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The role of the school principal in beginning teacher retention Rinn, Scott 2010-04-01

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Scott Rinn EADM 590 -  Graduating PaperSupervisor: Dr. Wendy Poole The role of the school principal in beginning teacher retentionApril 1,2010Rinn 1IntroductionUntil we recognize that we have a retention problem we will continue to engage in a costly annual recruitment and hiring cycle, pouring more and more teachers into our nation’s classrooms only to lose them at a faster and faster rate. This will continue to drain our public tax dollars, it will undermine teaching quality, and it will most certainly hinder our ability to close student achievement gaps.(National Commission on Teaching and Americas Future, 2007, p .l)A serious issue confronting public education systems across the globe is the escalating . teacher shortage. Schools are finding it increasingly difficult to fill teaching vacancies, let alone with teachers who are highly qualified. There are a number of reasons for why this is -  student enrollments are growing, immigration rates are on the rise, and class sizes are shrinking, just to name a few. Most importantly, however, the number of teachers who voluntarily choose to leave the profession, known as teacher attrition, is growing at an alarming rate, and not just because of retirements. The purpose of this paper is to explore beginning teacher attrition; specifically examining the role the school principal plays in retaining new teachers. The first section will provide a summary of why new teachers are choosing to leave the profession; the second section will describe how the principal can contribute to new teacher attrition; and the last section will suggest what the principal can do to improve the retention of beginning teachers.Beginning teacher attrition is directly linked to a much greater issue -  teacher shortages. Teacher shortages plague many countries across the globe and have been shown to significantly affect the quality of education (References ????). Analyzing the magnitude of the issue can bequite complex; mainly due to the fact that there is not a consensus of what should be classified as a ‘teacher shortage’. Therefore, the following data must be interpreted with caution. Many countries across the globe claim to be either experiencing a current teacher shortage, or are predicting an upcoming teacher shortage. In the US, the concern is well documented and in some schools and districts the concern is nearing a level of crisis. An estimated 50% of public school teachers and principals are from the baby boomer generation and analysts predict that by the year 2012 the nation could lose nearly one third of its teaching force due to retirement (NCTAF,2007). In addition, beginning teacher attrition rates have been rising steadily for the past decade. The National Center for Education Statistics (2007) reports that one third of teachers leave in their first three years and almost one half will have left after their first five years. The education system in Australia is expecting a teacher shortage, although retirement is a predicted to be the major factor (ACER, 2003). In Canada, the research is mixed. In 1999 many educational analysts predicted an upcoming teacher shortage, but it never happened. In fact, many consider there to be an oversupply of teachers, except in specialty areas such as math, science, and special education (Steffenhagen, 2007). The other region in which the teacher shortage'has reached a level similar to that of the US is the UK. A recent government report shows that in 2008 primary school teaching vacancies rose by nearly 32% and secondary vacancies rose by 21% (Gould, 2008).It is documented in the global research that certain types of schools and certain subject areas have a more difficult time attracting and retaining teachers. In Canada, the US, and Australia, the issue is particularly prevalent in schools that serve remote, rural areas (ACER, 2003; Ingersoll, 2001). In addition, schools that have high populations of low-achieving students or schools that are located in areas of high poverty also struggle to attract and retain teachers, especially in the US and the UK (Ingersoll, 2002; ACER 2003). Certain subject areas also haveRinn 2more difficulty finding and keeping teachers. The most challenging subjects appear to be special These are important ideas for the principal to acknowledge when examining the recruitment and retention of beginning teachers.Teacher attrition is a term directly related to teacher turnover. When a teacher chooses to leave their current position -  whether intending to leave the profession entirely or just to find a different teaching job -  the school must find a replacement. This process can come at a tremendous financial expense. When a teacher leaves, schools are forced to advertise for open positions, review applications, conduct criminal background checks, and orient new staff. This not only costs the school or district money, but also requires extra time and resources (Moir, 2003; cited in Brown & Wynn, 2009). Studies in the US report that teacher turnover is costing the nation nearly $7.3 billion dollars per year, and this figure does not include the cost associated with teachers who move to different positions within their district or for the federal investments that are lost when a teacher decides to leave the profession (NCTAF, 2003). Improving teacher retention rates would eliminate a number of unnecessary school expenditures and allow more money to be directed at improving student achievement or teacher growth.Although teacher turnover is costly and can greatly affect a schools economic stability, the most serious consequence is the effect it has on teacher quality and student achievement. A great amount of research shows that teacher effectiveness greatly increases during the early years of a teachers career (McCaffrey, Koretz, Lockwood, & Hamilton, 2003; Rivkin, Hanushek, & Kain, 2005; Shkolnik, Hikawa, Suttorp, Lockwood, Stecher, B., & Bohmstedt, 2002; cited in NCTAF). New teachers usually spend their first years in survival mode, simply trying to figure out how to find their way around the building, take attendance, input grades, communicate with parents, or how to manage a classroom. It is not until they are comfortable managing these day-Rinn 3to-day activities that they will be able to focus on improving student achievement. High poverty schools are in the most challenging situation because “many of these schools struggle to close the student achievement gap because they never close the teaching quality gap -  they are constantly rebuilding their staff’ (NCTAF, p. 2,2007). Therefore, school leaders must find a way to support and guide new teachers through the difficult years so they can truly reap the rewards of teaching.Predictably, policy makers react to this situation by trying to find new, innovative ways to recruit more teachers. The challenge, however, is enticing people to join a profession that is perceived to have relatively low pay, prestige, and social status. As noted earlier, high-poverty and low achieving schools have the most difficult time both recruiting and retaining teachers. Many of these schools rely on alternatively certified teachers or incentive programs to persuade people to teach at their school. Some districts now offer signing bonuses, student loan forgiveness, housing assistance, and tuition reimbursement (Hirsch, Koppich, & Knapp, 2001; cited in Ingersoll, 2002). Other districts rely on alternative certification or programs designed to lure the ‘best and brightest’ (e.g. Troops-to-Teachers or Teach for America). This may provide a quick fix to the teacher shortage problem but arguably does little to improve the quality of teaching.Few people would dispute the importance of recruiting bright, committed, and enthusiastic teachers. Recruitment, however, does little to reduce the financial costs and loss of teacher quality that is associated with teacher attrition (NCTAF, 2002). A growing amount ofresearch now suggests that in order to improve the teacher shortage problem, the focus must shift\from recruitment to retention (Ingersoll, 2001; NCTAF, 2002). In other words, instead of asking “How can we find and prepare more teachers”, we need to ask “How do we get the good teachersRinn 4we have recruited, trained, and hired to stay in their jobs” (NCTAF, 2002, p. 3). Doing this will address the root cause of the problem and not just a symptom of the problem.The purpose of this paper is to explore the effect of the school principal on beginning teacher attrition but it is important to also recognize what this paper will not do. First of all, the term ‘beginner’ includes only those teachers who are in their first five years of teaching.Teachers who choose to leave after five years will not be included, mainly retirees. Second,MethodologyThe initial intent of this paper was to collect research from Canada, the US, the UK, and Australia about the role of the principal in beginning teacher attrition and retention. However, it was difficult to locate very much research and data from Canada and Australia. This may be attributed to the fact that teacher shortages are not considered significant in either of these countries and therefore teacher attrition receives relatively little attention from researchers. Further research in this area may provide insight into why these countries are not experiencing teacher shortages to the same degree. The focus of this paper, then, shifted towards the US and the UK -  countries that do have well documented shortages of teachers. At this point, however, I encountered another barrier as although the UK provides evidence of teacher shortages, there is relatively little about its connection with beginning teacher attrition. Once again, further research in this area may provide quality insight into why this may be. To conclude, because the intent of this paper was to determine the role of the principal in beginning teacher attrition and retention, the majority of research was collected from US sources.The challenges new teachers encounter today are arguably different than what teachers encountered in the past. For this reason, a major aim of this project was to collect research thatRinn 5was as current as possible. Although this paper does include a small number of relatively ‘out-of- date’ sources, these were only used to provide supplemental information to the main arguments.The majority of research for this paper came from academic journals, which were all retrieved electronically. The main online databases that were searched were: EBSCO Host (US), Academic Search Complete (US), ERIC(US), Google Scholar (US), CBCA (Canada), ACER (Australia), CERUK (UK), and Education-line (UK). Other sources that were used, but not to the same extent as those previously mentioned, were the Canadian Teachers Federation (Canada),BC Teachers Federation (Canada), BC College of Teachers (Canada), National Center for Education Statistics (US), National Commission for Teaching and America’s Future (US), Department for Children, Schools, and Families (UK). The predominant internet search engine used was, which produced a number of quality sources. The main search terms used were beginning/new teacher attrition/retention, principal and beginning/new teacher attrition/retention, head teacher and beginning/new teacher attrition/retention, why beginning/new teachers leave, teacher shortages, and beginning/new teacher burnout.Why are beginning teachers leaving the profession?In 1999, in the School District o f Philadelphia, 919 new teachers began teaching and 12,000 - students began ninth grade. Six years later, 58% o f those students had graduated from high school, but only 30% o f  those new teachers were still teaching in Philadelphia. This means that the new teacher dropout rate (70%) over six years in Philadelphia was higher than the student dropout rate (42%>).(NCTAF, 2007, p. 1)Rinn 6Teaching can be a very satisfying profession but also brings with it a number of challenges, as seen in the amount of teachers who express their dissatisfaction with teaching and the education system as a whole. At some point in their career most teachers are forced to decide if the costs of staying in the profession have reached a point where they outweigh the rewards. Sadly, for many teachers this happens early in their career and ultimately leads to a quick exit from the profession. Beginning teachers are, in a sense, part of the perfect storm. They are provided inadequate preparation and training, pressured with high expectations, and not supported with the challenges they encounter on the job. It should not be surprising, then, that such a high number chooses to leave the profession. The good part, however, is that the situation has not gone unnoticed. A number of dedicated researchers have conducted studies which provide quality insight into this issue.There are a number of limitations in the studies on beginning teacher attrition that must be addressed. First of all, the studies usually rely on small sample sizes -  representatives from a single school, district, or state (Ingersoll, 2001). It is difficult to generalize all of the findings because of the small sample sizes used in these studies. Also, researchers are trying to obtain data from people who have already left the profession. This could pose a particular challenge because those who have already left may be difficult to locate or may not willing to take the time to participate in a survey or interview. Finally, teacher attrition is highly contextual. Just as every school is unique, every teacher is also unique and the factors associated with attrition will affect each individual teacher differently. Although these limitations might make it difficult to generalize the findings, there are enough trends that appear throughout the literature that some very important conclusions can be drawn.Rinn 7This section will describe factors that have been shown to contribute to beginning teacher attrition along with some of the main frustrations that are causing teachers to question a long­time commitment to the profession. It is important to note that the first two factors -  career orientation and pre-service preparation -  have contributed to teacher dissatisfaction for a number of years but they are also factors that the school principal has relatively little control over. Even so, they must be acknowledged because of the influence they can have on a beginning teachers experience at the school. The next set of factors are directly associated with what happens within the walls of the school. They are categorized as follows: the effects of the accountability movement and increase in teacher workload, new teachers ability to develop feelings of self efficacy, and the importance of salary, resources, and funding.Career Orientation“A better experience may have delayed my decision to leave, but I  doubt it would have changed it"Beginning teacher (Johnson & Birkland 2003, p. 294)A theme appearing in the literature on teacher attrition is that of career orientation. In other words, some teachers may be leaving the profession not because of poor experiences in education, but rather because teaching was never intended to be a lifetime career choice. Johnson & Birkland (2003) conducted a longitudinal study of 50 new teachers in Massachusetts. In the study, 27% of teachers who chose to leave the profession altogether did so because they saw themselves only as short-term contributors and planned to pursue another career after a short stint in teaching. The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) conducted a broad, comprehensive survey on teacher attrition in the US. Nearly 13% of those surveyed planned toRinn 8exit the teaching profession altogether. Within this group of ‘leavers’, approximately 25% cited “to pursue a career other than that of K-12 teacher” (NCES, 2007, p. 14). In both of these studies, approximately one-quarter of teachers who chose to leave the profession altogether did so because of career orientation.When discussing career orientation it is also important to address the theory of human capital. This theory, as described by Tye & Obrien (2002), means that the degree of investment a person has in his or her job will influence their decision to leave that job. If the human capital theory holds true, then beginning teachers will be more apt to leave the profession because of the relatively small amount of investment they have accumulated. This theory can also be seen in the relationship between alternative and traditionally certified teachers and their time spent in the profession. In a study by Johnson & Birkland (2003), nearly 50% of alternatively certified teachers chose to leave the profession within three years compared to only 16% of traditionally certified teachers. Although there may be a variety of reasons for this, the small amount of human capital may make their decision to leave easier.Pre-service preparationHere’s the problem. We watch our CT’s [cooperating teachers] manage the classroom and we listen to our professors telling us how to do it. So one does and the other says and they ’re usually so different. I f  you ’re going to tell us what to do you have to be willing and able to show us. The theories sound right, but i f  we don’t have a model for them in action, i f  our CT does something different and we see it working, guess what we ’re going to do.Beginning Teacher (Worthy, 2005, p. 392)Rinn 9Beginning teachers consistently express their frustrations with being inadequately prepared to teach. In particular, their experiences at the pre-service level seem to be disconnected with what actually happens in the real world of teaching (Kutcy & Schultz, 2006; Buckley et. al, 2006; Darling-Hammond, 2003; Worthy, 2005). 1The amount and type of training seems to be a factor in beginning teacher attrition. As noted earlier, the current teacher shortage in the US has caused many policy makers to develop alternative methods of teacher certification. Data shows that teachers who choose this route have much higher attrition rates than traditionally certified teachers (Harris, Camp, and Adkinson, 2003; cited in Buckley et al, 2005; Darling-Hammond, 2003). Teach for America is an example of an alternative certification program. This program was developed to entice individuals from all backgrounds and career interests into teaching to counteract the national teacher shortage.However, research shows that in Houston, Texas these recruits had an attrition rate of nearly■>80% after their first two years of teaching (Raymond, Fletcher, & Luque, 2001; cited in Darling- Hammond, 2003). Similarly, a National Center for Education Statistics report shows that 49% of uncertified entrants chose to exit the profession within their first five years of teaching compared with 14% of traditionally certified entrants (Henke et. al, 2000; cited in Darling-Hammond, 2003).The amount of practical, or student teaching, experience also appears to have an effect on beginning teacher attrition. A study from the National Center of Education Statistics found that 29% of college graduates who had no student teaching experience left the profession within five years in comparison to only 15% of those who had student teaching experience (in Darling- Hammond, 2003). Likewise, Connelly & Graham (2009) found a connection between the actual number of weeks spent student teaching and a teacher’s decision to exit the profession. TheirRinn 10study reports that 37% of students with less than 10 weeks of student teaching planned to exit the profession compared to only 20% of students with over 10 weeks student teaching experience. The voices of beginning teachers complement the statistics. In a study by Washbum-Moses (2005), new teachers describe their desire to have more field experiences earlier in the program, to engage with a variety of students, in a variety of settings, and at a variety of levels, and to have more experience implementing what they learned in their coursework. Creating opportunities for practical experience, however, does not ensure that new teachers will benefit. The challenge appears to be “finding situations that provide pre-service students the opportunity to apprentice in excellent practice accompanied by sufficient time and guidance to establish strong pedagogical knowledge foundations” (Donovan, 1999, p. 452; cited in Worth, 2005, p. 394)Accountability and teacher workloadVI  am told that I  must have certain artifacts in my classroom. I  am told how to structure my lessons. I  am told how to comment on a student’s paper. I  am treated as i f  I  were incapable o f  doing these things on my own.Beginning teacher (Crocco & Costigan, 2007, p. 522)Teaching is one of the unique professions where beginners often start out with more responsibilities than veterans. For some reason, new teachers are often forced to instruct classes that are outside of their area of expertise (Kutcy & Shultz, 2006), given teaching loads that are more than they can handle (Johnson & Birkland, 2003), and assigned to teach the most difficult students or subjects in which they lack adequate preparation (Bolich, 2001). In addition, beginning teachers now have to address the pressures associated with accountability. AlthoughRinn 11the idea of holding schools and teachers accountable is not new, it has reached an unprecedented level in recent years (Crocco & Costigan, 2007), most notably in the US and the UK. More emphasis is now given towards student performance, mainly through scores on high stakes test and the achievement of ‘educational’ standards. Furthermore, schools are now expected to publish test results to show how successful they have been at achieving the desired results.Educational accountability appears to not only add to the already full workload that beginning teachers have, but is also creating a new set of challenges. Certo (2006) found that the pressures that beginning teachers used to face -  dealing with student discipline, motivating students, and organizing class work -  are now overshadowed with the pressure of finding an instructional pace that will cover the standards-based curriculum and preparing students for the test (see also Crocco & Costigan, 2007). Crocco & Costigan (2007) further explored the ‘narrowing of the curriculum’ idea. They found that the “curriculum and pedagogical impositions of scripted lessons, mandated curriculum, and narrowed options for pedagogy” can inhibit a teacher’s development of a personal and professional identity, undermine the opportunities for his or her creativity, and diminish the opportunity to forge meaningful relationships with students (p.513).Teachers are not only told what they are supposed to teach, but to a certain degree, how they are supposed to teach. As stated by one teacher “All my creative talents seemed to go by the way-side due to SAT-9 drill and kill they wanted me to do” (quoted in Tye & Obrien, 2002, p.4). Another teacher expresses frustration:I did not become a teacher for the money or time off. I felt that I had something to offeryoung people and I would do my best to impart what knowledge I have accumulated overRinn 12Jthe years to them. Yet I am treated as if I do not know how best to attend to the needs of my students. I am handed scripted lessons, as if I lacked the ability to assemble my own. I am told how to arrange the desks in my classroom. I am told how to tell my students to quiet down (there is a noise meter that we must have in our classrooms). I am told that I must have certain artifacts in my classroom. I am told how to structure my lessons. I am told how to comment on a student’s paper. I am treated as if I were incapable of doing these things on my own. (Costigan & Crocco, 2007, p. 520-521)This voice illustrates the struggle in developing a unique identity but also describes the frustration when not being treated as a professional. Both mandating a curriculum or requiring teachers to use scripted lessons may deprofessionalize a teacher’s work and restrict his or her ability to create personalized educational experiences for students (Crocco & Costigan, 2007). Sadly, perhaps the most dramatic effect accountability has on beginning teachers is in their ability to develop personal relationships with their students. Getting to know students well plays a vital role in a teacher’s job satisfaction and many novice teachers feel that improving this relationship often “correlates with their [students] achievement” (p. 524). Unfortunately, these teachers also express that the time spent on test preparation and “covering the curriculum” impedes their chances to modify instruction to individual student needs. (Costigan & Crocco, 2007)..In addition to what has been said, there is also research that advocates a prescribed curriculum as a support mechanism for beginning teachers (Kauffman, Johnson, Kardos, Liu, & Peske, 2002). These authors report that an environment of high standards and accountability creates a sense of urgency and that failing to provide a prescribed, detailed curriculum can add to the stress of new teachers. One beginning teacher notes:Rinn 13They gave me stuff, but sometimes when you get all this material, especially a lot of written stuff and books and things, it can be overwhelming because you’re looking at it all and thinking “Where do I start? What do I begin with? There’s no handbook. (Kaufmann et. al, 2002, p. 282)The teachers in this study had relatively little or no curriculum to work with. Actually, the authors found that some schools deliberately provided no curriculum because they placed such a high value on teacher autonomy and encouraged creativity. Beginning teachers in these schools struggled to determine what and how material should be covered and found themselves spending an extraordinary amount of time and money developing resources that they could use. This was all “amidst expectations that they would learn to maintain discipline, facilitate discussion, communicate with parents, grade papers, and negotiate the complicated red tape of school” (Kauffman, 2002, p. 282).Self efficacy“I ’ll need a sense o f success, not unqualified constant success, because I  know that’s completely unrealistic. But, overall, you know, on average, that I ’m making more o f a difference for kids and that they ’re learning from me”Beginning teacher (Johnson & Birkland 2003, p. 594)New teachers typically enter the profession highly motivated and excited but are at the same time apprehensive and nervous. Early in their career, these teachers have a strong desire for self-efficacy. In other words, they want to know not only how their teaching is affecting student learning but more importantly that they are achieving some degree of success with their students (Berryhill et al., 2009; Buckley et. al, 2005; Johnson & Birkland 2003).Rinn 14The previously mentioned factors -  accountability and teacher workload -  can greatly affect a beginning teacher’s sense of self-efficacy. Giving a challenging course load or unfair teaching assignment may restrain a teacher’s opportunity to achieve success with the students, ultimately prompting the teacher to question his or her ability to teach. Also, the attention given to accountability policies may take time away from a teacher’s ability to adequately prepare for classes (Collingridge, 2008) or discourage them from believing that they can truly influence student learning (Berryhill et. al, 2009). The time required to attend to a large curriculum may take away from time that a teacher could use in “developing projects or digging more deeply into subject matter relevant to students” (Crocco & Costigan, 2007, p. 522).Beginning teachers also seem to be more affected by negative experiences than veteran teachers. As noted by McCann and Johannessen (2009), “Novice teachers fail to recognize that other teachers also struggle from time to time with classroom management problems, curriculum conundrums, or other instructional challenges. Moreover, new teachers do not believe that difficulties will diminish to an acceptable level over time.” (p. 109).Resources, funding, and salaryMy biggest beef right now is that because I ’m a new teacher, my room is terrible! My classroom is small. I t ’s got one white board, and one black board. I ’ve got a mish mash offurniture. I t ’s stuck way down the corner by the day care... It used to be a computer lab, and so there are plug­ins all around the room and on the floor, so I ’ve asked for some o f those to be removed. I ’m supposed to get a chair to replace my gummed up yucky one that I  have a towel on right now, and some bookshelves.Beginning teacher (Kutcy & Shultz, 2006, p. 83)Rinn 15There is also a connection between job satisfaction and the availability of resources (Buckley et al. 2005; Johnson & Birkland, 2003; Kutcy & Schultz, 2006). This is predominately true in low-income urban schools. A study of New York City public school teachers found that a large percentage of new teachers did not have access to basic teaching supplies, had to use their own money ($300-$ 1000) to equip classrooms, did not have enough textbooks or had textbooks that were in poor condition, and were forced to rely on family, friends, or other private resources to reproduce school materials because the copy machine was always broken (Tapper, 1995 cited in Buckley et al., 2005, p. 1110). Novice teachers also voice their frustrations with the politics involved in fund distribution (Kutcy & Schultz, 2006). Many feel that what counts is “playing the game, knowing who to go to and how to get money in your budget” and that “equity amongst staff in terms of the budget process does not exist” (p. 82).It is essential to also look at how important salary is to beginning teachers. Although teaching has never been regarded as a ‘high paying’ profession, most novice teachers enter the profession knowing this. Therefore, it is unfair to say that salary alone be considered as a major factor in a teacher’s decision to leave. What is important, however, is the connection between salary and working conditions. From the literature on this topic, it appears that salary only becomes an issue when one experiences challenging working conditions (Buckley et al., 2005; Tye & Obrien, 2002; Bolich, 2001; Johnson & Birkland, 2003). A Public Agenda survey found that 82% of teachers would prefer to teach in a school with stronger support from other teachers and administrators while only 17% said they would choose a school with higher salaries (Bolich, 2001). There is also data that shows salary is more important to men than to women (Johnson & Birkland, 2003). In the sample of participants, men were three times as likely to leave the profession as the women in the sample. Low teaching salaries may also contribute to theRinn 16relatively low social status of the teaching profession. Beginning teachers are not sure that the public appreciates their work (Kutcy & Shultz, 2006), that the low pay reflects others low regard for them and their work (Johnson & Birkland, 2003), and that they feel alienated from people in non-teaching professions (Jones 2001, cited in Buckley et al., 2005).SupportMany beginning teachers enter the profession ill-prepared to handle the actual realities of the classroom. They frequently question what they should be doing for the students, what they want from the students, and what is actually possible (Kutcy & Shultz, 2006). Although support can come in a variety of forms (i.e. structural, parental or collegial), the most desired type of support from beginning teachers appears to be from the administration. Failing to provide this support can cause some teachers to question a long-time commitment to the profession (Kutcy & Schultz, 2006; Crocco & Costigan, 2007; Johnson & Birkland, 2003; Minarik et al. 2003; Bolich, 2001; Buckley et al., 2005; Collingridge, 2008). The next section will describe how the principal may contribute to a beginning teacher’s decision to leave the profession.What role does the school principal play in beginning  teacher attrition?Beginning teachers enter the profession with high expectations of their principals. They look for support and wisdom, they expect meaningful observations and feedback, they want guidance in addressing discipline issues and classroom management, and they want opportunities for professional growth. They also want a principal who understands the challenges faced by beginning teachers, are fair and encouraging, and create structures of support and interaction among the schools teachers (Johnson & Birkland, 2003). However, they quickly find themselvesRinn 17Rinn 18‘flying solo’ and searching for the support they were promised (Worthy, 2005). In fact, lack of administrative support is-consistently cited as a reason for why new teachers choose to leave the profession. A national study in the US reports that 16% of teachers who left the profession because of dissatisfaction listed inadequate support from administration as the primary reason (Bolich, 2001). This section will explore the effect the principal has on a beginning teachers’ job satisfaction.Evaluations and feedbackIt was like ‘You ’re [screwing] up ’ She was real direct. Real negative. Which was just not what you need when you ’re a first-year teacher and you really are under a lot ofpressure and stress. You don’t need to feel like the management is coming down on you, too...Beginning teacher (Worthy, 2005, p. 390)Beginning teachers rarely enter the profession fully prepared to deal with all of the complexities involved in the education process. They do, however, believe that the skills that they will need can be taught (Johnson & Birkland, 2003). One way in which they expect this to happen is through mentorship, teacher observation, and evaluation (Johnson & Birkland, 2003). Although teacher observations and evaluations can be stressful for many beginning teachers, they still expect meaningful, constructive feedback on their progress and become frustrated when it does not happen (Kutcy & Shultz, 2006; Johnson & Birkland, 2003). The school principal is usually in charge of, or is at least in some way associated with this process. In the voice of one teacher: “In the beginning, when I didn’t have a clue if something was working, I really wanted him to observe.. .If I’m stinking it up, I want to know” (Anhom, 2008, p. 19). New teachers also get upset when they experience unfair or inaccurate evaluations. As one teacher describes, “Well,you [the administrator] haven’t been in the room once this year. You have absolutely no idea if I’m doing a good job or a bad job” (Kutcy & Shultz, 2006, p. 82).Accountability and teacher workloadKeisha had begun to think about finding a job in another school. When her principal assigned her to teach the fourth grade, where she would have to learn a new curriculum and prepare her students to take the state test, she decided it was time to leave(Johnson & Birkland, 2003, p. 600).Teaching has long been regarded as a profession that requires a great amount of time and dedication. Teacher workloads are high and many beginning teachers struggle to find a balance between their work life and their personal life. This is becoming increasingly difficult in an era of standards and high-stakes testing, where a teacher’s time is even more limited. Earlier in this paper, the frustrations beginning teachers express with teacher workload and accountability were described. Here, I explore how the principal can amplify teacher workloads and negatively influence a teacher’s approach to, and beliefs about standards and high-stakes testing.The principal has arguably the most control over what is required of new teachers and who teaches what classes. As noted earlier, many beginning teachers have expressed their frustration when principals forced them to instruct classes that are outside of their area of expertise (Kutcy & Shultz, 2006), give teaching loads that are more than they can handle (Johnson & Birkland, 2003), and assign them to teach the most difficult students or subjects in which they lack adequate preparation (Bolich, 2001). Principals often magnify the level of frustration when they fail to recognize the “boundaries of teachers’ professional lives” (Kutcy & Schultz, 2006, p. 84). One principal described that “ .. .the weekend was a great time to work onRinn 19lesson plans and.. .Sundays are days that the building is open and available for you to come and take care of these things” (Kutcy & Schultz, 2006, p. 84). The challenge of finding a balance between work and home life can be emotionally demanding on a new teacher and can often lead one to question a long time commitment to the profession (Kutcy & Schultz 2006).On top of structuring a beginning teacher’s assignment and workload, there is also evidence that the principal can influence, and sometimes magnify, the pressures associated with the accountability movement (Crocco & Costigan, 2007; Johnson & Birkland, 2003; Hover & Pierce, 2006; White, Sturtevant, & Dunlap, 2010). In the voice of one beginning teacher,“There's a lot of pressure on u s , . . .  for our students to pass the SOL (Standards Of Learning),... [0]ur principal, you know, keeps saying, "you've gotta pass them" and the only way to get the state off our back is to pass them” (White et al., 2010).There is also evidence that the accountability movement creates an inconsistency between teacher and principal in what is considered as ‘good teaching’. Crocco & Costigan (2007) found that while beginning teachers may renounce, the significance of tests as accurate indicators of success or of a students’ progress throughout the year, administrators might contend that good teaching is “more in line with rigid adherence to the curriculum and adoption of whatever pedagogical methods [will] ‘cover’ the curriculum” (p. 523). New teachers also recognize when academics and learning are not focused on by the principal. One beginning teacher expressed frustration because the principal considered ‘stellar’ teachers to be the ones who have their “kids in a row” and move from “page to page” (Johnson & Birkland, 2003, p. 600). Another teacher was upset that the principal was requiring him to turn in perfect lesson plans with no misplaced commas or misspelled words (Worthy, 2005). This teacher learned how to ‘play the game’ by preparing lessons that he knew would make the principal happy andRinn 20Rinn 21making sure to write lesson plans in a way that the principal would always accept (Worthy, 2005). Finally, most beginning teachers will shape their beliefs about standards and high stakes testing in the first few years of teaching and the principal can greatly influence how this happens. Hover & Pierce (2006) found that if new teachers are not provided with proper support, induction, and mentoring, they may end up resorting to “superficial coverage of topics, extensive drilling and repetition” (p. 47) to ensure that they are covering the curriculum; rather than focusing on academic goals such as the needs of individual students, teaching the content thoroughly, finding ways to engage students in academic work, and helping students develop socially (Berryhill et. al, 2009).Student discipline and parental concernsDealing with discipline issues can be a challenge for any teacher but appears to be especially difficult for beginning teachers. There are a number of reasons for why this is. First of all, it is nearly impossible to replicate discipline situations in a training program and therefore, it would be unrealistic to expect new teachers to be highly outfitted with the skills necessary to handle these problems. Second, new teachers lack experience. The more opportunities a teacher has in dealing with student discipline problems, the more confident and equipped he or she will be. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, beginning teachers need support and guidance from the administration. When confronting a serious discipline issue, beginning teachers want meaningful administrative guidance and failing to provide this'may lead a teacher to feel that they are on their own (Collingridge, 2008).Collingridge (2008) also reports that there may be a disconnect in communication between a teachers expectations and a principals expectations about how discipline should behandled. Specifically, administrators may feel that because of the value placed on autonomy, it is best to limit administrative involvement and allow teachers to deal with discipline issues on their own. With that being said, beginning teachers still need to know they have administrative support when making a difficult decision about student discipline. By not providing this support, an administrator may be sending the message to students that treating teachers with disrespect is not a serious problem (Collingridge, 2008). Interestingly though, beginning teachers also express frustrations when administrators focus too much on discipline and neglect the academic, teaching component (Johnson & Birkland, 2003).It is clear that involving parents in a child’s education is important. There is evidence that including parents can improve the home-school relationship, student achievement can grow, and the teacher can avoid surprises at reporting time along with gaining support and insight in addressing student behavioral problems (Kutcy & Schultz, 2006). Administrators expect, and sometimes even develop policies, so teachers will involve parents in the education process. Unfortunately, new teachers often lack the skills and training necessary to make the communication effective and administrators may provide little guidance about how to best do this (Kutcy & Shultz, 2006). Even when teachers do make the communication take place, the amount of follow-up paperwork and phone call logs required by administration can add to new teacher frustrations (Kutcy & Schultz, 2006). Confrontational interactions can be the most challenging as they can cause a great deal of emotional strain on any teacher, but are especially harmful to the ill-equipped beginner teacher.Working environmentRinn 22Rinn 23When I  went in for my interview, I  spoke with the principal, and she was telling me all about these meetings that we would have every other week with the other teachers in our grade. And they are nothing o f what I  expected. I  expected to go back and forth about ideas o f  how to teach this and how to teach that... I  expected it to be more o f a collaboration.(Kardos et al., 2001, p. 267)Beginning teachers want to work in a place where they feel like they belong, where they can develop relationships with colleagues and where professional development is encouraged (Anhom, 2008). The research shows, however, that many teachers are employed in schools with particularly challenging work environments (Reference ????). These environments can be stressful for any teacher, but appears to be especially tough on the beginning teacher. There are a number of ways that the school principal can contribute to the creation of difficult working conditions.To begin with, the principal can develop or shape the norms of the school -  established ways of doing things (Johnson & Birkland, 2003) -  that create additional challenges for the novice teacher. Kardos et al. (2001) report that creating a particularly demanding teaching schedule or advocating norms o f  privacy and autonomy can be challenging and discouraging for many beginning teachers. In another study, Johnson & Birkland (2003) found that beginning teachers were frustrated when there were “no school-wide norms for behavior, no systems in place for regulating traffic flow between classes or tunneling resources to teachers” (p. 600-601) and although there was evidence that the school was actually trying to improve the learning environment, it did not have the leadership to make it happen.Most new teachers are also employed on year-by-year contracts. In a study by Kutcy & Schultz (2006), beginning teachers recognized the power that the principal has in determining their job future and they often felt as if they have to “walk around on egg shells to a certain extent” (p. 82). New teachers in this study went out of their way to follow administrative directives as closely as possible to uphold school rules, but soon discovered that senior teachers were much more lenient when enforcing rules and the administration could rarely be counted on for support with rule infractions. Many beginning teachers also struggle dealing with the political dynamic in schools, which the principal often has great influence over. When new teachers have to work in an environment where they constantly battle over what is required of them by the administration and what they believe is in the best interest of the students, it undercuts their ability to focus on individual student needs or to develop a sense of fulfillment from their daily work lives (Crocco & Costigan, 2007).Principal's role in beginning teacher retentionKeeping new teachers is not the same as helping them become good teachers.(Feiman-Nemser, 2001, p.35)Maintaining good teachers should be one of the'most important agenda items for educational leaders. In the words of Darling-Hammond (2003) “Effective teachers constitute a valuable human resource for schools -  one that needs to be treasured and supported” (p. 7). Thus far in this paper, a number of factors have been described that can contribute to a beginning teachers decision to leave the profession. It would be unfair, or unrealistic, to expect the principal to find the time or energy to address every beginning teacher concern; some problems new teachers will simply have to work through on their own. Scholars have, however, documentedRinn 24two general types of support that beginning teachers need: psychological and instruction-related (Wynn, Carboni, Patall, 2007). Psychological support attends to the personal and emotional needs of new teachers, but does not necessarily improve the quality of instruction; instruction- related support helps beginners learn about lesson planning, school rules, and basic classroom management but does little help new teachers cope with the emotional demands (Stansbury & Zimmerman, 2000 cited in Wynn et al., 2007). Thus, it is important that new teachers receive both types of support, in some shape or form. This section of the paper will describe a variety of activities, strategies, and programs that the school principal may want to consider when trying to not only retain beginning teachers, but to also improve the quality of education in the process.Supportive and professional climateI  have my own ideas behind doing things. They may be very good ideas, but it is the sharing that helps me understand my ideas, I  think. It helps me develop them and really get a grasp on where I ’m coming from. Maybe, see other things I  didn’t see... [It] helps me do my job. Period. I  just can’t imagine doing it any other way.(Kardos et al., 2001, p. 277)Drawing on the research collected for this paper, arguably the most influential factor in a beginning teachers career decision is their working environment. Some aspects of a working environment are out of the schools control, such as the economic background of the student population. A schools’ professional climate, however, is an irreplaceable component of the working conditions and can greatly influence new teacher retention, which is supported by the number of researchers who have found that beginning teachers are much more apt to continue teaching when they are involved in strong and supportive professional learning cultures (JohnsonRinn 25& Birkland, 2003; NCTAF, 2005; Crocco & Costigan, 2007; Kardos et. al, 2001; Collingridge, 2008; Kutcy & Shultz, 2006; Heffner, 2009; Wynn et al, 2007).This paper will draw on the definition of school climate by Sergiovanni & Starret (1993) which describes it as “the enduring characteristics that describe the psychological character of a particular school, distinguish it from other schools, and influence the behavior of teachers and students, and as the psychological ‘feel’ that teachers and students have for that school” (cited in Wynn et al, 2007, p. 214). In schools with weak professional cultures, new teachers are left to fend for themselves and find that they often compete rather than collaborate with colleagues. Schools with strong professional cultures see teachers engaging in meaningful collaboration, set high standards for teacher work, promote teacher interdependence, and support continuous learning by all (Johnson & Birkland, 2003). Strong professional cultures have also been shown to enhance student learning along with creating working environments where teachers work as colleagues rather than as independent instructors (Little, 1982 cited in Kardos et al., 2001). Research confirms the central role of the school principal in establishing, reinforcing, and realigning-the school culture (Kardos et al., 2001; Brown & Wynn, 2007).There are a number of ways in which the principal can create a positive school climate that will benefit new teachers. To begin with, beginning teachers need to know what is expected of them. By developing clear goals, objectives, and priorities, new teachers will better understand not only what is expected of them but also where they fit into the education process (Charlotte Advocates for Education, 2004). It is also important that the beginning teacher is aware of the operating school norms and values and that these norms are shared by staff (Brown & Wynn, 2007). As described by Hord (1997), this entails a shared vision that is developed fromRinn 26Rinn 27staffs resolute commitment to student learning and is consistently articulated and referenced for the staffs work.Another important component in creating a positive school climate is the development of a collaborative learning environment. This can offer the much needed emotional and personal support but also provides new teachers help with lesson planning, teaching pedagogy, problem solving, and classroom management (Hope, 1999). A challenge, however, is that many teachers enter the profession apprehensive about approaching veteran teachers or administrators for help and guidance. Therefore, it is important that the principal is pro-active in offering assistance and facilitating collaboration (Brown & Wynn, 2007). This can be anything from informally visiting a new teacher’s classroom to creating a formal induction and mentoring program, which will be described in greater detail later in this paper.New teacher status and workloadRelying on knowledge o f teacher development, content, and pedagogy, a principal who effectively provides leadership for induction develops, manages, and refines structures to facilitate novices ’ learning in teaching.(McGraner, 2008, p.2)Recognizing that beginning teachers are in fact, beginning teachers, is an important first step for the school principal to take. New teachers have special needs and they do not enter the profession fully prepared to handle the complexities of the classroom. Principal’s in strong professional cultures recognize the challenges faced by new teachers and use their position and ability as a leader to form a culture with new teachers in mind (Kardos, et al., 2001). By structuring a new teachers experience with the intention of maximizing success, the schoolprincipal not only improves the likelihood that beginning teachers will stay in the profession, but also improves the level of professionalism throughout the school.Carefully managing a new teacher’s workload and assignment is important in maximizing their success. It was noted earlier that beginning teachers are often given the most challenging assignments and workloads, often setting them up for failure (Hope, 1999; NCTAF,2005; Johnson & Birkland; Kardos, et al, 2001; Coley, 2009). This does not have to be the case.)There are a number of structural adaptations that can be employed by the principal to relieve some of the pressure that new teachers experience.First of all, the work schedule can be customized with time set aside specifically for beginning teachers to collaborate with other effective, experienced teachers (Charlotte Advocates for Education, 2004). This type of support is extremely important for new teachers and even schools who may not have the resources or financial stability to alter the schedule must find some way to connect beginning teachers with their peers. The principal can also provide beginning teachers with a planning period each day (Charlotte Advocates for Education, 2004). Structuring this additional time during the school day will keep teachers from spending an inordinate amount of out-of-school time grading papers, preparing lessons, contacting parents, or attending to other time-consuming tasks.Second, the principal can reduce the overall workload of a beginning teacher (Johnson & Birkland, 2003; Sargent, 2003; Renard, 2003; Charlotte Advocates for Education, 2004). Not requiring new teachers to take on extra duties and responsibilities will allow them to direct more time and attention towards the classroom and their students (Sargent, 2003). A final logistical consideration is to ensure that new teachers are not given the most challenging teachingRinn 28assignments. Renard (2003) suggests avoiding giving teachers more than two course preparations or assigning them to classrooms with multiple grade levels. It may also be helpful to have beginning teachers teach the same courses or grade levels for their first few years; allowing them to become confident with the material before changing the teaching assignment (Renard, 2003). By placing the most talented teachers in the most challenging classrooms, the principal sends a clear message that teacher learning is a top priority (Heffner, 2009).The strategies mentioned above can greatly improve the experiences of beginning teachers, but may be stoutly challenged if the professional culture of the school does not supportthe needs of beginning teachers. Veteran teachers will often tell stories about how hard their firstfyears of teaching were. As Renard (2003) describes, “Experienced teachers often believe they have paid their dues and beginning teachers must do the same. They may view surviving the first few years of teaching as a badge of honor” (Renard, 2003, p. 63). If this is the attitude of the experienced teachers at a school, the principal may be contested if he or she changes the structure of a workday to support new teachers. The leader must find a way to make it known to everyone (i.e. veteran teachers, support staff, custodians, etc...) why it is important to support new teachers and what role beginning teacher retention plays in improving the overall quality of education.InductionInduction is a process -  a comprehensive, coherent, and sustained professional development process -  that is organized by a school district to train, support, and retain new teachers and seamlessly progresses them into a lifelong learning program.(Wong, 2004, p. 42)Rinn 29Rinn 30As teacher attrition rates rise, so does the prevalence of teacher induction programs.These programs vary according to scope and breadth; some provide a quick crash course on school policy whereas others are part of a comprehensive and sustained professional development process (Wong, 2004). Statistics show that comprehensive, well thought out induction programs not only reduce beginning teacher turnover, but can also improve job satisfaction and feelings of efficacy (Smith & Ingersoll, 2004). For example, four years after the Larfourche induction program was implemented in Louisiana, new teacher retention rates rose to as high as 96% (Wong, 2004). Similarly, the Santa Cruz New Teacher Program reports a 94% retention rate since introducing the program (Anhom, 2008). These induction activities provide more than a single orientation meeting at the beginning of the school year. Rather, they focus on developmental growth and involve multiple activities and meetings over a period of several years (Smith & Ingersoll, 2004).The principal can play a pivotal role in the induction process. McGraner (2008) describes key strategies for the principal to follow when implementing, or preparing to implement an induction program. First of all, the he or she must recognize that this is clearly an important time period for not only socializing the teacher into the profession but also in “cultivating a sense of shared goals around ambitious teaching and student learning” (p. 2). The principal must find a balance between easing initial teacher anxiety and empowering new teachers to strive for improvement. Secondly, the principal needs to be become involved in the induction process by sharing visions of quality induction, helping to set goals, and selecting developmentally- appropriate induction curriculum. Developing a comprehensive knowledge base about the effects of induction as well as the strengths and weakness of specific programs will make the principal a key contributor in the growth of an induction program. Finally, it is the principals’ duty topromote a school culture that reinforces and supports new teacher induction. The principal is in the best position to channel the social interactions among new and veteran teachers that will strengthen the commitment to teaching and student learning as well as guiding the development of school norms, values, and beliefs to create a professional culture that supports new teacher growth (McGraner, 2008).MentoringMentoring is usually included as part of the entire induction process. When used properly, these programs can be a very powerful support tool for beginning teachers but can also renew and retain veteran teachers by “casting them in new roles as school-based teacher educators” (Feiman-Nemser, 2003, p. 29). Mentors can help new teachers understand what isrexpected of them, help them adjust to the school culture, recognize effective teaching and discipline strategies, assess their strengths and weaknesses, provide feedback and encouragement, and create opportunities for collaborations with colleagues (Tillman, 2005). By structuring a means of connecting new teachers with their peers into the induction process, the school principal promotes relationships that are mutually beneficial to the teachers involved (Hope, 1999). The school principal rarely provides direct mentorship to new teachers and instead assumes an indirect role by advocating, supporting, and implementing the program along with finding, pairing, and overseeing mentors. This section will focus on what the school principal can do to improve the quality of a mentoring program.Arguably the most significant part of the mentoring process is determining its importance. In other words, is mentoring being used to truly improve the quality of teaching or is it “ ...a convenient and unconsciously foolish way for an administrator to divorce himself orRinn 31\herself from the leadership required to bring a beginning teacher up to professional maturity level” (North Carolina Teaching Fellows Commission, 1995; quoted in Wong, 2004, p. 43-44). The statistics show that unfortunately the latter may be true. For example, Susan Kardos found that in a survey of 110 new teachers in New Jersey, 97% of them said they were assigned a mentor but only 17% said the mentors ever actually observed them teach (Drummond, 2002). This results in a waste of time, money, and resources for both the school and the teachers involved. The principal is in the best position to make explicit the importance of a mentoring program and although the teacher-mentor relationship is of utmost importance, it is crucial that the principal is also involved. Principals can share school-wide goals with both the mentor and beginning teacher, creating opportunities to strengthen the relationship between all people involved (Heffner, 2009). The principal can also make it clear that the school is committed to finding, keeping, and supporting good teachers by aligning the mentoring process with the districts vision, mission, and structure (Wong, 2004). New teachers feel empowered when they know the principal is committed to their development.It is also important that the principal set up school structures and release time that enables new teachers and mentors to collaborate, observe each other, and provide feedback (Tillman, 2005; Hope, 1999; NCTAF, 2005). Some schools may commit to this process, but lack the financial resources to make it happen. Here, Worthy (2005) advocates a team mentoring approach. Individual teachers might feel unable to handle the full responsibility of mentoring and may be more inclined to share the responsibility with other like-minded teachers (Worthy, 2005).Beginning teachers will often rely on mentors for emotional support, but it is. important to recognize the capacity a mentor has in improving the quality of teaching and instruction. If the goal is learning to teach, mentors become much more than buddies or local guides (Feiman-Rinn 32Nemser, 2003). The principal must recognize that proper training is pivotal if the goal is in fact to improve the quality of instruction. Feiman-Nemser (2002) reports that sometimes great teachers struggle with mentorship because they do not know how to verbalize their thinking, explain the theory behind their actions, or break down complex teaching moves into components that are clear to a beginner. Proper training helps them to learn to become an educative mentor, clarify their vision of what counts as good teaching, develop skills in observing and talking about teaching, and learning to evaluate new teacher progress and their own efficiency as mentors (Feiman-Nemser, 2003).Accountability...good principals provided space for decision making and helped mitigate rather than enforce the pressures and frustrations brought about by the new regime o f accountability 1(Crocco & Costigan, 2007, p. 525)Educational accountability is increasing across the globe, creating a new set of demands, pressures, and frustrations. Interestingly though, there is relatively little research that has been conducted about the effects of accountability on beginning teachers. Part of this may be due to the fact that accountability has just recently begun to receive so much attention and research has yet to catch up with it. Or perhaps it is because new teachers have so much on their plate that attending to the demands of accountability is simply mixed into part of a bigger issue, such as teacher workload. However, examining the statistics on beginning teacher attrition may reveal a different scenario. After scanning an intense amount of literature on beginning teacher attrition, rarely was ‘increased accountability’ cited as a main reason for why new teachers choose to leave the profession. It was however, one of the central frustrations for the more experiencedRinn 33teachers (Tye & Obrien, 2002). Many of the experienced teachers may have taught in the pre­accountability era when there was not as much emphasis on standards and testing. New teachers do not have this frame of reference to base their experience off of; all they know is what they experience in their first years of teaching. Explaining this deficit in the literature may be a guiding question for further research. Earlier in this paper, the effects of accountability on beginning teachers were described.There has also been a growing amount of research on how accountability can affect the role of education leader. Although accountability intends to systematically improve educational results, it has been argued that it can also reduce the influence school leaders have on instruction (Johnstone. Dikkers. & Luedeke. 20091. In addition, attaching federal funding directly to achievement results, like what is done right now with No Child Left Behind (NCLBJ in the US. puts the principal in highly moral dilemma as he or she must balance instructional autonomy and independence with ensuring the school has economic stability. Furthermore, this all has to be done while at the same time helping, supporting, and educating beginning teachers on how to mitigate these pressures to maintain autonomy and improve the quality of education. It is not an easy job and it is important to remember that each school and each teacher will need to be approached in a unique, individualistic manner.ConclusionNot every school has a beginning teacher retention problem. In fact, many schools are very enjoyable places to work with learning environments that are supportive of new teachers. However, in schools, states, provinces, or countries where the teacher attrition rate is growing at an intense rate, the issue must be addressed if schools intend to improve the overall quality ofRinn 34education and reduce the dramatic student achievement gap. As a school leader, it is important to be aware of how education systems are changing and what effect this may have not only on beginning teachers, but on all teachers.The purpose of this literature review was to explore the role of the school principal in beginning teacher retention. The paper began by describing a number of factors, although not exhaustive, that may contribute to a new teacher’s decision to leave the profession or move to a different job; this was followed by an examination of the role of the principal and how he or she might contribute to new teacher attrition; finally, this paper provided a number of strategies that the principal may want to consider if a school goal is to support, develop, and keep beginning teachers.As a principal, it is important to be mindful of the challenges encountered by novice teachers. Career orientation was described earlier as a reason for why new teachers leave, but this is a factor that the principal has little influence over. However, by actively communicating with these teachers the principal will develop not only a better understanding of their decision to leave but will also help prepare the school for their departure, providing additional time to find a highly qualified replacement. There is also a hope that new teachers will enter the profession prepared to handle the complexities of the classroom, but unfortunately this is rarely the case.The principal must be aware that these teachers usually have not spent much time in direct control of the classroom and it is important for them to know that they are supported and will receive guidance as they stumble through their initial years. Beginning teachers are also entering the profession in an era of accountability. However, from the literature it appears that they are not as aware of the implications of standards and high-stakes testing as their experienced counterparts. Therefore, as a principal it is important to educate new teachers about the roleRinn 35accountability plays in influencing the quality of education while at the same time finding a way for them to develop a unique teaching persona. Perhaps one way that accountability has influenced new teachers is in the amount of time and work that it takes them to do what is required. Their minimal knowledge of the education process along with relatively weak time management skills can cause many new teachers to spend additional time and effort attending to what is required of them. The principal is in arguably the most influential position to mitigate these pressures by structuring additional time for new teachers to meet with mentors and colleagues, prepare lessons and grade papers, or to observe experienced, veteran teachers. It was also mentioned in this paper that salary, resources, and funding can contribute to a new teacher’s satisfaction with their job. Salary is typically out of principals’ control, other than perhaps being an advocate for higher teacher salaries. The principal is, however, usually in control of the school budget which can influence the distribution of resources and funding. Guaranteeing that funds and resources are democratically distributed, the principal will not only equip beginners with adequate teaching resources but also sets the tone that support for new teachers is important.There is one final element about the role of the principal in beginning teacher attrition and retention that must be addressed; and I argue that it necessitates further research. The strategies suggested earlier that the principal can employ, (i.e. reducing new teacher workload, providing mentorship, creating an induction program) can all be categorized under managerial leadership. They are structural suggestions that arguably do not recognize the importance or individuality of an educational leader. In other words, anybody could come in, implement these strategies and would in effect, be providing support for new teachers. It is not that these programs lack significance, because scholars have clearly shown their positive impact, but the literature rarely discusses the importance of other types of educational leadership that may focusRinn 36on being a visionary and change agent, empowering new teachers with opportunities for leadership and collaborative decision making, motivating for professional growth, or having the ability to develop a true professional learning culture. It is interesting that this has been left out of the majority of literature and further research may provide quality insight into the growing issue of beginning teacher attrition.Beginning teachers represent the upcoming generation of educators and if schools continue to lose them at the rate we are today, it will ultimately undermine the quality o f public education. Schools, and in particular school leaders, must remember that beginning teachers are in fact, beginning teachers. They have different needs and demands than that of their experienced counterparts and must be treated with proper care, guidance, and support. These teachers enter the profession enthusiastic and dedicated to influence young peoples’ lives and it is the combined duty of teachers, administrators, and support staff to create a supportive environment that will encourage the promising, high quality teachers to stay.Rinn 37Rinn 38ReferencesAnhom, R. (2008). The profession that eats its young. The Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin. 74(3), 15-21.Barrett Kutcy, C. & Schulz, R. (2006). Why are beginning teachers frustrated with the profession? McGill Journal o f Education, 41(1), 77-89.Berryhill, J., Linney, J., Fromewick, J. (2009). The effects of education accountability onteachers: Are policies too stress provoking for their own good? International Journal o f  Education Policy and Leadership. 4(5), 1-14.Bolich, A., & Southern Regional Education Board, A. (2001). Reduce Your Losses: Help New Teachers Become Veteran Teachers. Atlanta, GA: Southern Regional Education Board.Brown, K. & Wynn, S. (2007). Teacher retention issues: How some principals are supporting and keeping new teachers. Journal o f School Leadership, 17(6), 664-698.Buckley, J., Schneider, M., & Shang, Y. (2005). Fix it and they might stay: School facility quality and teacher retention in Washington, D.C. Teachers College Record, 107(5), 1107-1123.Certo, J. (2006). Beginning teacher concerns in an accountability-based testing environment. Journal o f  Research in Childhood Education, 20(4), 331 -349.Charlotte Advocates for Education (2004). Role of principal leadership in increasing teacher retention: Creating a supportive environment. **Coley, D. (2009) Leading GENERATION Y. Principal Leadership, 74(9), 20-24.Collingridge, D. (2008). Phenomenological insight on being hindered from fulfilling one's primary responsibility to educate students. 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