UBC Graduate Research

The creation of a global education program Carlyle, Michael Joseph 2010-02

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THE CREATION OF A GLOBAL EDUCATION PROGRAMb yMICHAEL JOSEPH CARLYLEBSc, The University of British Columbia, 2004 BEd, The University of British Columbia, 2005A GRADUATING PAPER SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OFMASTER OF EDUCATIONinTHE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES '(Adult Learning and Global Change)THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA February, 2010©Michael Joseph Carlyle, 2010The Creation of a Global Education Program Michael Carlyle University of British ColumbiaThe Creation of a Global Education ProgramTable of ContentsIntroduction....................................................................... ...................................................... 3The Purpose of a Creating a Global Education Program.............................................   3The Creation of Global Citizens........................................................................................... 5How to create a “global consciousness”..........................  6Global Citizens...................................................................   8A Change in Curriculum......................................................................................................10Literature Review................................................................................................................. 10The Importance of a Global Education Program........................................... ................... 11Curriculum Considerations.................................................................................................12Experiential Learning is a Significant Component.............................................................14The Plight of Global Education and Citizenship Programs....................................... ........15The Need for a Global Education Program...........................................  16Where does Global Education currently exist in B.C. Curriculum?..................................17A Canadian Perspective is the Focus of Civics 11...............................................................17Developing a Critical Consciousness through Social Justice 12.........................................18The Protocol for the creation of a Global Education Course....................................... 20Outline of the Curriculum................................................................................................... 21Course Rationale......................................................................   21Grad Profile Attributes:...................................................................................................... 22Curriculum Intentions......................................................................................................... 23Resources.........................................  24Accountability and Professionalism..................................   24A Global Education Curriculum.........................................................................................24Necessary Components........................................................................................................ 26The Course Outline and Rationale......................... 28Understanding the Human Condition.................................................................................28Examining Global Issues................................................................................................... 28Social Action: Case Study and Development Project..........................................................30Progress of the Global Education Course and Future Considerations..............................31Discussion...............................................................................................................................  31Conclusion..........................................................................................  33References:..............................................................................................................................35IntroductionI believe a “global consciousness” is the core principle in being a global citizen. A global citizen is one who takes on the responsibilities of being a citizen in an international context. A “global consciousness” is defined as “the capacity and the inclination to place our self and the people, objects, and situations with which we come into contact with, into the broader matrix of the world” (Gardner and Mansilla, in M. Suarez-Orzco, 2007) This concept can also be described as being cognizant of the impact of ones’ actions on the various communities around the world. The purpose of a global education program aimed at developing a “global consciousness” is discussed within this paper. This paper begins by explaining the purpose of a global education program followed by the concept of a “global consciousness”. The relevance of a global education program is examined through a discussion of current literature about the rationale of such programs. The literature review focuses on global education pedagogy and barriers that exist. A proposed global education curriculum aimed at high school students is then introduced with the goal of school district approval and subsequent implementation. This paper concludes with a discussion that will address how this global education program will help students achieve a “global consciousness” and how to overcome potential barriers.The Purpose of a Creating a Global Education ProgramThis section explores how socially minded individuals currently exist in our world, and describe how through a shift in one’s citizenship to a national perspective (Falk in Brecher et al. 1999) the development of global citizens may result. In order to become global citizens, individuals require what Gardner and Mansilla call a “global consciousness” (in Marcelo and Suarez-Orzco, 2007). The development of a “global consciousness” will be one of the mainThe Creation of a Global Education Program 3goals of the global education course. The terms program and course will be used interchangeably throughout this paper as the proposed curriculum stated in a later section could require more than one course, especially with the inclusion of an overseas project. Subsequently, an explanation of the concepts of global citizenship and consciousness will be presented with a justification to support the development of a global education program.A Shift in CitizenshipCitizenship, as explained by Falk (in Brecher et al. 1999) describes one’s membership in a particular political or social community. Membership can be defined by laws or be more respective of experience and political affiliation. With the shift of ones political considerations from a local (or national) perspective to one of global perspective, Falk (1999) argues that a reaction of altering of one’s political affiliation would follow. Extending the concept of citizenship to a global domain is referred to as global citizenship and might be accomplished by attempting to unify the human experience and creating a better world through peace and justice. Within a global civil society lie the foot soldiers of change, the global citizens (Falk in Brecher et al. 1999). With many of our world problems heavily intertwined with global politics created by neoliberal, transnational agendas, our consciousness must shift into the global realm (Gilpin in Discroll et al. 2000). Therefore, a shift in the definition of citizenship is one that is not associated with merely nation state politics, but instead one-world community politics and trans-national norms (Falk 1994 in Brecher et al. 1999). In order to become a global citizen, one must develop a “global consciousness”, which as previously mentioned, is the aim of global education pedagogy. In summary, “global consciousness”, developed through global education pedagogy could generate global citizens. National boundaries will no longer be the only determinant ofThe Creation of a Global Education Program 4political views, as a global citizens’ perspective will cause them to be empathetic to a global community. The idea of global citizenship will be examined in the subsequent section.The Creation of a Global Education Program 5The Creation of Global CitizensGlobalization must be considered one o f the defining terms o f modern life. (Lule, 2009)Education must enable us to respond positively to the opportunities and challenges o f the rapidly changing world in which we live and work. In particular, we need to be prepared to engage as individuals ...and citizens with economic, social and cultural change, including the continued globalization o f the economy and society, ('www.nc.uk.net in Marshall, 2003)The concept of globalization has become increasingly inter-twined with post-secondary education programs at multiple Universities (ALGC at UBC for example). With the exception of small portions of the Social Studies curriculum in British Columbia, high school pedagogical objectives involving this important and increasingly influential term, Globalization, are not in evidence.À recently developing pedagogical outcome of global education (of the altering of consciousness) has gained the attention of educational programs from elementary ages to post secondary institutions. The idea of a “global consciousness” parallels Freires’ critical counterpart with respect to the shifting of ones’ understanding by focusing on aspects of our existence on this planet. A “global consciousness” refers to empathy of humanity as a collective (Earley, 1997). Earley (1997) argues that the consciousness of the human race and continued existence on this planet as a whole is paramount to this form of understanding. In coordination with other forms ofeducational growth, I feel that a “global consciousness” must be developed and created through pedagogy. The neglect of global issues in the previous generations’ pedagogy may have resulted in the current state of our world. Now we must begin to educate to create a “global consciousness” with the aim of developing global citizens who will stimulate change and work to eradicate global problems.rHow to create a “Global Consciousness”The directives of a global education program should be to create individuals with a “global consciousness”. Students who understand world issues and appreciate the cultural differences throughout the world might become more respectful, empathetic and caring citizens. One presents the actions of a “global consciousness” when he/she demonstrates an understanding of how global processes are influenced by our daily interactions when we consider that we exist in a global context. Pike (2004) argues that a global morality with respect to rights, responsibilities and actions, is the foundation upon which global citizenship is built. I believe students who begin to examine their actions from a global perspective, will become more conscious of their decisions and subsequent impacts. The research on global warming and the subsequent promotion of environmental responsibility is one example of how a global perspective manifests itself. Other issues such as increasing poverty levels and general inequality in the world demand a re-evaluation of our ideas of what citizenship and citizenship education should be to meet the demands of our global society (Osier, 1994 in Davies 2004). The previous statements suggest that a program of the nature proposed here could be helpful.In my teaching experience, most youth that I have come into contact with demonstrate a low level of understanding about the interconnectedness of our world and how individualThe Creation of a Global Education Program 6decisions can impact people all over the world. I feel it is critical for youth to develop an understanding of where they live in relation to the global sphere and how global issues can be affected by their actions. From adherence to community recycling programs, to wearing clothing created in a rural village thousands of kilometers away in a developing country, decisions we make can have an effect on people across the globe. Osier (in Davies 2004) describes global education as playing a vital role in creating a variety of perspectives and looking beyond national boundaries. He argues that when this occurs, identities begin to shift toward a pluralistic society and a redefinition of citizenship to include a global perspective. Therefore, in order to become a global citizen, a cognitive flexibility created through a multitude of perspectives is essential and students require experiences that provoke an understanding of “the other” (Suarez-Orozco, M, and D. Qin-Hillard 2004). Gibson (2008) argues that this transformation is a necessity for future participation of individuals in a globalized world. The impacts of experiential learning, or learning that is acquired through direct participation in an immediate and relevant setting (Smith, M.K. 2010), will be included in our discussion of the global education curriculum in a subsequent section.Why Educational Reform is necessaryTolerance, inter-cultural dialogue and respect for diversity are more essential than ever in a world where peoples are becoming more and more closely interconnected Kofi Annan, Former Secretary-General of the United NationsWhether one supports or opposes aspects of globalization there is no debating the impact that globalization has on our world and lives. A globalizing world demands educational reform. Czarra and Collins (1986) defend this point and argue that students should leave high schoolThe Creation of a Global Education Program 7informed and concerned about the major global issues and challenges facing the world. Anderson (1990) argues that education should mirror society in that social change ought to generate educational change. In my opinion, as a professional teacher, the current pedagogical developments are severely behind the 21st century global changes. With increased multiculturalism and the global sharing of information state and political boundaries of our nations become blurred. As argued by Lagos (2003), “traditional ties between citizen and the state are withering” (pp.5) which results in loyalties to lifestyle politics. Two examples of the shift of nationalistic citizenship to a global focus are the World Trade Organization and the Asia- Pacific Economic Cooperation riots that happened in late 1990’s in Seattle and Vancouver, respectfully. These events involved an educated collective protesting for global issues revolving around economic equality and human rights, irrespective of nationalistic gain.Along with the previously mentioned global issues influencing protest, living in a city like Vancouver, one can’t get through a month without a global issue being protested in the city center. There is undoubtedly, a shift from not just fighting for rights of our own citizens but to include in the struggle, the rights and wellbeing of our international brethren. With the influence of global issues becoming more evident and a part of the social consciousness, shouldn’t our education reflect these changes? If one of the goals of public education is create national citizens, a shift in our social consciousness should equate to a similar change in our educational objectives. Xin (2007) supports this idea and argues that with the rapidly changing society in the 21st century there is an urgent need for schools to address global issues and infuse awareness in the curriculum. -,The Creation of a Global Education Program 8Global CitizensThe Creation of a Global Education Program 9The current and future importance of becoming a global citizen with knowledge, tolerance, understanding and acceptance of cultural differences is imperative to success in a global society. C. Suarez-Orozco (in Suarez-Orozco, M, and D. Qin-Hillard 2004) supports this claim and argues that preparing youth to be successful in a multicultural world is an essential part of creating a global village. Kirkwood (in Xin, 2007) defined this as a “new world order” and argued that the next generation will face some of histories most serious health problems, inequality, overpopulation and decline of the nation state. Thus, transformative education with the goal of creating a “global consciousness” has now become a necessity in the principles of global justice and a long-term goal of contemporary education (Gardner and Mansilla in Marcelo and Suarez-Orzco, 2007). This form of educational pedagogy could have profound impacts on the world.Understanding the needs of others can replace the fear of our differences and can be the catalyst in eliminating global issues like world poverty and other global inequalities (Noddings, 2007). As argued by Gardner and Mansilla (in Marcelo and Suarez-Orzco, 2007), in order to thrive in a globalizing world, young people should understand the inequality in the world and issues facing out planet. Students should be inspired by the goal of developing a “global consciousness”, or a mindful way of existing in the current state of this world (Gardner and Mansilla in Marcelo and Suarez-Orzco, 2007). Hopefully, global citizens will fight to change the structures in our transforming global society that enable inequalities to exist. I believe that developing a “global consciousness” and ideas of egalitarianism, such as universal human rights, can create a generation that attempts to end global inequalities. Gardner and Mansilla (in Marcelo and Suarez-Orzco, 2007) support this point from their belief that a “global consciousness” may lead to a greater global sensitivity, or awareness of our local experience inrelation to the global village, and informed global self, or our perception as actors and the sense of our membership and responsibilities in the world.Through educational development, students will hopefully learn to view our global population as one unified entity. As our nations’ borders become less prominent, we all become citizens of one global village, and the development of ideas of the human condition and equality of all members of our global society will form the foundation. We must discontinue the ignorance that exists in our society when we believe our actions do not impact others in the world, both positively and negatively. Getting students to start looking at how global issues are perpetuated by our actions might stimulate positive changes in our own communities with respect to social inequalities and justice. Therefore, transformative global education programs aimed at helping students to develop a “global consciousness” are important.A Change in CurriculumCurrently, the British Columbia provincial education system contains no curriculum that educates specifically to the development of a “global consciousness”, identities and perspectives (British Columbia Ministry of Education, 2010). Instead, many teachers have taken on the responsibility to create locally developed global education programs. The subsequent section will examine areas of British Columbia’s high school pedagogy that includes global issues and the process of getting a locally developed course approved at the school district level.Literature ReviewThe Creation of a Global Education Program 10/The objective of this paper is to investigate the possible development of a global education course at the high school level. Therefore, the literature that was examined and researched for this paper aimed to both justify the significance of such a program and provide examples of appropriate and effective curriculum to achieve the goals of such a program. At a critical juncture prior to program acceptance and implementation, a justification for a global education program must be carried out with members of a school community (administrators, teachers, students and parents) and district curriculum advisors must approve and be in agreement with the value of having students participate in such a program. This paper seeks to support a global education program by examining the aforementioned issues. In determining effective curriculum, literature involving the problematic nature of established programs that exist elsewhere were examined with the intention of avoiding some of the pitfalls. The literature selected will provide a foundation for a successful program.The Importance of a Global Education ProgramMany global educators have described the importance of global education programs. Marshall (2005) in her paper, Developing The Global Gaze in Citizenship Education: Exploring the Perspectives in Global Education, discusses the history of Global Education in United Kingdom and introduces ideas of how schools can develop a “global dimension” and incorporate global education in their curriculum and pedagogy. Marshall argues,Global education encompasses the strategies, policies and plans that prepare young people and adults for living together in an interdependent world. It is based on the principles o f  co-operation, nonviolence, respect for human rights and cultural diversity (from Osier and Vincent, 2002) (pp.77)The Creation of a Global Education Program 11O’Sullivan and Vetter (2007) provide a case study of one school infusing global education projects into their curriculum. The authors argue that the outcome of this program is such that “their efforts are creating caring students with a sense of responsibilities towards others.”(pp. 26). Through methods of connecting with schools in sub-Sahara Africa, students in the study are participating in cross-cultural projects and exploring social issues that other students their age are living through (i.e. Child soldiers, tsunami survivors). The model described by O’Sullivan and Vetter is one of a school committed to the practice of global education, and a school-wide global education philosophy established by focusing on student-centered inquiry and critical pedagogy. The outcome of the school’s program is that their young students are developing a global perspective and are inspired into taking action. This study provicles a successful example of the positive impacts of global education programs.In agreement, Nagashima (2008) defends the position of a global focus by explaining how global education fosters global citizenship, leading to a “global consciousness” which is. imperative in curbing the current world issues caused by globalization.Curriculum ConsiderationsToh Swee-Hin (1993, in Lyons 2003) argues for the importance of the transformative paradigm to the creation of agents of change. Through five themes: ethical living, planetary survival, ecological security, global and local thinking, and conscientious and empowering pedagogy the aim of transformative pedagogy can be established.The Creation of a Global Education Program 12)An alternative program providing similar outcomes was described by Joseph and Effron (2005), using global education practices such as caring communities, peace education, social action, and ethical inquiry in their suggested curriculum.Marshall (2005) provides eight pedagogical considerations to be implemented to create an “ideal global education” program and the associated skills to be developed by students. These considerations aim to establish critical thinking, research, and communication skills. Examples of these concepts include: fostering “global ethos” in a school, all members of a school to experience “the global”, and for teachers and students to convey passion for the learning ofiglobal education principles. This paper provides insight into program ideals and visions but offers very little information on the implementation of such a program.An alternative suggestion is that in order to achieve successful global education outcomes, the global education themes must be incorporated into all aspects of curriculum from math to language to physical education. Lyons (2006), recommends that global education be “integrated into existing curriculum using a multi-disciplinary approach” (pp. 11). Her view of moral education should be woven into the school culture and all students should participate in one action project each year. Lyons (2006) argues that the four “A‘s”: Altruism, Autonomy, Achievement and Attainment, “should be the springboard from which schools choose to become actively involved in world problems” (pp. 12). She also suggests that students and teachers focus on social emotional learning.Closer to providing concrete pedagogical examples is Mahlstedt (2003) who examined how International Baccalaureate high school programs continue to fail on delivering sound global citizenship education. He suggested the emergence of the concept of a global citizen hasThe Creation of a Global Education Program 13raised the call for a mode of education to teach children how to be global citizens. Mahlstedt (2003) argues that effective global citizenship education curriculum should include concepts of universalism, interconnectedness and awareness of the global situation.Marshall (2005) discussed a multitude of approaches to aid in the development of what she termed as a “global dimension”, such as international visits, global days and citizenship curriculum. She does not, however, provide concrete examples of implementable curriculum, which seems to be a shortcoming of global education pedagogical theory.Experiential Learning is a Significant ComponentExperiential learning, explained by Kolb (1983), has shown to create positive engaging ways to retain knowledge. Anderson (1990) argues that global education can help students see things from another cultures’ point of view. Students could derive benefits in this regard from an experiential learning component of a global education program. Kane (in Gibson, 2008) supports this idea by stating that global learning is a social-constructivist learning activity that involves experiential and project-based learning and that successful intercultural collaboration is contingent upon effective communication between people of different cultures and greater global awareness. An example of the impact of experiential learning was shown by Neff, Barker and Cornwell (2008) in their study on a One Homeless Night event where students engaged in a project where they lived one night in a controlled environment on the street, like the homeless. They found that this form of learning yielded profound impacts on the students’ ability to empathize with the homeless population, which in this case would be considered the other. As explained by Smith (2003) this is a result of participation in a contextual situation, which encourages the development of identity through personal experience of engagement.The Creation of a Global Education Program 14Nagashima (2008) argues that the teacher is central in making the difference in students’ lives by providing the academic and social mechanisms to stimulate change. Marshall (2005) argues for the importance of having global education part of teacher training pedagogy. She argues that the inclusion of global education programs require inspirational teachers that are well versed in the issues from teacher training in global education. Marshall (2005) concludes the need for improved teacher training using global education pedagogy but that discussion is beyond the scope of this paper.The Plight of Global Education and Citizenship ProgramsNationalism is an infantile disease... it is the measles o f mankind. (Albert Einstein)Xin (2007) argues that nationalism is the greatest barrier to global education. People struggle to bypass thoughts of national pride, power and ethno-centrism to think of the world as a single population. Global education systems should be taught in teacher education programs in order to prepare the current educating cohort for the desired transformational learning required for the succeeding generation. Therefore global education needs to be a component of educational pedagogy throughout one’s education, from elementary school to in-service teacher education (Xin, 2007).Davies (2005) argues that current pedagogical attempts at global education fail in separating itself from citizenship education in the national sense. He agues that this leads to a convoluted and constrained view of global education and states:The question for education is how to come to grips with the changing nature o fcitizenship in a globalizing world. To what extent do current attempts to address theseThe Creation of a Global Education Program 15issues in the school curriculum, (i.e. citizenship education and global education)recognize the shifts that are occurring? (pp.72)Davies (2005) differentiates between the idea of national and global citizenship and the shift to a post-national model of society in education. He further suggests that citizenship and global education are two mostly separate entities, where global education “focuses on the affective” (pp.84). He also provides a suggestion of offering more global education type activities should be added to citizenship education programs.Lyons (2002) argues that while the rhetoric in support of global education programs are plentiful, actual strategies regarding the administration and implementation of global education is absent in the literature. One final point noted by Xin (2007), is how the increasing focus on preparing students for academic exams in order to raise test scores for students, effects global education pedagogical agendas. This attitude impacts the availability of educators and students to focus on global issues that have yet to be given the same importance in formal education as “academic subjects” such as math and science.The Need for a Global Education ProgramThe proposed global education program aims to develop a “global consciousness” by raising the students’ awareness of global issues and to explore current themes within the global community. Human dignity and social justice will be the foundation upon which global issues are explored. The course will include both formal classroom educational experience as well as an experiential learning, action project within a developing country. The goal of this course is to establish a “global consciousness” with an understanding of global issues and the impact one canThe Creation of a Global Education Program 16have on the local and global sphere. The development of empathy and evidence of understanding of other human cultures on this planet will be a fundamental outcome of this program.The Creation of a Global Education Program 17Where does Global Education currently exist in B.C. Curriculum?There are currently no provincially mandated courses specifically aimed at global education (British Columbia Ministry of Education, 2010). However two provincially established courses, available to all schools, Civics 11 and Social Justice 12 have some components of both citizenship and globalization. Even though both programs can be taught throughout school districts, few schools choose to offer such programs. For example in the Langley School District only three high schools out of eleven offer Civics 11, Social Justice 12 or both. Each of these programs includes aspects of citizenship and global education, yet important areas are absent in both.A Canadian Perspective is the Focus of Civics 11Civics 11 is a course aimed at active citizenship with the focus involving Canadian law and discourse. However, there are sections of the curriculum that include human rights law within Canada and in the international sphere. International law is examined with respect to the rights, freedoms and responsibility of citizens. These prescribed learning outcomes primarily examine Canada’s role in international issues, which does not explore aspect of putting oneself in the shoes of the other and altering one’s perspective. Finally, the course concludes with a unit on civic action and investigating the importance of social action as a responsibility of citizens to stimulate change.The civics 11 course encapsulates themes that are specific for Canadians. For example, one required learning element of the program is to define Canadian citizenship by looking at international relations and human rights provisions in Canada using the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and the British Columbia Human Rights Code. This specifically Canadian perspective is most evident in the civic deliberation section of the course where students are asked to analyze the international effects of Canada’s relationship to issues and events with respect to environment, foreign aid, peace and security and human rights. Essentially the course examines global issues from a Canadian perspective. There is a final section of the curriculum that aims at the developing active citizenship and requires the students to create and implement a plan for local or international civic issues. I believe this is a starting point for important experiential learning opportunities similar to the previously stated global volunteer project however, within the framework of this course students may be limited to looking at issues from a Canadian perspective. Previously mentioned aspects of the Civics curriculum are important and valuable lessons to add to the education of adolescents, yet is not focused on establishing a “global consciousness”, as it is limited to Canadian citizenship.Developing a Critical Consciousness through Social Justice 12I think that Paolo Freire would approve of one of the newest courses established by the B.C. Ministry of Education, Social Justice 12, which examines aspects of justice and oppression in both the local and international realm. By examining aspects of human rights in a global framework, Social Justice 12 follows Friere’s (1974) oppressive principles (that those outside the dominant groups all suffer some degree of oppression) and aims to educate students to develop a critical consciousness. As a current teacher of Social Justice 12 ,1 feel that this course begins toThe Creation of a Global Education Program 18get students to examine the world through the lens of “the other”, and look at the impact of oppression on several groups in Canada. Concepts such as racism, heterosexism, classism, and genocide are examined from the perspectives of multiple social groups in our society. The primary objective of this course is to educate students on how to create a “just society” as well as analyzing issues from a multitude of perspectives. Included in these learning outcomes is discourse on human rights, and poverty caused by the economics related to globalization. Other global learning outcomes include the impact of globalism and globalization on social justice andthe role of multinationals on the global economic landscape. The creation of a social action\project involving research around a local or global issue concludes this program. (Social Justice 12, Integrated Resource Package, British Columbia Ministry of Education, 2008).Within the aforementioned courses lies the foundation from which a global education arid citizenship program might be developed. There will be considerable congruency of any global education program with the specific sections of any course that examines human rights. Examining aspects of globalism and globalization will undoubtedly be important in a global education program. However, both Civics 11 and Social Justice 12 do not examine justice and citizenship through a global perspective. Rather, both courses focus the curriculum on issues outside of aspects of development (food, poverty, education), environmental issues (climate change and water supply), global politics, and health issues (HIV/AIDS, Malaria, lack of access). Finally, neither course was designed to provide opportunity for students to develop an understanding of sustainability and the role of international organization in development.Aspects of both Civics 11 and Social Justice 12 that are relevant to global education and citizenship will be included in the global education curriculum. Extending the current curriculumThe Creation of a Global Education Program 19to focus on global issues of citizenship and justice with the ultimate goal of creating a “global consciousness” will be described in the next section.The Creation of a Global Education Program ' 20The Protocol for the creation of a Global Education CourseDesired courses that are independently created and unique to a specific teacher or school are called “locally developed courses”. The support of the administration team is required before a course can be created and implemented. Through approaching administrators and explaining the rationale and potential impact of a specific course one may gain approval to proceed to apply to the school board for a “locally developed course”. An application and review process must be completed at the district level for approval and implementation. When applying for the development of a locally developed course, an educator must complete an application that includes the following:• Course description• Rationale• Grad profile attributes• Curriculum expectations• Assessment and evaluation of students’ achievement• Textbook and resources that are available• Accountability and professionalismThe subsequent section will follow the application process for the development of a locally developed course and a brief discussion of each of the previously listed areas will be included.Outline of the CurriculumThe Creation of a Global Education Program 21The Global Education Course will consist of three units: Understanding the Human Condition; Examining Global Issues; and Social Action. These units will be explained in detail in a later section of this paper.Course RationaleEducation must enable us to respond positively to the opportunities and challenges o f the rapidly changing world in which we live and work. In particular, we need to be prepared to engage as individuals...and citizens with economic, social and cultural change, including the continued globalization o f the economy and society, (www.nc.uk.net in Marshall, 2005)In order to build a society of citizens and leaders in a rapidly changing world we must, as educators, provide the skills and instruction to stimulate compassion and empathy for others. The proposed global education and citizenship program will provide an educational agenda for students to learn about global issues and to participate in social action. Students will begin to engage in the curriculum though a multitude of ways to develop ones’ consciousness in the global realm, by changing the lens through which one views global issues and the human condition. An understanding of different cultures in this world will provide insight into the lives of others and the growth of multiple perspectives. This course aims to create a “global consciousness” that will impact the students to make positive decisions through being mindful of their actions on members of our global community. Gardner and Mansilla (in Marcelo and Suarez-Orzco, 2007) provided evidence to support this idea, as they state that “globalconsciousness” expands our human self and beyond the limits of our here and now, revealing new aspects of our identity in connection to others and to the planet” (pp.63). This course will provide a more concentrated and focused examination of global issues and the human condition than what is currently available in our provincial curriculum.As the world changes with current trends in the global economy and technology it becomes imperative to have future generations prepared to understand and have the ability to adapt to the changes. It is also our responsibility, as educators, to construct an empathetic attitude toward other cultures to create a socially minded collective. Through the development and understanding that we are one society and civilization will hopefully develop the human dignity within our students to consequently develop students who will work to eradicate global issues and participate in social change.Grad Profile Attributes:This course will develop empathy, citizenship and respect for other cultures. The classroom learning and subsequent development project will provide a unique learning experience where students will engage in powerful learning opportunities. This program will also provide opportunities for students to feel they can make a difference through the collaborative process of an action project. This program will also prepare students to develop a community and global mindedness that our youth soundly require to be successful in future endeavors.The Creation of a Global Education Program 22Curriculum Intentions Knowledge:• Understanding the importance of the human condition though the development of a “global consciousness”.• Explain how one’s world is shaped by own experiences, race, ethnicity, gender etc.• Historical, political, social and economic roots of global issues.• Identify current global issues.• Impact of non-government organizations.Skills:/• Development of understanding of personal perspectives and the perspectives of the “other”.• Project Planning, teamwork and implementation of project (i.e. Development project).• Communication Skills (i.e. Working towards goals in development project program planning).• Critical Thinking and analytical Skills (i.e. Analyzing impact o f media).• Presentations and public speaking.Attitude:• Understanding that human dignity and rights transcend national boundaries.• Knowing one’s responsibility for social justice and that one can have an impact on the world.The Creation of a Global Education Program 23• Empowerment of students to participate in social change.The Creation of a Global Education Program 24ResourcesMultiple resources will be used in this course such as textbooks, movies, case studies, journals, and other multimedia aids. The Internet will provide a plethora of information on current global issues and provide a method of communication between the students outside the classroom. Online journals, or “blogs”, will be used for discussion of topics and reflective exercises.Accountability and ProfessionalismConcurrent and post course reflection will be employed by both the educator and the students to gain insight into the course and its development. Constantly adapting the course to meet the needs of a global learner is essential in the design of this course to be relevant to current global issues.Once an administration team and school board approve a locally developed course, it is the responsibility of the educator to develop and implement the approved curriculum. The subsequent section examines important components of a global education course and an example of the curriculum.A Global Education CurriculumDeveloping the curriculum for a global education program requires much consideration. Choosing a framework that will accomplish goals of developing a “global consciousness” andglobal citizens is not an easy task. As explained by Xin (2007), the goals of global education focus on values and attitudes with respect to global issues and the growing interconnectedness of the world.Global education deals with global knowledge, competence, awareness, attitude and values in terms o f resolving global problems and consolidating the interconnectedness o f  systems through a cross-cultural respect and understanding; international communication and cooperation; and global identification seeking common points while reserving difference. (Xin, 2007 pp. 73)Consideration of what components to include in a global education curriculum requires a collaborative process, examining multiple pedagogical resources. Theoretical perspectives and discourses on global education programs along with currently established programs at multiple schools were integrated into this proposed global education curriculum. The underlying themes in the global education course are also adapted from Mahlstedt (2003) and Xin’s (2007) suggested global education curriculum. These two authors provide insight into what components are necessary for a successful global education program to accomplish the development of a “global consciousness”.Two global education programs exist at school in local school districts and through personal communication with the programs educators’ sections of their courses influenced the proposal design of this course as well. Finally, aspects of the Civics 11 and Social Justice 12 curriculum have undoubtedly influenced the global education topics regarding the dignity and human condition. Justification and explication of the curriculum will be explained subsequently.The Creation of a Global Education Program 25The Creation of a Global Education Program 26Necessary ComponentsMahlstedt (2003) argues that an effective global education program should create an understanding of interconnectivity, awareness of the state of the planet, interdependence of life, cross-cultural knowledge and respect. Another important aspect is the realization that we carry common bonds with all of humanity, however, recognizing and valuing our differences with respect to culture and way of life, needs to be revered.Many similarities exist between the Mahlstedt’s curriculum considerations and Xin’s (2007) opinions. Xin argues that there is a need for understanding different perspectives. Local and national connections must be made in order to understand the impact and ramifications of our actions on our global population. This interconnectivity concept requires the inclusion of all aspects of human life to our environment as well. Xin argues that this curriculum should be viewed with optimism since we need to create global citizens who feel that certain problems can, and will be, solved with the cooperation of human kind. Through the application of an ethical perspective, or a moral view of what is right and wrong, and establishing human dignity, or the respect for all human kind, the creation of an equitable human culture could possibly be achieved. All of these areas will work concurrently to promote aspects of creating an equitable, global civic culture that will carry with it a respect for our world’s diversity and an increased self-awareness and regulation. My views and goals of a global education program are essentially the same as Xin’s.Global Citizenship carries a capacity for empathy and altruism, and values tolerance andappreciation o f diversity in human viewpoints, beliefs and customs. (Xin, 2007 pp.78)Experiential learning will be incorporated into my proposed course through a social action volunteer project in a developing country. A project of this kind can be powerful education for the developing “global consciousness”. To learn in an informal setting and to empathize with “the other”, by living, experiencing and appreciating those in developing communities can cultivate a profound understanding. A previously explained experiential learning activity by Neff, Barker and Cornwell (2008), indicates that an alteration of students’ personal views and a greater understanding of the nature and factors leading to homelessness were observed in their One Homeless Night event. I believe a volunteer project to a developing country will develop a “global consciousness” by an alteration of their personal view and increasing the students’ knowledge about cultures different from their own.Finally, it would be in the best interest of both the teacher and students for the educator to have received global education training. This could-be part of an undergraduate degree in global issues, international law or a related field or teacher education pedagogy. In-service training on global education involving social justice issues may be sufficient in providing transformative knowledge required to promote the global education curriculum. Finally, experience in overseas volunteer projects or school trips will undoubtedly help with the preparation and organization required to create an event of this magnitude. Most importantly, in my opinion, a global education teacher must emulate the behaviors and actions of a “global consciousness” that a global education course is striving taf create, including a desire to transform our youth to be more respectful, empathetic and globally minded individuals.The Creation of a Global Education Program 27The Course Outline and RationaleThis proposed course is divided into three components: Understanding condition; exam ining global issues; and creation of a social action project.Understanding the Human ConditionThe first section of this course will examine aspects of human dignity and aim to increase both self-awareness and perspective. By understanding that the lens one views the world through can create the opportunity to question ones’ actions and decisions in order to make decisions aimed at equality. This unit will include:• Developing an understanding of social justice concepts such as: human rights, oppression, diversity, ethics, human dignity and worth, peace and equality.• A self-evaluation and assessment of ones’ own beliefs, attitudes, prejudice and behaviors.• Critically analyzing global social justice issues with an ethical perspective.• Understanding the concept of a critical consciousness.• Recognizing injustice and developing fair-mindedness and empathy, embracing diversity.• Describing the concept of a global citizen and the movement from nationalism to globalism and ones’ personal responsibility for helping to create a socially just world.Examining Global IssuesThe second section will investigate global issues with the goals of assisting students to develop a thorough understanding of the complex issues currently facing our global society.The Creation of a Global Education Program 28the humanConnecting to the previous unit, students should develop a sense of personal responsibility to not only gain knowledge, but to also challenge the inequality and actively participate in educating others. Examining global issues will include:• Defining and explaining interconnectivity of our lives and actions.• Analyzing concepts of globalism and globalization.• Discussing aspects of global power, multi-national corporations and global economics.• Understanding the impact of Media and the construction of our reality.• Examining multiple Global Issues including:o Global Inequalityo Patterns of Poverty and Standard of Living o Exploitation of Childreno Food Security, availability of world food supply o Water and other resourceso Standards of Health, HIV/AIDS and other global health issues o Global Climate Change o Impacts of Population o Natural disasters and relief efforts o Impact of war and Refugees, conflict and cooperation• Discussing the influence of international and non-government organizations in global issuesAt the conclusion of this section, students may wish to participate in social action, which will be addressed in the subsequent unit.The Creation of a Global Education Program 29The Creation of a Global Education Program 30Social Action: Case Study and Development ProjectI  hear and I  forget. I  see and I  remember. I  do and I  understand. Confucius (551 BC - 479 BC)The action project is a powerful experiential learning activity that will, undoubtedly, impact the students’ ability to put oneself in the context of “the other”, as previously stated. Atthe conclusion of this project the students will hopefully display an increased understanding of the complex issues in our world and increased respect for human kind. The social action project will include:• Developing an understanding of historical, social and political context of a developingcountry (case study).• Creating an action project and development project in country studied.• Contacting a non-government organization and creating a project based around anassessed need.• Preparing and planning for a two week volunteer project.• Distinguishing between concepts of cultural sensitivity and culture shock.• Participating in the volunteer project.• Reflecting on the experience and impact of the project.• Discussing ideas of sustainable development.Progress of the Global Education Course and Future ConsiderationsCurrently, there are many schools in British Columbia offering locally developed global education programs. In Langley School District (#35), two schools offer similar global education curriculum. Teachers that create the global education programs design the curriculum they feel will achieve the outcomes for their respective programs. Neither of the Langley School District’s programs focus on the experiential learning component of an overseas volunteer project that was previously mentioned. However, there is one program in Richmond School District (#38) that does provide this overseas project as part of the global education curriculum. Evidently, two school districts offer different global education programs from each other and from the one designed within this paper. Depending on the strengths of the educators and the desired outcomes of each program they will undoubtedly differ from one another.Future considerations of the curriculum proposed in this paper include the presentation of the course to administrators and school board and once approved subsequent implementation. The requirements for the approval of a locally developed course at the school board level described previously in this paper will be followed.DiscussionThe development of a global education course within a school should aim to establish the global dimension that Marshall (2005) argues is important to prepare youth to live together in an interdependent world. A “global consciousness” may be developed through teaching important aspects of co-operation and respect for all mankind. O’Sullivan and Vetter (2007) would support the proposed curriculum to introduce aspects of global education into a school community thatThe Creation of a Global Education Program 31may not previously exist. A school-wide global education philosophy, aimed at developing a “global consciousness” must begin somewhere, and a program akin to the global education course proposed here might be a sufficient starting point. With Marshall’s (2005) eight pedagogical considerations taken into account in the proposed global education curriculum, the enhancement of the global ethos of a school may follow.Consideration of how global education curriculum may be introduced in a multi­disciplinary fashion should be taken into account with respect to the creation of a global ethos within a school. Following Lyons (2006), one might see how other teachers could benefit from a globally conscious school community to incorporate a global perspective into each of their respective areas. Students participating in the volunteer project will undoubtedly share their experiences from the project with other students, once again having an impact on the overall school global ethos. Creating this school-wide global education philosophy may establish a “global consciousness” that will extend beyond the global education course.Incorporation of Mahlstedt‘s (2003) pedagogical recommendations and Marshall’s (2005) multiple approaches to the global education curriculum could aid in successful outcomes of the global education course. Both of the aforementioned authors examined previously established global education curriculum and provided a critical examination of the positive and negative aspects. Creating global education curriculum using their suggestions will hopefully eliminate problems they encountered.The idea proposed by Xin (2007) that global education should be taught in teacher education programs in order to prepare educators to create the transformational learning that is required for subsequent generations needs to be taken seriously. I feel global education pedagogyThe Creation of a Global Education Program 32should be incorporated from preschool up to and including secondary school and in all aspects of the curriculum and preparing teachers to be comfortable and willing to teach global issues in their classrooms. As a starting point creating a global education program in the latter years of high school may safeguard our youth from leaving formal education without a developing “global consciousness” at all.Finally, looking at one particular group of youth, those hoping to attend university, one can see some barriers that exist to global education programs. The competition among students in school to attain higher grades and admittance into universities has shifted the students’ focus on raising test scores and exam preparation (Lyons, 2002). I believe this affects the developing “global consciousness” in a couple of ways. First, transnational competition for university placements may create hostility toward international students attending local colleges or universities. Also, increased grade point averages may result in students forgoing global education classes and activities in order to focus on academic courses. In order for these trends to change, a focus from purely academic achievement to social action and volunteerism should occur. Students, who have developed a “global consciousness”, should undoubtedly be involved in multiple community and global projects that would require both of my previously suggested achievements of altruism (social action and volunteerism).ConclusionAs we move forward into an increasingly connected and globalizing world, understanding the values that do truly link us. and allow us to co-exist as good global citizens will allow for the greatest movement towards a globe that we all hope to inhabit together (Mahlstedt, 2003, pp 82)The Creation of a Global Education Program 33This paper developed an argument on how one global education course could be an essential component for the development of a “global consciousness”. This global education course contains components of social justice and human rights education, exploration of global issues and the participation of students in a development project. The course was developed within this paper in a manner that could be the framework for presentation to a school board and administration team with the hopes of approval for its implementation. This global education course aims to have an impact on future generations with the hopes of developing a “global consciousness” in students, which will work toward dealing with the problems our world is facing. These goals, however lofty, have yet to be achieved, but may come into fruition with approval and subsequent implementation of the program in the future.The Creation of a Global Education Program 34The Creation of a Global Education ProgramReferences:Anderson, L. (1990). A rationale for global education. In K. A. Tye, (Ed.), Global education from thought to action. The 1991 ASCD Yearbook (pp. 13-34). Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.ED 326 970British Columbia Ministry of Education. (2010). Integrated Resource Packages. retrived from http://www.bced.gov.bc.ca/irn/irp.htm. January 2010.British Columbia Ministry of Education. (2008). Social Justice 12 Integrated Resource Package.British Columbia Ministry of Education, (2005). Civics 11 Integrated Resource Package.\Brecher, J. et al. (1999). Global Visions: Beyond the New World Order. South End Press. Brooklyn, New YorkCollins, H.T. and F.R. Czarra. (1986). Global Primer: Skills for a Changing World. Center for Teaching International Relations, University of Denver. Denver, Colorado.Davies, I. (2005). Globalizing Citizenship Education? A Critique o f “Global Education" and “Citizenship Education”. British Journal of Educational Studies.53(1). Pp 66-89.Driscoll W. and Clark. J. (2003). Globalization and the poor: exploitation or equalizer? International Debate Education Association. New York, New York.Neff, S ., Barker, G. and Cornwell, T. (2008). Experiential Learning and SocialImpact: The Communication Effects of the One Homeless Night Event on Participants’ Attitudes and Perceptions of Homelessness" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, TBA, Montreal, Quebec, Canada Retrived February 1, 2010 from: http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p232408 index.htmlEarley, J. (1997). Transforming Human Culture. State University of New York Press. Albany, New YorkFreire, Paulo (1973) Education for Critical Consciousness, New York: The Continuum Company.Gibson, K. et al. (2008). Developing Global Awareness and Responsible World Citizenship With Global Learning. Roeper Review. 30 (1). pp. 11-23.The Creation of a Global Education Program 36Joseph, P.B. and Effron, S. (2005). Seven worlds o f Moral Education Phi Delta Kappan.47 (4).Lagos, T.G. (2008). Global Citizenship. Personal permission to cite was granted by author.Lule, (2009). Retrieved on December 5, 2009. http://global-eioumal.org/2009/07/Lyons, T. (2005). Global Education Literature Review -  Becoming the Change We Want to See. The Society for Safe and Caring Schools and Communities.Mahlstedt, A. (2003). Global Citizenship Education in Practice: An Exploration ofTeachers in the United World Colleges .International Comparative Education.School of Education, Stanford University.Marshall, H. (2005). Developing The Global Gaze in Citizenship Education: Exploringthe Perspectives of Global Education. International Journal o f  Citizenship and Teacher Education. 1(2). pp 76-92Nagashima, J. (2008). Fostering Global Citizens in the Twenty-first Century. Submitted to the Graduate Faculty, Masters Thesis, University of Pittsburgh.O’Sullivan, M. and Vetter, D. (2007). Teacher -Initiated, Student-Centered GlobalEducation in a K to 8 School. Journal o f Teaching and Learning. 4(2). pp. 13- 28.Pike, G. (2008). Citizenship Education in Global Context. Brock Education Journal. 17 (1). Pp 38-49.Smith, M. K. (2003). 'Communities of practice', the encyclopedia of informal education,www.infed.org/biblio/communities of practice.htm. Last updated: 23, October, 2007.Spring, J. (2008). Research on Globalization and Education. Review of Educational Research. 78 (2). pp. 330-363.Suarez-Orozco, M, and D. Qin-Hillard (edited by). (2004). Globalization: Culture and Education In the New Millenium. Ross Institute, University of California Press. California, U.S.A.Wenger, E. (1998). Communities o f Practice. Learning, Meaning and Identity.Cambridge, U.K: Cambridge University Press.Xin, Y. (2007). Theory and Action on Global Education in USA. Journal o f Education for International Understanding. 5. pp. 70-92


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