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Transforming Maggie May to Miss Pu: Neoculturalism Through Missionary Nursing in North China, 1924-1943 Stephens, Jennifer M. L. Nov 21, 2013

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Transforming Maggie May to Miss Pu:  Neoculturalism Through Missionary Nursing in North China, 1924-1943 Jennifer M.L. Stephens, BSN, MA, RN, OCN PhD student (Nursing), University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, CANADA Introduction Early History of  Nursing in China Worlds Collide:  Neoculturalism The Isabella Fisher Hospital, School of Nursing Tientsin, North China (1881-1943) Woman's Foreign Missionary Society of the American Methodist Episcopal Church (WFMS)  Margaret ?Maggie?  May Prentice 1892 Born in  eastern Colorado, USA  1901 Tells family she is meant to be a nurse missionary in China  Early 1900?s Training at Colorado Teacher?s College Rural school teacher in Colorado  1917-1921 Bachelors of Religious Services  (BRS):  Chicago Training School for City, Home, and Foreign Missions  1921-1923 NURSE DIPLOMA: Wesley Memorial Hospital School of Nursing (Chicago, IL)  1924 Sent by the Women?s Foreign Missionary Society of the Methodist Church to work at the Isabella Fisher Hospital (Tientsin, China)  1926-1934 Superintendent, School of Nursing, I.F.H. Nursing leader in professionalization of nursing in China.  1934-1937 Superintendent of the I.F. Hospital  1937-1938 Banished from China due to the start of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.  Traveled internationally with nurse friend  Chu-ke Wen-P?ing taking courses and lecturing at nursing schools (UK, Russia, US).  1938 Return to occupied Tientsin/I.F.H. to resume SON. Declared Japanese prisoner.  1941 Nursing examiner at Peking Presbyterian Hospital  1942-1943 Imprisioned at Japanese concentration camp. Forced to leave China.  1943-1944 Lived in Colorado. Diploma in Journalism from Denver University. Return to Tientsin in late 1944  1944-1948 Resumed duties as Superintendent of the I.F. Hospital  1949 Final banishment from China with establishment of Communist People?s Republic of China  1949-1952 Lived in U.S.  1952-1987 Nurse missionary at the Ganta Mission (Liberia). Published Unwelcome at the Northeast Gate (1966)  1988 Death in Northglenn, Colorado At the I.F.H., cross-blending of multinational cultural, social, economic, religious, political, and practical factors caused the creation of a new and unique type of nursing and nursing culture. At first the nurses resisted modification of Nightingale canons. Nursing epistemology had distinct grounding in Western, allopathic, and Christian traditions but was forced to shift for a Chinese audience.  Culture transplanted from graft (missionaries) to host (China) suggests instead a project in neoculture.  Neoculturalism in this context refers to the alteration of the traditional (modernism), with emphasis on structure and defined limits, into something new and undefined (post-modernism).2 Neoculturalism can also be associated with thick (underlying) versus thin (peripheral) culture. 3   A neocultural influence is most apparent when comparing Maggie May?s host of letters and documents from the 1920?s with those from the 1940?s and beyond, such as her autobiographical novel Unwelcome at the Eastern Gate. While she influenced the development of nursing in China, her relationship with the Chinese changed her from a Nightingale/Western nurse into a transcultural nurse-hybrid, one who embraced many cultures. Perhaps this flexibility reflects an essence of nursing.  Founded to bring Western medicine to non-Western countries, hospitals such as the Isabella Fisher Hospital in Tientsin, North China perpetuated allopathic principals of health care.  In nursing these were often referred to as ?Florence Nightingale Canons.? The F.N. model became the focus of missionary nurse work far and wide. Missionaries like Maggie May viewed the Nightingale concepts of nursing as separate from medicine (physician) and of nursing being a calling. 1881:   I.F.H. for Women and Children founded by Canadian Dr. Leonora King, supported by the WFMS. 1888:   First Chinese nursing education program based on the Florence Nightingale/Western model was established by             American nurse Ella Johnson in Fuchou. 4,5  1912:  The Nurses? Association of China (NAC) was formalized and headed by missionary nurses. 1915:  I.F.H. rebuilt, reopened, and soon became one of the largest nursing schools in China. 6 1920:  First baccalaureate program at the Peking Union Medical College.  1930:  The Chinese government opened the first public nursing school.  1930?s: As Superintendent, Maggie May forged a strong alliance between the I.F.H. and other nursing schools including the              Peking Union Medical School, considered the center of nursing education in China for several decades.  Rural Teacher Farming Background MAGGIE MAY PRENTICE ???? ? ???? ?Margaret May Prentice? in Chinese.   ?Miss Pu? was given to her by Chinese nurse colleagues right before her banishment in 1937. ?Pu? is a North Chinese surname indicating that she was honourably adopted.1 Buddhism Family Friends in US/China References 1. M.M. Prentice, Unwelcome at the Northeast Gate (n.p.: Inter-collegiate Press, Inc., 1966). 2.  A. Papakostas, Civilizing the Public Sphere: Distrust, Trust and Corruption (London: Palgrave McMillan, 2012). 3. W. Mishler and D. Pollack, ?On culture, thick and thin: Toward a neo-cultural synthesis,? in D. Pollack and J. Jacobs (eds.) Political culture in Post-Community Europe (London: Ashgate, 2003).  4. K. Chen, "Missionaries and the early development of nursing in China," Nursing History Review: Official Journal of The American Association For The History of Nursing 58, no. 4 (1996): 129-149. 5. D. Smith and S. Tang, ?Nursing in China: Historical development, current issues, and future challenges,? ???????? (Nursing Research), no. 5 (2) (2004): 16- 20. 6. Gwen Sherwood and Huaping Liu, "International collaboration for developing graduate education in China," Nursing Outlook 53, no. 1 (2005), 15. Miss Pu 

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