UBC Graduate Research

Digitally archiving Hula-related objects Ishida, Mayu 2013

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LIBR%597%Reflective%Journal!Digitally(Archiving(Hula"Related'Objects'!Mayu%Ishida%MLIS%student,%University%of%British%Columbia%%LIBR%597:%Research%Collaboration%2012>2013%Winter%Term%2%Dr.%Lisa%Nathan%and%Dr.%Candace%Kaleimamoowahinekapu%Galla%M.%Ishida%Overview'To%investigate%concrete%challenges%of%digitally%archiving%and%preserving%Indigenous%knowledge,%I%attempted%to%archive%digital%materials%related%to%a%Hula%work%?Lei%Nani?,%which%I%previously%performed%with%two%other%students%at%a%public%event.%This%event%was%part%of%a%graduate%course%LLED%565D%Living%Our%Indigenous%Languages%through%Performative%Arts.%In%this%digital%archiving%exercise,%I%explored%which%pieces%of%content%and%contextual%information%should%be%considered%and%curated%for%long>term%preservation%and%perpetuation%of%Indigenous%knowledge%such%as%the%Hawaiian%performative%art%of%Hula.%A%reflective%journal%was%kept%throughout%to%document%challenges%encountered%in%the%exercise,%and%the%challenges%were%analyzed%to%help%refine%a%workflow%for%digital%preservation%and%perpetuation%of%Indigenous%knowledge.%%Background'and'motivation'This%digital%archiving%exercise%was%based%on%my%coursework%for%LLED%565D.%The%course%was%taught%by%Dr.%Candace%Kaleimamoowahinekapu%Galla,%an%assistant%professor%in%the%Department%of%Language%Literacy%and%Education%at%the%University%of%British%Columbia.%As%a%native%Hawaiian%and%Hula%practitioner,%Dr.%Galla%taught%the%Hawaiian%language%through%the%Hawaiian%cultural%practice%of%Hula.%We%students%learned%the%Hawaiian%language%by%learning%Hawaiian%songs,%chants,%and%dances.%We%also%translated%and%interpreted%words%in%the%songs%and%chants,%and%researched%the%historical%backgrounds%of%Hula%works%we%were%assigned%to%perform%at%a%public%event%as%the%conclusion%of%the%course.%The%course%was%a%chance%for%me%to%experience%the%Indigenous%art%as%an%effective%means%to%perpetuate%the%Indigenous%language%and%knowledge.%%During%the%course,%we%created%several%digital%objects%as%we%prepared%and%performed%Hula%works.%? Documents%through%translation,%choreographic%instruction,%and%background%research%activities%? Video%recording%of%Hula%dance%at%the%public%event%These%objects%may%not%have%much%significance%outside%my%coursework.%However,%because%many%facets%of%the%Hawaiian%language%and%knowledge%are%embedded%in%Hula,%such%digital%objects%of%Hula%works%by%masters%could%be%a%means%to%revitalize%and%perpetuate%the%Hawaiian%language%as%well%as%to%safeguard%the%cultural%heritage%of%Hula.%%Workflow'The%digital%archiving%exercise%consisted%of%the%following%components:%1. Identified%and%analyzed%the%policies%of%a%potential%depository%for%the%outcome%of%the%exercise:%UBC%institutional%repository%cIRcle%%M.%Ishida%2. Identified%copyright%issues%surrounding%the%use%of%digital%materials%in%this%exercise%as%well%as%a%process%for%addressing%the%copyright%issues%3. Collected%and%processed%the%digital%objects%and%written%forms%for%copyright%permissions%regarding%Hula%work%?Lei%Nani?%4. Archived%the%content%and%contextual%information%collected%in%Step%3,%using%digital%preservation%system%Archivematica%In%the%following%sections,%challenges%encountered%in%each%component%are%discussed.%%1.'Policies'of'UBC'institutional'repository'cIRcle'As%the%first%step%of%the%digital%archiving%exercise,%the%UBC%institutional%repository%cIRcle%was%considered%as%a%potential%depository%for%the%following%exercise%outcome:%Archival%Information%Packages%(AIPs)%of%Hula>related%objects%and%a%reflective%journal.%cIRcle%is%an%open%access%digital%repository,%and%its%aim%is%?to%showcase%and%preserve%UBC?s%unique%intellectual%output%by%making%content%freely%available%to%anyone,%anywhere%via%the%web?%(About).%I%examined%the%feasibility%of%depositing%the%exercise%outcome%into%cIRcle%by%studying%the%cIRcle%policies%(in%draft%form)%for%acquisition,%intellectual%property,%and%digital%preservation%(Policies)%as%well%as%by%speaking%with%cIRcle%coordinator%Hilde%Colenbrander.%%In%general,%cIRcle%provides%open%access%to%scholarly%works,%allowing%the%user%to%download,%reproduce,%and%display%the%work%for%educational%and%research%purposes,%given%that%the%work%is%not%altered%and%is%properly%acknowledged.%The%author%may%assign%additional%access%conditions%to%the%work%by%choosing%an%appropriate%Creative%Commons%license%for%the%work%(Intellectual).%%Currently,%cIRcle%accepts%nearly%all%file%formats%while%the%forthcoming%File%Format%Guidelines%will%list%file%formats%for%which%cIRcle%will%ensure%preservation%(Acquisition).%According%to%Colenbrander,%cIRcle%can%ingest%a%wide%range%of%file%formats%as%it%is%based%on%open%source%repository%system%DSpace,%but%can%currently%apply%preservation%measures%only%to%a%small%number%of%file%formats%(common%document%and%audio>video%formats).%%To%deposit%with%cIRcle,%authors%are%not%required%to%surrender%or%transfer%their%copyright,%but%to%hold%the%copyright%or%distribution%rights%to%materials%they%are%submitting%to%cIRcle%(Digital).%Authors%must%permit%cIRcle%to%make%the%submitted%materials%publicly%accessible%in%the%digital%repository%and%to%perform%preservation%tasks%on%the%submitted%materials%(Digital).%If%the%work%is%co>authored,%then%the%author%needs%to%obtain%copyright%permissions%from%the%other%author(s)%before%submitting%the%work%to%cIRcle%(Acquisition).%Colenbrander%suggested%that%I%obtain%copyright%permissions%in%written%form,%and%that%I%contact%the%UBC%copyright%office%for%further%copyright%questions.%%It%turned%out%that%cIRcle%cannot%apply%preservation%measures%to%archive%file%format%ZIP,%the%file%format%for%the%AIPs%from%the%exercise.%Hence,%instead%of%the%AIPS,%the%Hula>related%documents%in%PDF%should%be%placed%in%cIRcle%so%that%those%interested%could%examine%whether%the%documents%adequately%represent%a%Hula%work%concerned%(?Lei%Nani?%in%this%case).%In%consultation%with%Dr.%Galla,%it%was%deemed%inappropriate%to%deposit%the%video%recording%of%a%Hula%dance%in%an%open%access%digital%repository%like%cIRcle.%The%distribution%M.%Ishida%of%such%a%video%recording%on%the%Internet%is%discouraged%because%it%may%lead%to%the%false%impression%that%Hula%can%be%learned%by%watching%video%recordings%and%imitating%movements,%without%the%personal%contact%with%a%Hula%teacher%who%can%ensure%the%integrity%of%Hula.%%The%following%digital%objects%were%scheduled%to%go%into%cIRcle%after%the%digital%archiving%exercise:%? Reflective%journal%of%the%digital%archiving%exercise%(in%document%file%format%PDF)%? H??ike%event%flyer%(in%PDF)%? Documents%of%translation,%choreographic%instruction,%and%background%research%activities%(in%PDF)%%2.'Copyright'issues'To%determine%how%I%should%proceed%to%clear%copyright%issues%surrounding%the%digital%archiving%exercise,%I%contacted%the%UBC%copyright%office.%I%was%referred%to%the%Copyright%Basics%FAQ%#1.5%(What),%which%outlines%the%criteria%for%determining%whether%use%of%copyrighted%material%falls%under%the%fair%dealing%exception,%as%is%often%the%case%for%students%using%such%material%for%the%purpose%of%criticism%or%review%within%coursework%and%research.%I%was%also%referred%to%the%Copyright%Basics%FAQ%#1.11%(How)%on%seeking%permission,%in%case%that%my%use%of%copyrighted%materials%would%not%fall%under%fair%dealing.%The%copyright%office%was%not%able%to%determine%whether%permission%would%be%required%on%my%behalf,%but%suggested%that%it%is%always%best%to%seek%permission%if%I%am%in%doubt.%%%After%consulting%these%resources,%I%determined%that%my%use%of%copyrighted%materials%would%not%fall%under%the%fair%dealing%exception%since%the%digital%archiving%exercise%requires%more%than%short%excerpts%of%the%copyrighted%materials.%Since%the%UBC%copyright%office%did%not%provide%a%generic%template%for%copyright%permission%requests,%I%created%my%own%template%(Appendix%A)%based%on%the%thesis>specific%template%offered%by%the%Faculty%of%Graduate%Studies%(Permission).%%3.'Collection'and'preparation'of'HulaDrelated'objects'The%process%of%determining%which%objects%were%important%for%preservation%was%guided%by%Dr.%Galla?s%expertise%of%Hula%as%well%as%by%my%experience%in%digital%preservation.%We%discussed%which%digital%objects%would%represent%different%aspects%of%a%Hula%work%such%as%the%history,%language,%song,%and%dance%of%the%Hula%work,%and%how%likely%the%digital%objects%would%be%preserved%into%the%future.%%%The%following%digital%objects%regarding%Hula%work%?Lei%Nani?%were%collected%for%the%digital%archiving%exercise:%? Video%recording%of%the%?Lei%Nani?%dance%(originally%in%video%file%format%MPEG>2%and%transformed%to%MPEG>4)%? Flyer%for%the%public%event%(in%document%file%format%PDF)%? Documentation%of%word>for>word%and%line>by>line%translation%(in%PDF)%? Documentation%of%choreographic%instruction%(in%PDF)%M.%Ishida%? Documentation%of%background%research%work%related%to%?Lei%Nani?%(in%PDF)%%The%following%individuals%who%hold%copyrights%over%the%above%digital%objects%were%contacted%and%asked%to%give%their%copyright%permissions%in%written%format.%? Keisha%Padma,%videographer%who%recorded%the%?Lei%Nani?%Hula%dance%? Dr.%Candace%Galla,%LLED%565D%instructor%and%author%of%the%public%event%flyer%? Talia%London%and%Lydia%Ruenzel,%LLED%565D%students%who%coauthored%with%me%the%documents%regarding%translation,%choreographic%instruction,%and%background%research%The%signed%physical%copies%of%copyright%permission%forms%were%scanned%and%saved%in%PDF%or%image%file%format%JPG.%%%While%not%scheduled%to%go%into%cIRcle,%the%video%recording%was%included%in%the%digital%archiving%exercise%to%investigate%whether%any%issues%would%emerge%during%ingest%and%transfer%of%the%video%recording%by%Archivematica.%%In%the%process%of%preparing%the%digital%objects%for%the%ingest%step%(Step%4),%the%video%recording%was%transferred%to%my%computer%via%Dropbox%after%a%copyright%permission%for%the%video%was%granted.%%The%video%was%in%MPEG>2,%and%was%transformed%to%MPEG>4%with%the%trial%version%of%Wondershare%Video%Converter%for%Mac%OS%X%(Wondershare).%During%the%transformation,%the%segment%of%the%?Lei%Nani?%dance%(52.8%MB)%was%edited%out%of%the%video%recording%%(910.4%MB)%to%cut%down%the%size%of%the%video%file%to%ingest.%Unexpectedly,%the%trial%version%of%Wondershare%Video%Converter%left%a%watermark%on%the%edited%video.%I%already%possessed%copies%of%the%documents%and%event%flyer.%Copyright%permissions%in%written%form%were%also%collected%from%the%copyright%holders%of%the%digital%materials,%and%these%written%forms%were%scanned%into%digital%form.%%Getting%copyright%permissions%in%written%form%took%more%time%than%I%expected.%While%I%was%able%to%receive%verbal%agreements%from%all%the%copyright%holders,%it%took%several%weeks%for%the%copyright%holders%to%actually%sign%and%submit%the%copyright%permission%forms%to%me.%Moreover,%some%objects%related%to%the%Hula%work%were%not%available%at%the%time%of%the%digital%archiving%exercise%because%I%was%undertaking%the%exercise%long%after%the%H??ike%event.%Consequently,%I%was%not%able%to%record%some%aspects%of%the%Hula%dance.%For%example,%we%created%floral%adornments%(lei)%for%the%H??ike,%and%this%activity%was%an%important%part%of%the%preparation%for%the%H??ike.%However,%they%were%not%able%to%preserve%or%capture%the%floral%adornments%in%photographs%as%they%perished%soon%after%the%H??ike.%%%% 'M.%Ishida%4.'Ingest'of'HulaDrelated'objects'with'Archivematica'The%virtual>appliance%version%of%digital%preservation%system%Archivematica%and%access%system%ICA%AtoM%were%installed%for%Mac%OS%X%(Virtual).%The%following%digital%materials%were%archived%with%Archivematica%and%uploaded%to%ICA%AtoM:%? 1%video%recording%of%the%?Lei%Nani?%dance%(in%MPEG>4,%52.8%MB)%? 1%flyer%for%the%public%event%(in%PDF,%1.5%MB)%? 6%documents%regarding%word>for>word%and%line>by>line%translation,%choreographic%instruction,%and%background%research%work%related%to%?Lei%Nani?%(in%PDF,%1.9%MB%in%total)%4%copyright%permission%forms%were%also%scanned%and%ingested%(3%in%PDF,%1%in%JPEG,%1.6%MB%in%total).%%Figure%1:%Archivematica%dashboard%%%Figure%2:%ICA%AtoM%collection%landing%page%%M.%Ishida%Objects%belonging%to%the%same%copyright%holder(s)%were%grouped%into%one%transfer%package%as%Archivematica%transforms%a%transfer%package%into%a%Submission%Information%Package%(SIP)%and%assigns%PREMIS%rights%metadata%to%each%SIP%(PREMIS).%Three%transfer%packages%were%created%from%the%Hula>related%objects%collected%for%the%digital%archiving%exercise.%%Figure%3:%Transfer%1%F%video%recording%%%Figure%4:%Transfer%2%F%event%flyer%%%Figure%5:%Transfer%3%F%documentation%of%translation,%choreography,%and%background%research%%%Archivematica%recognized%the%file%formats%of%the%Hula>related%materials%and%was%able%to%normalize%the%files%for%preservation%without%fail.%The%files%in%PDF,%MP4,%and%JPG%were%M.%Ishida%normalized%to%PDF/A,%MKV,%and%TIF,%respectively%(Format).%AIPs%and%Dissemination%Information%Packages%(DIPs)%were%created%successfully.%The%AIPs%were%transferred%to%a%local%directory,%and%the%DIPs%to%ICA%AtoM%(within%the%virtual%appliance).%%%Figure%6:%AIP%directory%structure%for%Transfer%1%(video%recording)%%%M.%Ishida%Issues'to'considered'? Grouping%digital%objects%into%SIPs%based%on%rights%conditions%may%not%be%appropriate%in%cases%where%multiple%materials%are%under%different%rights%conditions%but%are%closely%related.%In%the%case%of%this%exercise,%were%it%not%for%the%rights%conditions,%it%might%be%more%appropriate%to%group%all%the%digital%objects%into%one%SIP.%? I%was%unsure%how%to%record%contextual%information%such%as%the%process%of%making%floral%adornments%for%the%Hula%dance%in%the%metadata%schemas%in%Archivematica%and%ICA%AtoM.%The%metadata%fields%available%in%Archivematica%are:%Title,%Creator,%Subject,%Description,%Publisher,%Contributor,%Date,%Type,%Format,%Identifier,%Source,%Relation,%Language,%Coverage,%and%Rights.%The%Description%metadata%field%seems%to%best%accommodate%such%contextual%information%although%it%is%worth%considering%and%designing%a%metadata%schema%specifically%for%cultural%heritage%materials%as%done%in%the%Mukurtu%content%management%system%(Mukurtu).%? %Well%integrated%with%Archivematica,%ICA%AtoM%is%capable%of%displaying%the%Hula>related%materials%and%streaming%the%video%recording.%However,%accessibility%and%visibility%of%culturally%sensitive%objects%cannot%be%controlled%in%ICA%AtoM%unless%the%objects%are%kept%in%the%draft%mode%and%away%from%public%views%(Can).%%%Summary'and'conclusions'Institutional%repositories%often%have%the%open%access%mandate,%and%are%not%necessarily%the%optimal%place%to%deposit%a%scholarly%work%involving%culturally%sensitive%information%such%as%Indigenous%knowledge%and%its%representations.%If%a%scholarly%work%involves%file%formats%other%than%common%document%and%multimedia%formats,%then%the%digital%preservation%policies%of%a%repository%should%be%studied%before%the%work%is%deposited%with%the%repository.%The%digital%repository%may%not%be%able%to%ensure%preservation%of%all%the%file%formats%it%accepts.%%%The%advice%from%the%UBC%institutional%repository%and%copyright%office%helped%me%clear%copyright%issues%surrounding%the%exercise%of%digitally%archiving%materials%surrounding%a%Hula%work.%Getting%copyright%permissions%for%Hula>related%materials%in%written%form%turned%out%to%be%time>consuming.%Permission%requests%were%submitted%by%email,%and%fell%out%of%the%minds%of%the%copyright%holders%although%the%requests%were%made%repeatedly.%I%was%able%to%remind%some%of%the%copyright%holders%of%my%requests%in%person,%and%face>to>face%communication%proved%to%be%more%effective%than%email%communication%in%getting%permissions%in%written%form.%If%possible,%a%digital%archiving%project%should%be%planned%ahead%of%the%creation%of%digital%objects,%and%copyright%permissions%in%written%form%should%be%collected%as%soon%as%possible.%Overall,%it%was%difficult%to%collect%and%archive%the%content%and%contextual%information%several%months%after%the%H??ike%event%as%some%of%the%content%and%contextual%information%were%missing.%%The%technical%challenges%encountered%in%this%exercise%were:%? Lack%of%a%metadata%schema%appropriate%to%cultural%heritage%objects%? Division%of%the%Hula>related%objects%into%multiple%SIPs%based%on%rights%conditions%M.%Ishida%? Inability%to%control%visibility%and%accessibility%of%culturally%sensitive%materials%in%a%repository%These%challenges%will%hopefully%be%resolved%as%open>source%projects%for%Indigenous%knowledge%management%such%as%the%Mukurtu%content%management%system%(Mukurtu)%continue%to%develop%and%garner%attention.%%For%further%study%in%digitally%perpetuating%the%Indigenous%performative%art%of%Hula,%other%pieces%of%content%or%contextual%information%could%be%considered%for%preservation,%such%as%caption%and%transcription%of%the%video%recording%to%highlight%the%language%component%of%the%Hula%work%in%relation%to%Indigenous%language%revitalization.%To%understand%the%effect%of%digital%preservation%and%perpetuation%of%Indigenous%knowledge,%it%is%important%to%study%cases%of%teaching%Indigenous%languages%and%cultures%with%digitally%archived%materials.%%Works'Cited'?About%cIRcle%?%cIRcle.?%Web.%15%Apr.%2013.%<http://circle.sites.olt.ubc.ca/about>circle/>%?Acquisition%Policy%DRAFT%?%cIRcle.?%Web.%15%Apr.%2013.%<http://circle.sites.olt.ubc.ca/policies>2/acquisition>policy/>%?Can%ICA%AtoM%Support%Access%Control%for%Restricted%Materials??%Web.%15%Apr.%2013.%<https://groups.google.com/forum/?fromgroups=#!topic/ica>atom>users/NWTA700NSCc>%?Copyright%at%UBC.?%Web.%15%Apr.%2013.%<http://copyright.ubc.ca/>%?Digital%Preservation%Policy%DRAFT%?%cIRcle.?%Web.%15%Apr.%2013.%<http://circle.sites.olt.ubc.ca/policies>2/digital>preservation>policy/>%?Format%Policies%?%Archivematica.?%Web.%20%Mar.%2013.%<https://www.archivematica.org/wiki/Media_type_preservation_plans>%?How%Do%I%Get%Permission%to%Use%Someone%Else?s%Work??%Web.%15%Apr.%2013.%<http://copyright.ubc.ca/faq/%20basics/#basics11>%?Intellectual%Property%Policy%DRAFT%?%cIRcle.?%Web.%15%Apr.%2013.%<http://circle.sites.olt.ubc.ca/policies>2/intellectual>property>policy/>%?Mukurtu%Content%Management%System.?%Web.%20%Dec.%2012.%<http://www.mukurtu.org/>%?Overview%?%Archivematica.?%Web.%4%Mar.%2013.%<http://archivematica.org/wiki/index.php?title=Overview>%?Permission%to%Use%Copyrighted%Material%in%a%Thesis.?%Web.%15%Apr.%2013.%<https://www.grad.ubc.ca/forms/permission>use>copyrighted>material>thesis>%?Policies%?%cIRcle.?%Web.%15%Apr.%2013.%<http://circle.sites.olt.ubc.ca/policies>2/>%?PREMIS%Metadata:%Rights%?%Archivematica.?%Web.%15%Apr.%2013.%<https://www.archivematica.org/wiki/PREMIS_metadata:_rights>%?Virtual%Appliance%Instructions%?%Archivematica.?%Web.%4%Mar.%2013.%<http://archivematica.org/wiki/index.php?title=Virtual_appliance_instructions#Minimum_hardware%_requirements>%%?What%is%fair%dealing%and%how%does%it%relate%to%copyright??%Web.%15%Apr.%2013.%<http://copyright.ubc.ca/faq/basics/#basics5>%M.%Ishida%?Wondershare%Video%Converter%Ultimate%for%Mac.?%Web.%15%Apr.%2013.%<http://www.wondershare.com/mac>video>converter>ultimate/>%%% %M.%Ishida%Appendix'A'Copyright%permission%form%%% %Mayu%Ishida%MLIS%Student,%University%of%British%Columbia%% %PERMISSION%TO%USE%COPYRIGHTED%MATERIAL%IN%RESEARCH%%I%am%a%graduate%student%at%the%University%of%British%Columbia%(UBC),%and%am%conducting%research%as%part%of%my%coursework.%I%am%requesting%permission%to%include%your%work(s)%described%below.%The%source(s)%of%the%included%material%will%be%fully%identified%in%my%research%report.%The%research%report%will%be%digitized%and%available%online%through%the%UBC%institutional%repository%cIRcle.%The%non>exclusive,%royalty>free%licence%I%will%grant%to%UBC%cIRcle%is%at%the%following%links:%%UBC%cIRcle:%%https://circle.ubc.ca/bitstream/handle/2429/33659/cIRcle_Non>exclusive_Distribution_License_Version_1_1.pdf?sequence=1%%Title%of%Research%Project:%Digital%Preservation%and%Perpetuation%of%the%Hawaiian%Performing%Art%of%Hula:%Pilot%Study%UBC%Program:%Master%of%Library%and%Information%Studies%(MLIS)%%%Permission%is%hereby%granted%to%Mayu%Ishida%(student%conducting%research)%and%the%University%of%British%Columbia%to%reproduce%the%following%in%the%research%project%and%report:%%1)%Title%of%work:%%Author(s):%Year:%%%As%copyright%holder%or%representative%of%the%copyright%holder(s),%the%undersigned%is%aware%that%the%student%conducting%research%will%be%granting%an%irrevocable%non>exclusive%license%to%the%UBC%cIRcle,%and%agrees%to%the%terms%of%this%licence.%%Signature%of%copyright%holder%or%representative:%%%%Name%in%print:%%%Date:%(yyyy/mm/dd)% Email%Address:%%%%%%% %Appendix'B'H??ike%event%flyer%%% %!!E!ola!ana!ka!??lelo!Hawai?i!ma!o!ka!hula,!mele,!a!oli!Living&the&Hawaiian&Language&through&Hawaiian&dance,&songs,&and&chants&& H??ike!Performance!Friday&July&20,&2012&3:00&?&4:00&pm&University&of&British&Columbia&Museum&of&Anthropology&Great&Hall& &6393&NW&Marine&Drive&&Vancouver,&BC&V6T&1Z2&& Please&join&Dr.&Candace&Kaleimamoowahinekapu&Galla,&along&with&her&students&from&LLED&565D&?Living&Our&Indigenous&Languages&through&Performative&Arts?,&which&is&a&part&of&the&Summer&2012&Indigeneity&Educational&Institute&at&UBC.&They&will&share&hula,&mele&and&oli&they&learned&in&class,&and&unveil&Hawaiian&culture,&language,&stories&of&our&history,&royalty,&landmarks,&landscapes,&with&their&hand&motions,&foot&movements,&instruments&and&voices.&Hula,&mele&and&oli&are&a&tribute&to&what&has&been&carried&forward&from&generations&past&that&withstood&the&factions&of&colonization&and&is&a&reminder&of&the&many&facets&of&language&and&culture&that&are&deeply&embedded&in&the&hula,&mele&and&oli&that&are&often&overlooked&and&under&utilized&as&a&form&of&education.&&We&anticipate&that&you&will&leave&with&an&appreciation&that&activates&your&proprioceptive&awareness,&position&and&movement&of&the&body,&while&also&engaging&in&visual,&auditory,&oral,&spiritual,&and&emotional&experiences.&&&Come&experience,&learn,&and&live&the&Hawaiian&language&and&culture!&&For,more,information,,please,contact,Dr.,Galla,at,Candace.Galla@ubc.ca,, &Dr.&Galla&(Native&Hawaiian)&is&an&Assistant&Professor&in&the&Department&of&Language&&&Literacy&Education&at&the&University&of&British&Columbia.&Her&areas&of&interest&include&Indigenous&language&revitalization,&education,&research&and&methodologies,&Native&American&linguistics,&and&multimedia&technology.&Learning&hula&from&a&very&young&age&from&her&mother,&Leiola&Aquino&Galla,&who&was&also&her&kumu,hula&(hula&master),&instilled&in&her&a&direct&linkage&to&the&Hawaiian&culture&and&language.&No&matter&where&Dr.&Galla&lived&or&visited,&hula&always&provided&her&a&sense&of&comfort&and&a&familial&experience.&&The,Summer,2012,Indigeneity,Educational,Institute,includes,four,courses,offered,by,the,Departments,of,Educational,Studies,and,Language,and,Literacy,Education,in,the,Faculty,of,Education,at,the,University,of,British,Columbia.,%% %Appendix'C'Documents%of%translation,%choreographic%instruction,%and%background%research%activities%%%LLED 565DLei Nani word-for-word translation (Hawai?ian to English)Mayu Ishida, Talia London, Lydia RuenzelTitleLei NaniGarland / beautifulLyrics?Auhea wale ?oeWhere? / only (a state of being or existing without qualification; used mostly in an adverbial sense; wale has no corresponding term in English) / you (second person singular)Ku?u lei naniMy / garland / beautifulHo?i mai no k?uaCome back / this way (toward the speaker) / because of / usLa e pili(Interjection, common refrain in songs) / let?s (indicating the imperative mode) / be togetherKou aloha ka?u a?eYour / love / mine / nearbyHi?ipoi neiCherish / this (carrying favourable emotional connotations)H?ku?iku?i ?ehaThrobbing / ache (figuratively, love)I ku?u mana?oIn / my / thought?Anoa?i ka pilinaUnexpected / the / relationshipPoina ?oleForgettable / notE lei a?e ?oe(Indicating the imperative mode) / wear a garland / (term for approval of someone) / youMe ku?u leiLike / my / garlandHa?ina ?ia mai ana ka puanaSing / (marking the past imperfective) / this way (toward the speaker) / (following verbs indicating a single event) / the / summary refrain (?Tell the summary refrain?, followed by the refrain; the two (or sometimes more) last verses of a song that usually begin with the word ha?ina and that repeat the theme of the song, or the name of the person to whom the song is dedicated)Ho?i mai no k?uaCome back / this way (toward the speaker) / because of  / usLa e pili(Interjection, common refrain in songs) / let?s (indicating the imperative mode) / be togetherLLED 565DLei Nani line-by-line translation (Hawai?ian to English)Mayu Ishida, Talia London, Lydia RuenzelTitleLei NaniBeautiful BelovedLyrics?Auhea wale ?oeWhere are you?Ku?u lei naniMy beautiful beloved (?Ku?u?, a special possessive, indicates that ?lei? that follows it refers to the speaker?s beloved person (e.g., husband, sweetheart).)Ho?i mai no k?uaCome back to me because of our loveLa e piliLa, let?s be togetherKou aloha ka?u a?eI want your love near me.Hi?ipoi nei h?ku?iku?i ?ehaI cherish this loveI ku?u mana?oIn my mind?Anoa?i ka pilinaThe relationship was unexpectedPoina ?oleUnforgettableE lei a?e ?oePut a garland (my love) around youMe ku?u leiAs my sweetheartHa?ina ?ia mai ana ka puanaTell the summary refrainHo?i mai no k?uaCome back to me because of our loveLa e piliLa, let?s be togetherLLED 565D 1/4Lei Nani instructional writingLydia Ruenzel, Mayu Ishida, Talia LondonStand in horizontal line, face audience (left to right: Lydia, Mayu, Talia)(Two beats by ?ukulele)K?holo right: Left hand horizontal in front of body with palm down, left elbow bent and out, right arm straight out to side of body with palm down, hands / elbows at shoulder heightK?holo left: Right hand horizontal in front of body with palm down, right elbow bent and out, left arm straight out to side of body with palm down, hands / elbows at shoulder height*Move fingers against thumbs*Follow hands with eyes (First verse, repeated twice)?Auhea wale ?oeK?holo right: Palms down and in front of heart, flip hands up and bring to right side of body, extend arms straight to right side of body at shoulder heightK?holo left: Palms down, point fingers and swiftly bring back to left side of body at 45 degree angle*Follow hands with eyes Ku?u lei naniK?holo right: Palms facing chest at middle of body, push hands out to front*Look outK?holo left: Move hands up to head and then behind neck, bring down to hip with palms up*Follow hands with eyes Ho?i mai no k?uaK?holo back: Turn sideways with body facing right, stretch arms to right side of body (toward audience) at shoulder height with ?come here? hand motion (palms up and bending fingers to palms)*Follow hands with eyes K?holo left (turn body to left and move forwards to face front): Extend right arm out to side of body at shoulder height, two fingers out on right hand and bring to chest to point to heart, left hand on hip with fist *Follow right hand with eyesLa e piliLewa right: Arms out to sides at shoulder height, palms downLewa left: Bring hands toward middle in frontLewa right: Clasp hands together with right hand over left (shape of heart), arms stretched out at shoulder heightLewa left: Bring hands to heart (to the left), elbows out*Move fingers against thumbs*Follow right hand with eyes; look out as bringing hands to heartK?holo right: Left hand horizontal in front of body with palm down, left elbow bent and out, right arm straight out to side of body with palm down, hands / elbows at shoulder heightK?holo left: Right hand horizontal in front of body with palm down, right elbow bent and out, left arm straight out to side of body with palm down, hands / elbows at shoulder height*Move fingers against thumbs*Follow hands with eyesLLED 565D 2/4Lei Nani instructional writingLydia Ruenzel, Mayu Ishida, Talia London(Second verse, repeated once)Kou aloha K?holo right: Extend arms to right at 45 degree angle at shoulder height, palms down, point fingers*Follow hands with eyes ka?u a?eK?holo left: Cross arms in front (right arm over left), like hugging someone, arms close to chest (showing love)*Move fingers against thumbs*Look out Hi?ipoi neiK?holo right/left: Palms facing heart (right palm over left), circle/rotate hands forward over heart*Look down at hands H?ku?iku?i ?ehaK?holo right: Extend arms to left at 45 degree angle at shoulder height with palms up, bend arms and move hands to left temple, left hand over right*Follow hands when out, then look out when at temple K?holo left: extend arms to right at 45 degree angle at shoulder height with palms up, bend arms and move hands to right temple, right hand over left *Follow hands when out, then look out when at temple I ku?u mana?oLewa right/left/right/left - left elbow bent and out, left hand at chest level with palm down, right elbow bent and in and placed above left hand, right index finger pointing at right temple (like thinking)*Look out K?holo right: Left hand horizontal in front of body with palm down, left elbow bent and out, right arm straight out to side of body with palm down, hands / elbows at shoulder heightK?holo left: Right hand horizontal in front of body with palm down, right elbow bent and out, left arm straight out to side of body with palm down, hands / elbows at shoulder height*Move fingers against thumbs*Follow hands with eyesLLED 565D 3/4Lei Nani instructional writingLydia Ruenzel, Mayu Ishida, Talia London(Third verse, repeated once)?Anoa?i ka pilinaK?holo right: Extend arms out to sides at shoulder height, palms downK?holo left: Turn palms up, move hands to centre, clasp hands (with right hand over left), arms straight out at shoulder height*Look out Poina ?oleK?holo right: Left hand on hip with fist, right arm bent like bottom of window, move right hand in a ?go away? movement to right K?holo left: Right hand on hip with fist, left arm bent like bottom of window, move left hand in a ?go away? movement to left *Look out E lei a?e ?oeK?holo right: Left hand on hip with fist, do a ?put a lei on? motion with right hand, right hand goes down to chest height*Look out K?holo left: Extend arms to left side at 45 degree angle at shoulder height, palms down, fingers lightly pointing out *Follow hands with eyes Me ku?u lei?Ami right: Pick up lei with both arms to chest?Ami right: Bring lei straight out in front, stretch arms out to audience?Ami right: Bring lei to nose, arms bent?Ami right: Lay lei back down *Follow hands with eyes K?holo right: Left hand horizontal in front of body with palm down, left elbow bent and out, right arm straight out to side of body with palm down, hands / elbows at shoulder heightK?holo left: Right hand horizontal in front of body with palm down, right elbow bent and out, left arm straight out to side of body with palm down, hands / elbows at shoulder height*Move fingers against thumbs*Follow hands with eyesLLED 565D 4/4Lei Nani instructional writingLydia Ruenzel, Mayu Ishida, Talia London(Fourth verse, repeated twice)Ha?ina ?ia maiK?holo right: Left fist on hip, right hand to mouth (arm bent), stretch right arm out to 45 degree angle at shoulder heightK?holo left: Right first on hip, left hand to mouth (arm bent), stretch left arm out to 45 degree angle at shoulder height*Follow hands with eyes Ana ka puanaK?holo right: Extend left arm to ceiling, right hand to mouth (arm bent), stretch right arm out to 45 degree angle at shoulder heightK?holo left: Extend right arm to ceiling, left hand to mouth (arm bent), stretch left arm out to 45 degree angle at shoulder height*Follow hands with eyesHo?i mai no k?uaK?holo back: Turn sideways with body facing right, stretch arms to right side of body (toward audience) at shoulder height with ?come here? hand motion (palms up and bending fingers to palms)*Follow hands with eyes K?holo left (turn body to left and move forwards to face front): Extend right arm out to side of body at shoulder height, two fingers out on right hand and bring to chest to point to heart, left hand on hip with fist *Follow right hand with eyesLa e piliLewa right: Arms out to sides at shoulder height, palms downLewa left: Bring hands toward middle in frontLewa right: Clasp hands together with right hand over left (shape of heart), arms stretched out at shoulder heightLewa left: Bring hands to heart (to the left), elbows out*Move fingers against thumbs*Follow right hand with eyes; look out as bringing hands to heartK?holo right: Left hand horizontal in front of body with palm down, left elbow bent and out, right arm straight out to side of body with palm down, hands / elbows at shoulder height*Move fingers against thumbs*Follow hands with eyesHands point to mouth, step back with left foot, right toes point to ground, extend arms to frontLLED 565D 1/2Background information of Lei NaniLydia RuenzelMayu IshidaTalia LondonLei Nani, which means ?beautiful garland? in the Hawai?ian language, is hula ?auana (modern hula) accompanied by a ?ukulele. Hula ?auana is a ?[h]ula style incorporating newer movements, with harmonized sung text accompanied by plucked chordophones of Western origin? (Kaeppler and Love). Instruments for hula ?auana include ?ukulele, guitar, string bass, and piano. Adornments for hula ?auana incorporate skirts made of ti leaves and Western clothes such as dresses made of velvet, satin, and other luxuriant fabrics (Kaeppler and Love, ?Hawaiian Festivals: The Merrie Monarch Festival?). King Daid Kal?kaua, a Hawai?ian monarch who revitalized hula in the 1870s, introduced to hula modern instruments such as ?ukulele and brought about hula ?auana (Kaimikaua 181).There are debates about the original composer of Lei Nani. According to Kevin K. Brown, a master slack-key guitar player, ?On Huapala [an online Hawai?ian music and hula archives], it is said that the composer is Charles Namahoe. But, there?s a source where I got my information. She said that her grandfather wrote the song and his name was Sam Kuni from Kula, Maui? (Brown). Charles Namahoe may have based his version from a composer named Johnny Noble who was the first to record this song in 1929. Moreover, the lyrics may have been altered: It is believed that the original title of the song was ?Lei Lani? as opposed to ?Lei Nani.?Lei Nani is an example of a love song done in a modern Hawai?ian song style called hula ku?i. There are four styles of modern Hawaiian songs: himeni, himeni-type, hula ku?i, and hapa haole. Himeni are hymns that were translated into Hawaiian in the 1800s by Missionaries; these songs are still played in secular settings and are used by musicians as guidelines for writing new songs. Himeni-type songs are very similar to himeni songs, except Himeni-type used a wider variety of chords. ?Indigenous poetry? is evident in these songs with the use of symbolism and double meanings; many love songs are written in the Himeni-type style. Hula ku?i are hula songs that are a fusion of Hawaiian culture and western culture. Unlike himeni-type songs, hula ku?i songs use a lot of traditional Hawaiian music and dance to influence the lyrics and performance. Hula ku?i normally have stanzas of two lines with the final stanza having a line similar to ?tell the summary refrain? to show that the end of the song is near. Lei Nani is a hula ku?i; the lyrics are in Hawaiian with the last stanza using ?tell the summary refrain? to indicate the end of the song. The fourth style of Hawaiian song is hapa haole, which are songs that are in English, but the lyrics are about Hawaii. Since the Hawaiian language is not used, the verses do not hold double meanings or have traditional symbolism (Stillman 224?226).It is possible that the lyrics of Lei Nani carries more than one meaning. On the surface, the lyrics is about an unforgettable meeting and unexpected love between two lovers, and a lei is used as a metaphor for their love. However, it is suggested that the lyrics is about a high chief Aiwohikupua from Kauai and his desire for La?iekikawi who was a chiefess from Hawai?i and lived in Paluili (Brown). While the song Lei Nani could possibly have kaona (inner/hidden meanings) , we need to avoid guessing the meaning(s) of the song and conjuring thoughts that the composer never intended. It is advised that ?[u]nless the kaona has been handed down as a record, written or oral, so that we have it as the ancient poet intended, it is wiser to stick to the literal meaning" (Pukui 252).LLED 565D 2/2Background information of Lei NaniLydia RuenzelMayu IshidaTalia LondonWorks CitedBrown, Kevin K. ?Lei Lani.? Taropatch.net 19 Mar. 2010. Web. 16 July 2012.Kaeppler, Adrienne L., and J. W. Love. ?Glossary: hula ?auana.? Garland Encyclopedia of World Music Volume 9: Australia and the Pacific Islands 1 June 1998 : 1029. Web. 16 July 2012.---. ?Hawaiian Festivals: The Merrie Monarch Festival.? Garland Encyclopedia of World Music Volume 9: Australia and the Pacific Islands 1 June 1998 : 66. Web. 16 July 2012.Kaimikaua, Charmaine I. ?The Politics of Cultural Preservation| Communicating Identity, Resistance and Empowerment for Hawaiians in a Southern California Hula Halau.? Jan. 2011. Web. 16 July 2012.Pukui, Mary Kawena. ?Songs (Meles) of Old Ka?u, Hawaii.? The Journal of American Folklore 62.245 (1949): 247?258. Web. 16 July 2012.Stillman, Amy K. ?Published Hawaiian Songbooks.? Notes 44.2 (1987): 221?239. Web. 16 July 2012. Second Series.

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