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Re-imagining Suburbia : A Growth Patter Study of TOCs at the City of Surrey Mozo, Jhon Alexander Oct 31, 2016

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140 St152 St160 St166 StKing George188 St192 StCLAYTONCITY CENTREFLEETWOODTS 231TS 041TS 841112 AVETS 25188 AVETS 65184 AVETS 061TS 291TS 88160 AVE64 AVEFRASER HWYRE-IMAGINING SUBURBIAA GROWTH PATTERN STUDY OF TOCs AT THE CITY OF SURREYBY: Jhon Alexander Mozo[ [A project submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of MASTER OF ARTS (PLANNING) in the Faculty of Graduate Studies School of Community and Regional Planning We accept this project as conforming to the required standardTHE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIAOctober 2016© Jhon Alexander Mozo, 2016RE-IMAGINING SUBURBIAA GROWTH PATTERN STUDY OF TOCs AT THE CITY OF SURREYBY: Jhon Alexander Mozo[ [ACKNOWLEDGMENTSThe author would like to take a moment to recognize the following contributions that made the creation of this study possible:Maged Senbel for providing guidance through all stages of the project, for supervising the structuring of the report, and providing input to help enhance the graphic representation of concepts. Don Buchanan and Preet Heer for their continuous mentoring throughout the research process, your valuable feedback made an essential part of the critical lens through which this project developed.To all  staff in the Planning and Development Department at the City of Surrey for taking the time to share their work and knowledge, and assisting in framing the ideas within the local context.And to Alix Krahn for her collaboration in the creation of “Typologies for transformation: A case study of suburban TOD in Surrey”. A project that inspired the present research, and established the methodological framework employed in this report. EXECUTIVESUMMARY[ [PRINCIPLES OF TOC[[COMPACTNESSPUBLIC REALMCONNECTIVITYCENTRALITYMIXED-USEHow may land growth patterns in suburban neighbourhoods be restructured to promote more sustainable and complete communities? This question is at the core of the following study, which analyzes current planning strategies aiming to break the auto-dependency that historically has dominated suburbia. In particular, this research focuses on a shift in suburban land use patterns that fosters emerging transit-oriented communities (TOC). This new model of smart growth is the result of aligning land use planning and transportation initiatives. Consequently, communities are granted the opportunity of developing more livable built environments -in close proximity to transit nodes- that provide better local opportunities to their residents. The creation of these transit-oriented communities is based upon some fundamental principles that guide the developmental restructure of their urban form. They are compactly developed by accommodating denser built forms located in close proximity to transit stations. They incorporate a wide mix of uses to allow various housing options, employment opportunities, retail and entertainment choices, as well as the necessary services that compose a self- sustaining centre. They are well connected through an integrated transportation system that promotes various ways of commuting. They develop a great sense of place and promote a comfortable human-scale environment. And they are centred around hubs of activity that provide appropriate amenities and spaces for gathering.  These principles signify a drastic departure from the conventional manner in which suburban neighbourhoods were established. Land use patterns in suburbia are characterized for being car-oriented, sprawled, homogeneous, discontinuous, low density, segregated, decentralized and underdeveloped. Therefore, the re-envisioned suburb must undergo a significant transformation in order GROWTH STRATEGY[[The city of Surrey is currently undergoing a transformation of this kind as a result of future growth projections and regional plans that designate it as the upcoming metropolitan downtown. To support this growth, a new transit network in the form of light rail has been proposed, sparking a series of changes to its suburban fabric. Along the Fraser Hwy -one of three proposed lines- the City has revised and drafted local land use plans integrating growth strategies to support ridership. These plans respond to the local context of the three communities -City Centre, Fleetwood and Clayton- that will be serviced by the line, and envisions the future character and form in which these new centres will redevelop. to become a complete community. A metamorphosis that may be accomplished partly by implementing a growth strategy framework that promotes: intensified land uses to support a higher population base in denser built forms; diversified land uses to increase local opportunities and reduce people’s need to commute elsewhere; a transitioned built environment that allows existing low density forms to be buffered from proposed higher ones; a fine-grained street network that promotes walking, reduces block sizes and creates a hierarchy of uses; a multi-modal transportation system that improves mobility options and implements the appropriate infrastructure to access it; and a pedestrian-oriented public realm with a variety of ground active uses.INTENSIFIEDFINE-GRAINED MULTI-MODALTRANSITIONACTIVEDIVERSEFRASER HWYPLANNING FOR FRASER HWY[[KING GEORGE160 ST188 STDOWNTOWN CORE: Metropolitan centre and regional destination. High density residential and secondary business and entertainment hub. TOWN CENTRE: Well connected distinctive local destination with community life focused on a new pedestrian-oriented 160 commercial street.URBAN VILLAGE: A mixed-use centre that provides various employment, leisure and shopping options to its growing population.TABLE OFCONTENTS[ [INTRODUCTION TO  TOC[ [BREAKING DOWN SUBURBIA[ [Principles of TOCGeographies of TOCResources of TOCSuburban PatternsGrowth StrategiesResources for Suburbia Fostering ChangeWelcoming the LRTPlanning for Fraser HwyCity CentreFleetwood Town CentreClayton FTDA + TOAResources for SurreyCITY IN TRANSITION SURREY[ ]Selected StationsVisioning PathwayAnalysis LayoutKing George160 Street188 StreetConcluding RemarksAdditional ResourcesList of FiguresRE-ENVISIONING FRASER HWY[ ]IXXVIXXVIXLVIIIxxiixivxviiixxiixxivxxviiixxxxxxiixxxivxxxviiixliixlvilxxxivxcviiiciicivlliilivlvilxxINTRODUCTIONTO TOCBREAKING DOWNSUBURBIAPrinciples of TOCGeographies of TOCResources of TOCCITY IN TRANSITIONSURREY RE-ENVISIONINGFRASER HWYINTRODUCTION TO TOC[]Since the mid-1990s North American cities have begun to experience a shift in city making models that departs from the auto dependency created by urban sprawl, and moves towards new centralized urban patterns supported by transit networks. This ideal emerges from the theory of smart growth, which integrates urban and transportation planning to obtain a more sustainable form of development based on self-contained urban centres. Following the creation of the Charter of the New Urbanism in 1993, the movement has influenced multiple cities to experiment with the development of Transit-oriented Communities (TOC).1These emerging communities are founded on growth management strategies that integrate transportation investments and land-use practices in order to create more livable environments with reduced automobile use. They may be developed through either large scale master planned projects or incremental redevelopment on a parcel by parcel basis around transit. There are multiple potential benefits, both direct and indirect, from this type of community model including: sustainable development focused on existing urban areas; increased affordability due to better housing choices; improved access to public transit reflected in ridership; enhanced safety for pedestrians and cyclists; relief from traffic congestion; reduction of greenhouse gas emissions; appraised land values; and revitalization of declining neighbourhoods among others.2 One of the current challenges in the development of TOCs is gaining a better understanding of how to implement these concepts within existing land patterns that emerged from sprawl, designed  to promote automobile movement as the primary mode of transportation.  In other words, understanding how to re-imagine suburbs as new self-contained urban centres that foster alternative modes of transportation.“Transit-oriented communities are places that, by their design, allow people to drive less and walk, cycle, and take transit more. In practice, this means they concentrate higher-density, mixed-use, human-scale development around frequent transit stops and stations. They also provide well-connected and well-designed networks of streets, creating walking- and cycling-friendly communities focused around frequent transit.” (Translink, 2010) IXFigure 1. Rendered perspective of a Transit-oriented CommunityxixPRINCIPLES OF TOC[[COMPACTNESSDeveloping notably higher densities concentrated in proximity to station areas. These provide a base for transit ridership, allow less auto-dependency, and support viable retail and service uses.  Incorporating necessary building transitions to blend new developments with the existing urban fabric.PUBLIC REALMImplementing quality urban design standards to create attractive destinations that reinforce local identity. Designing pedestrian-scale environments that make walking a more attractive, preferable option. Providing public open spaces to mitigate new compact built forms.CONNECTIVITYFostering greater connectivity locally and regionally through the promotion of sustainable transportation choices and well-designed streets. Providing appropriate facilities and infrastructure to encourage walking, cycling and the intensive use of public transit.CENTRALITYConcentrating services within close proximity of the transit station area to foster a sense of community life. Supporting the provision of well-connected and accessible community amenities. Providing pedestrian scale retail opportunities along the transit corridor at ground level.MIXED-USEEnsuring land around rapid transit stations serves uses that support a self-sustaining community. This includes developing a hub of high-activity uses and services that benefits the local community by providing employment opportunities, retail and civic needs, and a variety of housing options.Literature surrounding development guidelines for TOCs describes a common vision that is characterized by: compact neighbourhoods; increased uban density; multiple transportation choices; strengthened sense of place; diverse housing opportunities, and an enhanced public realm that promotes street activation. These ideals are comprised within the following five TOD principles; an overarching framework that guides and informs the planning of future transit-oriented communities.3 xiiixiiGEOGRAPHIES OF TOC[ [To assist in the planning of transit-oriented communities it is important to recognize the various geographies at play during their development.  These are  determined by their proximity and relationship to the transit station area. TOC planning areas are typically laid out in circular or nodal growth patterns with their limits defined by a 5 to 10 minute walk - or 400 to 800 metres - from the transit station. These are connected by transit corridors that facilitate ridership. The resulting TOD geographies are as follows:Core: represents the area  immediately adjacent to the transit station and it is deliniated by a 5 minute walking distance or approximately a 400 metre radius from the station. It is an area prioritized for high-density concentration and mixed-use development over time, as well as for significant public realm improvements.Buffer:  is the area generally within 400 and 800 metres of the station. This area ranges in density as it represents a transition zone that mitigates higher densities closest to the station and lower forms within the existing urban fabric.Corridor: is the area running parallel to the transit line between two stations. As it is expected to be served by frequent local transit it has the potential to provide multimodal transportation transfers, as well as a variety of services and amenities not offered within the station areas. The development in this area takes the form of linear growth concentrated along the edges of the transit line.4Figure 2. Geographies within TOD areasSTATIONCORECORRIDORBUFFERR 400mR 800mxvxivRESOURCESFOR TOC[ [CALGARY, Land Use Planning and Policy. Transit-oriented Development Policy Guidelines. Calgary: City of Calgary, 2004CEVERO, et al. Transit-oriented Development in the United States: Experiences, Challenges, and Prospects. Washington: Transportation Research Board, 2004. CMHC. Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) Canadian Case Studies. Canada: Canadian Mortgage and Housing Corporation, 2009.CTOD. TOD 101: Why Transit-oriented Development and Why Now?. Berkley: Center for Transit-oriented Development, University of California, 2007.COQUITLAM, Planning and Development. Transit-oriented Development Strategy. Coquitlam: City of Coquitlam, 2012.EDMONTON, Sustainable Development and Transportation Services. Transit-oriented Development Guidelines. Edmonton: City of Edmonton, 2012EMBARQ. TOD Guide for Urban Communities. Mexico City: Centro de Transporte Sustentable de Mexico A.C.,  2014 IBI, Group. Transit-oriented Development (TOD) Primer 101. Surrey: City of Surrey, 2004.JACOBSON, Justin and FORSYTH, Ann. Seven American TODs: Good practices for urban design in Transit-Oriented Development projects. Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2008.PORTER, Douglas R. Making Smarth Growth Work. Burnaby: Urban Land Institute, 2002.SUSUKI, Hirokai, et al. Transforming Cities with Transit: Transit and Land-Use Integration for Sustainable Urban Development. Washington: The World Bank, 2013. TRANSLINK. Transit-Oriented Communities Design Guidelines: Creating more livable places around transit in Metro Vancouver. Burnaby: Translink, 2012.WINNIPEG, Planning and Land Use. Transit-oriented Development Handbook. Winnipeg: City of Winnipeg, 2011.2,3,4222,33,43,423,42113,43,4INTRODUCTIONTO TODBREAKING DOWNSUBURBIASuburban PatternsGrowth StrategiesCITY IN TRANSITIONSURREY RE-ENVISIONINGFRASER HWYBREAKING DOWN SUBURBIA[]The modern suburb in North America begins to emerge in large scale during the 20th century as a result of migrations of the middle class to new urbanizations at the outskirts of the central cities. This move was made possible in great part by access to the private automobile, leading to an increase in commuting activity. As such, these new urbanizations were planned around vehicular movement and a promise of larger lots of land and detached dwellings.  Consumer patterns were also shifting at this time, as purchasing power was becoming stronger and more accessible to a wider range of families. This translated into the creation of large scale commercial centres -in the form of shopping centres and strip malls- located close to the suburbs; a legacy of infrastructure that remains to this day. Zoning bylaws assisted in promoting this new car-dependent lifestyle by segregating uses. A vast number of rural lands were subdivided and designated as residential use only, allowing single real estate developers to manufacture multiple home development complexes. These new concentrations of suburban residences were built on larger lots of land than those encountered within the central city, and took the form of low density detached single family homes. All these are key characteristics of an urban sprawl that dominated the landscape of North American suburbia for decades.1Currently, shifts in urban growth paradigms -calling for more sustainable land use patterns- have brought the suburb into question. Cities are attempting to breathe new life into suburbia by breaking the suburban pattern, diversifying the segregated residential landscape, and promoting alternative ways of navigating its streets. One such attempt is the conversion of suburbs into transit-oriented communities through the introduction or reinforcement of existing public transit systems. “...the suburban myth so prominent in the English-speaking world. According to this powerful myth, suburbia was  the ideal retreat for the middle-class family, a bourgeois utopia of owner occupied detached  homes with accompanying gardens. In Britain, the United States (US), Canada and Australia this great suburban dream lured millions of migrants to the metropolitan fringe”.     (Phelps, N. and Wu, F., 2011) XVIIFigure 3. Aerial view of a Suburban neighbourhood.xixxviiiSUBURBAN PATTERNS[[To understand the suburb it is imperative to become familiar with its land configuration patterns.2 These are features that characterize the suburban landscape, determine the way in which elements are generally arranged, and establish the rhythms of the urban form. This is not to say that all suburbs are identical or the same. Each responds to a particular design layout and architectural detail that helps develop the character and identity of the community. However, the building blocks in all suburbs remain consistent, causing some critics to condemn the suburbs for their homogeneity.  So what are these overarching suburban patterns?Sprawled: urbanization in suburbs typically develops horizontally. This is linked to the low density building forms that emerge in these areas. As a result, greater land is used to house fewer people in contrast to the central city.  This causes the suburb to have to expand exponentially in territory in order to accommodate a higher population. Low Density:  the quintessential building form in a suburban residential area is the detached single family home; a one to two storey house within a lot of about 500 to 900 m2. This configuration usually accommodates a significant backyard and front lawn. In recent years suburbs have begun to experience the appearance of multi-dwelling complexes such as townhouses, row-houses and small apartment buildings. However, these are developed over large pieces of land to provide several shared amenities, thus limiting the increase in density in the suburb. Homogeneous: urbanization generally occurs in the form of large complexes built by single developers, both for residential and commercial uses. Therefore, the architectural landscape remains fairly homogeneous. Given the low density formats of residential units, the suburbs also tend to lack from diversity when it comes to housing options thus limiting the demographic make-up. Figure 4. Typical elevation of a suburban street.Large lotsLow DensitySimilar Architecture10m520Underdevloped LandStrip MallCul-de-sac Long BlockUnlinkedSidewalkxxixxtend to have large magnitudes and the presence of sidewalks is inconsistent discouraging pedestrian activity. Segregated: uses in suburban fabrics are compartmentalized and segregated from one another. Commuting to access goods, services and employment is part of the everyday life in these areas. Per consequence, there is a presence of pockets with large infrastructure to house industrial and office parks, civic buildings, and strip malls located away from residential hubs.   Decentralized: because of the segregation of uses in the suburbs, these areas tend to lack from a real anchoring Car-oriented: the main mode of transportation in the suburb is the car. This is reflected by the organization and orientation of development. Housing complexes tend to be organized along local roads some ending in cul-de-sacs, while strip malls and civic buildings are located along high speed avenues. Streets have significant widths to allow for on-street parking but most lack sidewalks.Discontinuous: predominance of the car has resulted in diminished mobility within the inner neighbourhood. There is a considerable presence of dead ends and cul-de-sacs impeding through movement. Walking trails and cycling networks are disjointed or missing all together. Blocks centre. Suburbs generally have a deficit of places for congregating such as plazas, squares or programmed open spaces. Shopping malls and large scale cultural buildings have served this purpose in the past, but these are scattered and not easily accessible. Underdeveloped: due to its strategic location at the outskirts of the central city, the suburb counts with a vast collection of lands yet to be developed or ready for redevelopment. The significant width of its streets and large setbacks of the current dwellings gives opportunity for further redevelopment. There may also be large empty lots or depressed sites ready to be reconverted. Figure 5. Figure ground of suburban patterns.xxiiGROWTHSTRATEGY[[INTENSIFIEDEncouraging higher density residential forms to emerge within the core station area, with the highest forms in close proximity to the station. This growth may be stimulated by infilling the buffer area first to increase the population base, supporting mixed-use forms along the transit corridor later. TRANSITIONAllowing for appropriate transitions of the urban form to minimize its impact on the existing suburban pattern. Reducing building heights away from transit nodes. Incorporating natural public spaces to compensate for the reduction of private lawns and backyards. DIVERSEAllowing a diverse mix of uses and built forms. Increasing residential density close to existing shopping centres and cultural buildings. Encouraging residential unit and tenure mix to improve accessibility for various demographic groups. Fostering architectural variety. FINE-GRAINEDImproving mobility throughout through a finer grain street network. This includes: establishing a hierarchy of streets and uses; reducing the average size of blocks; removing dead ends and cul-de-sacs when possible; and incentivising new developments to create new streets and missing links.  ACTIVEEnhancing the overall pedestrian experience as to increase walkability. Focusing on human scale design and active uses at the ground level. Orienting entrances and windows towards the street and increasing permeability. Creating or reinforcing open spaces as centres for gathering. MULTI-MODALPromoting multiple transportation modes by providing the necessary supporting infrastructure. Creating a continuous system of sidewalks. Building a cycling network. Enhancing connectivity and accessibility to transit stops. Improving accessibility for all users. Suburbia is in a current state of flux as many cities consider new growth patterns that allow these areas to further develop. For the purpose of the present research one of these growth strategies -the transformation of the suburb into a future transit-oriented community- will be contemplated. This transition is dependent upon proper planning as to align future development with the TOC principles priorly discussed. Consequently, the following qualities should be considered while assessing the future pattern of a suburban TOC.3 xxvxxivRESOURCES FORSUBURBIA[ [BEAUREGARD, Robert A. When America Became Suburban. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2006.DUNHAM-JONES, Ellen. Retrofitting Suburbia: Urban Design Solutions for Redesigning Suburbs. New Jersey: John Willey and Sons Inc., 2011.HARRIS, Richard and LARKHAM, Peter J. Changing Suburbs: Foundation, Form and Function. London: E & FN Spon, 1999.JONES. David W. Mass Motorization and Mass Transit: An American History and Policy Analysis. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2008.PHELPS. Nicolas A. and FULONG, Wu. International Perspectives on Suburbanization: A Post-suburban World?. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011.ULI. Shifting Suburbs: Reinventing Infrastructure for Compact Development. Washington: Urban Land Institute, 2012.WILLIAMSON, June.  Designing Suburban Futures: New Models from Build a Better Burb. Washington: Island Press, 2013.12,31,2,311,1,32,3INTRODUCTIONTO TODBREAKING DOWNSUBURBIAFostering ChangeWelcoming the LRTPlanning for Fraser HwyCity CentreFleetwood Town CentreClayton FTDA + TOAResources for SurreyCITY IN TRANSITIONSURREY RE-ENVISIONING  FRASER HWYCITY IN TRANSITION SURREY[]The suburban beginnings of Surrey  can be traced back to a post-war 1950’s when an expansion of neighbourhoods to the north - following the erection of the Pattullo Bridge - attracted the spread of single family homes to absorb commuters who worked in Vancouver and Burnaby. Thereafter, a “first wave” of urban growth in Surrey occurred during the 1970s to 1990s, a period of high automobile use that influenced how its communities and neighbourhoods were designed and laid out. Inevitably, this led to an urban sprawl characterized by low density residential, with almost no commercial or industrial zoning. The landscape of the city is thus characterized by a collection of disjointed strip malls, tract housing complexes, rural farms, and heavy traffic flows at peak hours.1 As of 2011 the city of Surrey has been designated as the second “urban metropolitan centre” within the regional growth strategy Metro Vancouver 2040: Shaping our Future. It is expected that Surrey will accommodate 250,000 new inhabitants, 23,500 new dwellings, and generate 14,500 new jobs by 2041.2Urban centres as defined within the plan are “transit-oriented communities with diverse populations, a range of employment opportunities, public spaces, and lively cultural and entertainment amenities”. As such, the legacy of suburbia in Surrey has come to an end, and it is time to focus on reshaping its suburban pattern. The transformation at the city of Surrey has already begun and it is reflected through a more diverse range of housing and its newly revitalized City Centre. With its Sky Train stations, a Bing Thom-inspired public library, the SFU Surrey campus and a new city hall and shopping centre, this  walkable, transit-oriented downtown has become an example of the changes needed to transform other parts of the city. “... the connection[s] between active transportation (walking and cycling) and healthier communities, are now all compelling reasons to reduce people’s reliance on cars for everyday transportation. This shift requires decisive and  long-term efforts to reorient land use patterns, increase mixed-use development, plan higher density developments in conjunction with frequent public transit, influence individual behaviour and invest in cycling and walking infrastructure that allows for convenient alternatives to the automobile.” (City of Surrey, OCP, 2014) XXVIIFigure 6. New City Hall plaza and library at City of Surrey.xxviiiFOSTERINGCHANGE[[SMART GROWTHSupport compact and efficient land development. Align land uses and development densities with significant and high-quality public transit investments. Direct residential and mixed-use development into Surrey’s City Centre, Town Centres, and Frequent Transit Corridors. TOWN CENTRESDevelop distinctive social, cultural and commercial centres for each community.  Concentrate residential uses and services to allow for efficient pedestrian and cycling transportation networks. Allow diverse public spaces to flourish with a high level of urban design. TRANSIT CORRIDORSSupport transit-oriented development along major corridors linking urban centres and employment areas. Support higher-density residential, commercial and mixed-use development. Ensure pedestrian and cycling access from adjacent neighbourhoods to transit stations.TRANSPORTATIONIncrease mode choice and reduce reliance on the car.  Extend rapid transit to link Surrey’s Town Centres with City Centre. Promote integration between transportation and land use. Encourage development patterns, densities and designs that promote efficient walking and cycling.EMPLOYMENTDirect office uses, institution and major retail centres to locations accessible by public transit. Take advantage of access to rapid transit and other transit networks. Promote available and relatively affordable housing for employees. Encourage private sector investment in strategic areas of the city.URBAN DESIGNStrengthen the sense of place of diverse neighbourhoods. Ensuring compatibility of scale, massing and architecture. Achieve a finer-grained network of streets, lanes and walkways. Promoting vibrant, active and pedestrian-friendly public and private environments. Surrey is experiencing rapid change to accommodate the growth pressures that are projected for the near future of the city. In order to manage this change, the City has recently revised and adopted a new Official Community Plan (OCP) as of 2014.   This document sets out the local government’s long-term plan for the development of the community, in accordance with the framework of the Sustainability Charter.  The new OCP establishes the following bases for the city’s transition from an auto-dependent community into a transit-oriented one.3  xxxixxxWELCOMING THE LRT[[One of the strongest catalyst for the future  transformation of suburban land patterns in Surrey is the proposed light rail transit (LRT) system. The 27 km transit network would consist of two main lines: the L-Line running along 104 Ave and King George Blvd to connect Guildford Town Centre and Newton Town Centre to City Centre; and the Surrey-Langley Line running along the Fraser Hwy. After a rapid transit alternatives study 4 was conducted, Light Rail was selected as the preferred mode of transportation based on: the system’s land use integration in connection to the number of adjacent urban centres; the system’s land intensification potential and likelihood of development within 400 metres from station areas; the impact on private or commercial properties in order to build and operate the system; and the resulting changes to the urban environment, including the changes to the streetscape, and pedestrian facilities, through the introduction of this form of rapid transit. The proposed project aims to accomplish three main objectives: •	 Shaping travel through better transit services;•	 Shaping future land use, including the growth of Surrey in accordance with regional and municipal plans; and•	 Helping achieve ambitious mode share and emission targets. The benefits provided by Surrey’s LRT include: reduced congestion by allowing more people to use transit instead of private vehicles; improved accessibility by bringing 195,000 more people within walking distance of a transit station; connected communities across municipalities; 30,000 new full-time equivalent jobs during construction, and 15,000 full-time equivalent jobs in operation; and reduced greenhouse gas emissions by 15,000 tonnes per year. Figure 7. Proposed Surrey’s LRT network.TS 25164 AVETS 002TS 231TS 821TS 29140 AVE72 AVETS 021TS 041NO 99 HWYLOUGHEED HWYNO 1 HWYHWY 9196 AVE80 AVETS 65184 AVE100 AVE203 STTS 841TS 612TS 441AUSTIN AVEAH10TH AVETS 422MARY HILL BYPASS104 AVE92 AVE76 AVEGOLDEN EARS WAYNORDEL WAYTS 05160 AVEEIGHTH STSHAUGHNESSY STE COLUMBIA 154 STEIGHTH AVEKITTSON PKY132 AVE128 AVESIXTH AVETWELFTH STTS 012WAY112 AVE36 AVEE EIGHTH AVETS 061MAPLE 64 AVE88 AVEFRASER HWY140 St152 St160 St166 StKing George188 St192 St196 Street203 StreetLRT Line and Stations Community BoundaryCore Area (400 m)Buer Area (800 m)Planning AreasLEGENDCLAYTONCITY CENTREFLEETWOODCLOVERDALETOWNSHIPOF LANGLEYCITY OFLANGLEYxxxiiixxxiiPLANNING FORFRASER HWY[ [The Fraser Hwy is set to become one of the transit corridors served by the proposed LRT. It will be a 17km link that connects three of Surrey’s distinct growing communities: City Centre, Fleetwod, and Clayton.  This sets the stage for a significant transformation of this heavy traffic highway to become the centre of future transit-oriented hubs. The City has started to trigger this conversion by revising the land use plans for these three communities in an attempt to guide future development. This creates a great opportunity to analyze the growth patterns in such diverse contexts, including the early success already achieved by the City Centre; and how this manifests in other areas of the city. Figure 2. Proposed Surrey’s LRT network.Figure 8. Proposed Fraser Highway LRT line. 140 StKing GeorgeCITY CENTRETS 231TS 041TS 841112 AVEUrban CentreCentral Business DistrictCity Centre Land Use PlanLEGENDxxxvxxxivCITYCENTRE[[Located at the heart of the North Surrey community, City Centre has been identified as the region’s second downtown. It is currently seeing the development of a burgeoning civic precinct, home to a new flagship library, city hall and performing arts centre. In recent years, Surrey’s City Centre has also been the focus of significant residential and commercial development to undergo a bold transformation from a suburban centre into a walkable high density, transit-oriented downtown. This area is envisioned to become a centre for major employment, services, higher-density housing, commercial, cultural, entertainment and institutional activity. City Centre is connected to the SkyTrain rapid transit network providing convenient access to downtown Vancouver (35 minute ride) and the rest of the region.Quick Facts: City Centre occupies almost 600 hectares including 45 hectares of parkland. Its current population is approximately 33,660 and projected to double by 2041. There are 1,300 business located in this area, with a workforce of 25,255 set to grow to 31,759 by 2021. 12.5 million square feet of new residential, commercial and institutional space has been built in City Centre since 2000. The average household size in this area is 2.2 residents, holding the highest proportion of single person households for the entire municipality of Surrey (39.3%). City Centre also holds the highest proportion of rented dwellings in Surrey (53.9%), and the largest concentration of apartment buildings over 5 storeys (69.7%). OCP Designation: Under the revised OCP, City Centre is designated as a Central Business District.  This designation supports the vision of a metropolitan downtown by granting the highest density development capacity (3.5 up to 7.5 FAR), as well as the highest quality urban design of public and private sector development including buildings, streets, plazas, and gathering spaces.Figure 9,10. (Left) City Centre planned areas(Right) Areial view of City Centre with LRT stations. xxxviixxxviLand Use Plan: As of 2013 the latest land use plan for City Centre has been developed. The City Centre Plan 5 proposes high density, mixed-use designations along frequent transit corridors and the three Skytrain Station nodes utilizing transit-oriented development standards. Major civic, office and institutional mixed-uses (including City Hall, Library and University) are currently located within the Surrey Central Skytrain station node. Some highlights of the plan as pertaining to the development of a TOC include:•	 King George Skytrain station being envisioned as a secondary office and entertainment node with high density office and residential mixed-uses including a large component of retail. •	 High quality public realm with continuous active streetscapes, urban amenities, and cultural activities and facilities all contributing to the vibrancy of downtown. •	 High rise and mid-rise buildings between 3.5 to 5.5 FAR to support the employment and commercial areas as well as increased transit usage. •	 Two single-family areas preserved to further provide opportunities for families to locate close to downtown, thus allowing for gentle infill to be part of redeveloping the area. •	 Areas previously designated as low density (1.5 FAR) will accommodate up to six storey apartment buildings and townhouses with FAR up to 2.5 to provide housing for families as well as transition to smaller building forms. •	 A system of parks and plazas connected through an integrated network of greenways, cycle tracks and trails. This will be supplemented by a variety of corner plazas and publicly accessible open spaces, provided on private property through redevelopment. •	 Implementation of a new road standard called “Green Lane” intended to reduce the large blocks that currently characterize much of the City Centre, and provide a more inviting pedestrian and bicycle environment for circulation and efficient movement of vehicles. •	 Distinct and vibrant neighbourhoods including a dynamic and innovative business sector, university, hospital, civic and historic districts to enhance the sense of place and form the framework of the City Centre. Each of these areas will have its own unique character. Figure 11. City Centre Land Use Plan 2011.King George Blvd132 St Div135A St135 StHansen Rd112 AveGrosvenor Rd110 Ave109 Ave108 Ave108 Ave107A Ave106A Ave105A Ave105 Ave104 Ave103 AveOld Yale Rd105A Ave104A Ave103 Ave101 Ave102 Ave100A Ave100 Ave99A Ave99A Ave100 Ave98 Ave97 Ave96 Ave132 St94A Ave 140 StLaurel DrFraser Hwy134 St138 St104 Ave´Legend! City Centre Skytrain StationsCity Centre SkytrainMultiUse PathPedestrian ConnectionLotsLANDUSE, FARHigh Rise 5.5 FARMid to High Rise 3.5 FARLow to Mid Rise up to 2.5 FARSingle Family/Duplex 0.6 FARMixed-Use 2.5 FARMixed-Use 3.5 FARMixed-Use 5.5 FARMixed-Use 7.5 FARPLAZAPublic Open SpaceSchoolInstitutionalParkCreek BuffersGreenwayRoadLong Term RoadCity CentreUpdate Plan1:16,0000 0.5 1 1.5 20.25KilometersJuly 2013Skytrain stationSkytrain trackMulti-use pathPedestrian pathLong-term roadPlazaSchoolParkCreek BufferHigh Rise 5.5 FARMid to High Rise 3.5 FARLow to Mid Rise up to 2.5 FARSingle Family / Duplex 0.6 FARMixed-Use 2.5 FARMixed-Use 3.5 FARMixed-Use 5.5 FARMixed-Use 7.5 FARLEGEND152 St160 St152 St160 St166 StFLEETWOODTS 841TS 25188 AVETS 65184 AVETS 061Urban CentreTown CentreFTDATown CentreLand Use PlanLEGENDxxxixxxxviiiFLEETWOOD TOWN CTR[[Located at the core of  the Fleetwood community, the Fleetwood Town Centre is envisioned as a distinctive, thriving centre   for residential, commercial, social and recreational activities. There will be a range of housing forms - from a variety of ground-oriented housing to apartments and mixed-use buildings - to accommodate different life stages and incomes.  Commercial activity in Fleetwood Town Centre is focused along or near Fraser Highway, which bisects Fleetwood at a diagonal. The outer edges of Fleetwood Town Centre comprise detached single family housing, with the northeast corner abutting the Agricultural Land Reserve. There has been substantial townhouse development in the area over the past 15 years.  However, the mixed-use, pedestrian-oriented “core area” planned around 160 Street and Fraser Highway has been slow to develop. Development in this area has been limited to modest commercial and mixed-use developments with standalone residential and commercial buildings. Quick Facts: The Fleetwood Town Centre area occupies 400 hectares, with 24 hectares of existing parkland. Its current population is approximately 18,400, while the community’s population is 60,000 as a whole. The Fleetwood Town Centre concentrates an estimated 6,600 dwellings out of the 17,805 private dwellings available in the community. The average household size in this area is 3.3 residents, holding the lowest proportion of single person households for the entire municipality of Surrey (15.4%). OCP Designation: The revised OCP sets increased densities for Town Centres designations ranging 1.5 to 2.5 FAR. Town Centres are described as distinctive, social, cultural and commercial centres for the community. Within Fleetwood Town Centre there is a need to expand commercial uses because of the expected rapid growth of multiple residential housing and to accommodate higher residential densities in areas that would directly benefit from the extension Figure 12,13. (Left) Fleetwood planned areas (Right) Areal view of Fleetwood with LRT stations. xlixlof rapid transit infrastructure. Industrial and lower-density residential uses including detached and semi-detached housing, are discouraged within the Town Centre designation.  Land Use Plan: As of July 2016, an updated Fleetwood Town Centre Plan (TCP)6 was developed, focusing on this core area, and proposing policies to encourage renewed growth and redevelopment in support of the planned future  light rail system along Fraser Highway. The guidelines to achieve this are as follows:•	 Protection of existing neighbourhoods with ground-oriented housing. In areas where apartments and mixed-use buildings are adjacent to existing townhouses, new multi-storey buildings would be restricted to four storeys to provide an appropriate scaled transition. •	 Creation of compact, pedestrian-friendly precinct of local-serving commercial activity and apartments, with allowable heights of up to 6 storeys, centred around a future rapid transit stop at Fraser Hwy and 160 St. •	 Extending the higher density, mixed-use designation to properties located within 400 metres from the future rapid transit stop. Encouraging existing low-density, car-oriented commercial activity to redevelop into higher-density mixed-use developments with pedestrian-oriented retail and personal service uses at the ground floor and residential units above.•	 Strategically require ground floor commercial activity along important streets and corners for creating a distinctive destination in Fleetwood Town Centre. Setting out where commercial frontages are required.•	 Larger neighbourhood park with enhanced access and residential “eyes-on-the park”. A neighbourhood park that is about 1 hectare in size, with access and street frontage on three sides. Overlooking the west side of the park, residential buildings fronting and oriented towards the park would be required. •	 Creation of a finer grained street network in areas planned for higher densities. Completion of existing planned roads, new local roads and new “green lanes” with a narrower cross section, to facilitate pedestrian access, connectivity within the commercial and apartment precinct, and distribution of traffic to the existing arterial and collector road network. Figure 14. Fleetwood Land Use Plan 2016.FLEETWOOD TOWN CENTRE LAND USE PLANFRASER HWY85A AVE84 AVE82 AVE80 AVE156 ST160 ST164 ST168 ST88 AVEFRASER HWY156 ST160 ST168 ST162 ST88 Ave80 Ave168 St156 St160 StFraser Hwy164 St82 Ave84 Ave162 St80A Ave83 Ave158 St167 St84A Ave154 St159 St85A Ave157 St154B St154A St88A Ave155 St83A Ave85 Ave 166 St81A Ave87 Ave163 St166B St164A St156A St161 StVenture Way86 Ave86A Ave81 Ave165 St167A St162A St87A Ave86B Ave168A St79 AveGreenway Dr168 St Fg E166A St82A AveSequoia Dr160A St168B St79A Ave161A St168 St Fg W170 St80 Ave Fg N157A St165A St159A St155A St85B Ave163A St79B Ave162B StTunis Pl158A StMargate Pl156B St78B Ave79A Ave166A St163 St155A St161 St165A St157 St81A Ave162A St159 St154 St83 Ave83 Ave83A Ave158 St82 Ave166 StWatson Drive167 St83 Ave87A Ave164A St84A Ave162 St83A Ave79A Ave155A St84A Ave167A St156A St85 Ave167A St89 Ave168B St158 St79A Ave165 St83A Ave87A Ave79A Ave86A Ave160A St154B St168A St154 St87 Ave160A St85A Ave86 Ave165A St87A Ave159A St168A St80 Ave86B Ave85 Ave155 St161 St80A Ave87 Ave86 Ave82A Ave81 Ave161 St86A Ave87A Ave163 St161A St165 St154 St85 Ave162A St81 Ave79 Ave166 St86B Ave167 St85 Ave165A St161A St88A Ave157A St157A St87 Ave86B Ave159 St154 St80A Ave156A St79 Ave166 St164A St79A Ave84 Ave154A St86A Ave86 Ave82A Ave157 St154A St165 St85 Ave165A St·0 250 500 750125 MetersCity of Surrey Planning & Development Department STAGE 1LegendApartment and Medium Density TownhousesMedium Density TownhousesLow Density TownhousesApartment 1.5 FAR 4 Storey MaximumApartment or Mixed Use 1.5 FAR 4 Storey Maximum Low Density Townhouses In Duplex FormLow Density Townhouses or Single FamilySingle Family UrbanSingle Family SuburbanManufactured HomesParks & Linear CorridorsMultiuse Corridor/Landscape BufferBuffer Within Private Land4m Wide Paved PathCommercial 1.5 FARIndustrialInstitutionalInstitutional/CommercialTree Cluster - with preservation may permit up to 2.5 FAR, 6 StoreyCommercial Frontage RequiredMixed Use 2.5 FAR 6 Storey MaximumResidential Frontage Required 4 Storey Maximum4 Storey MaximumAmended 3 August 2016Mixed-Use 2.5 FAR-6 storeysCommercial Frontage4 Storey MaximumResidential FrontageCommercial 1.5 FARIndustrialInstitutionalInstitutional/CommercialLEGENDApartment/Mixed-Use 1.5 FARApartment 1.5 FAR-4 StoreysApartment/Medium Density TownhouseMedium Density TownhouseLow Density TownhouseLow Dens. Townhouse/DuplexLow Dens. Town./Single FamilySingle Family Urban Single Family SuburbanManufactured HomesParks152 St160 St166 St188 St192 StCLAYTONTS 291TS 88160 AVE64 AVEFRASER HWYEast Clayton LUPFTDA / TOANorth EastClayton NCPLand Use Plansand NCPsLEGENDxliiixliiCLAYTON FTDA+TOA[[Located north of the Fraser Highway, Clayton makes part of the Cloverdale community. Clayton is a diverse planning area. It has a definite “edge” where the suburban lands meet the agricultural lands eastwards, and it is delimited west by the municipal boundary with the City and Township of Langley. Clayton has been characterized by a rural ambiance, and in recent years - since the late 1990s - has begun to develop an urbanized core. The Clayton area has been planned as a complete community with a village centre.Quick Facts: The community of Clayton comprises about 809 hectares. East Clayton - area containing the proposed LRT stations’ core and buffer zones - occupies 250 of these hectares. The projected population for Clayton at full build out is about 35,000, with 12,200 of these people living in East Clayton. It is expected that about 6,030 dwellings would  be located in East Clayton. Also, 400,000 square feet of commercial floor area and 1,155,290 square feet of floor space for businesses are anticipated. OCP Designation: The revised OCP designates the area between the LRT stations in East Clayton as a Frequent Transit Development Area (FTDA). These areas located outside of Town Centres support transit-oriented development and may be permitted higher densities. It is expected that these areas create 2,250 new dwelling units and 1,840 new jobs by the year 2041. As part of its FTDA, Clayton is the only community in the City of Surrey to have a designated transit-oriented planning area. Lands within these areas are meant to integrate fully with future LRT service on Fraser Hwy and create a high quality, sustainable mixed-use centre for the East Clayton community. Land Use Plan: The buffer areas surronding the proposed LRT stations in Clayton make part of a mosaic of plans determining the future land uses. These include: The East Clayton Transit-oriented Planning Area (TOA) Land Use Concept Plan 7, the most recent plan - created in 2014 - encompassing 16.5 hectares of Figure 15,16. (Left) Clayton planned areas.(Right) Aerial view of Clayton with LRT stations. xlvxlivland within the FTDA; The East Clayton Neighbourhood Concept Plan (NCP) 8 developed in 2003; The East Clayton NCP Extension West of 188th Street 9 from 2005; and The North Cloverdale East NCP 10, a plan from 1994. The following are some of the TOC  guiding principles presented within these plans. •	 Locating the highest density of development along Fraser Highway in close proximity to future rapid transit stations. Here, future building heights are proposed to be two to three storeys for retail/office, with the potential for up to an additional three to five storeys of residential or office space above.•	 Multi-family residential townhouses are proposed to be a maximum of three storeys with an optional live-work component at grade level facing public streets or parkland.•	 Encouraging mixed-use development with an emphasis on employment uses (i.e., office and retail uses).•	 Developing a finer-grained, grid-based block street pattern to distribute traffic and encourage walking and cycling connections, including convenient pedestrian access to transit. •	 A road network established to facilitate future expansion of transit service for the neighbourhood and minimized walking distances to/from transit stops. •	 Requiring a high level of urban design, with an emphasis on active facades related to commercial, mixed-use and residential buildings facing streets.•	 Incorporating a central neighbourhood park and small plaza of 1 hectare into the TOA development area. •	 Incorporating opportunities for place-making and public art at key locations.•	 Ensuring appropriate and sensitive interface with lower-density residential neighbourhoods adjacent to the area. •	 Two neighbourhood school/park sites, two riparian park areas, one linear park and a series of five local parks. •	 A “Main Street” commercial area, located at 188 Street and 72 Avenue. •	 Multiple-unit residential in the form of apartments and fee-simple ground-oriented townhouses, single family homes on small to medium sized lots, and mixed-use commercial/residential housing.  Figure 17. Clayton Land Use Plan 2003.! !!! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !!! ! ! ! ! !! !! !!! !! ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! ! !!! ! !! ! ! !! ! ! !! ! ! ! !! ! ! ! !!!!! ! ! ! !!!!!!!!!!!! !!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!ú úk k kkkkkkk&3 &3&3&3&3&3192ST80 AVE184ST76 AVE72 AVE64 AVE74 AVEFRASER HWY180ST68 AVEHARVIERD65 AVE67 AVE188ST196ST182ST194ST83 AVE78 AVE194AST82A AVE190ST189ST73 AVE70 AVE63B AVE186ST66 AVE69 AVE179ST68A AVE71 AVE184AST185ST63A AVE69A AVECLAYTONHILL DR75 AVE64B A VE193ST191ST65A AVE67A AVE181ST184BST66A AVE188ASTOLD YALE RD E183ST193BSTENGLISH PL68B AVE185ASTCLAYTONWOODCR183AST181AST195BST187AST64A AVE178BST179AST182AST189AST182BST64 AVE64 AVE196ST66 AVE183ST70 AVE64 AVE70 AVE180ST67A AVE181ST194ST65A AVE71 AVE188ST180ST68A AVE78 AVE66A AVE191ST71 AVE63A AVE185ST64 AVE64A AVE66 AVE180ST63A AVE69 AVE63A AVE63 B AVE63A AVE184AST 185AST63A AVE179AST63A AVE192ST69A AVE184ST183ST6 5 AVE186ST185AST70 AVE188ST63A AVE182ST196ST68 AVE192ST189ST185ST181 ST185ST180STCLAYTO N W O ODCRCLAYTON NEIGHBOURHOOD CONCEPT PLANProposed General Land UseDATE: Dec. 14 ,1998!!!!!!!!ú ú 190ST179ST185ST181ST179AST182AST188ST180ST191ST188ST196ST180STNOTE: Greenways and linkages will connectmajor community amenities and school / park sites.NOTE: For proposed elementary schools andparks, refer to map showing neighbourhoodboundaries.NOTE: This plan is conceptual in nature and is only intended to reflect a general patternof land uses. Exact land use boundaries to be determined through the NeighbourhoodConcept Plan process.·0 100 200 300 400 50050MetersThis map is provided as general referance only. The City of Surrey makes no warrantees, express or implied,as to the fitness of the information for any purpose, or to the results obtained by individuals using the informationand is not reponsible for any action taken in reliance on the information contained herein.SuburbanMulti Family Residential/Townhouses or ApartmentsUrban Residential (Single - Family)Urban Residential / Transitional Density AreaFuture UrbanMixed: Commercial / ResidentialExisting SchoolsExisting ParksBusiness Park / Work PlaceCommercialInstitutionalBusiness Park / Live & Work AreaGreenways / Utility Right of WayCreeks / Riparian SetbacksEnvironmentally Sensitive Areas!! !kProposed Detention Ponds(Precise shape, size and locationsubject to further analysis)Buffers / Linkages / Open Space(^ Landmark / Focal PointALRALRALRALR Agricultural Land ReserveSuburbanFuture UrbanUrban Residential (Single Family)Urban Residential / TransitionMulit-family Residential/Townhouses or ApartmentsMixed Commercial / ResidentialCommercialLEGENDBusiness Park / Live WorkBusiness Park / WorkInstitutionalExisting SchoolsExisting ParksLandmark / Focal PointBuffer / Linkage / Open SpacexlviixlviRESOURCES FOR SURREY[ [HUNTER LAIRD, Engineering LTD. North Cloverdale East Neighbourhood Concept Plan: Surrey, City of Surrey, 1994.IBI, Group. Surrey Rapid Transit Alternatives Analysis Phase 2 Evaluation: Final Evaluation Report, Executive Summary. Vancouver: TransLink, 2012.METRO VANCOUVER. Metro Vancouver 2040 Shaping our Future: Regional Growth Strategy. Vancouver: Metro Vancouver, 2010.SURREY, Planning and Development Department. East Clayton Neighbourhood Concept Plan (NCP). Surrey: City of Surrey, 2003.SURREY, Planning and Development Department. Fleetwood Town Centre: Land Use Plan and Urban Design Concept Plan. Surrey: City of Surrey, 2000.SURREY, Planning and Development Department. Plan Surrey 2013: Official Community Plan. Surrey: City of Surrey.SURREY, Planning and Development Department and Engineering Department. East Clayton NCP Extension - West of 188 Street Stage 1 and 2 Report. Surrey: City of Surrey, 2005.SURREY, Planning and Development Department and Engineering Department. East Clayton Transit-oriented Area (“TOA”) Land Use Concept Plan. Surrey: City of Surrey, 2014.SURREY, Planning and Development Department and Engineering Department. Fleetwood Town Centre Plan Update -Stage 1- Land Use and Transportation Concept Corporate Report. Surrey: City of Surrey, 2016.SURREY, Planning and Development Department and Engineering Department. Surrey City Centre Plan Update -Phase II- Stage 1 Corporate Report. Surrey: City of Surrey, 2009.SURREY, Planning and Development Department and Engineering Department. Surrey City Centre Plan Update -Stage 2- Status Corporate Report. Surrey: City of Surrey, 2011.SURREY, Engineering Department. Transportation Strategic Plan: Transportation Working for Everyone. Surrey: City of Surrey, 20081042861,3976554INTRODUCTIONTO TODBREAKING DOWNSUBURBIASelected StationsVisioning PathwayAnalysis LayoutKing George160 Street188 StreetCITY IN TRANSITIONSURREY RE-ENVISIONING  FRASER HWYRE-ENVISIONING FRASER HWY[]Fraser Highway was one of the first motor highways in British Columbia, being formed from portions of the Old Yale wagon road in the 1920s. Its importance as an east-west corridor was diminished with the construction of the Trans-Canada Highway in the 1960s. Nonetheless, it remains an important thoroughfare and major arterial road for traffic across Surrey.Due to its car-oriented nature, this four lane highway has signified a major separation for the communities it bysects. It physically poses an obstruction due to the high volumes of traffic crossing through daily, it has lacked appropriate amenities that promote walkability, and it is home to a high concentration of auto-oriented uses such as gas stations, car dealerships and strip malls along its stretch.With the introduction of the proposed LRT network, City efforts are currently focused on re-envisioning this important connector as a new artery that connects - through public transit - the hearts of important communities across Fraser Highway. As discussed previously, preliminary steps such as the updated OCP, as well as the continuous revision of land use plans have established the parameters for the creation and future smart growth of TOCs. Consequently, the following study focuses on analyzing and visualizing the needed changes in the  urban form around the proposed transit stations, as a response to the planned land uses and site designations within the stations’ buffer areas. This analysis is based on a comparison between the present conditions of the various sites, and the development patterns - such as parcel and building types, local streets, and open spaces - proposed within the various land use plans for each community.“Suburbia has historically been a site of great experimentation and evolving lifestyles. Today, the suburbs are simply not assuburban as we thought they were, and the proliferation ofaging, underperforming suburban properties is providingus with tremendous opportunities to imagine new possibilitiesthat correct for the unintended consequences of thepast while better meeting future needs and desires..” (Williamson J., 2013) XLIXFigure 18. Current photograph of Fraser Hwy.140 St152 St160 St166 StKing George188 St192 StCLAYTONCITY CENTREFLEETWOODTS 231TS 041TS 841112 AVETS 25188 AVETS 65184 AVETS 061TS 291TS 88160 AVE64 AVEFRASER HWYlSELECTEDSTATIONS[ [ Three stations along the proposed Fraser Hwy LRT line have been selected for the growth pattern analyses: King George, 160 St, and 188 St. These stations are located in each of the communities connected by the LRT, within the core of their respective land use planning areas. By focusing on these stations it is possible to conduct a more in depth evaluation and visioning of the urban form in these diverse contexts, thus providing a more comprehensive image of TOC in Surrey.Figure 19. Selected LRT stations for study.liiVISIONING PATHWAY[ [LAND USESAn analysis of existing land uses within the buffer area of each station will help determine the diversity currently present. This will assess the mixes of uses within the area, as well as the closeness of employment, retail and services to the station, thus helping determine the level of centrality. MOBILITYAn inquiry of current street networks including: a hierarchy of streets, transportation mode uses, present infrastructure, and relative block sizes.  This will help in determining the level of connectivity around the station, and identifying opportunities for new connections and better public realm. DEVELOPMENTAn inventory of current building heights, available lots for development, as well as public amenities such as parks, open spaces and spaces for gathering. This will inform proposed public realm enhancements, and will assist in analyzing the compactness and appropriateness of transitions. SECTIONSA cross-sectional study will help visualize the current massing around the proposed LRT stations. This will enable an understanding of the compactness of development in proximity to the station, as well as identifying the prioritization and integration of modes of transportation.MASTER PLANThe master plan will be derived from the proposed land use plans and the assessment conducted for each station area. It will combine land use mix, height distributions, revised road network and public amenities enhancements to reflect all of the TOC principles. PROPOSALA revised cross-section and perspective composite will reflect in volumetric forms the proposed growth immediately adjacent to the LRT stations. This will help envision the transitional changes along the Fraser Hwy transit stations, while reflecting each community’s character. Imagining the future urban forms around the Fraser Highway LRT stations results from an analysis of the existing conditions and a projection of future growth patterns. A pathway is proposed  within the following visioning steps to achieve this. An initial assessment - contained within the first 4 steps - is guided by the TOC principles exposed: compactness, connectivity, centrality, public realm and mixed-use. This will be followed by a built form projection - last two steps: master plan and proposal - which is founded on the smart growth guidelines contained within the land use and/or neighbourhood concept plans for each community. The following pages explain the content and layout of the visioning pathway. lvlivMASTER PLANCompilation of proposals within the Land Use Plans and Neighbourhood Concept Plans within the 800m buffer area from the station  (centre of the map). This includes land uses, road network revisions, and possible new public spaces. VIV160 MASTER PLAN[[The proposed land use plan for Fleetwood Town Centre attempts to strengthen the community’s core -to accommodate the projected growth in the area- while respecting the existing residential base. In order to achieve this, the OCP designated Town Centre has been established as a mixed-use development area that encourages ground oriented street level commercial uses with residential apartments above, but also permits standalone commercial and apartment buildings.  Particular sites have been required to provide such local serving commercial uses along the north face of Fraser Hwy, as well as along either Single FamilyLow Density TownhousesMedium Density TownhousesApartment / Medium Density TownhousesManufactured HomesProposed Commercial Lane (8m)Proposed Green Lane (12m)Proposed Local (20m)Proposed Collector (24m)Bicycle RouteProposed Corner PlazaMixed Use 2.5 FAR, 6 Storey MaximumCommercial Frontage RequiredInstitutionalParks and Linear CorridorsCommercial 1.5 FAR0 400200100LEGENDLAND USEFigure ground study of existing land uses including:  residential: arranged by built form type; commercial; community service: community/recreational centre,  community organization, religious centre, medical/care facility; educational; and office space.MOBILITYAnalysis of the existing street network. Street hierarchy, sidewalk infrastructure, trails, bicycle routes, and megablocks (greater than 150 metres). DEVELOPMENTInventory of existing lot development, current built height through gray scale gradation,  and open spaces.NOTE: the LRT station is located at the centre of all maps in this section of the study.160 CURRENT ANALYSIS[[Land uses within the buffer area of this proposed transit station are representative of suburban growth patterns throughout. There is a low density commercial cluster that expands -west and east along Fraser Highway- from the intersection with 160 Street. Among these commercial uses there is a high presence of auto-centred services, in the form of dealerships,  and auto detailing and repiar shops occupying large areas of land. There is a predominance of sprawled single family homes clustered around closed end roads, creating a homogeneous housing landscape. Most of the townhouse complexes have been recently developed, thus injecting some architectural variety and diversifying the housing stock.  Community services are distributed throughout, including the Fleetwood community centre south of Fraser Hwy, which historically has been a major focal point for social interactivity across neighbourhoods. Mobility through this area is somewhat limited given the large amounts of cul-de-sacs and dead ends in the inward facing residential areas. Likewise, the outspread car-oriented shopping strips create a frontage of mega blocks that impede pedestrian circulation. Sidewalk infrastructure is present along the main arterial and collector roads but breaks down when entering the local street network. Cycling is restricted to the arterial roads which transverse the area in most directions, but access becomes restricted towards open parks and the residential core. The built form within this community is homogeneous and characterized by 1 to 2 storey buildings mostly. As mentioned before, newer development concentrated north of Fraser Hwy has introduced higher typologies that respect the existing built form.  Most of the available parcels for redevelopment are concentrated close to newer buildings. There is a severe lack of open spaces and plazas within the area which must be addressed through new development opportunities.  Single Family HouseTownhouseApartment BuildingCommunity ServiceStrip Mall CommercialAuto ServicesOffice BuildingEducational FacilityArterial (40m)Collector (20m)Local (9m)SidewalksTrailsBike RouteCore AreaSuper Block1-2 storeys3-6 storeys7-10 storeysUnder ConstructionUnderdevloped LotPlaza/Square10-20 storeys20-40 storeysIVIIIIII160 STREETTODAY[ [The proposed 160 Street station is located at the heart of Fleetwood’s Town Centre within one of Surrey’s deep-rooted communities. The station’s core area is part of the OCP’s designated Town and Urban Centres, which denotes this area as an important social, cultural and commercial centre for the entire community. However, the current lack of an anchoring core prevents this vision from becoming realized. This particular station area is distinguished for having one of the most demarcated suburban fabrics out of the three stations selected. Along the Fraser Hwy, the scattered nature of auto-oriented commercial strip development has characterized this node historically. As a result, there are not concentration of commercial development that act as an identifiable community centre that successfully serves the growing population of Fleetwood.  Within the residential envelope a low density and highly sprawled housing capital is not well connected which makes for a challenging planning context overall. There has been substantial townhouse development in the area over the past 15 years. However, other development types have been limited to modest commercial and mixed-use developments with standalone residential and commercial buildings. Turning LaneParkingLotShopping StripManufacturedHomes100 AVE104 AVE96 AVE132 ST134 ST140 STKINGGEORGEFRASER      HWY80 AVE84 AVE82 AVE88 AVE160 ST164 ST162 ST156 STFRASER HWYFRASER HWY64 AVE68 AVE72 AVE188 ST192 ST184 STEXISTING SECTIONAnnotated  cross section of the existing conditions of Fraser Hwy at the station intersection.LOCATIONALMAPMap depicting the station location, core area, and current plans within its buffer area. PROPOSEDSECTIONAnnotated  cross section of proposed surroundings for Fraser Hwy at the station intersection. VISIONDescription of the future vision for the area and its growth pattern. XIX160 NEWPROPOSAL[ [The vision for the future of Fleetwood’s Town Centre is to build upon the community life that has been focused on 160 Street, through new pedestrian-oriented commercial and residential activity that is supported by proximity to public transit. This will promote the creation of a distinctive destination that is well connected through a network of sidewalks, multi-use pathways, roads and lanes. An important part of the vision is to protect existing neighbourhoods with ground-oriented housing. This includes preserving a large portion of the single family and manufactured homes to promote diversity within the housing options. Likewise, the creation of apropriate transition areas  and retention of a lower profile skyline aims to strike a balance between the built form and the rate of growth expected after the arrival of the LRT.Fraser Hwy as it crosses the Town Centre area is envisioned as a thriving, pedestrian friendly, gateway into the community. This will facilitate a lost linkage between the north and south commercial nodes. As such, the overall character of the highway  will be transformed by providing a differentiated pavement treatment, establishing a  boulevard of trees on either side, encouraging active frontages, and incorporating furnishings that reflect the local character of the community.The mixed-use and pedestrian-oriented core area planned around the intersection of 16oth street and Fraser Hwy has been slow to develop as envisioned in the plan. It is expected that increased density allowances and the implementation of the LRT will encourage existing low-density, car-oriented commercial activity to redevelop into higher-density mixed-use developments with pedestrian-oriented retail and personal service uses at the ground floor and residential units above. RENDERED PERSPECTIVEComposite depicting a perspective view of the built form around the proposed LRT station. XI1 24635MOBILITY CONCEPTAnalysis of the revised street network based on before and after diagrams to indicate the proposed changes. BUILT FORM GROWTHAnalysis of the revised built form based on before and after figure ground studies. The gray scale symbolizes built height changes from lowest (light gray) to highest (dark gray).VIIIVIISurrounding this redesigned pedestrian commercial  centre, are medium density residential uses in the form of apartment buildings or townhouses. These units will transition into existing single family homes that will remain in great proportion within the buffer area. Additionally, a protected area for manufactured homes -southwest of Fraser Hwy- will continue to provide an affordable form of detached, ground-oriented housing. This gentle density strategy, is a non intrusive approach at intensifying the population base. as well as diversifying the  housing options without disrupting drastically the existing urban fabric. This is a high contrast to the strategies implemented around the proposed King George station, where more aggressive measures for densification are planned whilst maintaining transition buffers. An improved and larger park is planned for the northwest quadrant which will be surrounded by required residential frontage of units up to 4 storeys high. All existing educational and community service uses remain as these are a crucial part of the community’s social fabric. Mobility: the plan’s proposals for new streets are focused mostly around the core area to enhance connectivity within the proposed mixed-use centre. Additional connections are suggested by the author around the buffer area to complete the fine-grain network. All roads proposed will provide sidewalks on both sides that are separated from traffic lanes by treed boulevards to provide a comfortable and safe walking environment for pedestrians. The plan also includes bicycle infrastructure on all collector and arterial roads. In support of the future transit line, the proposed road network provides efficient multi-modal routing options for existing and future residents to access the anticipated station location.   Built Form: As previously mentioned, the future growth around the 160 station will be respectful of the exisitng urban form, thus focusing mostly on the infill of available underdeveloped lands, and the reconversion of sprawled commercial lots along Fraser Hwy. The mixed-use core will see the rise of up to 6 storey buildings, while the building height around established residential neighbourhoods has been restricted to 4 storeys maximum. There is an emphasis on activating the streets through the provision of local serving retail, ground-oriented housing and frontages facing parks. To support the pedestrian activity along the north side of 160 Street, the plan calls for the establishment of two pedestrianized east-west commercial streets -at 86th and 87th avenue- lviilviFigure 20. Areal view of lands around the King George station area. KING GEORGE STATION[[FRASER HWY100 AVE102 AVEKING GEORGE BLVD140 ST134 ST132 STlvixlviiiKING GEORGETODAY[ [The proposed King George station is located at the junction of the Fraser Hwy with King George Blvd. This area is home to the terminus station of the existing Skytrain Expo Line, connecting the City of Surrey -at a regional level- with neighbouring municipalities north of the Fraser river and with downtown at the City of Vancouver. As such, this point of convergence becomes an important component of a larger network of movement within and outside of the city. The future station makes part of the Whalley community -also known as North Surrey- and it is located within what has been established as the City Centre downtown.  The station’s surrounding area has been designates as a Central Business District and Urban Centre.    As of today, the area is experiencing dramatic changes fostered by the appearance of flagship projects such as the Coast Capital headquarters depicted above, the SFU campus and the Central City shopping mall. A recently renewed Holland Park  -located accross from the proposed station- has become a gathering anchor and stage for recreational and cultural activities.The King George station is set to experience further growth to provide housing, employment and recreational opportunities within the new downtown.SeparatedBus LaneBusShelterCustomLightingCoastCapitalUnderdevlopedLands100 AVE104 AVE96 AVE132 ST134 ST140 STKINGGEORGEFRASER      HWY80 AVE84 AVE82 AVE88 AVE160 ST164 ST162 ST156 STFRASER HWYFRASER HWY64 AVE68 AVE72 AVE188 ST192 ST184 STFigure 21,22. (Above) Existing cross section around proposed King George station. (Below) Locational map of proposed King George station.20m1050pppppppppplxilxKING GEORGE ANALYSIS[[The current land use patterns around the station are characterized by segregation and sprawl overall. There is a large concentration of strip mall commercial uses with small footprints located on large lots along the north edge of King George Blvd. Although this station area is one of the most diverse in terms of housing types, the vast majority of land takes the form of single family or low density townhouses within enclaves. Medical services are concentrated south, while other services such as community organizations and churches are dispersed throughout. The beginning of a transformation is present however, through the appearance of newly built residential towers closest to the station, and the mix of uses within the parcel north of Holland Park, which contains a university campus, office tower and shopping mall complex. In terms of mobility, this area presents a confluence of major arterial roads, for automobile use, depicting the transient nature of this node. This is contrasted by a lack of secondary roads through which to divert some of the traffic and encourage other modes of transportation. Missing links in sidewalk infrastructure are present within the residential areas, reflecting the auto-oriented focus with which these were established. Cycling routes are confined to roads running parallel and perpendicular to King George, resulting in a discontinuous network. One of the biggest challenges to overcome is the presence of large blocks without midway passages which discourage walking. King George contains some of the highest and most varied built forms from the three stations. Currently, the tallest buildings are spread throughout, next to 1 to 2 storey structures, and there is no clear definition of transition areas. There are a handful of underdeveloped lots which signals to redevelopment as the way to achieve the transformation. As mentioned before, Holland Park represents the central space for congregation alongside a couple of courtyard plazas from the newest developments. Figure 23,24,25. (Left) Existing land uses. (Middle) current mobility. (Right) and current lot development around King George. Arterial (40m)Collector (20m)Local (9m)SidewalksTrailsBike RouteMegablockSingle Family/TownhouseMid-Rise/ApartmentHigh-Rise/TowerCommunity ServiceStrip Mall CommercialShopping MallOffice BuildingEducational Facility0 400m2001001-2 storeys3-6 storeys7-10 storeysUnder ConstructionUnderdeveloped LotPlaza/Square10-20 storeys20-40 storeyslxiiilxiiKING GEORGEMASTER PLAN[ [The proposed land use plan for the King George station area envisions a predominant strengthening of residential uses, and the establishment of a mixed use corridor of varying higher densities that runs alongside King George Blvd. The commercial component of these developments will be restricted to ground floor commercial and, in some cases, to second and third floor office uses with the balance of these developments being residential. The highest densities for this type of development are clustered in close proximity to the station. This corridor is buffered by high density residential units enclosing the envelop. The single family and low residential Figure 26. Master Plan for the King George Station core and buffer area. Single Family / Duplex 0.6 FARLow to Medium Rise up to 2.5 FARMedium to High Rise 3.5 FARHigh Rise 5.5 FARProposed Commercial Lane (8m)Proposed Green Lane (12m)Proposed Local (20m)Proposed Collector (24m)Bicycle RouteExisting / Proposed PlazaMixed Use 3.5 FARMixed Use 5.5 FARMixed Use 7.5 FARParks and GreenwayInstitutional0 400m200100LEGENDNlxvlxivforms to the east are replaced by medium density units. One single family area is preserved to the west, enclosed by low to medium density units and Holland Park. Aside from the green corridor to the east -which is extended south of Fraser Hwy by using underdeveloped parcels- new plazas from the mixed-use  development sites offer a comprehensive network of new open spaces for gathering and socializing. Mobility: In order to foster movement across the station area an array of new streets has been proposed. This network aims to break down the existing lengthy blocks in order to encourage pedestrians to access new land uses and the transit station, as well as infilling the missing links for cyclists. This finer grain street network will also provide opportunities to increase sidewalk infrastructure across the pre-exisitng residential areas and throughout. Redevelopment is a key component in providing this new connections and the needed infrastructure to facilitate circulation and movement. King George Boulevard occupies a very important position within the local and regional road network, and will continue to maintain this important traffic-moving role through the City Centre. Therefore, some improvements will be put into practice to enhance the pedestrian experience along this corridor. These include: the construction of additional pedestrian crossing locations, enhancing the current street design to create a more comfortable, attractive, human-scaled street with wide sidewalks, landscaping, quality street furniture and lighting.Built Form: The future vision for development around this area is composed of a tightly compact and centralized spine along King George Blvd, that transitions and merges into the existing urban fabric. This is accomplished by infilling and redeveloping underutilized lands, as well as by concentrating the heighest developments. This particular site has been chosen to house highly dense residential and mixed-use towers that reach up to 42 storeys at the core and transition to lower forms as low as 6 meters in height. This condition has led to a fairly complex matrix of transitional buffers that conceal the cluster of highrises next to the proposed station. Based on current examples, the inclusion of podiums at the base for skinny towers will enhance the pedestrian experience, while being engaging though a range of active uses at the street level. The configuration of smaller lots from the proposed streets also allows for open spaces such as corner plazas, courtyards and squares to become part of the downtown’s open space network. Figure 27,28. (Left) Existing and proposed street network. (Right) Existing and visioned built form.Planned new streetSuggested additional streetlxviilxviKING GEORGE PROPOSAL[ [This particular node is set to become part of Surrey’s future metropolitan centre and a regional destination. It is envisioned as a central secondary office and entertainment hub surrounded by high density residential development. Its built form will combine a range of market and non-market dwelling types and forms to house the wide variety of socio-economic groups that make up Surrey’s population, including new immigrants, young professionals, families and seniors.King George Blvd is anticipated to be a vibrant, energetic pedestrian-oriented thoroughfare along which residents, workers, students and visitors circulate comfortably by foot, bicycle, public transit and automobile. Supportive retail and entertainment uses will be located along this corridor to help create a vital, user-friendly environment that provides commercial opportunities to various residential neighbourhoods of City Centre both during the day and at night.Recent development has been funneled around the existing Skytrain Station, location of the future Fraser Hwy LRT stop. Three residential high-rise towers -reaching up to 42 storeys- have been built as part of the Park Place complex.  Next to these, the Coast Capital headquarters building was erected. An iconic building for Surrey’s skyline and part of a larger complex called “The Hub”. The landmark mixed-use development complex will further transform the rapidly evolving downtown core of Surrey. It will provide 760,000 square feet of transit-oriented office and retail space, as well as approximately 1.2 million square feet of residential space (up to 800 housing units).  These projects -in conjunction with the additional 17 development application proposals currently under revision- conform the stepping stones for the creation of a transit-oriented urban community at the heart of downtown. A drastic change in the development of what is to be the most urban core along the Fraser Hwy.  Figure 29. Proposed cross section after TOC development around King George station. SharedPathLRTShelterCustomLightingKing GeorgeLRT StationCoast Capital(9 storeys)Residential Tower (36 storeys)20m1050lxixlxviiiFigure 30. Rendered perspective of proposed changes around King George station. lxxilxxFigure 31. Areal view of lands around the 160 Street station area. 160 STREETSTATION[ [86 AVE84 AVE82 AVE88 AVE160 ST162 ST164 ST159 ST156 STFRASER HWYlxxiiilxxii160 STREETTODAY[ [The proposed 160 Street station is located at the heart of Fleetwood’s Town Centre within one of Surrey’s deep-rooted communities. The station’s core area is part of the OCP’s designated Town and Urban Centres, which denotes this area as an important social, cultural and commercial centre for the entire community. However, the current lack of an anchoring core prevents this vision from becoming realized. This particular station area is distinguished for having one of the most demarcated suburban fabrics out of the three stations selected. Along the Fraser Hwy, the scattered nature of auto-oriented commercial strip development has characterized this node historically. As a result, there are no concentrations of commercial development that act as an identifiable community centre that successfully serves the growing population of Fleetwood.  Meanwhile, across the residential envelope a low density and highly sprawled housing capital lacks appropriate connectivity, making it a challenging planning context overall. There has been substantial townhouse development in the area over the past 15 years. However, other development types have been limited to modest commercial and mixed-use developments with standalone residential and commercial buildings. Figure 32,33. (Above) Existing cross section around proposed 160 Street station. (Below) Locational map of proposed 160 Street station.Turning LaneParkingLotShopping StripConvenienceStoreManufacturedHomes100 AVE104 AVE96 AVE132 ST134 ST140 STKINGGEORGEFRASER      HWY80 AVE84 AVE82 AVE88 AVE160 ST164 ST162 ST156 STFRASER HWYFRASER HWY64 AVE68 AVE72 AVE188 ST192 ST184 STShared Bike Lane20m1050lxxvlxxiv160 CURRENT ANALYSIS[[Land uses within the buffer area of this proposed transit station are representative of suburban growth patterns throughout. There is a low density commercial cluster that expands -west and east along Fraser Highway- from the intersection with 160 Street. Among these commercial uses there is a high presence of auto-centred services, in the form of dealerships,  and auto detailing and repiar shops occupying large areas of land. There is a predominance of sprawled single family homes clustered around closed end roads, creating a homogeneous housing landscape. However, most of the current townhouse complexes have been recently developed, thus injecting some architectural variety and diversifying the housing stock.  Community services are distributed throughout, including the Fleetwood community centre south of Fraser Hwy, which historically has been a major focal point for social interactivity across neighbourhoods. Mobility through this area is somewhat limited given the large amounts of cul-de-sacs and dead ends in the inward facing residential areas. Likewise, the outspread car-oriented shopping strips create a frontage of mega blocks that impede pedestrian circulation. Sidewalk infrastructure is present along the main arterial and collector roads but breaks down when entering the local street network. Cycling is restricted to the arterial roads which transverse the area in most directions, but access becomes restricted towards open parks and the residential core. The built form within this community is homogeneous and characterized by 1 to 2 storey buildings mostly. As mentioned before, newer development concentrated north of Fraser Hwy has introduced higher typologies that respect the existing built form.  Most of the available parcels for redevelopment are concentrated close to newer buildings. There is a severe lack of open spaces and plazas within the area which must be addressed through new development opportunities.   Figure 34,35,36. (Left) Existing land uses. (Middle) current mobility. (Right) and current lot development around 160 Street.Single Family HouseTownhouseApartment BuildingCommunity ServiceStrip Mall CommercialAuto ServicesOffice BuildingEducational Facility0 400m200100Arterial (40m)Collector (20m)Local (9m)SidewalksTrailsBike RouteMegablock 1-2 storeys3-6 storeys7-10 storeysUnder ConstructionUnderdevloped LotPlaza/Square10-20 storeys20-40 storeyslxxviilxxvi160 MASTER PLAN[[The proposed land use plan for Fleetwood Town Centre attempts to strengthen the community’s core -to accommodate the projected growth in the area- while respecting its existing residential base. In order to achieve this, the OCP’s designated Town Centre has been established as a mixed-use development area that encourages ground oriented street level commercial uses with residential apartments above, but also permits standalone commercial and apartment buildings.  Particular sites have been required to provide such local serving commercial uses along the north face of Fraser Hwy, as well as along either side of 160 Street north of the station.   Figure 37. Master Plan for the 160 Street station core and buffer area. Single FamilyLow Density TownhousesMedium Density TownhousesApartment / Medium Density TownhousesManufactured HomesProposed Commercial Lane (8m)Proposed Green Lane (12m)Proposed Local (20m)Proposed Collector (24m)Bicycle RouteExisting / Proposed PlazaMixed Use 2.5 FAR, 6 Storey MaximumCommercial Frontage RequiredInstitutionalParks and Linear CorridorsCommercial 1.5 FAR0 400m200100LEGENDNlxxixlxxviiiSurrounding this redesigned pedestrian commercial  centre, are medium density residential uses in the form of apartment buildings or townhouses. These units will transition into existing single family homes that will remain in great proportion within the buffer area. Additionally, a protected area for manufactured homes -southwest of Fraser Hwy- will continue to provide an affordable form of detached, ground-oriented housing. This gentle density strategy, is a non intrusive approach at intensifying the population base, as well as diversifying the  housing options without drastically disrupting the existing urban fabric. This is a contrasting context to the strategies implemented around the proposed King George station, where more aggressive measures for densification are planned whilst maintaining transitional buffers. An improved and larger park is planned for the northwest quadrant which will be surrounded by required residential frontage of units up to 4 storeys high. All existing educational and community services remain as these are a crucial part of retaining the community’s social fabric. Mobility: the plan’s proposals for new streets focus mostly around the core area to enhance connectivity within the proposed mixed-use centre. Additional connections are suggested by the author around the buffer area to complete the fine grain network. All roads proposed will provide sidewalks on both sides that are separated from traffic lanes by treed boulevards to provide a comfortable and safe walking environment for pedestrians. The plan also includes bicycle infrastructure on all collector and arterial roads. In support of the future transit line, the proposed road network provides efficient multi-modal routing options for existing and future residents to access the anticipated station location.   Built Form: As previously mentioned, the future growth around the 160 station will be respectful of the exisitng urban form, thus focusing mostly on the infill of available underdeveloped lands, and the reconversion of sprawled commercial lots along Fraser Hwy. The mixed-use core will see the rise of up to 6 storey buildings, while the building height around established residential neighbourhoods has been restricted to 4 storeys maximum. There is an emphasis on activating the streets through the provision of local serving retail, ground-oriented housing and frontages facing parks. To support the pedestrian activity along the north side of 160 Street, the plan calls for the establishment of two pedestrianized east-west commercial streets -at 86 and 87 Avenue- intersecting 160 Street and culminating in open public plazas. Figure 38,39. (Left) Existing and proposed street network. (Right) Existing and visioned built form.Planned new streetSuggested added streetlxxxilxxx160 STATIONPROPOSAL[ [The vision for the future of Fleetwood’s Town Centre is to build upon the community life that has been focused on 160 Street, through new pedestrian-oriented commercial and residential activity that is supported by proximity to public transit. This will promote the creation of a distinctive destination that is well connected through a network of sidewalks, multi-use pathways, roads and lanes. An important part of the vision is to protect existing neighbourhoods with ground-oriented housing. This includes preserving a large portion of the single family and manufactured homes to promote diversity within the housing options. Likewise, the creation of apropriate transition areas  and retention of a lower profile skyline aims to strike a balance between the built form and the rate of growth expected after the arrival of the LRT.Fraser Hwy as it crosses the Town Centre area is envisioned as a thriving, pedestrian friendly, gateway into the  community. This will facilitate a lost linkage between the north and south commercial nodes. As such, the overall character of the highway  will be transformed by providing a differentiated pavement treatment, establishing a  boulevard of trees on either side, encouraging active frontages, and incorporating furnishings that reflect the local character of the community.The mixed-use and pedestrian-oriented core area planned around the intersection of 16oth street and Fraser Hwy has been slow to develop as envisioned in the plan. It is expected that increased density allowances and the implementation of the LRT will encourage existing low-density, car-oriented commercial activity to redevelop into higher-density mixed-use developments with pedestrian-oriented retail and personal service uses at the ground floor and residential units above. Figure 40. Proposed cross section after TOC development around 160 Street station. 20m1050LRTShelterCommercial/Residential(6 storeys) Residential (4 storeys)Shopping StripSeparatedBike LanelxxxiiilxxxiiFigure 41. Rendered Perspective of proposed changes around 160 Street station. lxxxvlxxxivFigure 42. Areal view of lands around the 188 Street station area. 188 STREET STATION[[68 AVE64 AVE188 ST186 ST184 ST192 ST190 STFRASER HWYlxxxviilxxxvi188 STREETSTATION[ [The proposed 188 Street station is located at the northeast edge of the Cloverdale community. Fraser Hwy bisects the area at a diagonal, which has caused a new community to emerge on the north side by the name of Clayton. This is a planning context distinct from that found at the 160 station where the community has grown homogeneously upwards and southwards of Fraser Hwy. Consequently, the station’s planning area is driven by two sets of visions delimited by the Fraser Hwy. To the south, a deep rooted suburban community has grown under the guidance of a Neighbourhood Concept Plan yet to be revised since 1994. To the north, Clayton continues to grow through its current Urban Centre designation and the creation of the transit-oriented planning area in 2014.This creates a highly contrasting current urban landscape between a community developed around automobile movement, and one that through the boom of recent development activity has experienced a transformation that anticipates future public transit.  Additionally, being situated at the edge of the City of Surrey and away from Cloverdale’s Town Centre, this area is expected to develop it’s own centre of activity through the redevelopment of lands directly adjacent to the station within East Clayton. Figure 43,44. (Above) Existing cross section around proposed 188 Street station. (Below) Locational map of proposed 188 Street station.Turning LaneVacantLots TownhouseComplex100 AVE104 AVE96 AVE132 ST134 ST140 STKINGGEORGEFRASER      HWY80 AVE84 AVE82 AVE88 AVE160 ST164 ST162 ST156 STFRASER HWYFRASER HWY64 AVE68 AVE72 AVE188 ST192 ST184 STShared Bike LaneRiparianArea20m1050lxxxixlxxxviii188 CURRENT ANALYSIS[[Land use patterns that currently exist in the area are suburban in nature, exhibiting the most homogenous land use mix of all stations. Nonetheless, there are some transit-oriented practices emerging in the area. This is indicative of the contrasting growth contexts mentioned previously. Residential uses are dominated by single family homes throughout. South of Fraser Hwy these are oriented inwards around looping dead end streets, while in East Clayton ground-oriented entrances face the grid structured public streets. There is a presence of some spot townhouse development located in close proximity to the proposed station, along Fraser Hwy and 188 Street. There is an existing strip mall immediately east of 188 that houses local serving retail and services. This is small in scale, pedestrian-oriented, and more compact than those found at 160 station. However, given the projected population base, this area is largely under-served when it comes to commercial uses. Likewise, there is a deficiency of employment opportunities in the area, as well as few community services available. Mobility at this station clearly depicts the high contrast between the north and south areas. Street layouts to the north display the beginings of a small block grid formation supported by a consistent network of sidewalk infrastructure. While to the south, streets are laid out in circular patterns with an alarming amount of dead ends and cul-de-sacs, and a poor sidewalk infrastructure. Most of the megablocks are clustered along the Fraser Hwy, resulting from underdeveloped lands to the north, and fenced residential complexes to the south.The built form is extremely homogeneous in this area, but most of the 1 to 2 storey single family complexes are more compactly arranged than in other areas of the city, occupying less land per household. The appearance of newer townhouses close to main streets has given opportunity for a few corner plazas to appear. This area also possesses the greatest amount of underdeveloped lands.Figure 45,46,47. (Left) Existing land uses. (Middle) current mobility. (Right) and current lot development around 188 Street.Single Family HomeTownhouseApartment BuildingCommunity ServiceStrip Mall CommercialAuto ServicesOffice BuildingEducational Facility0 400m200100Arterial (40m)Collector (20m)Local (9m)SidewalksTrailsBike RouteMegablock 1-2 storeys3-6 storeys7-10 storeysUnder ConstructionUnderdeveloped LotPlaza/Square10-20 storeys20-40 storeysxcixc188 MASTER PLAN[[Most of the plan’s focus is on further developing East Clayton, with some minor alterations to the urban fabric south of Fraser Hwy to improve mobility in that community. The biggest transformation is expected to occur within the transit-oriented study area. For this particular site the plan proposes a mixed-use complex -varying in density- fronting Fraser Hwy and wrapping around 188 Street. Within this precinct it is anticipated that commercial retail uses will emerge at grade with required ground floor retail facing the main streets, including proposed ones. This will be the base for residential and office uses to develop above in proportions dependent on the density achieved by the development. Figure 48. Master Plan for the 188 Street station core and buffer area. Single Family Low Density 6-10 u.p.aMedium Density 10-15 u.p.aMedium to High Density 15-25 u.p.aHigh Density 25-45 u.p.aProposed Commercial Lane (8m)Proposed Green Lane (12m)Proposed Local (20m)Proposed Collector (24m)Bicycle RouteMixed Use 1.5 FARMixed Use 2.0 FARMixed Use 2.5 FARCommercial Frontage RequiredParks and GreenwayInstitutionalCommercial Strip MallExisting / Proposed Plaza0 400m200100LEGENDNxciiixciiIn order to buffer this mixed-use complex and recently built surrounding residential areas, the plan calls for the creation of  multifamily townhouses across the northern edge of the transit-oriented planning area. These lands are primarily intended for townhouses at a density of 30 units per acre. To strengthen job opportunities, units facing public streets may incorporate a live/work component to permit work places such as studios, salons, business offices, coffee shops, and the like as optional uses at a small scale within the ground floor level of the dwelling. The plan also foresees the creation of  new parkland that includes a neighbourhood park, and a small plaza and gathering place to be located at one of the corners of the park.Mobility: Similar to the 160 station, the mobility plan for 188 focuses solely around the TOA. The author has identified further links -particularly south of Fraser Hwy- that should be considered in the future. One of the biggest changes to the transit network in this area is the extension of the 192 Street Diversion to converge with Fraser Hwy. This will create a new north-south arterial and gives the TOA a defined edge to the east to which to front future land uses. The finer grain road network principle present in the East Clayton neighbourhood has also been applied within the plan area as it proves highly successful in creating a connected, walkable community. This responds to the land uses and densities proposed within the plan and the area’s proximity to the transit station. Finally, the plan for East Clayton proposes the creation of a green corridor running parallel to 188 St to the east, connecing to the proposed mixed-use complex. This further strengthens connectivity to this new founded core.Built Form: Since most of the future development of this area is going to be concentrated along the undeveloped lands designated as transit-oriented, this is where the highest built forms are concentrated. This urban core will see mixed-use buildings of up to 8 storeys high at the corners of Fraser Hwy with 188 and the 192 Diversion. These structures will be composed of a mixture of up to 3 storeys of commercial, 2 storeys of office space and a maximum of 5 storeys of residential.  These will be buffered by up to 6 storey mixed-use buildings and up to 3 storey townhouses with an optional live/work component at the ground floor.  The entire complex will be crossed by an east-west pedestrian-oriented commercial “High Street” emphasizing retail fronts.The area counts with a good balance of green spaces enhanced by a new park and the extension of the green corridor east of the TOA, featuring a detention pond.Figure 49,50. (Left) Existing and proposed street network. (Right) Existing and visioned built form.Planned new streetSuggested additional streetxcvxciv188 STATIONPROPOSAL[ [The residential foundation for the envisioned community around the 188 station is well under way. East Clayton has seen an extensive sprout of townhouse and single family housing development in the last decades throughout the station’s buffer area, while  the well established North Cloverdale East community has reached an almost full build out. Remaining to be accomplished is the development of the core area with mixes of uses, providing various employment, leisure and shopping opportunities to the increased population. The vision for this core at the navel of East Clayton is to create a “village-centre”in character, with small-scale building footprints, human-scale detailing and ground oriented uses based upon transit-oriented principles. This village centre is projected to include: 9 acres of multi-family housing, or about 226 to 317 dwellings at a density of 30 unites per acre, with a 30% office or retail component option for those facing public streets; 19 acres are reserved for mixed-use development at various densities intended to provide an estimated 578 to 1,020 new residential units, and generate 2,504 to 3,830 new jobs between the commercial and office space components.; also 2.31 acres are assigned to neighbourhood parkland, centrally located with a small plaza and gathering space at the corner. This centre will be conveniently accessible through a revised street network that integrates the grid-based block pattern currently present in East Clayton, helping to distribute traffic and encouraging walking and cycling connections and convenient pedestrian access to transit. An important piece to this network is the east-west commercial “High Street” along 66 Avenue connecting the planned 192 Street Diversion to 188 Street. This street will emphasize commercial activity to create a vibrant and pedestrian-friendly environment, as well as a focal point for emerging plazas and urban landmarks that assist with place-making for this new community hub. Figure 51. Proposed cross section after TOC development around 188 Street station. 20m1050LRTShelterCornerPlazaRetail / Office / Residential(8 storeys)SeparatedBike LaneTownhouseComplexxcviixcviFigure 52. Rendered Perspective of proposed changes around 188 Street station. xcixxcviiiCONCLUDINGREMARKS[ [This study has focused on exploring strategies to restructure suburban land patterns to support growth towards more sustainable, complete, transit-oriented communities within the suburbs, thus reducing their current auto-dependency. By looking at the particular case of Fraser Hwy at the city of Surrey the following reflections have emerged:•	 Transportation investments have the potential of becoming great catalysts for transforming communities when supportive land use plans assist in promoting future ridership.•	 Integration of smart growth strategies must emerge from a new planning paradigm that establishes a framework that guides future development. •	 These strategies need to be supported by and linked to larger context regional initiatives in order to align development priorities at all levels of governance.•	 The incorporation of transit-oriented principles within the planning of these communities may occur through an overarching transit-oriented development master plan/strategy or through local area land use plans. •	 This must be followed by a revision of zoning designations in order to promote the creation of an urban core around the transit station that diversifies land uses and provides employment, recreation, retail and service opportunities.•	 The adoption of new urban design guidelines may facilitate breaking away from auto-oriented environments and support a pedestrian-friendly landscape that is human-scale, ground -oriented, and adequately transitioned.•	 Development may take the form of large-scale master planned projects (like the HUB) or incremental parcel by parcel redevelopments such those seen around 160 station. •	 Nevertheless, all private development investments must be channeled to Figure 53. Existing and proposed cross section for 160 Street station. cic•	 Lands in close proximity to the transit station and along the transit corridor hold the highest value and potential for development. As such, these must be preserved for the provision of mixed uses and amenities. •	 It is important that future land growth patterns respond to the local context of each community, helping define their character, and supporting the needs of existing and future residents. •	 Since not all land along the transit corridor may redevelop at the same rate or to the same extent, there is a need to identify the centres of activity that will capitalize on development. provide missing infrastructure, open space and connections to support continuity throughout the station area and the community as a whole. •	 Creating a fine-grained street network with a hierarchy of uses is a priority in restructuring suburban patterns. This network must be part of a master plan to be considered as part of each redevelopment proposal application. •	 A strong population base must be achieved before retail and service opportunities become financially viable through new development. Therefore, infilling the buffer area first to promote an outside-in growth strategy around the station area may be desirable.•	 Public engagement and involvement of various community stakeholders is vital in creating a shared vision, thus promoting acceptance and nurturing needed behavioural changes and patterns.  The present study has focused mainly on the physical transformations that need to take place to restructure suburbia, while fostering emerging transit-oriented communities. This  smart growth trend has been addressed through a planning lense, as part of a long-term framework which would promote the developmental changes to reshape suburbs. The author recognizes the complexity of this transition and acknowledges the need to integrate various other perspectives to trigger development of this type and magnitude. One of the greatest challenges to overcome is financing and economical viability of envisioned projects. It is important for municipalities to develop a business case to support the long range of transformations. This should be sensitive to the initial slow rate of development take up in early stages.   Suburbia has found a new role within the city landscape. An opportunity to redevelop itself as a well-connected, self-sustaining community core at the edge of the central city.Figure 54. Existing and proposed cross section for 188 Street station. ciiiciiADDITIONALSOURCES[ [CTOD. TOD 203: Transit Corridors and TOD: Connecting the dots. Berkley: Centre for Transit-oriented Development, University of California, 2010.CTOD. TOD 204: Planning for TOD at the Regional Scale, The big picture. Berkley: Center for Transit-oriented Development, University of California, 2011. METRO VANCOUVER. Regional Growth Strategy Implementation Guideline #4: Identifying Frequent Transit Development Areas. Vancouver: Metro Vancouver, 2013.NCHRP. Transit-oriented Development: Developing a Strategy to Measure Success in Research Result Digest 294. Washington: Transportation Research Board, 2005.SURREY, Engineering Department. City of Surrey Walking Plan: Creating Walkable Neighbourhoods. Surrey: City of Surrey, 2011. SURREY, Planning and Development Department. Surrey City Centre Plan Update: City Centre Vision. Surrey: City of Surrey.SURREY, Planning and Development Department. Surrey City Centre: The Future Lives Here. Surrey: City of Surrey, 2013.WEBSITESCITY CENTRE, Land Use Plans. http://www.surrey.ca/city-services/1343.aspxCLOVERDALE, Land Use Plans. http://www.surrey.ca/city-services/1324.aspxDEMOGRAPHIC, Profiles. http://www.surrey.ca/business-economic-development/1417.aspxEAST CLAYTON, Transit-oriented Area Plan. http://www.surrey.ca/city-services/14446.aspxFLEETWOOD, Land Use Plans. http://www.surrey.ca/city-services/7088.aspxLRT, project for Surrey. http://www.surrey.ca/city-services/18684.aspxLRT, South of Fraser. http://www.translink.ca/en/Plans-and-Projects/Rapid-Transit-Projects/Surrey-Light-Rail-Transit.aspxcvcivLIST OFFIGURES[ [12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334Rendered perspective of a Transit-oriented Community. Source: Westwood Professional Services. Geographies within TOC areas. Source: Author, based on: City of Coquitlam. Transit-Oriented Development Strategy, pg 4. Aerial view of a Suburban neighbourhood. Source: Wikipedia Commons.Typical elevation of a suburban street. Source: Author. Figure ground of suburban patterns. Source: Author, based on: City of Surrey. GIS open data. New City Hall plaza and library at City of Surrey. Source: Pure Souls Media.Proposed Surrey’s LRT network. Source: Author based on: City of Surrey. Future Light Rail Transit Lines and Stations map. Proposed Fraser Highway LRT Line. Source: Author based on City of Surrey. Future Light Rail Transit Lines and Stations map.City Centre planned areas. Source: Author based on City of Surrey. GIS open data. Aerial view of City Centre with LRT stations. Source: Author based on Bing maps. City Centre Land Use Plan 2011. Source: City of Surrey. City Centre Plan Update - stage 2. pg 8.Fleetwood planned areas. Source: Author based on City of Surrey. GIS open data. Aerial view of Fleetwood with LRT stations. Source: Author based on Bing maps. Fleetwood Land Use Plan, 2016. Source: City of Surrey. Fleetwood Town Centre Land Use Plan -stage 1. Clayton planned areas. Source: Author based on City of Surrey. GIS open data.Aerial view of Clayton with LRT stations. Source: Author based on Bing maps.Clayton Land Use Plan, 2003. Source: Author based on City of Surrey. Clayton Neighbourhood Concept Plan. Current photograph of Fraser Hwy. Source: Colliers International Canada. Selected LRT stations for study. Source: Author based on City of Surrey. GIS open data. Aerial view of lands around the King George station area. Source. Bing maps.Existing cross section around proposed King George station. Source Author.Locational map of proposed King George station. Source: Author based on City of Surrey. GIS data.Existing land uses around King George. Source: Author based on City of Surrey. GIS open data.Current mobility around King George. Source: Author based on City of Surrey. GIS open data. Current lot development around King George. Source: Author based on City of Surrey. GIS data.Master Plan for the King George Station core and buffer area. Source: Author based on City of Surrey. City Centre Plan Update - stage 2. Existing and proposed street network (King George). Source: Author based on City of Surrey. City Centre Plan Update- stage 2. Existing  and visioned built form (King George). Source: Author based on City of Surrey. City Centre Vision. Proposed cross section after TOC development around King George station. Source: Author.Rendered perspective of proposed changes around King George station. Source: Civic Surrey. Aerial view of lands around the 160 Street station area. Source. Bing maps.Existing cross section around proposed 160 Street station. Source Author.Locational map of proposed 160 Street station. Source: Author based on City of Surrey. GIS data.Existing land uses around 160. Source: Author based on City of Surrey. GIS open data.cviicviLIST OFFIGURES[ [3536373839404142434445464748495051525354Current mobility around 160. Source: Author based on City of Surrey. GIS open data. Current lot development around 160. Source: Author based on City of Surrey. GIS data.Master Plan for the 160 Station core and buffer area. Source: Author based on City of Surrey. Fleetwood Town Centre Plan Update - Stage 1.Existing and proposed street network (160). Source: Author based on Fleetwood Town Centre Plan Update - Stage 1.Existing and visioned built form (160). Source: Author based on Fleetwood Town Ctr Plan Update-Stage 1.Proposed cross section after TOC development around 160 Street station. Source: Author. Rendered perspective of proposed changes around 160 station. Source: Smart Growth Tulsa.Aerial view of lands around the 160 Street station area. Source. Bing maps.Existing cross section around proposed 188 Street station. Source Author.Locational map of proposed 188 Street station. Source: Author based on City of Surrey. GIS data.Existing land uses around 188. Source: Author based on City of Surrey. GIS open data.Current mobility around 188. Source: Author based on City of Surrey. GIS open data. Current lot development around 188. Source: Author based on City of Surrey. GIS data.Master Plan for the 188 Station core and buffer area. Source: Author based on City of Surrey. Fleetwood Town Centre Plan Update - Stage 1.Existing and proposed street network (188). Source: Author based on Fleetwood Town Centre Plan Update - Stage 1.Existing and visioned built form (188). Source: Author based on Fleetwood Town Centre Plan Update - Stage 1.Proposed cross section after TOC development around 188 Street station. Source: Author. Rendered perspective of proposed changes around 188 station. Source: CBC based on Metrolinx, City of Hamilton.Existing and proposed cross section around 160 station. Source: AuthorExisting and proposed cross section around 188 station. Source: AuthorCOVER PAGE: Proposed LRT line, stops and planning areas along Fraser Hwy. Source: Author based on City of Surrey. GIS open data. 140 St152 St160 St166 StKing George188 St192 StCLAYTONCITY CENTREFLEETWOODTS 231TS 041TS 841112 AVETS 25188 AVETS 65184 AVETS 061TS 291TS 88160 AVE64 AVEFRASER HWY

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