?on	 ?placed	 ?into	 ?a	 ?na?ve	 ?file	 ?by	 ?user	 ?e.g.	 ?Spreadsheet	 ?formula	 ??? Rarely	 ?automa?cally	 ?generated	 ??? Tends	 ?to	 ?be	 ?admi?ed	 ?to	 ?prove	 ?the	 ?truth	 ?of	 ?the	 ?content	 ?of	 ?the	 ?document	 ?Documentary	 ?Intro	 ?Subhead	 ?Common	 ?reasons	 ?to	 ?create	 ?and	 ?maintain	 ?a	 ?records	 ?management	 ?program	 ?include:	 ??? Speed	 ?legal	 ?discovery	 ?requests,	 ?and	 ??? Protect	 ?against	 ?spolia?on	 ?from	 ?tampering	 ?with	 ?or	 ?destroying	 ?records	 ?during	 ?a	 ?legal	 ?proceeding.	 ?Records	 ?that	 ?are	 ??created	 ?during	 ?the	 ?normal	 ?course	 ?of	 ?business	 ?ac?vi?es?	 ?may	 ?be	 ?entered	 ?as	 ?documentary	 ?evidence	 ?in	 ?a	 ?legal	 ?proceeding,	 ?and	 ?digital	 ?records	 ?require	 ?their	 ?accompanying	 ?metadata	 ?to	 ?prove	 ?admissibility	 ?criteria	 ?such	 ?as	 ?authen?city	 ?and	 ?reliability;	 ?however,	 ?digital	 ?records	 ?are	 ?not	 ?the	 ?only	 ?type	 ?of	 ?digital	 ?evidence	 ?that	 ?must	 ?be	 ?managed	 ?as	 ?poten?al	 ?evidence.	 ?

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.42591.1-0075797/manifest

Comment

Related Items