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Planning Visually : design that takes plans off the shelf and into the public Lao, Aaron 2016

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Design that takes plans off the shelf and into the public.PLANNING VISUALLY BY AARON LAOPart 1: Planning Part 2: VisualsMESSAGEHave a clear hierarchy of messages you want to conveyIdentify the main message, key points, and supporting details; edit out everything elseFrame content as messages with a perspective and conclusion, not simply as topicsAUDIENCEReaders have different levels of engagement: they may skim, absorb, or analyze the contentFrame the content in relation to the public’s everyday lives and  avoid jargonTo meet the diverse preferences of different readers, use a variety of document typesMEDIUMPeople interact with different media in different ways; tailor your design to a specific mediumConsider the characteristics of each medium: level of detail, reading environment, etc.Create a communications plan that encompasses your message, audience, and medium.PERCEPTIONUse how people perceive to help convey your messageHighlight key elements using contrast, so they stand outGroup related elements using similarity or proximityBuild reader expectations to facilitate quicker understandingBreak up content into chunks to make a page easier to processLAYOUTThe layout should form a visual hierarchy that reinforces your hierarchy of messagesThe main message should be big and bold, the first thing you seeKey points should be easily scannable, and supporting details should recedeBlank space can be used to draw focus to the main pointREPRESENTATIONCertain types of visuals are best suited for certain types of informationMore abstract visuals can bring focus to a specific ideaMore realistic visuals are busier, but are easier to understand and resemble how we perceiveA combination of representation types may be necessaryEXECUTIVE SUMMARYPlanning Visually is about using visual design to better engage the public on planning topics. The report includes  six Key Considerations for designers:Designers must first decide what they want to convey  by thinking through a communications plan.Designers then go through the design process to craft  the visuals that will best communicate their message.-  - -  --  - -  -- - - - --  -  --  -  -- -  -Part 1: Planning Part 2: VisualsCONTENTSMESSAGE16What are your main  message, key points,  and supporting details?AUDIENCE24How will you engage  your intended audiences,  given their preferences?MEDIUM34How do people  interact with the types of  media you are using?PERCEPTION54How can the way people  perceive be used to group,highlight, and simplify elements?LAYOUT78How can your visual  hierarchy reinforce your  hierarchy of messages?REPRESENTATION92What types of representation best  support your message?CONCLUSION   102INTRODUCTION  6Planning Visually is by Aaron Lao, Master’s student at the School of Community & Regional Planning at the University of British Columbia.IntroductionHOw CAN PLANNERS USE VISUAL DESIGN TO BETTERENGAGE THE PUBLIC?7Planning Visually explores the basics of visual design, and how it can be used to create more engaging material. It is intended for planners that are new to design, but recognize its importance.Engaging with the public is a core part of planning. This requires two-way communication: presenting ideas, listening to feedback, and sharing  what was heard. While planners strive to engage the public, the material they produce often fails to do so. Plans become jargon-filled walls of text that stay sitting on the shelf, when they should be shared. How to Read This Report:  Planning Visually is divided into six sections, one for each of the six Key Considerations for design. Part One: Planning discusses the thinking that must happen before designing can begin, and includes three  Key Considerations: Message, Audience, and Medium.  Part Two: Visuals includes three Key Considerations for making graphics: Perception, Layout, and Representation.Visual design is one of the best tools planners have to communicate better. Visual design is the process of crafting how a document looks, including text, images, layout, colour, and more.In each section, readers will find an explanation of how each Key Consideration contributes to more effective communication. Each section also contains Takeaways that summarize the main point, Case Studies from real plans, and How-To pages that provide specific instructions. Link icons (2) found throughout the report allow the reader to find out more about a topic or example.t Click on this icon throughout the report       to learn more about the featured visuals.28        IntroductIon 9Is visual design about  beauty and aesthetics?No. At least, not entirely. A document may look beautiful, but might not convey its message clearly. Aesthetics matter to visual design insofar as it helps to attract the reader, and support the communication of the main message. Designers often make the mistake of sacrificing clear communication to create a document that may look better, but ends up meaning less.wHAT IS VISUAL DESIGN  ABOUT, ANYwAY?Is visual design about  following a set of rules?No. There is not a magic set of design rules that will make your design effective. Planners must experiment over and over again to find something that works for each unique project. Good visual design is tailored to communicate a specific message, through a specific medium, to a specific audience. That being said, there are some general considerations that can apply to every design, which this report begins to explore. Is visual design about  using more pictures?No. While visuals are definitely underused in traditional planning material, that doesn’t mean that planners should just place images into documents for the sake of it. Good visual design is about having images, text, and even blank space interact to form a unified product. Planners have to consider how each element might enhance or detract from the intended message.10        IntroductIon 11u  Ecosystem conditions comparisonThe Puget Sound Regional Council’s Vision 2040 document effectively uses three similar illustrations, allowing readers to quickly compare three distinct types of ecosystems. 2Puget Sound Regional Council   — VISION 2040 11Ways to Improve Ecosystem ConditionsSource: John Owen, MAKERS Architecture and Urban DesignPuget Sound Regional Council   — VISION 2040 9Human Impacts to Ecosystem ConditionsSource: John Owen, MAKERS Architecture and Urban DesignPuget Sound Regional Council   — VISION 2040 7Natural Ecosystem ConditionsSource: John Owen, MAKERS Architecture and Urban DesignTakeaway:VISUAL DESIGN IS ABOUT EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION.The goal of visual design is to ensure the recipient accurately understands the intended message. The  content of this entire report is based on this principle.This report contains six Key Considerations planners should make when designing, divided into two parts. The two parts reflect the steps designers must take to communicate well: designers must first plan what they want to communicate (Part One), and then craft the visuals to best convey that (Part Two). Part One: PlanningMESSAGE: the informationAUDIENCE: the intended receiverMEDIUM: the chosen formatsPart Two: VisualsPERCEPTION:  how visual information is processedLAYOUT:  how elements on a page are arrangedREPRESENTATION:  how information is displayed12        IntroductIon 13Part One: Planning MESSAGE   /   AUDIENCE   /   MEDIUM15MESSAGEWhat are your main message,  key points, and supporting details?To communicate effectively, you first need to know exactly what it is you want to say. Your content should form a hierarchy of messages.u  Main MessageThis is the key takeaway for your reader. Every part of the design should reinforce the main message.q  Key Points These sub-sections support the main message. Each chapter of a plan may have its own key points.p  Supporting DetailsDeep analysis for readers who have expressed interest in knowing more. Casual readers may skip this content. p  Non-Essential ContentRemove anything not essential to the main message; more content does not always mean greater understanding. p  AppendicesRelated but non-essential information can always be placed in an appendix, or a separate reference document.17Your main message should not simply be a topic. A topic just introduces a subject area, taking a neutral stance.Takeaway:KNOw YOUR HIERARCHY  OF MESSAGES, BECAUSE IT FOCUSES YOUR CONTENT AND CHANGES YOUR DESIGN.Having a clear sense of the main message focuses your content, allowing you to remove any material that does not reinforce the main message. The resulting content should be brief and clear, easy for readers to consume. When the hierarchy of messages is unclear, documents become wordy, unfocused, and difficult to read.t  Queenstown, New Zealand mapThis map includes unconventional coloured wedges under each street.  The main message here is that certain roads in Queenstown are quite steep, so the design of the map is distorted to show this. 2Green Transportation  in VancouverWest End Character AreasSection 37 of Ontario’s  Planning ActBus Rapid Transit and  the EconomyTopicDoes not comment either way  on a subject. Reads like a header.Walking, cycling and  transit will be preferred  transportation options. 2Character areas define the type of development allowed in different parts of the West End. 2Section 37 is an essential  tool for building healthier neighbourhoods. 2Bus rapid transit connects locals  to new economic opportunities. 2MessageTakes a perspective and leads to a conclusion. Reads like a headline.18        MESSAGE 19A message takes a perspective and clarifies exactly what you want to say about the topic. It leads to a conclusion.Knowing the message also changes the design of your visuals. As explored further in Part Two: Visuals, the type of representation you choose depends directly on what you want to communicate. The map below and the case study on page 22 show how the design of a map can change dramatically due to the main message.Case Study:GREENEST CITY 2020  ACTION PLANThis multi-part plan for the City of Vancouver sets ambitious goals for sustainability. The use of clear messages provides a focus to the policies the City will pursue to meet its sustainability goals. 2Main MessageVancouver will become  the greenest city in the world  by the year 2020.Key PointCity policies will prioritize walking, cycling, and transit, so they become the preferred transportation options.Key PointPursuing a green economy can allow for continued prosperity while combating climate change.Key PointVancouver will lead in the construction of energy-efficient  green buildings.Supporting DetailsAnalysis of existing pedestrian and cycling road network.Supporting DetailsDiscussion of financing tools and incentives for green buildings.Supporting Details Definition of green jobs and an inventory of local green industries.AppendicesStatistical table with metrics on progress toward targets.2020 ACtion PLAn2020 ACTION PLAN PART TWO: 2015-2020Main MessageBus rapid transit presents  the best opportunity for Malindi to reach its development goals..Key PointBRT creates economic opportunities for locals, including informal settlersKey PointBRT connects important sites  along Malindi’s coastKey PointBRT can be implemented at a low cost, compared to other forms of transit.Supporting DetailsDiagram of accessibility for  residents of informal settlementsSupporting DetailsList of potential revenue sources  and other funding options.Supporting DetailsMap of key tourist attractions, markets, public spaces, resorts, etc.Non-Essential ContentTourist destinations and sites not serviced by proposed BRT lineCase Study:COASTAL CONNECTIONSThis proposal for bus rapid transit (BRT) in Malindi, Kenya was created by students at the School of Community & Regional Planning as part of an international urban design competition through UN HABITAT. The main message emphasizes the effectiveness of the proposed solution in reaching Malindi’s goals. 220        MESSAGE 21Case Study:LONDON UNDERGROUND MAPThe London Underground map, redesigned in 1933 by Harry Beck, shows how understanding the main message behind a project can significantly change the design.The map is meant to be used within the subway system, primarily to find the quickest way to connect from your current station to your destination station. Details such as the exact distance between station or the path of the tunnel underground are irrelevant. The underground map should focus on clearly showing the order of stations on each line. A conventional street map, in contrast, would show the geographic location of station, along with other aboveground landmarks.With this intent in mind, Beck greatly simplified the depiction of the London Underground system, prioritizing the reader’s ability to scan the map quickly. This is just one iteration in a long history of Underground maps. 2t  Previous design (1919)Reflects the real geography, showing actual path of tunnels and streets around each stationClutters busy downtown area, while spread out  suburban area occupies most of mapMaintains winding paths, making it difficult to quickly scan the series of stations along each line- - -p  Revised design by Harry Beck (1933)Distorts geography and removes excess street information; simplified river is only landmarkExpands the busy downtown area, while compressing sparse suburban areasStraightens out and simplifies paths; horizontal, vertical, and 45-degree lines allow for quick scanning- - - 22        MESSAGE 23The Georgia and Dunsmuir viaducts act as a barrier, cutting off neighbourhoods from the False Creek waterfront and each other.City staff are recommending a replacement road network with a new Pacific Boulevard and Georgia Street Ramp.  The following infographics illustrate the technical lessons learned over the past two years. The Technical FindingsAt-grade streets are more seismically resilient.  Streets can be raised to new flood construction levels. More Resilient  InfrastructureReduced  Maintenance CostsAt-grade streets have up to 5-10 X lower life cycle costs. Bigger, Better ParkA larger, more contiguous park space can be achieved. Additional park space is from converted road surface.Contact us:Web: vancouver.ca/viaductsEmail:  nefc@vancouver.caPhone:  3-1-1Stay up to date withthe planning processand join our email list.+13% $ $vs.Maintaining the Network CapacityThe new proposed network can accommodate of today’s traffic volume. The proposed network is also designed to handle future traffic volumes more efficiently.100%JunJulAug Fall2015Viaducts Process TimelineFinishPhase 1 - ViaductsPhase 2 - NEFC + ParkStartPhase 1 - ViaductsSpring2016Technical StudiesCommunity EngagementPark+NEFCPlanningPhase 2 - ViaductsSummer2016Phase 2 - NEFC + ParkCouncil to consider future of the viaducts The Georgia and Dunsmuir viaducts act as a barrier, cutting off neighbourhoods from the False Creek waterfront and each other.City staff are recommending a replacement road network with a new Pacific Boulevard and Georgia Street Ramp.  The following infographics illustrate the technical lessons learned over the past two years. The Technical FindingsAt-grade streets are more seismically resilient.  Streets can be raised to new flood construction l vels. More Resilient  InfrastructureReduced  Maintenance CostsAt-grade streets have up to 5-10 X lower life cycle costs.Bigger, Better ParkA larger, more contiguous park space can be achieved. Additional park pace is from convert d road surface.Contact us:Web: vancouver.ca/viaductsEmail:  nefc@vancouver.caPhone:  3-1-1Stay up to date withthe planning processand join our email list.+13% $ $vs.Maintaining the Network CapacityThe new proposed network can accommodate of today’s traffic volume. The proposed network is also designed to handle future traffic volumes more efficiently.100%JunJulAug Fall2015Viaducts Process TimelineFinishPhase 1 - ViaductsPhase 2 - NEFC + ParkStartPhase 1 - ViaductsSpring2016Technical StudiesCommunity EngagementPark+NEFCPlanningPhase 2 - ViaductsSummer2016Phase 2 - NEFC + ParkCouncil to consider future of the viaducts AUDIENCEHow will you engage your intended audiences, given their preferences?Planning is just one of many topics competing for attention in people’s busy lives. Planners must consider the audience’s level of engagement.Do people want to skim, absorb, or analyze the document?increasing engagementV VV VVVVVSKIM ABSORB ANALYZEReading superficially to get an overall sense of the documentReading receptively to understand the documentReading critically to  evaluate the documentReader Profile: busy, only aware of major planning projects if seen on the news, is easily bored by policyContent: main takeaways only, lots of images and minimal text Level of Detail: very few details, but information on where to learn moreExample: “The Future of Vancouver’s Viaducts” brochure 2Reader Profile: curious about their neighbourhood, open to learning about policies that affect themContent: focused on issues affecting the public, images, easy-to-read text Level of Detail: main message and key points, with some supporting detailsExample: Downtown Eastside  Plan Community Newsletter 2Reader Profile: engaged in civic affairs and planning, seeks to influence policyContent: may contain more text, technical data, and more detailsLevel of Detail: evidence, reasoning, and process behind policy decisionsExample:  West End Community Plan 2Pender Street Water Main UpgradesSome of water mains in the DTES are over 100 years old. Critical infrastructure upgrades are currently underway along Pender Street to ensure reliable and high quality water continues to serve the neighbourhood. Work has been mostly completed from Carrall Street to Gore Avenue, Council approved Community Arts grants to 14 DTES non-profits to produce a variety of special events and community-engaged, artist-led projects that celebrate and promote diverse, vibrant and creative communities.In November 2015, Council approved 12 DTES cultural groups for the 2016 Annual Assistance grant program, which better supports groups between start-up and maturity. Of these, eight also received a grant to assist with operational infrastructure. Three DTES organisations were approved for the Operating Biennial grant stream in 2016, a pilot program that enables organisations highly ranked in all areas of performance to by-pass the application and review process for one year.Celebrate HeritageHeritage Action Plan UpdateWe have been working with consultants and stakeholders on the Heritage Conservation Program Review, and Heritage Register Upgrade. The Program encourages and fosters the retention and conservation of historic places, while supporting sustainable development. The Heritage Register Upgrade seeks to build on and strengthen the existing Register while identifying highest priority places, a Historic Context Statement and historic themes to shape development of the city.We will be seeking public input in the coming months. To learn more visit vancouver.ca/heritage-action-plan2016 Chinese Society Buildings Matching GrantsIn December 2015, following an update on the progress of the first and second round of matching grants, Council approved $400,000 towards a third round, with priority consideration for eligible first-time applicants followed by societies that have previously received only one grant. Applications will be accepted from January 29 until the February 19, 2016 deadline.For more information, visit vancouver.ca/chinatownwith intersection improvements proposed at Columbia Street. Water main replacement on the remaining blocks from Carrall to Seymour Streets will continue in 2016, and we anticipate work on Pender Street will be finished in the summer.Arts & Culture OpportunitiesArts & Culture GrantsOver the past two years, we have been working with a multi-disciplinary advisory committee to better meet the needs of organisations. In June 2015, City Chinese Society Legacy ProgramCouncil also approved a new building rehabilitation program to protect and conserve the 12 society heritage buildings DOWNTOWNEASTSIDE PLANWelcometo the fourth edition of the community update for the Downtown Eastside (DTES) Plan. These newsletters will keep you informed about the progress on implementing the plan, upcoming events, and other important information. Since the plan was approved, we have been moving forward on implementing many quick start and short-term projects:2015 Peer Workforce Development ForumTogether with Vancouver Coastal Health, the 2015 Peer Workforce Development Forum was held to share knowledge and support the development of a peer workforce for transformative health and social outcomes.Healthy Homes for AllSRA By-law AmendmentsThe long-term goal of the Single Room Occupancy (SRO) Strategy is to replace the SRO stock with self-contained social housing. In the short-term, the strategy calls for improvements to the condition of rooms while maintaining affordability and ensuring tenants have adequate access to supports. In July 2015, Council approved SRA By-law amendments to increase amount of Council can require for a conversion or demolition permit from $15,000 to $125,000 per room. Building owners are also required have a SRA Permit for any work that requires tenants to be relocated.For more information, visit vancouver.ca/srabylawCo munity Newsletter #4: January 2016Council also approved an $180,000 grant to the Mah Society of Canada to assist with the renovation of 36 SRA-designated rooms at the Asia Hotel in Chinatown.Improved Well-being for All2015 Gender ForumThis past year the Mayor’s Task Force on Mental Health and Addictions held an in-depth community dialogue to share knowledge and experiences. The 2015 Gender Forum was held to examine and respond to issues related to mental health and addictions through an inclusive and multilateral gender lens.vancouver.ca/dtes dtes@vancouver.ca phone: 3-1-1Vibrant & Inclusive Local EconomyCommunity Economic Development StrategyWe are working to finalise the Community Economic Development (CED) strategy. In this final phase, we will be seeking input from groups with specific areas of knowledge relevant to the DTES Plan, CED strategy goals, and representatives from the neighbourhoods served by them. For more information, visit vancouver.ca/ced-strategyThere are some water mains in the community with diameters that may be undersized for an increase in density. Generally, these are mains with diameters of 15 centimetres or less; however, even the larger diameter mains may require upgrading depending on the fire flow demands for a given form of development.  Where a new development will trigger an upgrade before its scheduled replacement, upgrade costs will be expected to be the responsibility of the development and captured during the rezoning or permitting process. It is anticipated that a revised citywide funding formula for upgrading water infrastructure to accommodate growth will be advanced prior to major replacement requirements in the West End.Public access to water in the West End is available from 19 drinking fountains at various parks, along greenways, and in community centres. However, there are further opportunities for additional drinking fountains or bottle filling stations in the community that can be leveraged from adjacent redevelopment. Ideal locations for drinking fountains include parks, public spaces/plazas and along greenways or bikeways.The West End is within the coverage area of the City’s DFPS. The DFPS is a dedicated pipe network constructed to withstand a seismic event to provide fire protection in a post disaster scenario and to complement the conventional distribution network in the case of a large fire.Avoiding future expansion of Vancouver’s current drinking water supply by reducing demand now makes sense both economically and ecologically. Reducing discretionary water use such as that used for landscaping is being achieved through lawn sprinkling regulations and enforcement. Water wise landscape design guidelines also help property owners minimize irrigation needs. Seasonal rates reflect the availability of water in the drier, summer months and   encourage conservation. West End Directions16.1  Waterworks and Sewer SystemWaterworksThere are 37.2 kilometres of water pipes serving the West End. The age of the pipes is as follows: Citywide Context and PoliciesVancouver has the goal of being the greenest city in the world by 2020. To help achieve this, key plans and strategies relating to utilities and services include:Greenest City 2020 Action Plan (2011)• Provide the best drinking water quality by 2020.• Reduce potable water use by 33% by 2020.• Protect Vancouver's waterways. • Reduce solid waste going to landfill or incinerator by 50% from 2008 levels.Climate Change Adaptation Strategy (2012)• Complete and implement a citywide Integrated Stormwater Management Plan.• Separate combined sewers. Metro Vancouver Sustainable Region Initiative (2002-2011)• Drinking Water Management Plan.• Integrated Liquid Waste and Resource Management Plan.• Integrated Solid Waste and Resource Management Plan.Water main work Age of Pipes in West End AreaBuilt before 1950 10.8 kmBuilt/rebuilt between 1950 and 1980 19.7 kmBuilt/rebuilt since 1980 6.6 kmTotal 37.2 kmThe City has generally maintained a program to replace deteriorating water mains at a rate of  11 kilometres annually (equivalent to 0.8% of the City’s water system each year). Replacement candidates are prioritized based on various physical factors that affect their service lives. As such, over the next 30 years, it is expected that a portion of the water main inventory in West End will be replaced. 108     16.0     UTILITIES AND SERVICES WEST END COMMUNITY PLAN25VVTechnical FindingsThe Future of Vancouver’s  ViaductsTravel TimeThe future street design improves access, safety and comfort with minimal delays for vehicles.Connections  to the CreekA new street network will reduce barriers and improve connections between neighbourhoods.Opportunity to  Reconnect Main StreetOpportunity to reconnect Main Street with shops, affordable housing and more cohesive community.In fall 2015, Council will consider whether to move ahead with replacing the viaducts.It is important that we hear from the community on what they think are the opportunities and challenges posed by this decision. Check out more information and share your opinion at: vancouver.ca/viaducts. What Can You Do?vanc uver.ca/viaductsImproved  ConnectionsImproved connections + route choices, 1-3 minuteincrease in travel time=Improved access, safety and comfort= Positive PublicResponse69 per cent of people agreed with the proposal to replace the viaducts in 2013.69%MAIN STRECONNECTEDDISCONNECTEDUNION STPRIOR STUNION STPRIOR STThe future street design  impr ves connections.TODAY - DISCONNECTED STREETSFUTURE - CONNECTED STREETSSHOPBC PLACEGEORGIA STMAIN GEORGIA STMAIN PACIFIC ABBOTT EXPOQUEBEC QUEBEC PACIFIC ABBOTT EXPO QUEBECQUEBEC CARRALLPeople care about planning when they see how it affects them day-to-day.  Policy-makers must be aware of this.Public-facing planning documents must clearly address issues of importance to community members.The part of zoning that separates different building uses is called “use zoning” or “land-use zoning.” Zoning law keeps housing in  one zone, and factories in another.NICE! NOT SO NICE!… then someone builds  a jackhammer factory next door.Let’s say you build  a house on your lot.INTRODUCTIONWHAT IS ZONING?12 13The other part of zoning law controls the size and shape of buildings in  each zone.Planning the size and shape of buildings can prevent overcrowding, protect public health and safety,  and make neighborhoods nicer places to live.Zoning doesn’t actually build anything. It just guides and limits what people can build in different zones.NICE! NOT SO NICE!Let’s say  a developer  builds a high-rise  next door.Back to your nice house.INTRODUCTIONWHAT IS ZONING?14 15t  6 Things You Need to Know  About the Chilliwack Official Community PlanThis graphic summarizes key issues in the Chilliwack OCP into six questions community members may have about how the plan might affect them. 2p  What Is Zoning?This booklet illustrates the reason we have zoning by imagining what might happen to the reader’s home. The entire booklet effectively explains planning concepts by relating them back to the reader’s experience. 2Community MemberDoes this development  adhere to view cone restrictions?Will this development impact the views from my window?Does the proposed building  conform to the building code and urban design principles?How will the proposed building  look once it is complete?What is the right parking ratio? How can the City support active transportation options?Will my friends be able to find  street parking when they visit?How can any land lift be  captured to fund City priorities  like affordable housing?Is a tower this high right  for my neighbourhood?Does this neighbourhood meet the required population ratio for community amenities?Where is the nearest daycare, community centre, and library?Policy-Maker26        AUDIENCE 27Takeaway:USE A VARIETY OF DOCUMENTS, EACH DESIGNED TO ADDRESS THE LEVEL OF ENGAGEMENT AND INTERESTS OF YOUR DIFFERENT AUDIENCES.A planning process must reach out to many different types of people: from the highly engaged activist, to the casual participant with just ten minutes to spare, from the resident at their local corner store, to the policy-maker considering the region’s long-term strategic plan. There is no one document that can effectively communicate to all these groups. Instead, planners must consider all the relevant stakeholders, consider their level of engagement and issues of importance, and then design a series of  materials based on these audiences’ needs.u  ‘I Wish My Flats’ ideas stickersOpen house attendees could write a simple one-liner of feedback on these stickers, providing an easy form of engagement for those with little time.Case Study:FALSE CREEK FLATS  PLANNING PROCESSThe False Creek Flats process used a communications plan that identified multiple methods the planners could use to reach stakeholders with different interests and levels of engagement. These diverse elements of the process were tied together by cohesive branding, which gave a clear identity to the Flatsw, and built familiarity with the public. 2020 021PHASE 1 UPDATE / The False Creek Flats PHASE 1 UPDATE / The False Creek Flats We received over 400 responses to ‘I Wish My Flats’, both online and at the launch, expressing high level aspirations for the future of the Flats.“I Wish My Flats” stickers collected from the Launch Event - May 27, 2015 >02/01I Wish My FlatsCity Lands & AssetsEconomicArts & CultureHeritage & ScaleFood SystemsSocial ImpactPlaces & AmenitiesSustainabilityLand UseOpportunities to leverage City lands and communityowned assetsAn affordable, diverse economic hub, demonstrating innovation and the circular economyAffordable and accessible space for artists’ diverse needsHonour industrial history through any development, with water as key in its landscapeSupport local food system with an all inclusive foodbank/hub, community gardens, businesses, permanent farmers marketInclusion of indigenous cultures, local employment access & procurement, and a community benefits strategyWell connected safe, unique & vibrant spaces and amenitiesCreation of a model of green and resilient spaces, businesses, infrastructureand developmentIntensification of green jobs & light industrial uses in multi-storey buildings, innovation spacesTransportationNorth-south links, connected & safe pedestrian/bike facilities, adequate parking and provision for higher speed railAn ‘I Wish My Flats’ response from Doors Open 2015 - National Works Yard site.I Wish My Flats Responses: Key Themes & IdeasThere were a wide range of responses to what you ‘wished for your Flats’, from “a presence of water” to “more restaurants, cafes and bars” to “better bike and pedestrian connections” to an “Ice-cream Station!” Upon reviewing this feedback several key themes begun to emerge that summarize many of these ideas, including:p  BrochuresReaders could quickly skim this brochure to gain a broad introduction to the planning process. It folds out into a blank map, inviting people to envision their own plan for the Flats.28        AUDIENCE 29024 025PHASE 1 UPDATE / The False Creek Flats PHASE 1 UPDATE / The False Creek Flats To help set the stage for future work, stakeholders were asked to identify key attributes of the Flats. They were polled on both their Favourite Flats places as well as what they saw as the Big Flats Challenges. Through the over 1700 entries, several clusters and illustrative patterns emerged.Over 1700 entries were made on our favourites/challenges maps: both online and at the Launch Event. 02/02Places 1700+individual entries between the online tool and the launchArea Profile: An Overview of Your False Creek Flats_76_INTRODUCTIONThe False Creek Flats (figure 1) holds a significant economic position within the city of Vancouver and its region. Comprised of over 450 acres of primarily employment land, located less than a kilometer to both downtown and the port, the Flats are home to roughly 8,000 employees and over 600 businesses in diverse and thriving sectors of the local economy. While recent years have seen a number of exciting new developments and announcements for the area, it has the potential for a more substantial and thriving economic future within our city. Perceived by most Vancouverites as a blank space in their mental map of our city, the area today lacks the care, linkages and public places that so often define the rest of Vancouver. PACIFIC BOULEVARDE 5TH AVEE 5TH AVEE 6TH AVE ST GEORGE STGUELPH STONTARIO STSCOTIA STLORNE STSOUTHERN STCENTRAL STNORTHERN STCAROLINA STFRASER STE 1ST AVEE 1ST AVEE 2ND AVEE 3RD AVEE 4TH AVENATIONAL AVEMAIN STMAIN STBEGG STTERMINAL AVEATLANTIC STINDUSTRIAL AVE STTHORNTON STSTATION STCOTTRELL STFOLEY STSCOTIA STQUEBEC STEVANS AVEMALKIN AVENATIONAL AVEE 1ST AVEE 2ND AVEE 3RD AVEE 5TH AVEVENABLES STADANAC STPARKER STNAPIER STWILLIAM STCHARLES STGRANT STGRAVELEY STPRIOR STUNION STGREAT NORTHERN WAYVERNON DRIVEGLEN DRIVECAMPBELL AVECLARK DRIVEWESTERN GLEN DRIVEGLEN DRIVETRILLIUM PARKCHINA CREEK PARKTHORNTONPARKSCIENCE WORLDFALSECREEKSTRATHCONA PARKPACIFICCENTRALSTATIONWELCOME TO YOUR FLATS!The City of Vancouver is undertaking a planning process to guide the future of the False Creek Flats. Sign up today and help shape the future of this area of our city.PRIORGREAT NORTHERN WAYMAIN STREETCLARK DRIVE01_5150_East of Main. Between Terminal & Great Northern WayWest of Clark.Between Terminal & Great Northern WaySouth of Venables.West of ClarkWESTERN BLOCKS GLEN AVENUE DIVIDE NORTH-EAST BLOCKSWith rail optimization taken care of first, roads and parcels then filled in the Flats.  The result is a series of unique geometries which hold great opportunity to create interesting views and unexpected places in our city.As a low-lying area, with a number of rail yards, and an escarpment on two sides, the False Creek Flats is home to some amazing views.  UNIQUE GRIDAREA VIEWSIndustrial materials registers throughout the landscape and contribute to a specific character for the Flats.EXISTING MATERIAL_54_How can the False Creek Flats best contribute to Vancouver’s economic vision of a high-performing economy that successfully levers the City’s global profile and momentum as a centre of innovation and entrepreneurship?Welcome to Your FlatsHistory of the FlatsEconomic ContextThe Flats TodayBusiness in the FlatsEnvironment & NatureTransportationCharacterYour Flats of Tomorrow  61014223036404852p  ‘Favourites’ and ‘Challenges’ mapLocals familiar with the Flats shared their personal experience by identifying locations as ‘Favourite Flats’ or ‘Big Flats Challenges’.u  Online feedback toolMembers of the public not at an event could write their thoughts and identify their favourites and challenges via an online tool.t  The Flats Area ProfilePlanners produced the visually-rich Area Profile to introduce and frame the site. Curious people reading the document receptively could get an overview of the Flats. 2026 PHASE 1 UPDATE / The False Creek Flats 027PHASE 1 UPDATE / The False Creek Flats Favorites & Challenges Map from False Creek Flats Launch Event014 PHASE 1 UPDATE / The False Creek Flats The #falsecreekflats handle has been used on social media throughout the process as means to broaden the conversation on the future of the False Creek Flats.Social media was utilized to help expand our outreach, providing another platform for the public to create, share or exchange ideas and issues related to the False Creek Flats. Through the hashtag #falsecreekflats, we have been able to review Twitter and Instagram responses to help inform the ideas and issues for consideration as we develop the plan.01/06Social Media“At the launch of #FalseCreekFlats planning process (until 730) - I’d love to see water brought back to the flats! “@Nature_City  May 27#falsecreekflatsTwitterThe first phase of the online survey was used from May to August 2015 as  a means to collect feedback from the broader public. The Flats Online Survey was used to reach out to a broader public than we can reach through in person engagement. Through this platform we tested the Council approved draft principles, while collecting input on key issues, places, and ideas. Through the  survey we received input from over 700 visitors, including over 1700 points of interest on a map. 01/05Online Survey“I <3 #FalseCreekFlats because of its beautiful street art + alternative spaces - this is my culture #Vancouver”@ncollinet#falsecreekflatsTwitter010203040506070809@ThisOpenSpace@okehbokeh@groundwerkvan@jiffylee@paulnoble61@nealjennings@northern_keating@marcelperro@atomosInstagram Posts - #falsecreekflats:01 02 0304 05 0607 08 09014PHASE 1 UPDATE / The False Creek Flats The #falsecreekflats handle has been used on social media throughout the process as means to broaden the conversation on the future of the False Creek Flats.Social media was utilized to help expand our outreach, providing another platform for the public to create, share or exchange ideas and issues related to the False Creek Flats. Through the hashtag #falsecreekflats, we have been able to review Twitter and Instagram responses to help inform the ideas and issues for consideration as we develop the plan.01/06Social Media“At the launch of #FalseCreekFlats planning process (until 730) - I’d love to see water brought back to the flats! “@Nature_City  May 27#falsecreekflatsTwitterThe first phase of the online survey was used from May to August 2015 as  a means to collect feedback from the broader public. The Flats Online Survey was used to reach out to a broader public than we can reach through in person engagement. Through this platform we tested the Council approved draft principles, while collecting input on key issues, places, and ideas. Through the  survey we received input from over 700 visitors, including over 1700 points of interest on a map. 01/05Online Survey“I <3 #FalseCreekFlats because of its beautiful street art + alternative spaces - this is my culture #Vancouver”@ncollinet#falsecreekflatsTwitter010203040506070809@ThisOpenSpace@okehbokeh@groundwerkvan@jiffylee@paulnoble61@nealjennings@northern_keating@marcelperro@atomosInstagram Posts - #falsecreekflats:010203040506070809014 PHASE 1 UPDATE / The False Creek Flats The #falsecreekflats handle has been used on social media throughout the process as means to broaden the conversation on the future of the False Creek Flats.Social media was uti zed to help expand our outreach, providing another platform for the public to create, share or exchange ideas and issues related to the False Creek Flats. Through the hashtag #falsecreekflats, we have been able to review Twitter and Instagram responses to help inform the ideas and issues for consideration as we develop the plan.01/06Soc l Media“At the launch of #FalseCreekFlats planning process (until 730) - I’d love to see water brought back to the flats! “@Nature_City  May 27#falsecreekflatsTwitterThe first phase of the online survey was used from May to August 2015 as  a means to collect feedback from the broader public. The Flats Online Survey was used to reach out to a broader public than we can reach through in person engagement. Through this platform we tested the Council approved draft principles, while collecting input on key issues, places, and ideas. Through the  survey we received input from over 700 visitors, including over 1700 points of interest on a map. 01/05Online Survey“I <3 #FalseCreekFlats because of its beautiful street art + alternative spaces - this is my culture #Vancouver”@ncollinet#falsecreekflatsTwitter010203040506070809@ThisOpenSpace@okehbokeh@groundwerkvan@jiffylee@paulnoble61@nealjennings@northern_keating@marcelperro@atomosInstagram Posts - #falsecreekflats:01 02 0304 05 0607 08 0930        AUDIENCE 31Emerging DirectionsE 5TH AVEE 6TH AVEE 7TH AVEE 1ST AVEE 2ND AVE E 2ND AVEE 3RD AVEE 4TH AVENATIONAL AVEMAIN STBEGG STTERMINAL AVEATLANTIC STINDUSTRIAL AVETHORNTON STTHORNTON STSTATION STSTATION STCOTTRELL STCENTRALNORTHERNSOUTHERNQUEBEC STEVANS AVEMALKIN AVENATIONAL AVEGEORGIA VIADUCTDUNSMUIR VIADUCTPRIOR STVENABLES STUNION STE GEORGIA STGREAT NORTHERN WAYBRUNSWICK STSCOTIA  STKEITH DRIVECAROLINA STST GEORGE STVERNON DRIVEGLEN DRIVERAYMUR AVEHAWKS AVECLARK DRIVEFOLEY ST WESTERN STBack-of-HouseHealthHubTerminal SpineTheStationsCreativeCampusNHEALTH HUBWith the anticipated development of a new, state-of-the-art St. Paul’s Hospital and health campus on an 18.5-acre site in the north-west corner of the False Creek Flats, this sub-area is being conceived as a world-class integrated health care, research and teaching hub to transform the future of health care for British Columbians. The area will leverage its new role in the provision of health care and wellbeing programs and services to local communities and people from across the province. It will also significantly intensify employment, deliver disaster-resilient infrastructure and create a well-connected public realm that integrates the new hospital and health campus into the city and adjacent neighbourhoods.135241. Leverage hospital relocation to intensify employment2. Deliver disaster resilient infrastructure3. Create a well connected public realm4. Intensify employment around transit5. Integrate accessible transitSUB AREASArea Planning ProcessThe False Creek Flatsis a former tidal flatthat reached to presentday Clark Drive at hightide and was filled       between 1917-25Diverse businesses600of businesses in the Flatsidentify themselves as partof an arts & culture clusterHome to key Cityassets includingworks yards andpolice & firetraining facilities0.8 km to Port of Vancouver by rail0.5 km to DowntownVulnerable to climate changePrior StreetStrathconaMount PleasantGrand-ViewWoodlandSouthEastFalseCreekChinatownGreat Northern WayClark DriveMain StreetTerminal Avenue1.8 billion litresof rain watera year+50% of the land in the Flatsis owned by the City of Vancouver(incl. streets) & rail companiesRailCity ofVancouver19%Technology & researchand developmentbusinessesLargest and mostdiverse producewholesaler &distribution clusterin Metro Vancovuer+302/3 of businesses inthe Flats need small andheavy truck deliveriesRecycling & wastemanagement businessesmake up the largestcluster in VancouverThe Central Valley Greenway isa 24-kilometre pedestrian andcyclist route running from ScienceWorld to New Westminster, withan unfinished link through theFalse Creek Flats1124kmJobs inthe Flats+8000MECHANIC TERMINALCHOCOLATEBEERFuture home ofEmily Carr Universityof Art and Designuniversities & educationalinstitutionsEMILY CARRFuture home ofEmily Carr Universityof Art and DesignEMILY CARR44.8 kmof rail in the Flats -much of it bisectingnorth-south movementthrough the areaSome of the mostexpensiveindustrial landin the regionof primarily industrial & employmentlands located adjacent to high densityresidential neighbourhoods450+ acresIndustrial fill and dirt excavated from surrounding areas was used to fill the False Creek FlatsThe ground stability today is vulnerable to liquafaction in the event of a major seismic activity7Diverse businesses600MECHANIC TERMINALCHOCOLATEBEERIndustrial land is an integral part of a healthy and sustainable city. It provides space for services that keep other businesses and the city operational. It also provides a place for the creation and production of things, where businesses can make noise and get dirty. The False Creek Flats area is close to downtown and transit, with access to a large and highly-skilled workforce, and direct connections to the port. These advantages, combined with increasing demand for industrial land in the region and speculation pressures, have made the Flats some of the most expensive industrial land in the region. How can industry continue to shape the future of the False Creek Flats?INDUSTRIAL & MIXED-EMPLOYMENTIndustrialMixed-EmploymentCity Owned FacilitiesParking Impound Lot Fire Hall No. 1National Works YardsAnimal Control ShelterVPD Canine UnitWHAT IS THE ROLE OF INDUSTRY IN THE AREA?26% is zoned for mixed employmenthighestSome of the most expensive industrial land in the region80% of businesses in the Flats are tenants63% of the Flats is zoned industrialjobs in the Flats8,000overof the land in the Flats is owned by the City of Vancouver (incl. streets) & rail companies50%overmedian floor space for businesses in the Flats (2014)3,000sq.ft.The City of Vancouver uses the Flats as an operating base to serve the central area of the city and, in some cases, the whole city. The Flats is the home to the National Works Yards, Evans Yard (Parks Board), VPD Tactical Training Centre, VPD Canine Unit, Fire Hall No. 1, Vancouver Fire & Rescue Training Centre, Animal Control Shelter and the parking impound lot.FLATS FACTSE 5TH AVEE 6TH AVEE 7TH AVEE 8TH AVEE 1ST AVEE 2ND AVE E 2ND AVEE 3RD AVEE 4TH AVENATIONAL AVEAVEHEATLEYJACKSON AVEGORE AVEMAIN STMAIN STE HASTINGS STBEGG STTERMINAL AVEATLANTIC STINDUSTRIAL AVETHORNTON STTHORNTON STSTATION STSTATION STCOTTRELL STCENTRAL STNORTHERN STSOUTHERN STQUEBEC STEVANS AVEMALKIN AVENATIONAL AVEGEORGIA VIADUCTDUNSMUIR VIADUCTPRIOR STVENABLES STUNION STE GEORGIA STKEEFER STE PENDER STGREAT NORTHERN WAYBROADWAYBRUNSWICK STSCOTIA  STKEITH DRIVEGUELPH STREETCAROLINA STEARL FINNING WAYPRINCE ALBERT STWINDSOR STST CATHERINES STGLEN DRIVEKEITH DRIVEST GEORGE STCAROLINA STST GEORGE STVERNON DRIVEVERNON DRIVEGLEN DRIVEGLEN DRIVERAYMUR AVERAYMUR AVECAMPBELL AVEHAWKSAVEHAWKS AVECLARK DRIVECLARK DRIVEDUNLEVY AVE   FOLEY ST WESTERN STPRINCE EDWAD STTRILLIUM PARKCHINA CREEK PARKTHORNTONPARKSCIENCE WORLDSTRATHCONA PARKPACIFICCENTRALSTATIONI-1I-2I-3I-3I-1I-2I-2I-3CD-1CD-1CD-1CD-1RS-1CD-1CD-1CD-1CD-1IC-2FC-1IC-3IC-2C3-ACD-1CD-1BCPEDCD-1RM-3AM-1M-1RT-3RT-3RT-3RM-4HA-1ACGIHDEABFThe False Creek Flatsis a former tidal flatthat reached to presentday Clark Drive at hightide and was filled       between 1917-25Diverse businesses600of businesses in the Flatsidentify themselves as partof an arts & culture clusterHome to key Cityassets includingworks yards andpolice & firetraining facilities0.8 km to Port of Vancouver by rail0.5 km to DowntownVulnerable to climate changePrior StreetStrathconaMount PleasantGrand-ViewWoodlandSouthEastFalseCreekChinatownGreat Northern WayClark DriveMain StreetTerminal Avenue1.8 billion litresof rain watera year+50% of the l nd in the Flatsis owned by the City of Vancouver(incl. streets) & rail companiesRailCity ofVancouver19%Technology & researchand developmentbusinessesLargest and mostdiverse producewholesaler &distribution clusterin Metro Vancouver+302/3 of businesses inthe Flats need small andheavy truck deliveriesRecycling & wastemanagement businessesmake up the largestcluster in VancouverThe Central Valley Greenway isa 24-kilometre pedestrian andcyclist route running from ScienceWorld to New Westminster, withan unfinished link through theFalse Creek Flats1124kmJobs inthe Flats+8000MECHANIC STORAGECHOCOLATEBEERFuture home ofEmily Carr Universityof Art and Designuniversities & education linstitutionsEMILY CARR44.8 kmof rail in the Flats -much of it bisectingnorth-south movementthrough the areaSome of the mostexpensiveindustrial landin the regionof primarily industrial & employmentlands located adjacent to high densityresidential neighbourhoods450+ acresIndustrial fill and dirt excavated from surrounding areas was used to fill the False Creek FlatsThe ground stability today is vulnerable to liquafaction in the event of a major seismic activity7Diverse businesses600MECHANIC STORAGECHOCOLATEBEERThe False Creek Flatsis a former tidal flatthat reached to presentday Clark Drive at hightide and was filled       between 1917-25Diverse businesses600of businesses in the Flatsidentify themselves as partof an arts & culture clusterHome to key Cityassets includingworks yards andpolice & firetraining facilities0.8 km to Port of Vancouver by rail0.5 km to DowntownVulnerable to climate changePrior StreetStrathconaMount PleasantGrand-ViewWoodlandSouthEastFalseCreekChinatownGreat Northern WayClark DriveMain StreetTerminal Avenue1.8 billion litresof rain watera year+50% of the land in the Flatsis owned by the City of Vancouver(incl. streets) & rail companiesRailCity ofVancouver19%Technology & researchand developmentbusinessesLargest and mostdiverse producewholesaler &distribution clusterin Metro Vancouver+302/3 of businesses inthe Flats need small andheavy truck deliveriesRecycling & wastemanagement businessesmake up the largestcluster in VancouverThe Central Valley Greenway isa 24-kilometre pedestrian andcyclist route running from ScienceWorld to New Westminster, withan unfinished link through theFalse Creek Flats1124kmJobs inthe Flats+8000MECHANIC STORAGECHOCOLATEBEERFuture home ofEmily Carr Universityof Art and Designuniversities & educationalinstitutionsEMILY CARR44.8 kmof rail in the Flats -much of it bisectingnorth-south movementthrough the areaSome of the mostexpensiveindustrial landin the regionof primarily industrial & employmentlands located adjacent to high densityresidential neighbourhoods450+ acresIndustrial fill and dirt excavated from surrounding areas was used to fill the False Creek FlatsThe ground stability today is vulnerable to liquafaction in the event of a major seismic activity7Diverse businesses600MECHANIC STORAGECHOCOLATEBEERThe False Creek Flatsis a former tidal flatthat reached to presentday Clark Drive at hightide and was filled       between 1917-25Diverse businesses600of businesses in the Flatsidentify themselves as partof an arts & culture clusterHome to key Cityassets includingworks yards andpolice & firetraining facilities0.8 km to Port of Vancouver by rail0.5 km to DowntownVulnerable to climate changePrior StreetStrathconaMount PleasantGrand-ViewWoodlandSouthEastFalseCreekChinatownGreat Northern WayClark DriveMain StreetTerminal Avenue1.8 billion litresof rain watera year+50% of the land in the Flatsis owned by the City of Vancouver(incl. streets) & rail companiesRailCity ofVancouver19%Technology & researchand developmentbusinessesLargest and mostdiverse producewholesaler &distribution clusterin Metro Vancouver+302/3 of businesses inthe Flats need small andheavy truck deliveriesRecycling & wastemanagement businessesmake up the largestcluster in VancouverThe Central Valley Greenway isa 24-kilometre pedestrian andcyclist route running from ScienceWorld to New Westminster, withan unfinished link through theFalse Creek Flats1124kmJobs inthe Flats+8000MECHANIC STORAGECHOCOLATEBEERFuture home ofEmily Carr Universityof Art and Designuniversities & educationalinstitutionsEMILY CARR44.8 kmof rail in the Flats -much of it bisectingnorth-south movementthrough the areaSome of the mostexpensiveindustrial landin the regionof primarily industrial & employmentlands located adjacent to high densityresidential neighbourhoods450+ acresIndustrial fill and dirt excavated from surrounding areas was used to fill the False Creek FlatsThe ground stability today is vulnerable to liquafaction in the event of a major seismic activity7Diverse businesses600MECHANIC STORAGECHOCOLATEBEERVa couv r Fire & Rescue Training CentreEvans Yard (Parks Board)VPD Tactical Training CentreVancouver School Board YardsA FB GC HD IE400m 800m5 min walk 10 min walkTransportation:P/V ReplacementPrior/Venables ReplacementFALSE CREEK FLATSProvidence LandProvidence Land12Atlantic Street ResidentsAny changes to the arterial need to ensure access to the neighborhood and mitigate impacts due to increased traffic.Rail & PortPort expansion planned in the near future, rail activity will increase, likely with the desire for increased rail yard space. A well planned overpass location would keep options open for market factors to determine the future of rail along the BI Line.Civic FacilitiesFire Hall #1, Fire Training Facility, Animal Control Shelter, and City Works Yard on National are all located in the study area. Any changes to the arterial need to ensure emergency services can continue to be delivered at existing levels of service. In some cases new facility locations or redevelopment may be required. Prior Street / Venables Street With the construction of the viaducts, Prior Street and Venables Street became part of the City’s arterial street and goods movement network through the Strathcona neighbourhood. Residents are excited about the future downgrading, once an alternate arterial is complete.Community GardensThere are three community gardens that could be impacted: Cottonwood Community Garden, Strathcona Community Garden, and the Purple Thistle. Both Cottonwood Garden and the Purple Thistle are located within the street right of way. Industrial BusinessesTo construct a rail overpass on any alignment, a number of businesses between Raymur & Clark Drive, and Main & Malkin could be impacted. Parks (Strathcona Park and Trillium Park)There are significant public parks within the study area. Strathcona Park is 21 acres (excluding Cottonwood Garden) and Trillium Park combined with the newly planned northern portion is 7.5 acres. ‘Produce Row’Currently, 6 of the City’s 9 produce wholesalers are found along Malkin Avenue, representing approximately 450 local jobs. These businesses combined receive approximately 4,000 truck deliveries a week, and often block traffic on Malkin while manoeuvering. Providence LandsThe site owned by Providence Health Care, is currently being planned for the re-located St. Paul’s Hospital, and any road alignments will need to consider the design and function of the new health campus.Transportation/Goods Movement PerformanceThe new arterial will need to be a minimum of 4 lanes, with a direct connection between Clark and Main Street and function in a similar capacity to Prior/Venables. It also will need to accommodate commercial goods movement (large trucks).234568971011121413171516City Works YardsFire Hall #1Fire Rescue Training FacilitiesCity Animal ControlCity Facilities1234Strathcona Community GardenCottonwood Community GardenPurple Thistle Community GardenCommunity Gardens567Trillium ParkStrathcona ParkParks89Produce RowProduce Row11Prior Street / Venables StreetPrior Street / Venables Street10SITES>KEY CONSIDERATIONSRelocation of the arterial requires careful consideration of the impact to the local communities, businesses, landowners and the needs of the city as a whole. As with any infrastructure project, short and medium  term impacts must be balanced with long term requirements and benefits – Providence Health Care is an important stakeholder in this regard.CREEK FLATSFALSE VIADUCTS STUDY AREAAtlantic Street ResidentsAtlantic Street Residents13Industrial BusinessesIndustrial Businesses (East of Tracks) 14Industrial BusinessesIndustrial Businesses (West of Tracks) 15Left BankLeft Bank16Canada PostCanada Post17Translink approval is required for any modifications to the City’s truck route network and the City will need to be able to demonstrate equivalent or improved capacity for the efficient movement of people and goods accessing areas within the flats and the downtown.p  The Flats launch event open house boards (May 2015)The boards for the Launch Event are quite general, meant as an introduction to the Flats for people who may be unfamiliar with the site. The boards posed 12 conversation-starting key questions, which readers could skim to get an overall sense of the key issues for the site. 2p  The Flats emerging directions open house boards (February 2016)A follow-up open house introduced emerging directions for the plan based on initial feedback. The boards have more detail than at the Launch Event, as attendees are likely open to deeper engagement, and were reading to absorb information about potential policies. 2p  Prior/Venables replacement open house boards (March 2016)This open house focused specifically on options to replace the current thoroughfare on Prior and Venables Streets. The material presents policy in greater detail, as attendees were expected to read critically and analyze the two options, not just skim or absorb it. 2Phase 1 Update: Summary of Public Input2015700+250+ 100+ 150+KEY ISSUESindividuals provided feedback through our online surveystudents engaged in research, storytelling, and design projects in the Flats through City Studiosbusinesses engaged in VEC led workshops on issues specific to sub-sectors of the business communityindividuals attended six themed workshopsPhase 1: Engagement Overview12Flats business stories recoded, and featured on video at www.falsecreekflats.ca150+Flats businesses responded to our area business survey400+ 650+stakeholders attended our False Creek Flats Launch Event on May 27, 2015members of the public visited our Onsite Office through the summer and fallSPACE NEEDEDPLEASE CONTACT014 PHASE 1 UPDATE / The False Creek Flats The #falsecreekflats handle has been used on social media throughout the process as means to broaden the conversation on the future of the False Creek Flats.Social media was utilized to help expand our outreach, providing another platform for the public to create, share or exchange ideas and issues related to the False Creek Flats. Through the hashtag #falsecreekflats, we have been able to review Twitter and Instagram responses to help inform the ideas and issues for consideration as we develop the plan.01/06Social Media“At the launch of #FalseCreekFlats planning process (until 730) - I’d love to see water brought back to the flats! “@Nature_City  May 27#falsecreekflatsTwitterThe first phase of the online survey was used from May to August 2015 as  a means to collect feedback from the broader public. The Flats Online Survey was used to reach out to a broader public than we can reach through in person engagement. Through this platform we tested the Council approved draft principles, while collecting input on key issues, places, and ideas. Through the  survey we received input from over 700 visitors, including over 1700 points of interest on a map. 01/05Online Survey“I <3 #FalseCreekFlats because of its beautiful street art + alternative spaces - this is my culture #Vancouver”@ncollinet#falsecreekflatsTwitter010203040506070809@ThisOpenSpace@okehbokeh@groundwerkvan@jiffylee@paulnoble61@nealjennings@northern_keating@marcelperro@atomosInstagram Posts - #falsecreekflats:01 02 0304 05 0607 08 09E 1ST AVENATIONAL AVEMAIN STINDUSTRIAL AVETHORNTON STSTATION STCENTRAL STSOUTHERN STQUEBEC STEVANS AVEMALKIN AVEVENABLES STGREAT NORTHERN WAYVERNON DRIVEGLEN DRIVERAYMUR AVECLARK DRIVETERMINAL AVEPRIOR STREETNORTHERN WESTERN ST030 031PHASE 1 UPDATE / The False Creek Flats PHASE 1 UPDATE / The False Creek Flats Observing the mapped results a number of Favourite Place clusters emerged. Corresponding comments to these Favorite Places highlighted access to transit and connections to adjacent neighbourhoods; local amenity and community gathering spaces; character and ele ents of distinct districts; and various agents of activity and vibrancy as being important to creating a successful place or space in the Flats. Some of the more prominent clusters include: The area around 1000 Parker Studios is characterized by the large cluster of affordable artist studios in the area, the annual East Side Culture Crawl that runs in the late Fall, and its gritty character.The City Owned Lands, bound by Main Street, Station Street, Terminal Avenue and Industrial Avenue, were identified for the unique formation of its blocks, gritty industrial character of its historic buildings, the mix of materials and scale of its buildings. This area was also identified as having potential as an amenity and service hub, with its proximity to the Main Street transit hub and emerging activities and enterprises, including the Arts Factory.This stretch of First Avenue drew attention from respondents for its diverse mix of businesses (including creative industry), and its emergence as a distinct district within the Flats. The bike path along First Avenue was also mentioned as a key asset, although it was noted that it could be improved with better connections to surrounding paths. Responses illustrated the significant role the Strathcona and Cottonwood community gardens play in the area, citing them as places of community gathering, celebration and identity. Across the street from the gardens, another local food asset, Produce Row was highlighted for its key role in the local food system. Strathcona Park was also identified as a local asset, though it was suggested could be improved. Thornton Park is a defining public space along Main Street, and was recognized by respondents for its grand trees, the historic Pacific Central Station, and the popular weekly Farmers Market, which was cited for the vitality it brings to the area.Favourites: Clusters1000 ParkerCity LandsFirst AveStrathcona Park & GardensThornton ParkMain Street Farmers MarketMarket ProducePacific Central StationThornton ParkStrathcona Community Garden1000 Parker StudiosNorthern Street - Heritage BuildingNorthern Street - Heritage BuildingArts FactoryFirst Ave - Artech LoftsRed Truck Brewery010203040506070809101 1CDEBA01050809 100706020403“It’s a nice park for so many reasons. There’s the history, the architecture and those awesome trees.”“[The] farmers market is bringing the area to life.”“Arts community! The warehouse of artist studios on Parker is one of the most unique places in the city.”“Culture Crawl!”“Eclectic mix of businesses and creative endeavors. One of the few places in Vancouver where you feel like you can experiment[...].”“Very excited about the Great Northern Way Campus and the New Emily Carr campus!!! This will contribute to the arts and innovation cultures in the area as well as provide people. This will increase the liveliness of the area.”“Awesome view of city although marred by telephone lines and chain-link fences above VCC Skytrain.”“Ample creative industry spaces.”“Interesting scale of street, interesting mix of materials, like the historical elements.”“The old welding shop [...] is lovely and should be preserved.”Thornton ParkEmily Carr/CDMFirst AveVCC-Clark StationCity Lands1000 ParkerA B CDEFG“Strathcona Gardens is an ecological gem that deserves protection and celebration!”“Cottonwood Garden is a major part of the community that beautifies the area [...].”Strathcona Park & Gardenst  The Flats Phase 1 Update: Summary of Public InputThis summary of public input not only reflects the feedback received during public consultation, but also captures the interest of casual readers by including the hand-written notes and Instagram photos from real Vancouverites. 232        AUDIENCE 33MEDIUMHow do people interact with the types of media you are using?Planners must be aware of how people interact with different media, and make design decisions accordingly. Consider how somebody might interact with five common media: Open House Boards Seen over others’ shoulders at a crowded event.Planning Reports  Read individually and quietly at a desk.Brochures Skimmed quickly, and perhaps distractedly.Presentations Viewed while listening  to a long presentation.Web Graphics Noticed while casually browsing social media.35PLANNING  REPORTOPEN HOUSE  BOARDBROCHUREPRESENTATION wEB GRAPHICTo provide detailed information  on a specific topicTo introduce a topic or idea  to the general public.To introduce a topic or idea  to a wide online audienceQuiet, public, sitting in  an audience, listeningBustling, may not be the main  focus of reader’s attentionOn a small screen, while  scrolling through social mediaYes No NoMedium Low LowLinks to resources Link to webpage Link to webpageMedium (absorb) Low (skim) Low (skim)To understand a specific topic  and potentially engage furtherTo become aware of a topic  and want to learn moreTo understand a single, simple ideaUse simple, supporting visuals to enhance, not compete with,  the verbal presentationEnsure your main message is  clear, eye-catching, and compels  the reader to find out moreCreate graphics that are legible  at small sizes, eye-catching,  and easy to sharePURPOSETo detail and explain a plan,  from general vision to policy detailsTo provide information for the public, often to prompt feedback.READING ENVIRONMENTUsually in a quiet, private  space, sitting downStanding in a loud, public space, reading over other’s shouldersSTAFF PRESENCE No YesLEVEL OF DETAIL High MediumADDITIONAL INFORMATION Appendix, technical report Handout, resource binderREADER ENGAGEMENT Medium-High (absorb, analyze) Medium (absorb)INTENDED READER ACTIONTo understand the plan  and its contextTo provide feedback on specific aspects of a planning processTAKEAwAY FOR DESIGNProvide a clear structure,  make text easy to read,  highlight key messagesKeep graphics large and  clearly legible, so people can refer to them when speaking36        MEDIUM 37q  The way people take in information from various media can be quite different. Designers need to design specifically for each medium. This table lists some of the considerations to make for five common media, and the takeaways for design.Case Study:wEST END COMMUNITY PROFILE 2012The West End Community Profile is a planning report that provides detailed information for policy-makers, but is also accessible to the general public. Each page uses an image to explain the key message, as opposed to just blocks of text. Any resident interested in their neighbourhood could easily flip through the profile. 2West End Community Profile 2012Page 45         	      what’snext?))*)(#-))))")*&- .',)2'#0#+/'+%0,+	'!,)01##+++#."#+/	#)/,+0.(3,,"-.0*#+0/#+".#))0#!&,3#./#!&2##!&#!&2#,$'#+"#"% ),+'+%!-/ 1')"'+%/0,/0,.#5/*4	/0,.#5-'/)'$0#"#+0)&'%&.'/#/ 1')0		#/'"#+0').#/.#",3+6,+#"		,**#.!')+"#/'"#+0').#,)'!5)+/	#/0+",**1+'05)+West End Community Profile 2012Page 44Evolution of Built Form in the West EndThe West End has a diverse built form resulting from the different phases of development that occured as the community continually evolved.Starting in the 1890s, the West End forest was logged and gradually replaced with a mix of modest and grand Victorian homes. In the 1910s, the community’s second stage of development began. Apartments were built, homes along Robson, Denman and Davie Streets (which carried streetcar lines) were redeveloped as shops, and larger homes were converted into rooming houses. City building regulations, which lasted until 1956, restricted these early masonry buildings to a maximum of six storeys, and wood frame buildings to a maximum of three storeys.During the 1930s and 40s, development of low-rise apartments occurred throughout the community. The late 1950s brought the fourth stage of redevelopment to the West End. These changes were mainly in response to zoning changes and technological advancements which allowed for cheaper and higher quality multi-storey construction. The majority of high-rise apartment development occurred between 1962 and 1975 when more than 220 high-rises were built. In 1969 and 1973 the residential areas were down-zoned to help address residents’ concerns about changes in their community.In the 1980s, City Council initiated local area planning programs in the West End. The Commercial and Residential Area Policy Plans were completed in 1986 and 1987 respectively, and led to new zoning for these areas. Since 1989, most major new residential developments have occured in the Burrard and Georgia-Alberni ‘fringe areas’.         	-'"#" !***	)	)      		#3'2#.-,,)1 "'2'/',+	'  / ') ' /0  /0 . /p  Evolution of built form timelineThis timeline combines the West End’s policy history with easy-to-understand illustrations of building types in the area, and photos of local examples. This graphic format effectively explains policy trends in a way that is easier to comprehend than text.West End Community Profile 2012Page 59Mini-parks are cherished elements of the West End’s residential streetscapes. The community has a total of nine mini-parks: three west of Denman and six east of Denman.The first mini-parks were constructed west of Denman in 1973, along with other barriers, as part of a pioneering traffic calming program intended to reduce non-local vehicular traffic cutting through residential streets. Mini-parks were created by closing street segments to motor vehicles and converting them to public space.Building on the success of the initial program, traffic-calming was implemented east of Denman in the 1980s. Along with mini-parks, other traffic-calming devices, including diverters, traffic circles and one-way segments, were installed throughout the West End. Today, mini-parks provide public space, seating, trees and gardens, public art, and other elements for the enjoyment of West End residents. All mini-parks are on north-south streets and are half a block long.Mini-ParksTable of ContentsThe Community Profile highlights key aspects of the West End and its residents. This background information is intended to help inform discussions about the various planning issues that will be addressed through the community planning process.The structure of the document is based on the five key theme areas outlined in the West End Community Plan Terms of Reference.2011 Statistics Canada census data are used where available; otherwise 2006 census data are the most recent. Additional 2011 census data will continue to be released throughout 2012 and 2013. Periodic updates to the Profile will be made as these data are received.Throughout the Profile comparisons are made to 1986 census data as this year was the last census taken prior to the last community plans and zoning changes being implemented in the West End.Introduction123456Introduction & ContextDemographicsHousingNeighbourhood CharacterHeritageTransportationLocal Economy 7Built Form  p.43  |  Public Spaces  p.55  |  Community Facilities p.65Davie p.93  |  Denman p.97  |  Robson p.101|  Alberni p.105PAGE 5PAGE 17PAGE 29PAGE 41PAGE 69PAGE 75PAGE 83West End Community Profile 2012Page 19Population DensityFrom the 1970s to the 1990s, the West End had the highest population density of any neighbourhood in the city. However, in the 2000s this began to change as other downtown neighbourhoods redeveloped with high-rise residential towers.The West End is now the fourth most densely populated neighbourhood with an average of 217 persons per hectare.0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400Triangle WestCitygateDowntown SouthWest EndGranville SlopesCoal HarbourFalse Creek NorthYaletownDowntown EastsideBridgeheadCentral Business District 47.8Persons/hectarep/ha62.7129.9130.6155.1159.2 200.2216.9304.9 335.0 352.2Stanley ParkEnglish BayBurrard InletFalse CreekWest EndCoal HarbourTriangleWestCentral Business DistrictDowntown EastsideFalse Creek North CitygateDowntown SouthBridge-headGranville SlopesYaletownSource: 2011 Statistics Canada census dataWest End Community Profile 2012Page 3510101020103070350101251,3153,6650303,94013,6550101,1204,585Number of BedroomsDetachedSemi-detached, Duplex, RowhomeApartment under 5 storeysApartment 5 or more storeys 4+321StudioBuilding Types*Note: The chart shows total dwelling units by number of bedrooms and building type.Source: 2006 Statistics Canada census dataBedrooms by Building Type Nearly half (47%) of all occupied dwellings in the West End are one bedroom units in mid- or high-rise apartments.* Studio units in mid- or high-rise apartments are the next most common dwelling type (16% of total).Housing appropriate for families with children is considered to be units with two or more bedrooms. In the West End, 19% of all units have two or more bedrooms. However, only 2% of all units have three or more bedrooms.Most units (72%) with two or more bedrooms are in mid- or high-rise apartments.q  Rainbow-themed table of contentsThe LGBTQ+ themed colour scheme is used throughout the document as a navigational and organizational tool.q  Annotated photosPhotos are not just placed alongside text, but are integrated with text to explain the elements of a mini-park.p  Population density infographicThe graph —the page’s focal point—clearly shows the main message, and is not subservient to the text.p  Housing types infographicThis graph succinctly shows that smaller, high-rise apartment units are prevalent in the West End.38        MEDIUM 39Case Study:FOUR CORNERS  OPEN HOUSE BOARDSThe Bathurst and Bloor intersection is a prominent site in Toronto. The open house consultation for the area needed to engage people and effectively frame the conversation to garner good feedback. 2City PlanningBathurst -  Bloor 4 CornersEmerging Principles Bathurst-Bloor is a diverse, historic and walkable hub of activit�. The fine g�ain,    small-scale character creates a sense of place and oppor��nities for the spontaneous and casual interactions which suppor� public life. It is a cent�al gathering place         located at the hear� of four neighbourhoods where people can meet while shopping, r�nning er�ands or on the way to a park, event, or cult�ral activit�.u  4 Corners emerging principlesAs a way to frame the open house, a simple board clearly stating the general principles for the site help frame the conversation for participants. This gives the public an idea of what to assess the emerging policies against, and focuses the feedback the City receives.u  Existing site and study scopeThe first board in the open house introduces the site. A large map allows staff to point and refer to key landmarks if necessary, while the list of topics for the study helps frame participant expectations for  the planning process.City PlanningUse the dots provided to indicate your opinion:Use the Post-It notes provided to write additional comments below• continue the tradition of small scale, pedestrian-friendly streets and blocks • locate any increase in height or density at the intersection of Bloor-Bathurst• maintain the character, scale and format of existing buildingsAgreeDisagreeNot SureBathurst - Bloor 4 Corners   Emerging Principles   • transition development downwards in scale towards Neighbourhoods to be compatible with low-rise housingBuilt Form   q  Feedback on proposed policyThe design of these boards facilitate participation by members of the public in different ways. Images and bullet points illustrate a policy proposal, and people can use a sticker to indicate their reaction, or provide a more detailed written response on a sticky note.40        MEDIUM 41Case Study:‘UNAPOLOGETICALLY URBAN’ PRESENTATION This presentation by Jennifer Keesmaat, the City of Toronto’s Chief Planner, emphasizes Toronto’s urban future, and then introduces the many planning initiatives underway in the city.The use of bold, compelling images shows how presentation slides should be used to advance your main message in coordination with the verbal presentation. While words may not effectively convey the transformation that is possible for the space under the Gardiner Highway, the rendering on the opposite page does so immediately and powerfully. 2UNAPOLOGETICALLY URBAN:Spaces, Places and Thriving in TorontoJennifer Keesmaat19TH Annual CUI Chief Planner BreakfastDecember 4, 2015u  “Toronto is becoming unapologetically urban”Bold graphics succinctly reinforce the main message that Toronto is urbanizing quickly, including a graph of downtown’s growing population and a model of the densifying skyline.u  Comparison with other citiesConsistent title page slides break the presentation into clear sections that together advance the main narrative. Slides with comparable statistics show the opportunity for Toronto to urbanize further. u  Ongoing planning initiativesFinally, the narrative pivots to ongoing planning initiatives, and the ambitious urban spaces that are possible as Toronto becomes even more unapologetically urban.Full-screen images provide vivid imagery for each of the planning initiatives being introduced verbally. The use of renderings provides an aspirational vision of what can be achieved with each project.What kind of city do we want to become?1991 - 1996 1996 - 2001 2001 - 2006 2006 - 20115%1%8%7%10%18%14%16%17%13%CITY OFTORONTODOWNTOWNREST OF GTA4%4.5%2011 - 201523%Our urban population is booming. 5%6.2%Our city is becoming denser. Downtown skyline in 2014**Includes approved towers that are as yet unbuilt.But we still have a long way to go.Toronto4,150 people per km sqPhoto by  tsaiproject CC BY 2.0https://www.flickr.com/photos/tsaiproject/6837659274/New York10,756 people per km sqPhoto by Daniele Pieroni CC BY-SA 2.0https://www.flickr.com/photos/lastquest/14879276151Photo Credit: City of Toronto. All Rights Reserved.PROJECT:UNDER GARDINERETOBICOKECENTRESix Points InterchangeThe Laneway Project.We are becoming unapologetically urban.42        MEDIUM 43Technical FindingsThe Future of Vancouver’s  ViaductsTravel TimeThe future street design improves access, safety and comfort with minimal delays for vehicles.Connections  to the CreekA new street network will reduce barriers and improve connections between neighbourhoods.Opportunity to  Reconnect Main StreetOpportunity to reconnect Main Street with shops, affordable housing and more cohesive community.In fall 2015, Council will consider whether to move ahead with replacing the viaducts.It is important that we hear from the community on what they think are the opportunities and challenges posed by this decision. Check out more information and share your opinion at: vancouver.ca/viaducts. What Can You Do?vancouver.ca/viaductsImproved  ConnectionsImproved connections + route choices, 1-3 minuteincrease in travel time=Improved access, safety and comfort= Positive PublicResponse69 per cent of people agreed with the proposal to replace the viaducts in 2013.69%MAIN STRECONNECTEDDISCONNECTEDUNION STPRIOR STUNION STPRIOR STThe future street design  improves connections.TODAY - DISCONNECTED STREETSFUTURE - CONNECTED STREETSSHOPBC PLACEGEORGIA STMAIN GEORGIA STMAIN PACIFIC ABBOTT EXPOQUEBEC QUEBEC PACIFIC ABBOTT EXPO QUEBECQUEBEC CARRALLTechnical FindingsThe Future of Vancouver’s  ViaductsTravel TimeThe future street design improves access, safety and comfort with minimal delays for vehicles.Connections  to the CreekA new street network will reduce barriers and improve connections between neighbourhoods.Opportunity to  Reconnect Main StreetOpportunity to reconnect Main Street with shops, affordable housing and more cohesive community.In fall 2015, Council will consider whether to move ahead with replacing the viaducts.It is important that we hear from the community on what they think are the opportunities and challenges posed by this decision. Check out more information and share your opinion at: vancouver.ca/viaducts. What Can You Do?vancouver.ca/viaductsImproved  ConnectionsImproved connections + route choices, 1-3 minuteincrease in travel time=Improved access, safety and comfort= Positive PublicResponse69 per cent of people agreed with the proposal to replace the viaducts in 2013.69%MAIN STRECONNECTEDDISCONNECTEDUNION STPRIOR STUNION STPRIOR STThe future street design  improves connections.TODAY - DISCONNECTED STREETSFUTURE - CONNECTED STREETSSHOPBC PLACEGEORGIA STMAIN GEORGIA STMAIN PACIFIC ABBOTT EXPOQUEBEC QUEBEC PACIFIC ABBOTT EXPO QUEBECQUEBEC CARRALLThe Georgia and Dunsmuir viaducts act as a barrier, cutting off neighbourhoods from the False Creek waterfront and each other.City staff are recommending a replacement road network with a new Pacific Boulevard and Georgia Street Ramp.  The following infographics illustrate the technical lessons learned over the past two years. The Technical FindingsAt-grade stre ts are more seismically resilient.  Streets can be rais d to new flo d construction levels. More Resilient  InfrastructureReduced  Maintenance CostsAt-grade streets have up to 5-10 X lower life cycle costs. Bigger, Better ParkA larger, more contiguous park space can be achieved. Additional park space is from converted road surface.Contact us:Web: vancouver.ca/viaductsEmail:  nefc@vancouver.caPhone:  3-1-1Stay up to date withthe planning processand join our email list.+13% $ $vs.Maintaining the Network CapacityThe new proposed network can accommodate of today’s traffic volume. The proposed n twork is also desig ed to handle future traffic volumes more efficiently.100%JunJulAug Fall2015Viaducts Process TimelineFinishPhase 1 - ViaductsPhase 2 - NEFC + ParkStartPhase 1 - ViaductsSpring2016Technical StudiesCommunity EngagementPark+NEFCPlanningPhase 2 - ViaductsSummer2016Phase 2 - NEFC + ParkCouncil to consider future of the viaducts The Georgia and Dunsmuir viaducts act as a barrier, cutting off neighbourhoods from the False Creek waterfront and each other.City staff are recommending a replacement road network with a new Pacific Boulevard and Georgia Street Ramp.  The following infographics illustrate the technical lessons learned over the past two years. The Technical FindingsAt-grade streets are more seismically resilient.  Streets can be raised to new flood construction levels. More Resilient  InfrastructureReduced  Maintenance CostsAt-grade streets have up to 5-10 X lower life cycle costs. Bigger, Better ParkA larger, more contiguous park space can be achieved. Additional park space is from converted road surface.Contact us:Web: vancouver.ca/viaductsEmail:  nefc@vancouver.caPhone:  3-1-1Stay up to date withthe planning processand join our email list.+13% $ $vs.Maintaining the Network CapacityThe new proposed network can accommodate of today’s traffic volume. The proposed network is also designed to handle future traffic volumes more efficiently.100%JunJulAug Fall2015Viaducts Process TimelineFinishPhase 1 - ViaductsPhase 2 - NEFC + ParkStartPhase 1 - ViaductsSpring2016Technical StudiesCommunity EngagementPark+NEFCPlanningPhase 2 - ViaductsSummer2016Phase 2 - NEFC + ParkCouncil to consider future of the viaducts The Georgia and Dunsmuir viaducts act as a barrier, cutting off neighbourhoods from the False Creek waterfront and each other.City staff are recommending a replacement road network with a new Pacific Boulevard and Georgia Street Ramp.  The following infographics illustrate the technical lesso s learned over the pa  two years. The Technical FindingsAt-grade streets are more seismically resilient.  Streets can be raised to new flood construction levels. More Resilient  InfrastructureReduced  Maint nance CostsAt-grade streets have up to 5-10 X lower life cycle costs. Bigger, Better ParkA larger, more contiguous park space can be achieved. Additional park space is from converted road surface.Contact us:Web: vancouver.ca/viaductsEmail:  nefc@vancouver.caPhone:  3-1-1Stay up to date withthe planning processand join our email list.+13% $ $vs.Maintaining the Network CapacityThe new proposed network can accommodate of today’s traffic volume. The proposed network is also designed to handl  future traffic volumes mor  efficiently.100%JunJulAug Fall2015Viaducts Process TimelineFinishPhase 1 - ViaductsPhase 2 - NEFC + ParkStartPhase 1 - ViaductsSpring2016Technical StudiesCommunity EngagementPark+NEFCPlanningPhase 2 - ViaductsSummer2016Phase 2 - NEFC + ParkCouncil to consider future of the viaducts The Georgia and Dunsmuir viadu s act as a barrier, cutting off neighb urhoods from the Fals  Creek waterfront and each other.City staff are recommending a replacement road network with a new Pacific Boulevard and Georgia Street Ramp.  The following infographics illustrate the t chnical lessons learned ov r the past two years. The Technical FindingsAt-grade streets are more seismically resilient.  Streets can b  raised to new flood construction levels. More R silient  Inf astructureReduced  Mai tenance CostsAt-grade streets have up to 5-10 X lower life cycle costs. Bigger, Bette  ParkA large , m re contiguous park sp ce can be achieved. Additional park space is from converte road surface.Contact us:Web: vancouver.ca/viaductsEmail:  nefc@vancouver.caPhone:  3-1-1Stay up o date withthe planning processa d join our email list.+13% $ $vs.M taining the Network CapacityThe new proposed n twork can acc mmodate of today’s traffic volume. The proposed network is also d signed to handle future traffic volu es more fficiently.100%JunJulAug Fall2015Viaducts Process TimelineFinishPhase 1 - ViaductsPhase 2 - NEFC + ParkStartPhase 1 - ViaductsSpring2016Technical StudiesCommunity EngagementPark+NEFCPlanningPhase 2 - ViaductsSummer2016Phase 2 - NEFC + ParkCouncil to consider future of the viaducts The Georgia and Dunsmuir viaducts a t as a barri r, cutting off neighbourhoods from the False Creek waterfront and each other.City staff are recommending a replacement road network with a new Pacific Boulevard and Georgia Street Ramp.  The following infographics illustrate the technical lessons learned over the past two years. The Technical Fin ingsAt-grade streets are more seismically resilient.  Streets can be raised to new flood construction levels. More Resilient  InfrastructureReduced  Maintenance CostsAt-grade streets have up to 5-10 X lower life cycle costs. Bigger, Better ParkA larger, more contiguous park space can be achieved. Additional park space is from converted road urface.Contact us:Web: vancouver.ca/viaductsEmail:  nefc@vancouver.caPhone:  3-1-1Stay up to date withthe planning processand join our email list.+13% $ $vs.Maintaini g the Network CapacityThe new proposed network can accommodate of today’s traffic volume. The proposed network is also designed to handle future traffic volumes more efficiently.100%JunJulAug Fall2015Viaducts Process TimelineFinishPhase 1 - ViaductsPhase 2 - NEFC + ParkStartPhase 1 - ViaductsSpring2016Technical StudiesCommunity EngagementPark+NEFCPlanningPhase 2 - ViaductsSummer2016Phase 2 - NEFC + ParkCouncil to consider future of the viaducts The Georgia and Dunsmuir viaducts act as a barrier, cutting off neighbourhoods from the False Creek waterfront and each other.City staff are recommending a replacement road network with a new Pacific Boulevard and Georgia Street Ramp.  The following infographics illustrate the technical lessons learned over the past two years. The Technical FindingsAt-grade streets are more seismically resilient.  Streets can be raised to new flood construction levels. More Resilient  InfrastructureRed ced  Maintenance CostsAt-grade treets have up t  5-10 X lower life cycle costs. Bigg r, Better ParkA larger, more contiguous park space can be achieved. Additional park space is from converted road surface.Contact us:Web: vancouver.ca/viaductsEmail:  nefc@vancouver.caPhone:  3-1-1Stay up to date withthe planning processand join our email list.+13% $ $vs.Maintaining the Network CapacityThe new proposed network can accommodate of today’s traffic volume. The proposed network is also designed to handle future traffic volumes more efficiently.100%JunJulAug Fall2015Viaducts Process TimelineFinishPhase 1 - ViaductsPhase 2 - NEFC + ParkStartPhase 1 - ViaductsSpring2016Technical StudiesCommunity EngagementPark+NEFCPlanningPhase 2 - ViaductsSummer2016Phase 2 - NEFC + ParkCouncil to consider future of the viaducts Case Study:VANCOUVER VIADUCTS BROCHURE This accordion-folded pocket card was produced during consultation on the removal of Vancouver’s vi ducts. It is designed for skimming, and succinctly lays out reasons for removing the viaducts using simple graphics and minimal text. 2u  Introduction to the processA timeline and brief text provide enough context for somebody unfamiliar with the process.t  Technical findingsEach panel has a single, graphic message that supports the overall conclusion that the viaducts should be removed.q  Further informationThe back panel of the brochure tells the reader how to learn more and engage further with the process.44        MEDIUM 45Case Study:wEB GRAPHICS Web graphics present an opportunity to reach many people with a simple message. These examples show how planners can use the unique features of different types of web graphics to communicate simple, powerful ideas that people can learn more about and share on social media.p  Animation of the growth of Copenhagen’s public space networkThis animated gif by Cities for People creates a looping mini slideshow showing the growth of Copenhagen’s public space network over 50 years. Animated gifs play automatically, and quickly grab a reader’s attention. 2p  Support for a safe cycling  network in TorontoThis graphic presents a single, compelling statistic to raise awareness of and make the case for cycling infrastructure in Toronto. 2p  Comparison of transit, cycling,  and private motor vehiclesThe Cycling Promotion Fund re-created this popular set of photos comparing transportation modes. The thought-provoking image spurs interest, succinctly proves a point, and demands to be shared. 246        MEDIUM 47u  ‘How Highways Wrecked American Cities’ videoSocial media platforms like Twitter and Facebook automatically play videos on mute. Media outlets have taken advantage of this by producing videos with compelling imagery and large captions (so it can be understood on mute), so viewers are forced to view the content. Content like videos and animated gifs are valuable communications tools that only work electronically. This presents an opportunity not available to print media. 2p  The public cost of suburban vs urban householdsThis graphic introduces a thought-provoking perspective on public costs that people may not have considered. The graphic does not explain how the values were derived, but provides a link so readers can learn more. 2p  Photo albumsPlatforms such as Twitter and Facebook allow users to easily browse through collections of photos. Planners can use this to display a set of infographics, photos, or even written statements. 248        MEDIUM 49Takeaway:DESIGN FOR THE SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS OF EACH PARTICULAR MEDIUM.The design for a brochure is necessarily very different from the design for open house boards on the same topic. Planners must consider every aspect of a chosen medium when making design decisions.Note that this report only discusses media where visual design is involved. Planners should consider using formats such as radio, podcasts, phones, television, and more to fully engage the public.How To:CREATE A  COMMUNICATIONS PLANThe three Key Considerations discussed thus far—Message, Audience, and Medium— represent all the planning that must occur before the visual design even begins. These considerations must interact and come together to create a holistic communications plan.A communications plan summarizes this thinking, and lists the various messages, audiences, and media required to communicate a particular planning initiative.For the planning initiative overall, determine:•	 the purpose of the engagement•	 the main message overall•	 why somebody would be interested in this•	 the timeframe of the engagement•	 target audiences and their engagement level •	 prior knowledge about the topicDecide what products are required, such as:•	 planning report•	 brochures•	 information sheets•	 open house boards•	 presentations•	 statistical/reference document•	 web site and social media outreach•	 surveys or questionnairesFor each product, determine:•	 the purpose of the document•	 the main message of the document•	 why somebody would be interested in this•	 intended outcomes or reader actions•	 level of reader engagement•	 features and limitations of the medium•	 length of document and level of detail•	 amount of text vs images50        MEDIUM 51Part Two: Visuals PERCEPTION   /   LAYOUT   /   REPRESENTATION53PERCEPTIONHow can the way people perceive be used to group, highlight, and simplify elements?Designers must first understand how people perceive, if they are to create material that is easy to understand.The brain can rapidly process basic visual information like general forms and shades, but detailed visual information is brought into focus and processed at a much slower rate.Retina: The back part of the eye containing photoreceptor cells (rods and cones) that sense light and colour.Fovea: A small group of sensors that allow for a limited field of sharp, focused vision. The eye must constantly move around to see different parts of an image in focus.Optical Nerve: Carries sensory information to the brain.LGN (Lateral Geniculate Nucleus): Relays sensory information to the visual cortex, and also begins processing shades of light and dark.Visual Cortex: Processes visual information in stages, beginning with basic forms and increasing in complexity.Prefrontal Cortex: Responsible for high-order processing and creates expectations that guide what we perceive.Retina FoveaOptical NerveLGNVisual  CortexPrefrontal Cortex55The biology of how humans process visual information leads to three phenomena that designers can take advantage of to create clear, understandable documents.u  Pre-attentive Processing The brain constantly filters and interprets visual information subconsciously. It creates meaning before our conscious mind can even focus and interpret the image. Readers can draw meaning from a design without even having to consciously read the content.The two forms of pre-attentive processing—bottom-up and top-down—are explained here.BOTTOM-UP  PROCESSINGIn bottom-up processing, the brain makes meaning out of the low-detail forms the brain perceives before the content can be brought into focus. Since the fovea —which allows the eye to focus—is so small, much more information is perceived in this low-detail form than as a focused image.In bottom-up processing, elements that are similar and close together appear grouped, while elements that with high contrast are highlighted.How can designers use this?Bottom-up processing means that designers can use basic form (colour, size, shape) to group or highlight elements. For example, even without reading the text, it is clear that the content of this page is grouped into three sections.wORKING  MEMORYBecause the fovea only allows us to focus on a small area at a time, we have to temporarily hold information in our working memory. Working memory can only hold 5-7 pieces of information at a time. The amount of effort and working memory needed to process something is known as Cognitive Load. How can designers use this?Designers should design material to reduce the cognitive load on the reader. This might mean only including one point per page in your document.Designers can also reduce cognitive load by breaking up content into sections—to reduce the amount to take in at one time—and then guide the eye through a logical sequence.TOP-DOwN PROCESSINGIn top-down processing, the brain uses prior knowledge and expectations to form conclusions before consciously processing the image.For example, looking at a map, people know that the blue area is water, the box to the side is a legend, and up is north, before ever actually reading any of the labels on the map.How can designers use this?Designers should anticipate the reader’s expectations, and follow convention if possible. (e.g. place the main title at the top of the page.)Designers can also create their own expectations within a document. If each chapter of a plan is a different colour, the reader knows there is a new topic when the colour changes.56        PERCEPTION 57Case Study:ENGAGED CITY TASK FORCE FINAL REPORT This page from Vancouver’s Engaged City Task Force has been modified to show how graphics can send messages about the content before the reader even has a chance to process it. It reflects how the brain progressively processes visual information, starting from general shapes and colours, and then going into more detail. 2BOTTOM-UP PROCESSINGThe eye is drawn to the two big blocks of bright red, highlighting the title and section header.The space gap between the top and bottom parts of the page indicate there are two sections. The black lines in bottom section separate the elements into three distinct groups. However, the reader knows they are related, because of the repeated forms.Takeaway:EFFECTIVE DESIGN wORKS  wITH PEOPLE’S PERCEPTION TO MAKE THE MESSAGE  EASIER TO UNDERSTAND.TOP-DOwN PROCESSINGIn a Western context, content in the top-left of a page is expected to be most important. Without having read through this page, a reader can assume immediately that the text at the top is a title, at the top of the hierarchy.The reader might also expect that the repeated yellow forms in the lower half page are related, sequential elements that form a list.wORKING MEMORYWhile there is a lot of content on this page, it is broken up clearly so that the reader can process one bit at a time and not be overwhelmed. This reduces the cognitive load and the working memory required to read the page.The segments of the page are clearly sequenced, with introductory text at the top of the page, and a list of three distinct items afterward.58        PERCEPTION 59BOTTOM-UP PROCESSINGUse contrast to highlight elements. Use proximity and similarity to group elements.Gestalt Principles were developed from an early 20th-century German movement in psychology. Gestalt psychologists studied how humans perceive, especially how we come to understand individual elements as an organized whole. This is helpful for visual designers, who must lay out individual elements on a page into a meaningful, attractive whole. 2p  To explore how Gestalt Principles can work with bottom-up processing, consider this set of 16 plain dots. The simple shapes simulate the general forms perceived during pre-attentive processing.In the image above, everything is uniform. It is the pictorial equivalent of a plain-text document, where nothing stands out. How can Gestalt Principles be applied to help highlight and group particular dots?Highlighting is used to emphasize the most important parts of the design, like a title stating the big take-away. The key to making elements pop is contrast, which can be achieved with: The more different an element is from those around it, the more it will stand out. Designers sometimes make the mistake of trying to make every element stand out, resulting in a page where nothing stands out. Instead, make only the main message pop, and let the details recede.SHAPESIZECOLOUR60        PERCEPTION 61CALÇADAS LARGAS Largura mínima 5 metros nos eixos de mobilidade e 3 metros na área de influência dos EixosFACHADA ATIVAIncentivo urbanístico para edifícios com comércio, serviços e equipamentos no térreo, com acesso aberto à populaçãoFRUIÇÃO PÚBLICAIncentivo urbanístico para empreendimentos que destinarem áreas para uso públicoAUMENTO DO COEFICIENTE DE APROVEITAMENTOPermite adensamento construtivo, promovendo melhor aproveitamento da infraestrutura existenteCOTA PARTEEstabelece o número mínimo de unidades habitacionaisORIENTAR O CRESCIMENTO DA CIDADE NAS PROXIMIDADES DO TRANSPORTE PÚBLICOÁREAS DE INFLUÊNCIATrem · Metrô · Monotrilho · Veículos leves sobre trilhos (VLT) · Veículos leves sobre pneus (VLP) em vias elevadasCorredor de Ônibus Municipal e Intermunicipal · Veículos leves sobre pneus (VLP) em vias não elevadasPROMOVER ADENSAMENTO HABITACIONAL E DE ATIVIDADES URBANAS AO LONGO DO SISTEMA DE TRANSPORTE PÚBLICOQUALIFICAR CENTRALIDADES EXISTENTES E ESTIMULAR A CRIAÇÃO DE NOVAS CENTRALIDADESAMPLIAR A OFERTA DE HABITAÇÃO DE INTERESSE SOCIAL E EQUIPAMENTOS URBANOS E SOCIAIS NAS PROXIMIDADES DO SISTEMA DE TRANSPORTE PÚBLICOQUALIFICAR A VIDA URBANA COM AMPLIAÇÃO DAS CALÇADAS E ESTÍMULO AO COMÉRCIO, SERVIÇOS E EQUIPAMENTOS URBANOS E SOCIAIS VOLTADOS PARA A RUADESESTIMULAR VAGAS DE GARAGEM: MAIS QUE 1 VAGA DE GARAGEM POR UNIDADE HABITACIONAL E 1 VAGA PARA 70M² DE USOS NÃO RESIDENCIAIS SERÃO CONSIDERADAS COMPUTÁVEISPara reduzir a necessidade de grandes deslocamentos diários e aproximar emprego e moradia, o Plano Diretor organiza a ocupação da cidade através dos Eixos de Estruturação da Transformação Urbana, otimizando o aproveitamento do solo nas áreas próximas à rede de transporte coletivo de média e alta capacidade (metrô, trem, corredores de ônibus). Instrumentos foram criados para vincular o adensamento habitacional e construtivo ao longo destes eixos à qualificação e ampliação dos espaços públicos e da oferta de serviços e equipamentos urbanos e sociais, de modo a fazer de São Paulo uma cidade mais humana. =  Acessos às estações400 m600 m=  Eixo da via150 m300 m300 m150 mRESIDENCIALCOMÉRCIO, SERVIÇOS E EQUIPAMENTOSINCENTIVO AO USO MISTOComércio, serviços e equipamentos não serão computáveis até 20% da área total construídau  Plano Diretor Estratégico do Município de São PauloThis spread in Sao Paolo’s strategic plan is incredibly busy, with an edge-to-edge illustration of the city showing everything from bike racks to café tables. This particular graphic highlights features of transit-oriented development in the city. To focus the reader’s attention, the selective use of colour creates a strong contrast that highlig ts specific parts of the picture. The most important lements ar  highlighte  with th  strongest red, while less important elements are in a faded pink, and background buildings are in white. 2CALÇADAS LARGAS Largura mínima 5 metros nos eixos de mobilidade e 3 metros na área de influência dos Eixos I AI tiv  urbanístico r  ifícios co  rci , serviços e i a entos no tér eo,  acesso aberto à laçãFRUIÇÃO PÚBLICAIncentivo urbanístico para empreendimentos que destinarem áreas para uso públicoAUMENTO DO COEFICIENTE DE APROVEITAMENTOPermite adensamento construtivo, promovendo melhor aproveitamento da infraestrut ra existenteCOTA PARTEEstabel ce o número mínimo de unidades habitacionaisORIENTAR O CRESCIMENTO DA CIDADE NAS PROXIMIDADES DO TRANSPORTE PÚBLICOÁREAS E I F ITrem · Metrô · Monotrilho · Veículos leves sobre trilhos (VLT) · Veículos leves sobre pneus (VLP) em vias elevadasCorredor de i s unicipal e Inter unicipal · Veículos leves sobre s (VLP) e  vias não elev sPROMOVER ADENSAMENTO HABITACIONAL E DE ATIVIDADES URBANAS AO LONGO DO SISTEMA DE TRANSPORTE PÚBLICOQUALIFICAR CENTRALIDADES EXISTENTES  ESTIMULAR A CRIAÇÃO DE NOVAS CENTRALIDADESAMPLIAR A OFERTA DE HABITAÇÃO DE INTERESSE SOCIAL E EQUIPAMENTOS URBANOS E SOCIAIS NAS PROXIMIDADES DO SISTEMA DE TRANSPORTE PÚBLICOQUALIFICAR A VIDA URBANA COM AMPLIAÇÃO DAS CALÇADAS E ESTÍMULO AO COMÉRCIO, SERVIÇOS E EQUIPAMENTOS URBANOS E SOCIAIS VOLTADOS PARA A RUADESESTIMULAR VAGAS DE GARAGEM: MAIS QUE 1 VAGA DE GARAGEM POR UNIDADE HABITACIONAL E 1 VAGA PARA 70M² DE USOS NÃO RESIDENCIAIS SERÃO CONSIDERADAS COMPUTÁVEISP ra reduzir a necessidade de grandes deslocamentos diários e aproximar emprego e moradia, o Plano Diretor organiz a ocupação da cidade através dos Eixos de Estr turação da Transformação Urbana, otimizando o aproveitamento do s lo nas áreas próximas à rede de transporte coletivo de média e alta capacidade (metrô, trem, corredores de ônibus). Instrumentos foram criados p ra vincular o adensamento habitacional e construtivo ao longo destes eixos à qualificação e ampliação dos espaços públicos e da oferta de serviços  equipam ntos urbanos e soc ais, de modo a fazer de São Paulo uma cidade mais humana. =  Ace sos às estações4 0 m6 0 m=  Eixo da via150 m300 m300 m150 mRESIDENCIALCOMÉRCIO, SERVIÇOS E EQUIPAMENTOSINCENTIVO AO USO MISTOComércio, serviços e equipamentos não serão computáveis até 20% da área total construída62        PERCEPTION 63Grouping helps readers connect related elements, like the answer to a frequently asked question. In these diagrams, 16 plain dots are instinctively formed into groups:ENCLOSURE & CONNECTIONSIMILARITYPROXIMITYp  This image is interpreted as four columns of four dots each, not four rows of dots, because each dot is closest to the others in its column. p  This set of dots is seen as four rows, because the dots in each row are the same colour. This also works using similarity in shape, size, etc.p  Even though these black dots are evenly spaced, the box and connecting line clearly identify two groupings.1.0 INTRODUCTION29Figure:Q„o„PDWW„‰[™T™HO„Z„QFWPlanning TimelineMar 07 Jun 07 Sep 07 Dec 07 Mar 08 Jun 08 Sep 08 Dec 08 Mar 09 Jun 09 Sep 09 Dec 09 Mar 10 Jun 10 Sep 10 Dec 10 Mar 11 Jun 11 KEY DECISIONS LEGACY TRUST FUND PRIORITIES PLAN APPROVED BY MEMBER AT GENERAL MEETING(NOVEMBER 26, 2009)COMMUNITY CENTRE AND GYM APPROVED BY COUNCIL(JUNE 22, 2009)LAND USE DESIGNATION MAP APPROVED BY COUNCIL(MARCH 23, 2009)CULTURAL EDUCATION RESOURCE CENTRE APPROVED BY COUNCIL(MARCH 8, 2010)GOVERNANCE POLICIES APPROVED BY COUNCIL(MARCH 31, 2008)ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT GOVERNANCE TRANSITION STRATEGY APPROVED BY  COUNCIL(JULY 12, 2009)Jun 07 Sep 07 Dec 07 Mar 08 Jun 08 Sep 08 Dec 08 Mar 10 Jun 10 Sep 10 Dec 10 Mar 11 Jun 11 Mar 07 OUTPUTS M U S Q U E A MC O M M U N I T Y  P R O F I L EK n o w i n g  o u r  p a s t ,  e x p l o r i n g  o u r  f u t u r eCOMMUNITY PROFILEJULY 2007M U S Q U E A MC O M M U N I T Y  S U R V E Y  R E P O R TN O V E M B E R ,  2 0 0 8COMMUNITY SURVEY REPORTNOVEMBER 2008M U S Q U E A MS T A F F  R E T R E A TS t r a t e g i c  P l a n n i n g  &  O r g a n i z a t i o n a l  D e v e l o pm e n tD E C E M B E R  9 - 1 0 ,  2 0 0 8STAFF RETREAT REPORTDECEMBER 2008M U S Q U E A MSP O R T S  F A C I L I T Y  P L A N N I N G  B R I E FM A R C H  1 2 ,  2 0 0 9SPORTS FACILITY PLANNING BRIEFMARCH 2008M U S Q U E A MP H A S E  1  L A N D  U S E  P L A NA P R I L  2 0 0 9PHASE I LAND USE PLANAPRIL 2009M U S Q U E A MD E S I G N  G U I D E L I N E SSubdivision and Community | Site and Landscape | Buidling Design and ConstructionA U G U S T  2 0 0 9DESIGN GUIDELINESAUGUST 2009M U S Q U E A MA D M I N I S T R A T I O N  O P E N  H O U S EJ U N E  4 ,  2 0 0 9ADMINISTRATION OPEN HOUSE REPORTJUNE 2009   MUSQUEAM  L E G A C Y  T R U S T  F U N D  Community Comprehensive Engagement   June -- November, 2009 LEGACY TRUST FUNDNOVEMBER 2009M U S Q U E A MP H A S E  I I I  D E S I G N  R E V I E WMu l t i f a m i l y  S e n i o r s  /  S p e c i a l  N e e d s  H o u s i n gS E P T E M B E R  2 0 0 9PHASE III DESIGN REVIEW MULTI FAMILY / SPECIAL NEEDSSEPTEMBER 2009M U S Q U E A MP H A S E  I I I  D E S I G N  R E V I E WS E P T E M B E R  2 0 0 9PHASE III DESIGN REVIEW COMMUNITY CENTRESEPTEMBER 2009M U S Q U E A MSP O R T S  F A C I L I T Y  P L A N N I N G  B R I E FM A R C H  1 2 ,  2 0 0 9ADMINISTRATION GAPANALYSIS REPORTJULY 2007MULTIPLE NEWSLETTERSSTARTING JUNE 2007ST MUNGO INTERPRETIVE SITECONCEPT PLANNOVEMEBER 2010ABORIGINAL PAVILIONPROPOSALDECEMBER 2009EDUCATION COMMITTEERETREAT REPORTNOVEMEBER 2010COUNCIL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT RETREAT REPORTJULY 2009COMMUNITY FACILITYANALYSIS REPORTOCTOBER 2009MUSQUEAM CHIEF & COUNCILGOVERNANCE POLICY AND PROCEDURES MANUALAPRIL 2008COUNCIL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT RETREAT REPORTJUNE 2010 FINAL CCPREPORTMARCH 2011COMMUNITY WEBSITESTARTING SEPTEMBER 2008Jun 07 Sep 07 Dec 07 Mar 08 Jun 08 Sep 08 Dec 08 Mar 09 Jun 09 Sep 09 Dec 09 Mar 10 Jun 10 Sep 10 Dec 10 Mar 11 Jun 11 Mar 07 ENGAGEMENTSCOUNCILADMINISTRATIONCOMMUNITYSUPPORT TEAM25Many50~ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTPLANNING MTG.STAFFRETREATFAMILY MEETINGSELDER’S LUNCHEONECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTOPEN HOUSESTAFF LEGACIESMEETINGCOUNCILLEGACIESMTG.LEGACIESOPEN HOUSEMEETINGWITH ALLCOMMITTEE’SOF COUNCILELDER’SLUNCHEONSUPPORTTEAMMEETINGCOUNCIL MEETINGCREATIVEWRITINGCLASSCREATIVEWRITINGCLASSSUPPORTTEAMMEETINGSUPPORTTEAMMEETINGYOUTHWORKSHOPMUSQUEAM101COMMUNITYCOMMITTEEMEETINGSUPPORTTEAMMEETINGCOMMUNITYCOMMITTEEMEETINGFAMILY MEETINGSSUPPORTTEAMMEETINGABORIGINALDAYCOMMUNITYCOMMITTEEMEETINGSUPPORTTEAMMEETINGSPORTS FACILITYMEETINGRECREATIONFACILITY & PA MEETINGLUPCOUNCILMEETINGLONGHOUSEMEETINGELDER’SMEETINGSUPPORTTEAMMEETINGPAMEETINGFAMILY MEETINGSSPORTSFACILITYOPENHOUSEFISHERIESCOMMISSIONMEETINGPAMEETINGCOUNCIL -ADMINISTRATIONRETREATABORIGINALDAYCOUNCIL ECDEVRETREATLONGHOUSEMEETINGCCP &LAND CODEMEETINGPHASE IIIDEVELOPERSMEETINGPAVILIONPAMEETINGCOUNCIL CCP OVERVIEWMEETINGCOUNCIL ECDEVRETREATSAFETY &SECURITYMEETINGLANGUAGE& CULTUREMEETINGCULTURALOPENHOUSEABORIGINALDAYELDER’S LUNCHEONCULTURESELF-GOVERNANCEMEETINGST. MUNGOINTERPRETIVESITE MEETINGPAMEETINGCOUNCIL MEETINGMUSQUEAMAGAEDUCATIONRETREATSELF-GOVERNANCEMEETING INACMar 09 J n 09 u Sep 09 Dec 09p  Musqueam Comprehensive Community Plan timelineThis timeline of the planning process undertaken by the Musqueam First Nation uses grouping to show three types of milestones: engagements, outputs, and key decisions. The use of similarity (distinct graphics for each section)  connection (arrow showing time), enclosure (dotted dividing lines) all reinforce the idea that there were three simultaneous aspects of the planning process. 264        PERCEPTION 65u  EGLINTONconnects Planning Study: public realm concept planSimilar graphic elements and a strong connecting feature—the Eglinton corridor itself—groups a page full of busy visuals into the three concepts that make up the public realm plan: connections, destinations, and edges.The use of proximity links the legends with the appropriate diagrams, so they do not look like a separate sidebar. 2THE PLAN: RECOMMENDATIONS AND IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES DRAFTConnectionsDestinationsEdgesDUFFERINKEELEMT DENNISEGLINTON WEST$//(1BATHURSTYONGEBAYVIEWLAIRDWARDENVICTORIA PARKWYNFORDDON MILLSLESLIEKENNEDYCALEDONIACHAPLINAVENUEOAKWOODMT PLEASANTBERMONDSEYPHARMACYLEBOVICBIRCHMOUNTIONVIEWFERRANDjor Connectioncling RoutCycling Routeg InterchangeRavines and Natural AreasParksMajor Arrivals & Interchange PointsCycling InterchangeMajor ConnectionsCycling RouteStreet Tree LineMajor Developement FocusMajor Green Space FocusUnderground LRTSurface LRT (with green trackway)PortalMajor InterchangeSurface StopUnderground StationEdge Articulation atKey IntersectionsStreet Tree LineWidened Public Boulevard& PlazasContinuous Street WallPorous Building Development Edges66        PERCEPTION 67TOP-DOwN PROCESSINGUse the reader’s expectations to create understanding.Expectations can come from convention (page numbers are in the corner), or be built throughout the document via repetition (quick-reference boxes are in the left column). Repetition can also give the document a sense of unity.This image shows a page from the West End Community Profile with the elements blurred out, simulating the pre-attentive processing that takes place before the fovea can bring the image into focus.West End Community Profile 2012Page 92Nightlife4000 200metresHARO STSMITHE STROBSON STALBERNI STHELMCKEN STBARCLAY STNELSON STCOMOX STPENDRELL STDRAKE STBURNABY STHARWOOD STPACIFIC STDAVIE STBEACH AVBURRARD STW GEORGIA STTHURLOW STBROUGHTON STBUTE STJERVIS STNICOLA STBIDWELL STCARDERO STDENMAN STGILFORD STCHILCO STNightlife ClustersDenman Street& Lower DavieRobson StreetLiquor PrimaryAlberni Street & Fringe AreasDavie VillageWest End Community Profile 2012Page 48Major Residential constructed after 1988 (>11 storeys)StreetsParksWest End Boundary4000 200metresHARO STSMITHE STROBSON STALBERNI STHELMCKEN STBARCLAY STDRAKE STNELSON STCOMOX STPENDRELL STBURNABY STHARWOOD STPACIFIC STDAVIE STBEACH AVBURRARD STW GEORGIA STTHURLOW STBROUGHTON STBUTE STJERVIS STNICOLA STBIDWELL STCARDERO STDENMAN STGILFORD STCHILCO STComments:Approximately 4,100 net additional residential units were added to the West End since the 1989 zoning change in the RM (multi-family residential) zones. However, over three quarters (77%) of these net additional units were built north of Robson Street or along the west side of Burrard Street, where zoning is DD (Downtown District) or CD-1 (Comprehensive Development District).Where Has Growth Occurred Since 1988?West End Community Profile 2012Page 804000 200metres(((StreetsParksMini-parksWest End BoundaryCyclingBike Routes and GreenwaysWalkingSeawallKey Walking StreetsProposed Comox-Helmcken GreenwayTraffic CircleVehicle Traffic Diverter(Pedestrian and Bicycle Through-traffic Only)Bus Route 6Bus Route 5TransitCommunity Shuttle C21Canada LineExpo / Millenium Line( Station( StationCommunity Shuttle C23Bus Route 5 detourHARO STSMITHE STROBSON STALBERNI STHELMCKEN STBARCLAY STNELSON STCOMOX STPENDRELL STDRAKE STBURNABY STHARWOOD STPACIFIC STDAVIE STBEACH AVBURRARD STW GEORGIA STTHURLOW STBROUGHTON STBUTE STJERVIS STNICOLA STBIDWELL STCARDERO STDENMAN STGILFORD STCHILCO STKey Walking, Cycling and Transit Routesq  West End Community ProfileThe repeated layout and orientation of the map facilitates understanding. The reader expects each map element will be in a particular place.Readers may realize that activity tends to be located on either Robson, Denman, or Davie Street. So, they may assume that the highlighted, linear element on each map is one of these major streets. 2From convention, the reader expects the text at the top is a title for the map, while the group of elements to the right is a legend. Blue is water, and green is park space. A reader whose expectations have been built through reading the document knows that north is actually toward the top-left corner of the page, but a reader new to the document might assume that north is at the top.68        PERCEPTION 6971t  Good Solutions Guide for ApartmentsThese spreads show how patterns can be used within documents to take advantage of top-down processing.Three different page types are apparent without looking at the pages in detail. Each section’s title page has a very distinct, bold style, with large, minimal text. Special yellow pages have technical diagrams and minimal text. The white pages list policy details, illustrated with photos showing precedents. The reader has an idea of what to expect in the content just by taking in the colour of the page. 2wORKING MEMORY Break up content into small sections and guide the eye through the page.Working memory can only hold 5-7 items. Busy layouts crammed with content can be overwhelming, as the eye tries to process too much at once.Instead, break your content into chunks. Smaller, bite-sized elements are easier to process. This layout reduces the cognitive load.Arrange the chunks in a logical order and guide the reader through a clear path, so they do not have to search for meaning.12372        PERCEPTION 73What is arezoning?Every piece of land in the city has  a zoning designation. But zoning  can change. When it does, it’s called a rezoning.You can propose a rezoning of your neighborhood, and so can the city,  or a developer.People sometimes refer to a particular rezoning as an “upzoning” if it increases the FAR or allowable building area in a neighborhood. A “downzoning” is a rezoning that decreases the FAR or allowable building area.78 79REZONINGWith clear sequencing, the reader  does not have to search the entire  page and process everything in  order to understand the content.The reader knows that if they  follow the sequence of bite-sized pieces of information, they will  come to a full understanding.u  The Five Hat Racks Clear organization helps readers find information easily—but what order makes sense?Richard Wurman proposes five “hat racks”—ways of organizing data—each suited for a different type of content. The five hat racks are listed here, with examples of how each might be used in planning. Further detail can be found in Wurmans’ book, Information Anxiety. 2Upzoning usually happens in places where the city wants to promote development. The scale of the neighborhood is probably going to increase, along with the number of people and services.Downzoning usually happens in neighborhoods where existing buildings are mostly below the current allowable FAR. A neighborhood might propose a downzoning to protect the existing neighborhood scale.DownzoningUpzoningBuildings in this neighborhood have unused FAR. The buildings could be bigger in this neighborhood.A downzoning will make sure these buildings don’t get torn down and replaced with bigger ones.Now, the neighborhood has changed; there are a lot more people living and doing business here.BEFORE UPZONING BEFORE DOWNZONINGAFTER UPZONING AFTER DOWNZONINGAllowed FARREZONINGWHAT IS ZONING?80 81Residential Street Residential StreetCommercial AvenueCommercial AvenueUp or down?It can be hard to tell whether your neighborhood is being upzoned or downzoned. Most rezonings increase FAR in some parts of a neighborhood and decrease it in others.In recent years the city has proposed many rezonings that increase FAR close to transit stations and decrease it slightly in surrounding blocks. The idea is to direct development to where there is more infrastructure to support it.BEFORE AFTERLots in this area have unused FAR. Some lots are downzoned and others are upzoned.REZONINGWHAT IS ZONING?82 83p  What is a rezoning?These pages break down the complex topic of rezoning into small chunks that are easy to understand.The layout guides the reader on a logical path, from a general definition to more specific concepts. 2Location: economic information by Province, going from West to East.Alphabet: a list of key stakeholders, listed from A to Z by last name.Time: an list of heritage buildings, from the oldest to the most recent.Category: policies grouped into strategic planning categories (health, sustainability, housing, etc.)Hierarchy: a list of large capital expenditures, from the costliest  to the least costlyHow To:ORGANIZE INFORMATION   IN A LOGICAL ORDER74        PERCEPTION 75How To:wORK wITH LARGE  BLOCKS OF TEXTCondensing: reduce the amount of text by editing out content, shortening sentences, and removing unnecessary words.Chunking: break up the text into smaller sections and order them into a logical sequence.It may seem difficult to reduce the amount of text in a planning document, especially when describing complex policy details. Certainly, not everything can be displayed using graphics alone. The following steps can help mitigate overwhelming walls of text, using the strategies described in this chapter. However, challenge yourself to show your content using visuals—blocks of text should be a last resort!Cueing: use headers to introduce the main point of each section and put space between the sections,  making the text scannable.Categorizing: differentiate between information types using repeated elements (block quotes, headers, bulleted lists, call-out boxes, etc.)76        PERCEPTION 77LAYOUTHow can your visual hierarchy  reinforce your hierarchy of messages?+Well-designed layouts support the effective communication of a message. Therefore, your layout should form a visual hierarchy that reinforces your hierarchy of messages (main message, key points, and supporting details).Layout applies rules of perception to better communicate your message. The rules from the last chapter can be used to highlight the main message and group content into key points. Breaking up the supporting details ensure they are organized and clear.79The visual hierarchy for a layout is like an inverted pyramid, with the visual weight of each item corresponding to its place in the hierarchy of messages.The main message should carry the most visual weight on a page, seizing the reader’s attention with the biggest elements and the greatest contrast. Supporting DetailsKey  PointsMain MessageBIG & BOLDTHE FIRST THING YOU SEEDistinct and skimmable, but not the focus.Does not pull the focus. Recedes.Supporting details cannot compete for attention. Layouts are often improved by toning down items that pull focus away from the main message.The key points should be easy to find, but not fighting for attention. Readers should get an idea of your overall message by skimming the key points.80        LAYOUT 81Takeaway:USE A VISUAL HIERARCHY  TO DRAw ATTENTION TO  THE MOST IMPORTANT  PARTS OF YOUR MESSAGE.p  No visual hierarchyA page of text is the ultimate example of a layout with no visual hierarchy. This layout relies solely on the text to communicate; the reader’s ability to quickly perceive visual information from the layout is not taken advantage of at all. As a result, nothing on the page stands out. The main takeaway looks the same as a side-note.graphicstitlessub-titlescoloursblank spacecolumnsside-barsquotes, etc.p  Strong visual hierarchyIt is clear which elements the designer is trying to emphasize in the layout above. The image and main title immediately grab the reader’s attention and state the main message.In the body of the layout, certain elements in blue stand out and guide the reader through the structure of the content. The supporting details remain in plain black text.82        LAYOUT 83f looding from storm, july 2013gardiner expressway repairssmog viewed from cn towerresilient cityCHALLENGES CHIEF PLANNER ROUNDTABLE   #CProundtable    15E   extreme weather  “Toronto’s Future Climate,” a study that projects climate conditions the city could experience in 2040-2049, predicts changes will include: less snow and more rain in the winter; fewer snow days; marked rainfall increase in July (80%) and August (50%); and more extreme rainfall events that will challenge Toronto’s aging infrastructure. The model also pre-dicts average temperature increases in the winter (5.7˙ Celsius) and summer (3.8˙ Celsius). The study predicts that the number of heat waves will occur on average five times per year in 2040-49, up from the average of 0.57 per year during 1970-2000.E   energy consumption & reliability  While demand for all types of energy is expected to increase, the hydro capacity and reliability is of concern, especially in the downtown core which is currently limited by just two transmission lines and one small central power plant. A number of issues — aging and deteriorating infrastructure, a lack of operating flexibility, capacity to meet future load growth, and security of supply — make Toronto susceptible to an energy crisis.E   population growth Toronto continues to experience a surge of both residential and non-residential growth, evident in the 180-plus tall buildings currently under construction. Projections indicate our city will add close to 24,000 people per year, reaching a projected population of 3 million by 2031. This unprecedented growth is placing increasingly higher demands on the City’s infrastructure, much of which is either close to service capacity and/or in need of upgrading.E   income disparity  The growing income disparity in Toronto is predicted to increase. In David Hulchanski’s report on “The Three Cities Within Toronto,” it is  noted that by 2025 Toronto will become a city sharply divided into wealthy neighbourhoods (30%) and poor neighbourhoods (60%) with very few middle-income neighbourhoods (10%). Without a detailed and  concerted effort by the City of Toronto, housing  affordability will continue to push the most socially  and economically vulnerable out of the city.18   CHIEF PLANNER ROUNDTABLEdownsview stationphoto by Matthew Blackett#CProundtable   19The period from 1950 to 1980 was a golden one for transit in Toronto, with substantial investments in expanding the Yonge and Bloor-Danforth subway lines, creation of the Spadina Subway, and formation of the regional GO Tran-sit network. During this period, the TTC benefited from a secure source of capital funding and Provincial subsidies for operating costs. However, these funding arrangements were altered in the 1990s and beyond, and a sharp slow-down in transit expansion and transit infrastructure planning followed.The result, as we see today, is a transit system that has not kept pace with the region’s expanding needs, suburban population growth, and trav-el trends. The post-WWII neighbourhoods are still serviced largely by bus. And access to the “905” employment hubs in surrounding municipalities — which are now significant destinations for workers residing in Toronto — is indirect, time consuming and cumbersome. Those who drive encounter roadways that are so congested and time consuming to travel that an esti-mated $6 billion is lost each year through slow goods movement and trav-el delays, and through associated environmental costs of wasted fuel and carbon emissions. As people spend more time on transit or on congested roads the social costs also add up, creating a disconnect between family members and further threatening our health and quality of life.More recent transit projects such as the Sheppard Subway in North York, expansion of the Spadina Subway northward, and the Eglinton Crosstown, are gradually bringing rapid transit further into the suburbs and helping address these social, environmental and economic issues. But continued transit planning and identification of secure long-term funding for operat-ing and capital costs are required to ensure expansion of the transit net-work keeps pace with growth.TRANSIT IN THE SUBURBS“ Transportation has historically been about the movement of machines. We are now changing the focus to moving people.”Leslie WooVice President of Planning Policy and Innovation, Metrolinx“ Generation Y and  Echo Boomers don’t want  to own a car; they want  easy access to work, and don’t want to drive.”Leona SavoieVice-President, Hullmark DevelopmentsIntegrated networks provide a range of transportation options.t  Section beaders (Chief Planner Roundtable, Volume 1)This page is designed to emphasize the different aspects of resiliency for the City of Toronto.The section headers use arrows and capitalized, bold text—easily visible, but not competing with the title for the reader’s attention. 2t  Block quotes (Chief Planner Roundtable, Volume 2)This page uses bright orange text to highlight two quotes from participants at the City of Toronto’s second set of roundtables with Chief Planner Jennifer Keesmaat. The quotes summarize two key points that advance the main narrative. 2Case Study:FOUR DIFFERENT wAYS TO CREATE VISUAL HIERARCHY These planning documents from Toronto and Vancouver have a similar layout, but emphasize different aspects of their content using hierarchy. Planners should always consider what ideas they wish to prioritize in their layouts.589/ Breathe the cleanest air of any  major city in the world.59CLEAN AIR TARGET:ALWAYS MEET OR BEAT THE MOST STRINGENT AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES FROM METRO VANCOUVER, BRITISH COLUMBIA, CANADA, AND THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION.Breathing might be one of the most natural things we do. We move air in and out of our lungs anywhere from 720 to 1,200 times an hour. Clean air can be easy to take for granted, even though it has a huge impact on our health and well-being. The quality of our air affects the health of everyone in our community, particularly young children, pregnant women, seniors, and other vulnerable populations. Although Vancouver enjoys relatively clean air compared to other major North American cities, even low levels of particulate matter, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide can negatively impact our health. As Vancouver grows we create more and more air pollution through exhaust from trucks, buses, ships, trains, planes, and industrial operations. It will take work to improve our air quality.t  Highlighted summary statement (Greenest City Action Plan)Here, bold text succinctly states the intent behind the city’s goal for clean air. The hierarchy of messages is reflected visually: the general topic—“Clean Air”—in the main title, the specific target in bold text, and finally the supporting details in small body text. 2t  Images (City of Toronto 2013 City Planning Annual Report)The key points for this report are the different planning initiatives taken on by the City of Toronto.A key image clearly defines each planning initiative, along with the bold subtitle text. 2project profiles.2013Port Lands Area StudiesBuilding on the successful outcomes of the Port Lands Acceleration Initiative, Community Planning, the Waterfront Secretariat, Waterfront Toronto, and the Toronto and Region Conservation Authority continue to unlock the revitalization potential of the Port Lands. Studies of this 356-hectare site are currently focusing on the Don Mouth Naturalization and Port Lands Flood Protection Environmental Assessment, developing a Port Lands-wide planning framework, and completing precinct planning for Cousins Quay and the Film Studio District.Mr. Christie’s Master PlanBetween June and September 2013, representatives from a diverse and inclusive range of organizations met to explore options to strengthen local employment opportunities at the former Mr. Christie manufacturing site. The working group studied the potential of new commercial food incubator programs and food industry tenants, and generated a vision statement and ten guiding principles to inspire the creation of a vibrant mixed-use community.2013 CITY PLANNING ANNUAL REPORT     |     19 Queen Street West Restaurant StudyTo ensure a continued balance of residences and commercial establishments, the Queen Street West Restaurant Study recommends a limit on the density of restaurants and bars on Queen Street West, between Roncesvalles Avenue and Dufferin Street. City Council’s adoption of the study advances the Official Plan’s vision of creating a city of diversity and opportunity that encourages a mix of places to live and work.Section 37 Community BenefitsCity Council and planning staff are committed to increasing the diversity and accessibility of Toronto’s housing. In June, City Council revised the City’s Section 37 policies to allow the provision of affordable rental units from a developer in exchange for additional height and/or density. Developers will now be able to transfer new condominium units to a non-profit housing provider for use as affordable rental units, thereby increasing the diversity of tenure types in new developments and the accessibility of new housing.Ossington Area StudyCommunity Planning undertook extensive community consultations as part of the Ossington Avenue Planning Study, recognizing that community organizations should be leaders in building Toronto. From these consultations emerged a new area-specific Official Plan policy, which includes a limit on the size of ground floor retail spaces, four and five-storey height restrictions, and heritage-conscious design standards. This policy will help to maintain the community’s own sense of Ossington Avenue as a “village in a city” by encouraging diverse commercial activities and vibrant pedestrian experiences.MCR Housing Potential AnalysisNearly 3.4 million people are expected to live in Toronto by 2041. In order to ensure that the Official Plan can accommodate this growth, City Planning undertook a Municipal Comprehensive Review. The review determined that current planning policies are more than capable of accommodating the forecasted population growth without eroding lands currently designated as Employment Areas.West Roncesvalles Land Use StudyCommunity planning initiated the West Roncesvalles Land Use Study to preserve the healthy mix of uses and dwelling types that characterize this section of the west side of Roncesvalles Avenue. City Planning established a set of guidelines for the review of future non-residential proposals in the area to ensure the application of Official Plan policies and Zoning By-Law provisions respect the unique character of this area.Toronto’s Senior StrategyCity Planning assisted Social Development Finance and Administration in the preparation of the 2013 Toronto Seniors Strategy, a guiding document that identifies key initiatives for developing an age-friendly city. The new strategy, its consultation process, and its embodied themes of equity, respect, inclusion, and quality of life align with the World Health Organization’s Age-Friendly Cities and Communities Initiative, and Ontario’s Seniors Strategy: “Living Longer, Living Well.”In each spread, the page’s main topic carries the most visual weight on the page. The large, colourful titles are paired with evocative, full-page photographs so that the subject of each page is very clear.84        LAYOUT 85Case Study:wEST END CHARACTER AREAS To illustrate how visual hierarchy can be applied to a layout, consider the following re-design of an open house board for the West End Community Plan. The board outlines three character areas for the neighbourhood that guide development. How can the visual hierarchy be improved to make the message even clearer? 2vancouver.ca/westendplanWest End Community PlanEnglish BayArea BoundaryStreetsParkBeachWest LoopVillagesNeighbourhoodsCorridorsLEGENDBeach NeighbourhoodWest of DenmanNeighbourhoodNelson SlopesNeighbourhoodNelson PlateauNeighbourhoodAlberni Retail DistrictGeorgia CorridorBurrard CorridorRobson VillageDenman VillageDavie VillageLower RobsonLower Davie Haro StRobson StAlberni StNelson StComox StPendrell StBarclay StBurnaby StDavie StHarwood StPacific StBeach AveBurrard StW Georgia StThurlow StBroughton StBute StJervis StNicola StBidwell StCardero StDenman StGilford StChilco StCharacter Areas: Framework for the PlanVillages Three distinct, primarily low-rise Villages will help knit the community together and provide opportunities for locals and visitors alike to shop, work, and play during the day and at night.StreetsCommunity CentreAquatic CentrWest End BoundaryGordon NeighbourhoodH useArea BoundaryStreetsDowntown Eastside Elementary Schoolt  stsi   Secondary SchoolDow town Eastside ch olnt  stsi  Elementary SchoolDow town Eastside Facility Librar  (VPL)Do nto n Eastside  C mmunity Centreanada LineArterial Str etExisting Bus Routei i  PM PeakBus RoutePo sible Transit C nnectionsTra sit Station/Bus LoopF ture CanadaLine StationInters c i  mp ovementExisting Greenway/BikewayP oposed Ped strian and Cyclist Connectionsotential Road C nnectionFull Traffic SignalPedestrianActiva ed SignalLEGENDSkyTrainExisting Greenway/BikewayProposed Pedestrian and Cyclist ConnectionsArterial StreetExisting Bus RoutePossible Transit ConnectionsTransit StationFull Trac SignalPedestrian Activated SignalIntersection Improveme tPotential Road ConnectionCanada LineArterial StreetExisting Bus Routei i  PM Peak Bus RoutePossible Transit ConnectionsTransit Station/Bus LoopFuture Canada Line StationInters ction ImprovementDavid Lloyd Geo ge Elementary SchoolSir Winston Churchill S co d  lLaurier Elementary Scho li  AnnexSexsmith El mentary SchoolMarpole Museum & Historical Societyl  Library (VPL)arpole Oakridge Community CentreM l  Pl ce/Family PlaceParks andOpen SpaceSchools in MarpoleCanada LineStationFuture StationCommuni y CentreP olIce RinkLibraryFire HallHospitalNeighbourhood useMarpole Place/ Family PlaceTAgricultural DistrictsOne-Family welling DistrictsTwo- il  lli  i iMultiple Dwelling DistrictsComm rcial DistrictsIndustrial DistrictsLight Industrial DistrictsHistoric Area DistrictsComprehensive Development Districts:D-1 (Site Specic)FCCDD (False Creek – South Side)D  ( owntown)CW  (Ce tral Waterfront)EOD (DTES/Opp nheimer)FSD (First Shaughnessy)BCPED (False Creek – North Side)Area BoundaryStreetsCommunity CentreAquatic CentrGordon N ighbourhood H seD wntown Eastside Elementary Schoolo t  Eastsi e Facility Librar  (VPL)Downtown Eastside  C mmunity Centreanada Li eArterial StreetExisting Bus Routei i  PM PeakBus RoutePo sible Transit ConnectionsTransit Station/Bus LoopF ture CanadaLine StationInt rsec i  ImprovementExisting Greenway/BikewayProposed Pedestrian and Cyclist Connectionsotential Road Con ectionFull Trac SignalPedestrianActiva ed SignalStreetsParksMini-parksEnglish BayAre  oundaryree sPa kcW t oopVil g sNeighb urhoodsCo ri orsLEGE DBeach West of DenmanNelson Slopes Nelson PlateauAlberni Retail DistrictGeorgia CorridorBurrard CorridorRobson VillagDenman VillageDavie VillageLower RobsonLower Davie Haro StRobson StAlberni tNelson StCom x tPendrell StB rclay StBurnaby StDavie StHarwood StP cific StBeach AveBurrard StW Georgia StThurlow StBroughton St Bute StJervis StNicola StBidwell St Cardero StDenman StGilford StChilco StStreetsCommunity CentreAquatic CentreWest End BoundaryGordon NeighbourhoodHouseArea BoundaryStreetsDowntown Eastside Elementary SchoolDowntown Eastside  Secondary SchoolDowntown Eastside SchoolDowntown Eastside Elementary SchoolDowntown Eastside Facility Library (VPL)Downtown Eastside  Community CentreCanada LineArterial StreetExisting Bus RouteExisting PM PeakBus RoutePossible Transit ConnectionsTransit Station/Bus LoopFuture CanadaLine StationIntersection ImprovementExisting Greenway/BikewayProposed Pedestrian and Cyclist ConnectionsPotential Road ConnectionFull Traffic SignalPedestrianActivated SignalLEGENDSkyTrainExisting Greenway/BikewayProposed Pedestrian and Cyclist ConnectionsArterial StreetExisting Bus RoutePossible Transit ConnectionsTransit StationFull Trac SignalPedestrian Activated SignalIntersection ImprovementPotential Road ConnectionCanada LineArterial StreetExisting Bus RouteExisting PM Peak Bus RoutePossible Transit ConnectionsTransit Station/Bus LoopFuture Canada Line StationIntersection ImprovementDavid Lloyd George Elementary SchoolSir Winston Churchill Secondary SchoolLaurier Elementary SchoolLaurier AnnexSexsmith Elementary SchoolMarpole Museum & Historical SocietyMarpole Library (VPL)Marpole Oakridge Community CentreMarpole Place/Family PlaceParks andOpen SpaceSchools in MarpoleCanada LineStationFuture StationCommunity CentrePoolIce RinkLibraryFire HallHospitalNeighbourhood HouseMarpole Place/ Family PlaceTTAgricultural DistrictsOne-Family Dwelling DistrictsTwo-Family Dwelling DistrictsMultiple Dwelling DistrictsCommercial DistrictsIndustrial DistrictsLight Industrial DistrictsHistoric Area DistrictsComprehensive Development Districts:CD-1 (Site Specic)FCCDD (False Creek – South Side)DD (Downtown)CWD (Central Waterfront)DEOD (DTES/Oppenheimer)FSD (First Shaughnessy)BCPED (False Creek – North Side)Area BoundaryStreetsCommunity CentreAquatic CentreGordon Neighbourhood HouseDowntown Eastside Elementary SchoolDowntown Eastside Facility Library (VPL)Downtown Eastside  Community CentreCanada LineArterial StreetExisting Bus RouteExisting PM PeakBus RoutePossible Transit ConnectionsTransit Station/Bus LoopFuture CanadaLine StationIntersection ImprovementExisting Greenway/BikewayProposed Pedestrian and Cyclist ConnectionsPotential Road ConnectionFull Trac SignalPedestrianActivated SignalStreetsParksMini-parksEnglish BayArea BoundaryStreetsParkBeachWest LoopVillagesNeighbourhoodsCorridorsLEGENDBeach West of DenmanNelson Slopes Nelson PlateauAlberni Retail DistrictGeorgia CorridorBurrard CorridorRobson VillageDenman VillageDavie VillageLower RobsonLower Davie Haro StRobson StAlberni StNelson StComox StPendrell StBarclay StBurnaby StDavie StHarwood StPacific StBeach AveBurrard StW Georgia StThurlow StBroughton StBute StJervis StNicola StBidwell StCardero StDenman StGilford StChilco StNeighbourhoodsIncremental modest change and redevelopment will occur in the Neighbourhoods as a way to gradually renew the building stock.  Laneways will become secondary streets that can accommodate ground-oriented rental infill housing.StreetsCommunity CentreAquatic CentrWest E d B ndaryGordon NeighbourhoodH useArea B u darytreetsn  Se o dary Schoolch olw w iEle entar SchoolDo nto n Eastside F cility Librar  (VPL)D wntown Eas side  mmunity C ntrea ada Li eArter al Str etExi ting Bus Routei i  PM Peakus R u ePo sibl  Transit C nne ti nsTra sit Station/Bu  LoopF ture CanadaLin  S tiInters i  mp ovementExisting Gre nway/Bikewayopos Ped strian an  Cyclist ConnectionsPotential Road C nnectionFull Traffic SignalPedestrianActiva ed SignalLEGENDSkyTrainExisting Gree w y/Bikew yroposed Pedestrian and Cyclist C nn i sAr rial StreetExisting Bus Routessible Transit ConnectionsTransit StationFull T ac S gnalPedestrian Activat d SignalIntersection Improveme tPotential Road Co nectionC ada Li eArterial StreetExisti g Bus Routei i  PM Peak Bus R utePoss ble Transit Connecti nsTr nsit Station/Bus LoopFuture Canada Line Stati nInters ction I prove entD vid Lloyd Geo ge Ele e tary SchoolSir Winston Churchill S cond  lLaurier Element ry Scho li  AnnexSexsmith El mentary SchoolMarpole Museum & Historical Societyl  Library (VPL)arpole Oakridge Community CentreM l  Pl ce/Family Placearks andOpen SpaceSchools in MarpoleCan d  LineStationFut r  StationC muni y CentrePoolIce RinkLibraryFire HallHospitalNeighbourhood useMarpole Place/ Family PlaceTA ricultural Distric sOne-Family well ng DistrictsTwo- il  lli  i iMulti l  Dw lling Districtso mercial DistrictsIndustrial DistrictsLight Industrial DistrictsHistoric Area DistrictsComprehensive Development Districts:D-1 (Site Specic)F CD  (Fals  r k  S ut  Si e)D  ( owntown)CW  (Ce tral Waterfront)EOD (DTES/Opp nheimer)FSD (First Shaughnessy)BCPED (False Creek – North Side)Area B undaryStree sC unity CentreAqu tic CentrG rdon N ighbourhood H seDo nto n Eastside le entary Schoolw t w  Eastsi e Facility Librar  (VPL)D wn wn Eastside  C mmunity Centrea ad  Li eAr ial Streetisti  Bus RoutePM PeakBu  Routessibl  Transi  Con ectionsTran i  Station/B s Loopture C adaLine S ationInt rsec i  ImprovementExisting Gree way/BikewayProposed Pedestrian and Cyclist Connectionsotential Road Con ectionFull Trac SignalPedestrianActiva ed SignalStreetsParksMini-parksEnglish BayAr  BoundaryStreetParkB achW t LoopVill geseighb urhoodsCor idorsEGENDBeach West of DenmanNelson Slopes Nelson PlateauAlberni Reta l DistrictGeorgia CorridorBurrard CorridorRobson VillagDenman VillageDavie VillageLo er RobsonLower Davie H ro StR bson StAlber i Nelson StCom x tndrell Stcl y Sturnaby StDavie StHarwood StP cific StBeach AveBurra d StW Georgia StThurlow StBroughton St Bute StJervis StNicola StBidwell St Cardero StDenman StGilford StChilco StCorridorsThe Corridors will accommodate additional job space and housing, denser development close to transit, local services and amenities, which help meet the needs of the community.StreetsCommunity CentreAquatic CentrWest E d B ndaryGordon NeighbourhoodH useAre  B u darytreets    Se o dary Schooltch oliEle n ar SchoolD n  Eastside cility ibrar  (VPL)D wnt w  Eas side  mmunity C ntrea ada Li eA t r al Str eti i  Bus RouteExisting PM PeakR u eP ssibl  Transit sTra si  Statio /B  LoopFu ure CanadaLin  S tiInters i  mp ovementExisting Gre nway/Bikewayopos Ped strian an  Cyclist ConnectionsPotential Road C nnectionFull Traffic SignalPedestrianActiva ed SignalEGENDSkyTrainExisting Gree w y/Bikew yrop sed Pedestrian and Cyclist C n i sAr rial StreetExisting Bus Routessible Trans t ConnectionsTra it StationFull T a S gnalPedestrian Activat d SignalIntersection Improv m tPotential Ro d Co nectionCa ada Li eArteria  StreetExisti g Bus Routi i  PM P ak Bus R utPoss ble Transit Connecti sTransit Station/Bus LoopFuture Canada Line Stati nInters ction I prove entD vid Lloyd Geo ge Ele e tary SchoolSir Winston Churchill S cond  lLaurier Element ry Scho li  AnnexSexsmith El mentary SchoolMarpole Museum & Historical Societyl  Library (VPL)arpole Oakridge Community CentreM l  Pl ce/Family Placerk  andOpen SpScho ls in MarpoleCan da LineStationut r  StationC muni y CentrePoolIce RinkLibraryFire HallHospitalNeighbourhood useMarpole Place/ Family PlaceTA ricultural Distric sOne- amily w ll ng DistrictsTwo- il  lli  i iMulti l  Dwelling Districtso mercial DistrictsIndustrial DistrictsLight Industrial DistrictsHistoric Are  DistrictsComprehensive Development Districts:D-1 (Site pecic)F CD  ( ls  r k  S ut  Si e)D  ( owntown)CW  (Ce tral Waterfront)EOD (DTES/Opp nheimer)FSD (First Shaughnessy)BCPED (False Creek – North Side)ea B undaryStr e sC nity CentreAqu tic CentrG rd n N ghbourhood HDo n  Eastside Ele nt ry Scho lw ow  Eastsi e Facility Librar  (VPL)D w t w  Eastside  mmunity C ntrea ad  Li er i l Streetisti  Bus RoutePM Pe kBu  Routessibl  Transi  Con ectionsTran i  Station/B s Loopture C adaLine S ationInt rsec i  ImprovementExisting Gree way/BikewayProposed Pedestrian and Cyclist Connectionsotential Road Con ectionFull Trac SignalPedestrianActiva ed SignalStreetsParksMini-parksEnglish BayAr  BoundaryStr etsParkachWest LoopVill gesighb urhoodsorridorsLEGENDBeach West of DenmanNelson Slopes Nelson PlateauAlberni Reta l DistrictGeorgia CorridorBurrard CorridorRobson VillagDenman VillageDavie VillageLo er RobsonLower Davie ro StR bs n StAlber i N lson StCom x tndrell Strcl y Sturnaby StDavie StHarwood StP cific StBeach AveBurrard StW G rgia StThurlow StBroughton St Bute StJervis StNicola StBidwell St Cardero StDenman StGilford StChilco StStrengths  Effective grouping and colour-coding clearly shows three distinct areasContent is focused and accessible, with links so readers can learn morePhotos effectively convey the experience of each character areaThe map is simple and uncluttered, and large enough for interactionChallenges Messaging o  how the character areas guide development gets lost in the body text Large, bright purple bars are visually heavy, distracting from the contentTwo titles of equal rank in the hierarchy compete for attentionMap legend has non-essential items- - - - -  - - -BEFOREStreetsCommunity CentreAquatic CentreWest End BoundaryGordon NeighbourhoodHouseArea BoundaryStreetsDowntown Eastside Elementary SchoolDowntown Eastside  Secondary SchoolDowntown Eastside SchoolDowntown Eastside Elementary SchoolDowntown Eastside Facility Library (VPL)Downtown Eastside  Community CentreCanada LineArterial StreetExisting Bus RouteExisting PM PeakBus RoutePossible Transit ConnectionsTransit Station/Bus LoopFuture CanadaLine StationIntersection ImprovementExisting Greenway/BikewayProposed Pedestrian and Cyclist ConnectionsPotential Road ConnectionFull Traffic SignalPedestrianActivated SignalLEGENDSkyTrainExisting Greenway/BikewayProposed Pedestrian and Cyclist ConnectionsArterial StreetExisting Bus RoutePossible Transit ConnectionsTransit StationFull Trac SignalPedestrian Activated SignalIntersection ImprovementPotential Road ConnectionCanada LineArterial StreetExisting Bus RouteExisting PM Peak Bus RoutePossible Transit ConnectionsTransit Station/Bus LoopFuture Canada Line StationIntersection ImprovementDavid Lloyd George Elementary SchoolSir Winston Churchill Secondary SchoolLaurier Elementary SchoolLaurier AnnexSexsmith Elementary SchoolMarpole Museum & Historical SocietyMarpole Library (VPL)Marpole Oakridge Community CentreMarpole Place/Family PlaceParks andOpen SpaceSchools in MarpoleCanada LineStationFuture StationCommunity CentrePoolIce RinkLibraryFire HallHospitalNeighbourhood HouseMarpole Place/ Family PlaceTTAgricultural DistrictsOne-Family Dwelling DistrictsTwo-Family Dwelling DistrictsMultiple Dwelling DistrictsCommercial DistrictsIndustrial DistrictsLight Industrial DistrictsHistoric Area DistrictsComprehensive Development Districts:CD-1 (Site Specic)FCCDD (False Creek – South Side)DD (Downtown)CWD (Central Waterfront)DEOD (DTES/Oppenheimer)FSD (First Shaughnessy)BCPED (False Creek – North Side)Area BoundaryStreetsCommunity CentreAquatic CentreGordon Neighbourhood HouseDowntown Eastside Elementary SchoolDowntown Eastside Facility Library (VPL)Downtown Eastside  Community CentreCanada LineArterial StreetExisting Bus RouteExisting PM PeakBus RoutePossible Transit ConnectionsTransit Station/Bus LoopFuture CanadaLine StationIntersection ImprovementExisting Greenway/BikewayProposed Pedestrian and Cyclist ConnectionsPotential Road ConnectionFull Trac SignalPedestrianActivated SignalStreetsParksMini-parksEnglish BayArea BoundaryStreetsParkBeachWest LVillagesNeighbourhoodsCorridorsLEGENDBeach West of DenmanNelson Slopes Nelson PlateauAlberni Retail istrictG rgia CorridorBurrard CorridorRobson VillageDenman VillageDavie VillageLow r RobsonLower Davie Haro StRobson StAlberni StNelson StComox StPendrell StBarclay StBurnaby StDavie StHarwood StPacific StBeach AveBurard StW Geo giaTh rl w StBroughton StBute StJ rvis StNicola Stidwell StCardero StDenman StGilford StChilco StVillagesLively hubs for locals and visitors• Three distinct Villages help  knit the community together• Primarily low-rise buildings• Opportunities for locals and visitors to shop, work, and play • Active day and nightWest End Community Plan vancouver.ca/westendplan3 Character Areas:  A Plan for Focused GrowthVillagesNeighbourhoodsCorridorsAreas for focused future growthWest LoopLEGENDGeorgia CorridorBurrard CorridorBeach NeighbourhoodWest of DenmanNeighbourhoodNelson SlopesNeighbourhoodNelson PlateauNeighbourhoodRobson VillageDenman VillageDavie VillageLower RobsonLower Davie Haro StRobson StAlberni StNelson StComox StPendrell StBarclay StBurnaby StDavie StHarwood StPacific StBeach AveBurrard StW Georgia StThurlow StBroughton StBute StJervis StNicola StBidwell StCardero StDenman StGilford StChilco StHow is the West End changing?   These 3 character areas provide a framework that guides where change happens:VillagesNeighbourhoodsCorridorsAreas for focused future growthWest LoopLEGENDGeorgia CorridorBurrard CorridorBeach NeighbourhoodWest of DenmanNeighbourhoodNelson SlopesNeighbourhoodNelson PlateauNeighbourhoodRobson VillageDenman VillageDavie VillageLower RobsonLower Davie Haro StRobson StAlberni StNelson StComox StPendrell StBarclay StBurnaby StDavie StHarwood StPacific StBeach AveBurrard StW Georgia StThurlow StBroughton StBute StJervis StNicola StBidwell StCardero StDenman StGilford StChilco StStreetsCommunity CentreAquatic CentreWest End BoundaryGordon NeighbourhoodHouseArea BoundaryStreetsDowntown Eastside Elementary SchoolDowntown Eastside  Secondary SchoolDowntown Eastside SchoolDowntown Eastside Elementary SchoolDowntown Eastside Facility Library (VPL)Downtown Eastside  Community CentreCanada LineArterial StreetExisting Bus RouteExisting PM PeakBus RoutePossible Transit ConnectionsTransit Station/Bus LoopFuture CanadaLine StationIntersection ImprovementExisting Greenway/BikewayProposed Pedestrian and Cyclist ConnectionsPotential Road ConnectionFull Traffic SignalPedestrianActivated SignalLEGENDSkyTrainExisting Greenway/BikewayProposed Pedestrian and Cyclist ConnectionsArterial StreetExisting Bus RoutePossible Transit Connecti nsTransit StationFull Trac SignalPedestrian Activated SignalIntersection ImprovementPotential Road ConnectionCanada LineArterial StreetExisting Bus RouteExisting PM Peak Bus RoutePossible Transit ConnectionsTransit Station/Bus LoopFuture Canada Line StationIntersection ImprovementDavid Lloyd George Elemen ary Scho lSir Winston Churchill Secondary SchoolLaurier Elementary SchoolLaurier AnnexSexsmith Elementary Sch olMarpole Museum & Historical SocietyMarpole Library (VPL)Marpole Oakridge Commu ity CentreMarpole Place/Family PlaceParks andOpen SpaceSchools in MarpoleCanada LineStationFuture StationCommunity CentrePoolIce RinkLibraryFire HallHospitalNeighbourhood HouseMarpole Place/ Family PlaceTTAgricultural DistrictsOne-Family Dwelling DistrictsTwo-Family Dwelling Distri tsMultiple Dwelling DistrictsCommercial DistrictsIndustrial DistrictsLight Industrial DistrictsHistoric Area DistrictsComprehensive Development Districts:CD-1 (Site Specic)FCCDD (False Creek – Sout  Si e)DD (Downtown)CWD (Central Waterfront)DEOD (DTES/Oppenheimer)FSD (First Shaughnessy)BCPED (False Creek – North Side)Area BoundaryStreetsCommu ity CentreAquatic CentreGordon Neighbourhood HouseDowntown Eastside Elementary SchoolDowntown Eastside Facility Library (VPL)Downtown Eastside  Community CentreCanada LineArterial Stre tExisting Bus RouteExisting PM PeakBus RoutePossible Transit ConnectionsTran it Station/Bus LoopFuture CanadaLine StationIntersec ion Impr vementExis ng Greenway/BikewayProposed Pedestrian and Cyclist ConnectionsPote tial Road ConnectionFull Trac SignalPedestrianActivated SignalStreetsParksMini-parksEnglish BayArea B undaryStr etParkBeachWest VillagNeighbourhoodsCorrido sLEGENDBeach West of DenmanNelson Slopes Nelson PlateauAlb ni R tail Di trictG g a rrid rBurrard CorridorRobson Vill geDenman VillageDavie Villagew r RobsonLower Davie Haro StRobson StA berni StNelson StComox StPendrell StBarclay StBur aby StDavie StHarwood StPacific StBeach AveBur ard StW Ge rgi tThurlw StBr ughton StBu e StJervis StNicola StBidwell StCardero StDenman StG lf StChilco tStreetsCommunity Ce treAquatic CentreWest End BoundaryGordon NeighbourhoodHouseArea BoundaryStreetsDowntown Eastside Elementary SchoolDowntown Eastside  Secondary SchoolDowntown Eastside SchoolDowntown Eastside Elementary SchoolDowntown Eastside Facility Library (VPL)Downtown Eastside  Community CentreCanada LineArterial StreetExisting Bus RouteExisting PM PeakBus RoutePossible Transit ConnectionsTransit Station/Bus LoopFuture CanadaLine StationIntersection ImprovementExisting Greenway/BikewayProposed Pedestrian and Cyclist ConnectionsPotential Road ConnectionFull Traffic SignalPedestrianActivated SignalLEGENDSkyTrainExisting Greenway/BikewayProposed Pedestrian and Cyclist ConnectionsArterial StreetExisting Bus RoutePossible Transit ConnectionsTransit StationFull Trac SignalPedestrian Activated SignalIntersection ImprovementPotential Road ConnectionCanada LineArterial StreetExisting Bus RouteExisting PM Peak Bus RoutePossible Transit ConnectionsTransit Station/Bus LoopFuture Canada Line StationIntersection ImprovementDavid Lloyd George Elementary SchoolSir Winston Churchill Secondary SchoolLaurier Elementary SchoolLaurier AnnexSexsmith Elementary SchoolMarpole Museum & Historical SocietyMarpole Library (VPL)Marpole Oakridge Community CentreMarpole Place/Family PlaceParks andOpen SpaceSchools in MarpoleCa ada LineStationFuture Stat nCommunity CentrePoolIce RinkLibraryFir  HallHospitalNeighbourhood HouseMarpole Place/ Family PlaceTTAgricultural DistrictsOn -Family Dwelling DistrictsTwo-Family Dwelling DistrictsMultiple Dwelling DistrictsCommercial DistrictsIndustrial DistrictsLight Industrial Dis rictsHistoric Area DistrictsComprehensive Development Districts:CD-1 (Site Specic)FCCDD (False Creek – South Side)DD (Downtown)CWD (Central Waterfront)DEOD (DTES/Oppenheimer)FSD (First Shaug nessy)BCPED (False Creek – North Side)Area BoundaryStreetsCommunity CentreAquatic CentreGordon Neighbourhood HouseDowntown Eastside Elementary SchoolDowntown Eastside Facility Library (VPL)Downtown Eastside  Community CentreCanada LineArterial StreetExisting Bus RouteExisting PM PeakBus RoutePossible Transit Connecti nsTransit Station/Bus LoopFuture CanadaLine StationIntersection ImprovementExisting Greenway/BikewayProposed Pede trian nd Cyclist Connecti nsPotential Road ConnectionFull Trac SignalPedestrianActivated SignalStreetsParksMini-parksEnglish BayArea BoundaryStreetsParkBeachWest L pVillagNeighb u ho dsCorridorsLEGENDBeach West of DenmanNelson Slopes Nelson PlateauAlb r i Re il Distr cGeorgia C rridorBurrard CorridorRob n VillDenman VillageDavie VillageLower RobsonLower Davie Haro SRob o  tAlbern StNelson StComox StPendrell StBarclay StBurnaby StDavie StHarwood StPacific StBeach AveBurrard StW Georgia SThurlow StBroughton StBute StJervis StNicola StBidwell St ardero StDenman StGilford StChilco StNeighbourhoodsResidential areas with little change• Incremental, modest change• Limited development to help renew building stock• Potential for ground-oriented, rental infill housing in laneways• Green and leafy characterCorridorsAreas for focused future growth• Space for additional homes, jobs, and community services• Denser development near transit, services, and amenities• Development provides public benefits to meet local needsAFTERt  The title has been changed to include the idea that the character areas influence development. The bright purple is now used to draw the eye directly to the main message.The “West End Community Plan” title has been moved. At an open house, another board would introduce the plan, giving context to this board.t  This smaller footer bar does  not compete for attention.t  Skimmable subtitles for each character area succinctly explain and emphasis the types of development.t  A framing question helps put the main message of the board in terms that may resonate with the public. Blank space helps draw the eye to this text, and breaks up the board.t  Bullets allow for less text.t  A shortened legend focuses the content and allows for bigger text.t  The change to a portrait orientation allows for a bigger map, as less room is taken up by the header and footer bars. A larger map is easier to interact with at an open house.86        LAYOUT 87How To:USE BLANK SPACEGestalt principles tell us that contrast causes elements to stand out. For something to attract the reader’s eye, it must be bigger and bolder than the elements around it. This is where blank space is invaluable.Blank space does not compete for attention—it sits at the bottom of a visual hierarchy. Any element will look bigger and bolder than the blank space that surrounds it. The reader’s eye will immediately be drawn by the contrast.FOCUS Focusp  Focus with blank spaceIn contrast, this layout uses simple black text at half the size, 15 pt.This layout firmly directs the reader’s attention to the centre of the page; there is nothing else to look at.p  Focus with bold elementsAbove, the word ‘Focus’ is in all-caps, 30 pt, bold, bright red font.Despite the fact that the central text is louder than all the arrows and leading lines around it, everything ends up competing for attention.To draw focus to your main point, don’t just make it bigger and bolder:Surround it with blank space.88        LAYOUT 89How To:MAKE AND BREAK THE GRIDOne of the best ways to create a professional-looking, cohesive document, is to use an underlying grid for your layout. Using a consistent a grid to align all your page elements provides a sense of unity to the document.t  The six-column gridDifferent documents use different underlying grids. This report uses the same grid throughout: six columns, with a half-inch margin. t  Flexible layoutsThis particular grid gives flexibility while still maintaining unity. The author can choose either a two- or three-column layout for a page, or a combination, based on the content.Despite having many different layout styles, the document looks cohesive because of the underlying grid.Case Study:ENGAGED CITY TASK FORCE FINAL REPORT This page from Vancouver’s Engaged City Task Force has been modified to show how graphics can send messages about the content before the reader even has a chance to process it. It reflects how the brain progressively processes visual information, starting from general shapes and colours, and then going in to more detail. 2!BOTTOM-UP PROCESSINGThe eye is drawn to the two big blocks of bright red, highlighting the title and section header.The space gap between the top and bottom parts of the page indicate there are two sections. The black lines in bottom section separate the elements into three distinct groups. However, the reader knows they are related, because of the repeated forms.Takeaway:EFFECTIVE DESIGN WORKS  WITH PEOPLE’S PERCEPTION TO MAKE THE MESSAGE  EASIER TO UNDERSTAND.TOP-DOWN PROCESSINGIn a Western context, content in the top-left of a page is expected to be most important. Without having read through this page, a reader can assume immediately that the text at the top is a title, at the top of the hierarchy.The reader might also expect that the repeated yellow forms in the lower half page are related, sequential elements that form a list.WORKING MEMORYWhile there is a lot of content on this page, it is broken up clearly so that the reader can process one bit at a time and not be overwhelmed. This reduces the cognitive load and the working memory required to read the page.The segments of the page are clearly sequenced, with introductory text at the top of the page, and a list of three distinct items afterward.u  ‘How Highways Wrecked American Cities’ videoSocial media platforms like Twitter and Facebook automatically play videos on mute. Media outlets have taken advantage of this by producing videos with compelling imagery and large captions (so it can be understood on mute), so viewers are forced to view the content. Content like videos and animated gifs are valuable communications tools that only work electronically. This presents an opportunity not available to print media. 2!p  The public cost of suburban vs urban householdsThis graphic introduces a thought-provoking perspective on public costs that people may not have considered. The graphic does not explain how the values were derived, but provides a link so readers can learn more. 2!p  Photo albumsPlatforms such as Twitter and Facebook allow users to easily browse through collections of photos. Planners can use this to display a set of infographics, photos, or even written statements. 2!Grouping helps readers connect related elements, like the answer to a frequently asked question. In these diagrams, 16 plain dots are instinctively formed into groups:ENCLOSURE & CONNECTIONSIMILARITYPROXIMITYp  This image is interpreted as four columns of four dots each, not four rows of dots, because each dot is closest to the others in its column. p  This set of dots is seen as four rows, because the dots in each row are the same colour. This also works using similarity in shape, size, etc.p  Even though these black dots are evenly spaced, the box and connecting line clearly identify two groupings.1.0 INTRODUCTION29Figure:Q„o„PDWW„‰[™T™HO„Z„QFWPlanning TimelineMar 07 Jun 07 Sep 07 Dec 07 Mar 08 Jun 08 Sep 08 Dec 08 Mar 09 Jun 09 Sep 09 Dec 09 Mar 10 Jun 10 Sep 10 Dec 10 Mar 11 Jun 11 KEY DECISIONS LEGACY TRUST FUND PRIORITIES PLAN APPROVED BY MEMBER AT GENERAL MEETING(NOVEMBER 26, 2009)COMMUNITY CENTRE AND GYM APPROVED BY COUNCIL(JUNE 22, 2009)LAND USE DESIGNATION MAP APPROVED BY COUNCIL(MARCH 23, 2009)CULTURAL EDUCATION RESOURCE CENTRE APPROVED BY COUNCIL(MARCH 8, 2010)GOVERNANCE POLICIES APPROVED BY COUNCIL(MARCH 31, 2008)ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT GOVERNANCE TRANSITION STRATEGY APPROVED BY  COUNCIL(JULY 12, 2009)Jun 07 Sep 07 Dec 07 Mar 08 Jun 08 Sep 08 Dec 08 Mar 10 Jun 10 Sep 10 Dec 10 Mar 11 Jun 11 Mar 07 OUTPUTS M U S Q U E A MC O M M U N I T Y  P R O F I L EK n o w i n g  o u r  p a s t ,  e x p l o r i n g  o u r  f u t u r eCOMMUNITY PROFILEJULY 2007M U S Q U E A MC O M M U N I T Y  S U R V E Y  R E P O R TN O V E M B E R ,  2 0 0 8COMMUNITY SURVEY REPORTNOVEMBER 2008M U S Q U E A MS T A F F  R E T R E A TS t r a t e g i c  P l a n n i n g  &  O r g a n i z a t i o n a l  D e v e l o pm e n tD E C E M B E R  9 - 1 0 ,  2 0 0 8STAFF RETREAT REPORTDECEMBER 2008M U S Q U E A MSP O R T S  F A C I L I T Y  P L A N N I N G  B R I E FM A R C H  1 2 ,  2 0 0 9SPORTS FACILITY PLANNING BRIEFMARCH 2008M U S Q U E A MP H A S E  1  L A N D  U S E  P L A NA P R I L  2 0 0 9PHASE I LAND USE PLANAPRIL 2009M U S Q U E A MD E S I G N  G U I D E L I N E SSubdivision and Community | Site and Landscape | Buidling Design and ConstructionA U G U S T  2 0 0 9DESIGN GUIDELINESAUGUST 2009M U S Q U E A MA D M I N I S T R A T I O N  O P E N  H O U S EJ U N E  4 ,  2 0 0 9ADMINISTRATION OPEN HOUSE REPORTJUNE 2009   MUSQUEAM  L E G A C Y  T R U S T  F U N D  Community Comprehensive Engagement   June -- November, 2009 LEGACY TRUST FUNDNOVEMBER 2009M U S Q U E A MP H A S E  I I I  D E S I G N  R E V I E WMu l t i f a m i l y  S e n i o r s  /  S p e c i a l  N e e d s  H o u s i n gS E P T E M B E R  2 0 0 9PHASE III DESIGN REVIEW MULTI FAMILY / SPECIAL NEEDSSEPTEMBER 2009M U S Q U E A MP H A S E  I I I  D E S I G N  R E V I E WS E P T E M B E R  2 0 0 9PHASE III DESIGN REVIEW COMMUNITY CENTRESEPTEMBER 2009M U S Q U E A MSP O R T S  F A C I L I T Y  P L A N N I N G  B R I E FM A R C H  1 2 ,  2 0 0 9ADMINISTRATION GAPANALYSIS REPORTJULY 2007MULTIPLE NEWSLETTERSSTARTING JUNE 2007ST MUNGO INTERPRETIVE SITECONCEPT PLANNOVEMEBER 2010ABORIGINAL PAVILIONPROPOSALDECEMBER 2009EDUCATION COMMITTEERETREAT REPORTNOVEMEBER 2010COUNCIL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT RETREAT REPORTJULY 2009COMMUNITY FACILITYANALYSIS REPORTOCTOBER 2009MUSQUEAM CHIEF & COUNCILGOVERNANCE POLICY AND PROCEDURES MANUALAPRIL 2008COUNCIL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT RETREAT REPORTJUNE 2010 FINAL CCPREPORTMARCH 2011COMMUNITY WEBSITESTARTING SEPTEMBER 2008Jun 07 Sep 07 Dec 07 Mar 08 Jun 08 Sep 08 Dec 08 Mar 09 Jun 09 Sep 09 Dec 09 Mar 10 Jun 10 Sep 10 Dec 10 Mar 11 Jun 11 Mar 07 ENGAGEMENTSCOUNCILADMINISTRATIONCOMMUNITYSUPPORT TEAM25Many50~ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTPLANNING MTG.STAFFRETREATFAMILY MEETINGSELDER’S LUNCHEONECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTOPEN HOUSESTAFF LEGACIESMEETINGCOUNCILLEGACIESMTG.LEGACIESOPEN HOUSEMEETINGWITH ALLCOMMITTEE’SOF COUNCILELDER’SLUNCHEONSUPPORTTEAMMEETINGCOUNCIL MEETINGCREATIVEWRITINGCLASSCREATIVEWRITINGCLASSSUPPORTTEAMMEETINGSUPPORTTEAMMEETINGYOUTHWORKSHOPMUSQUEAM101COMMUNITYCOMMITTEEMEETINGSUPPORTTEAMMEETINGCOMMUNITYCOMMITTEEMEETINGFAMILY MEETINGSSUPPORTTEAMMEETINGABORIGINALDAYCOMMUNITYCOMMITTEEMEETINGSUPPORTTEAMMEETINGSPORTS FACILITYMEETINGRECREATIONFACILITY & PA MEETINGLUPCOUNCILMEETINGLONGHOUSEMEETINGELDER’SMEETINGSUPPORTTEAMMEETINGPAMEETINGFAMILY MEETINGSSPORTSFACILITYOPENHOUSEFISHERIESCOMMISSIONMEETINGPAMEETINGCOUNCIL -ADMINISTRATIONRETREATABORIGINALDAYCOUNCIL ECDEVRETREATLONGHOUSEMEETINGCCP &LAND CODEMEETINGPHASE IIIDEVELOPERSMEETINGPAVILIONPAMEETINGCOUNCIL CCP OVERVIEWMEETINGCOUNCIL ECDEVRETREATSAFETY &SECURITYMEETINGLANGUAGE& CULTUREMEETINGCULTURALOPENHOUSEABORIGINALDAYELDER’S LUNCHEONCULTURESELF-GOVERNANCEMEETINGST. MUNGOINTERPRETIVESITE MEETINGPAMEETINGCOUNCIL MEETINGMUSQUEAMAGAEDUCATIONRETREATSELF-GOVERNANCEMEETING INACMar 09 J n 09 u Sep 09 Dec 09p  Musqueam Comprehensive Community Plan timelineThis timeline of the planning process undertaken by the Musqueam First Nation uses grouping to show three types of milestones: engagements, outputs, and key decisions. The use of similarity (distinct graphics for each section)  connection (arrow showing time), enclosure (dotted dividing lines) all reinforce the idea that the were three simultaneous aspects of the planning process. 2!More abstract forms of representation aren’t bound by how people normally perceive. For example, the floor plan of a house—looking from a bird’s-eye view through the ceiling at all the rooms in the house—is something that people just cannot do. Abstract forms of representation distort the perspective to convey a specific idea, like the horizontal relationships between the rooms of a house. Abstract forms of representation can effectively communicate a particular concept in a focused way, since all the noise and extra information we would normally perceive can be removed. However, these graphics may be difficult for people to interpret, since they introduce such unfamiliar perspectives. Representation types range from the abstract to the realistic. The choice of which representation style to use depends on the type of information you want to communicate.MORE ABSTRACTCan effectively convey a  specific concept, but may  be difficult to interpretp  Abstract SketchThis sketch does not show any real buildings (there is no part of the West End that this sketch is actually based on), but it still clearly conveys the idea that new buildings must step down to the scale of the neighbourhood.p  Plan View DiagramThis diagram removes unnecessary elements (roof structures, parked cars, street trees) to focus in on only the essential elements: the dimensions of the lot and the building. An aerial photo would have been too cluttered.p  Section DiagramThis diagram effectively shows the dimensions of a laneway structure by highlighting the building using yellow. A photo of the lane could not have directed the reader’s attention as effectively.In contrast, more realistic forms of representation closely resemble how people normally perceive. These images are colourful and in 3D, and look like real life. These images can effectively convey the experience and feel of a space. To convey how cozy your living room feels, you would probably use a photo, not show a floor plan diagram.However, more realistic representations can be ineffective at explaining a single, specific concept. The layout of a house is hard to capture using photos, for example. Another risk of realistic renderings is that they may seem like a final product. Draft concepts in an area plan, for example, should not have hard lines and too much detail, or the public may think the plan is complete.MORE REALISTICMost closely resembles people’s everyday experience of the world,  but message may get lost.p  3D Sketch DiagramThis 3D sketch conveys the sense of space on a lot with infill structures. The sketch-like quality of the image suggests that this is just an exploration of how the buildings can look, not a final product for the neighbourhood.p  3D ModelThis 3D model shows how the West End might look fully developed under the West End Community Plan. Some observers might interpret this as how the West End will look (not how it might look) because of the realistic imagery.p  RenderingThis rendering conveys the full experience of being in a proposed plaza. The diagram does not need to be focused like the elevation or plan diagrams, because the image is meant to communicate the overall feeling of a vibrant public space.The visual hierarchy for a layout is like an inverted pyramid, with the visual weight of each element corresponding its place in the hierarchy of messages.The main message should carry the most visual weight on a page, seizing the reader’s attention with the biggest elements and the greatest contrast. Supporting DetailsKey  PointsMain MessageBIG & BOLDTHE FIRST THING YOU SEEDistinct and skimmable, but not the focus.Does not pull the focus. Recedes.Supporting details cannot compete for attention. Layouts are often improved by toning down items that pull focus away from the main message.The key points should be easy to find, but not fighting for attention. Readers should get an idea of your overall message by skimming the key points.80        LAYOUT 81p  Making the grid Two-column layouts fit larger items (a big graphic or headline), while three-column layouts fit more items (multiple small diagrams, captions). It might be a combination of the two that works best for your content.u  Breaking the gridIf a grid has been clearly established, breaking it can be visually powerful. Consider using an unexpected layout to draw attention to a key point.90        LAYOUT 91REPRESENTATIONWhat types of representation  best support your message?There are many ways to represent the same content, but each type of representation conveys something different. Designers need to choose  the right type of representation for what they want to communicate. p  Different representations of  built form in the West EndThe images above and on the next page are from the West End Community Plan and 2012  Community Profile. All show built form in the West End, but each graphic communicates something different about it. 293More abstract forms of representation aren’t bound by how people normally perceive. For example, the floor plan of a house—looking from a bird’s-eye view through the ceiling at all the rooms in the house—is something that people just cannot do. Abstract forms of representation distort the perspective to convey a specific idea, like the horizontal relationships between the rooms of a house. Abstract forms of representation can effectively communicate a particular concept in a focused way, since all the noise and extra information we would normally perceive can be removed. However, these graphics may be difficult for people to interpret, since they introduce such unfamiliar perspectives. Representation types range from the abstract to the realistic. The choice of which representation style to use depends on the type of information you want to communicate.MORE ABSTRACTCan effectively convey a  specific concept, but may  be difficult to interpretp  Abstract concept sketchThis sketch does not show any real buildings (there is no part of the West End that this sketch is actually based on), but it still clearly conveys the idea that new buildings must step down to the scale of the neighbourhood.p  Plan view diagramThis diagram removes unnecessary elements (roof structures, parked cars, street trees) to focus in on only the essential elements: the dimensions of the lot and the building. An aerial photo would have been too cluttered.p  Section diagramThis diagram effectively shows the dimensions of a laneway structure by highlighting the building using yellow. A photo of the lane could not have directed the reader’s attention as effectively.In contrast, more realistic forms of representation closely resemble how people normally perceive. These images are colourful and in 3D, and look like real life. These images can effectively convey the experience and feel of a space. To convey how cozy your living room feels, you would probably use a photo, not show a floor plan diagram.However, more realistic representations can be ineffective at explaining a single, specific concept. The layout of a house is hard to capture using photos, for example. Another risk of realistic renderings is that they may seem like a final product. Draft concepts in an area plan, for example, should not have hard lines and too much detail, or the public may think the plan is complete.MORE REALISTICMost closely resembles people’s everyday experience of the world,  but message may get lost.p  3D sketch diagramThis 3D sketch conveys the sense of space on a lot with infill structures. The sketch-like quality of the image suggests that this is just an exploration of how the buildings can look, not a final product for the neighbourhood.p  3D modelThis 3D model shows how the West End might look fully developed under the West End Community Plan. Some observers might interpret this as how the West End will look (not how it might look) because of the realistic imagery.p  RenderingThis rendering conveys the full experience of being in a proposed plaza. The diagram does not need to be focused like the section diagram, because the image is meant to convey the overall feeling of being in a vibrant public space.94        REPRESENTATION 95The type of representation you  choose should also match the type  of information on display:Temporal information Timeline, time series of imagesProcess information  Flow chart, influence diagramOrdered set of information  Searchable tableGeographical information  Map, site planQuantitative information  Graph, chartExperiential information Renderings, illustration, photoDesigners often use multiple  forms of representation within a single document to show different aspects of the same subject. These graphics work in  combination to give the reader a  full understanding of the topic.Vertical relationships (exterior) Elevation diagramVertical relationships (interior)  Section diagramHorizontal relationships Plan diagram96        REPRESENTATION 973D relationships  Axonometric diagram, 3D modelTakeaway:CHOOSE THE MODES OF REPRESENTATION THAT BEST SUPPORT YOUR MESSAGE.The examples on the following pages show creative ways to visualize a diverse range of information types. In all of these cases, the authors chose intentionally to use visuals instead of describing the content with text. It is possible to explain, say, the impacts of Residential School in paragraphs of text, but an influence diagram does the job more clearly and simply.p  Daily food access diagramThis diagram uses a circle to show the times of day that residents of the Downtown Eastside have access to food. While food is most available during the day (at 9-8 am , 12-1 pm, and 5-6 pm), it is very scarce after 8 pm. This is a problem for residents with addictions and other challenges who may stay up all night and sleep during the day. Credits for this diagram are provided in the acknowledgements.53A Comprehensive Sustainable Community Development Plan3.0 WHERE ARE WE NOW?-PN\YL!0UÅ\LUJL+PHNYHT9LZPKLU[PHS:JOVVSRESIDENTIAL SCHOOLBroke apart families(eg. Family members distributed accross the province)AbuseLost Language and CultureDysfunctional Parents(Drug and Alcohol)AbuseKidsLack of education Lack of self-esteemDrugs and AlcoholCrime Using reserve as safe heavenInfighting(family vs family)Don’t know how to parentWellness and Spiritual healing centreCultural values/actions(eg. weaving)More social things(eg. small groups)Unite the young parents(eg. Sport Facility/soccer, Canoe racing, Lacrosse, Something for all seasons)Spring and Summer“Frogs are singing”Language programUnderstand what we went through(eg.Government and non-indians)Outreach for eldersAASecurityDirection of influenceIssue affecting MusqueamCentral issue facing Musqueum todayAction to address issueThe above influence diagram is one of a many that was developed by the community at family meetings.53A Comprehensive Sustainable Community Development Plan3.0 WHERE ARE WE NOW?-PN\YL!0UÅ\LUJL+PHNYHT9LZPKLU[PHS:JOVVSRESIDENTIAL SCHOOLBroke apart families(eg. Family members distributed accross the province)AbuseLost Language and CultureDysfunctional Parents(Drug and Alcohol)AbuseKidsLack of education Lack of self-esteemDrugs and AlcoholCrime Using reserve as safe heavenInfighting(family vs family)Don’t know how to parentWellness and Spiritual healing centreCultural values/actions(eg. weaving)More social things(eg. small groups)Unite the young parents(eg. Sport Facility/soccer, Canoe racing, Lacrosse, Something for all seasons)Spring and Summer“Frogs are singing”Language programUnderstand what we went through(eg.Government and non-indians)Outreach for eldersAASecurityDirection of influenceIssue affecting MusqueamCentral issue facing Musqueum todayAction to address issueThe above influence diagram is one of a many that was developed by the community at family meetings.53A Compr hensive Sustainable Co munity D velopment Plan3.0 WH RE ARE WE NOW?-PN\YL!0UÅ\LUJL+PHNYHT9LZPKLU[PHS:JOVVSRESIDENTIAL SCHOOLBroke apart families(eg. Family members distributed accross the province)AbuseLost Lan uage and CultureDysfunctional Parents(Drug and Alcohol)AbuseKidsLack of education Lack of s lf-esteemDrugs and AlcoholCrime Using res rve as safe h avenInfighting(family vs family)Don’t know how to parentW llness and Spiritual healing centreCultur  values/actions(eg. weaving)More social things(eg. small groups)Unit  the young parents(eg. Sport Facility/soccer, Canoe racing, Lacrosse, Something for all seasons)Spring and Summer“Frogs are si ing”Lan uage p ogramUnderstand what  went through(eg.Governme t and non-indians)Outreach for ldersAASecurityDirecti n of influenceIssue affecting MusqueamCentral issue facing Musq eum todayAction to address issueThe above influence diagram is one of a many that was d veloped by the co munity at family meetings.t  Residential school influence diagramWhile relatively simple, this diagram contains complex information about how Musqueam is impacted by Residential Schools, and how they are responding to these impacts.The colours effectively distinguish the three types of content in the diagram. The identification of the “central issue facing Musqueam today” highlights a focused main message. 298        REPRESENTATION 99p  StatisticsA bulleted list provides basic statistics on courtyard rowhouses, allowing for comparison to other housing types.p  Elevation illustrationThis elevation shows the vertical relationship courtyard rowhouses might have with adjacent homes.p  Axonometric illustrationThis 3D illustration gives a sense of how courtyard rowhouses might fit in spatially within a neighbourhood. It allows the reader to better picture how it might feel in the space.This document was created by the City of Vancouver to spur discussion with the public. For each housing option, multiple forms of representation each contribute something different to the reader’s understanding. 26  |  CAMBIE CORRIDOR PHASE 3 | GROUND-ORIENTED HOUSING IDEAS BOOK                                          FALL WORKSHOPS 2015Courtyard rowhouses are multi-level, single-household strata units (optional lock-off rental unit) with private entries from outside and shared interior walls• A lock-off rental unit could be provided for a portion of main units• Each unit has private outdoor space• Total potential units: 4 or more, depending on lot size• Typical unit size: 1,300 ft2 rowhouse; 300 ft2 lock-off rental unit• Typical height: up to 21/2 storeys (31-35’)• Parking spaces are undergroundC. COURTYARD ROWHOUSECourtyard rowhouses facing the streetExisting Single-Family Existing Single-FamilyNew Development (typically 2+ lots)Case Study:GROUND-ORIENTED HOUSING IDEAS BOOKp  Plan diagramThis very simple plan diagram is designed to communicate how the units fit together on a lot. All other details are removed to focus on this one point.p  Precedent photosPhotos of successful courtyard rowhouses show the experience of being around one of these homes. It can be green and leafy, sleek and modern, or more traditional-looking.FALL WORKSHOPS 2015              CAMBIE CORRIDOR PHASE 3 | GROUND-ORIENTED HOUSING IDEAS BOOK  |  7~120’Not to scaleUnit Unit Unit Unit UnitUnit Unit Unit Unit UnitUnderground ParkingLock-off Rental UnitLock-off Rental UnitLock-off Rental UnitLock-off Rental UnitStreetCourtyard rowhouse entrances from streetInternal courtyard and shared space         Photo credit: Listroar~100’Lane100        REPRESENTATION 101ConclusionGOOD VISUAL DESIGN  CAN HELP PLANNERS BETTER  ENGAGE THE PUBLIC.103MESSAGEWhat are your main  message, key points,  and supporting details?AUDIENCEHow will you engage  your intended audiences,  given their preferences?MEDIUMHow do people  interact with the types of  media you are using?Designers must first decide what they want to convey by thinking through a communications plan.PERCEPTIONHow can the way people perceive be used to group,highlight, and simplify elements?LAYOUTHow can your visual  hierarchy reinforce your  hierarchy of messages?REPRESENTATIONWhat types of representation best  support your message?They then go through the design process to craft the visuals that will best communicate their message.104        CONCLUSION 105Case Study:SECTION 37 BROCHURE A final case study shows how the six Key Considerations in this report come together into a single product. The City of Toronto’s Section 37 brochure explains how the city collects public benefits from development.The brochure takes complex policy and explains in simple terms how it affects people’s everyday lives, using real examples. The physical brochure folds out to reveal four 8” square panels per side. 2SECTIONAn Essential Tool for Building Healthier NeighbourhoodsA little section of Ontario’s Planning Act has a big impact on the quality of life in our city. You can see the benefits of Section 37 in your neighbourhood, whether it be improvements to community recreation facilities, or street trees for a greener city. This tool helps us adapt to the needs of a growing city by securing the necessary community benefits and facilities that are a vital part of building Toronto’s healthy neighbourhoods.www.toronto.ca/section37THE ROLE OF SECTION 37 IN TORONTOAs Toronto grows and matures as a city, improvements to its public facilities and services are required to meet increasing needs. Section 37 of Ontario's Planning Act is one of the key planning tools available to the City of Toronto to help ensure new development is accompanied by the necessary investment to enhance our high quality of life.Section 37 enables the City to negotiate contributions towards local community benefits for development applications that exceed a site’s zoned height and density. Unlike other municipal financing tools such as Development Charges and Parkland Contributions, Section 37 benefits are provided primarily in the local community within which the development is located. Section 37 also provides greater flexibility and precision than other tools, allowing secured benefits to be direct, tangible, and responsive to local community needs.FUNDING COMMUNITY BENEFITS AND INFRASTRUCTURESECTION37 BENEFITSDEVELOPMENTCHARGESCITY-WIDE LOCAL COMMUNITYPARKLANDCONTRIBUTIONSDEVELOPMENTPROJECTThe term “Section 37” refers to the section of Ontario’s Planning Act which allows the City to ask for benefits to construct or improve facilities when a development requires a Zoning By-law amendmentUnder Toronto’s Official Plan, developments that exceed a threshold of 10,000 square metres ofgross floor area, and where the application increases the permitted density by at least 1,500 square metres, and/or significantly increasesthe permitted height, are typically subject to Section 37 provisions.    Section 37 benefits differ from other revenue tools available to the City of Toronto.• Section 37 benefits cover a variety of community services and facilities,allowing greater flexibility than Development Charges and ParklandContributions. Typical benefits are outlined in the Official Plan’s Section 5.1.1 or in Secondary Plans.• Section 37 cash-in-lieu benefits are held in a separate reserve fund account, while other revenue sources are collected by the City and distributed centrally.• As Section 37 is intended to address the needs created by growth, the Planning Act requires benefits to have a reasonable geographic relationship with a proposed development.  DID YOU KNOW? AN ESSENTIAL TOOLp          MessageThe first line of text on the cover, in bold, immediately states the main message of the brochure, that Section 37 is “an essential tool for building healthier neighbourhoods”.p           MediumAcknowledging that the brochure is meant to be an introduction to the topic, a link is available for readers to learn more.p           RepresentationA simple flow chart explains the process by which community benefits are funded, and how Section 37 fits within that. Conveying this information with words would have been less easy to understand.Swansea Town Hall Conservation and RehabilitationSection 37 retains our most vulnerable heritage assets by securing their conservation and rehabilitation.HERITAGE PRESERVATIONAffordable Rental Housing for Artists at Wychwood BarnsSection 37 protects the diversity of Toronto's neighbourhoods by contributing towards affordable housing, and by securing purpose-built affordable rental housing.AFFORDABLE HOUSING Public Art  “Between Heaven and Earth” on the Queensway  Section 37 creates a city of beauty by giving art the opportunity to flourish within the public realm.Warden Hilltop Community CentreSection 37 enhances the physical and social health of our communities by upgrading existing recreation centres and by building new facilities.RECREATION CENTRESPUBLIC ARTSTREETSCAPESSPACE FOR NON-PROFITSParkway Forest Community Child Care FacilitySection 37 increases the quality of life of our families by supporting the creation of non-profit child care facilities.Community Facilities in Regent ParkSection 37 enables our non-profit arts, cultural, and community sector to thrive by providing access to affordable space.New Playground Equipment in Oates ParkSection 37 strengthens the success of our extensive green space network by improving park facilities.PARK IMPROVEMENTSBloor/Yorkville Streetscape ImprovementsSection 37 delivers a vibrant public realm by financing streetscape improvements such as street trees, benches and pedestrian infrastructure.CHILD CAREp           RepresentationPhotos show concrete examples of benefits achieved through Section 37, complementing the sketch graphics elsewhere in the brochure that convey an open-ended sense of the possibilities of Section 37.p           AudienceThe choice of examples helps to make the policy tangible and relatable to the intended audience; these are things the public is interested in. Some people are likely familiar with the places above.p           PerceptionThe eight examples and descriptions are effectively grouped together using the Gestalt principle of proximity. The contrasting light-blue boxes with large, black text draws the eye to the header of each example.106        CONCLUSION 107SETTING PRIORITIES FOR SECTION 37 BENEFITSEvery community in Toronto is faced with unique local challenges and opportunities. To maximize the impact of Section 37 benefits and equitably address these varying needs, local priorities should be established. City staff and Ward Councillors are encouraged to work in collaboration with the community to prepare an assessment of potential Section 37 community benefits for various neighbourhoods within each ward, to be updated every term of Council. Inputs from City Planning and other Divisions help support these conversations, including providing advice and expertise on community needs based on guiding policies, local experience, and applicable Community Services and Facilities studies.Once established, this list of local priorities provides a transparent method for determining appropriate Section 37 benefits during negotiations with development applicants. WARD COUNCILLORINPUTCITY STAFFINPUTLOCAL COMMUNITYINPUTSETTING PRIORITIESIN-KIND OR CASH-IN-LIEU? Section 37 benefits are secured by the City through two different methods, in-kind and cash-in-lieu. In-kind contributions occur where a development applicant agrees to directly provide the negotiated benefit, such as dedicating physical space within a building for use by non-profit groups. Alternatively, a development applicant can provide cash-in-lieu of the negotiated benefit, transferring responsibility for implementation to the City. Cash-in-lieu can occur either as a single contribution towards a community benefit, or be saved for future use in cases where the City is pooling funds to achieve a major investment, or a number of identified benefits.Over the past five years, the City of Toronto has secured approximately 850 Section 37 benefits, 55% of which were in-kind, and 45% of which were cash-in-lieu contributions valued at over $200 million.This educational brochure aims to provide the reader with a basic understanding (of the use) of Section 37 of the Planning Act. As the brochure deals in summarized fashion with complex matters and reflects legislation, policies and practices that are subject to change, it should not be relied upon as a substitute for specialized legal or professional advice. The information contained herein should be read in conjunction with Toronto's Official Plan policies. Published: October 2014p           AudienceThis simple diagram summarizes the text above, giving a shorter option to readers who are skimming. The light blue background gives the diagram more visual weight, highlighting it as important.p         PerceptionSidebars help lower the cognitive load and break up the content. Due to convention and top-down processing, the reader can assume this content is more tangential, and can be read last.p           RepresentationA series of three illustrations work together to show the process behind achieving public benefits from Section 37. The use of colour and thicker lines direct the reader’s attention to the key features of each image.p          LayoutGenerous blank space and slightly larger text draws the eye to the text in the bottom-left corner of each page. These contain key questions that are a priority for planners to clarify.p          MediumThe designer took advantage of the unique aspects of the medium to create a layout that would flow continuously through the panels as the brochure was unfolded.p          LayoutAt the top of the panel, the visual hierarchy emphasizes the key steps in the process using larger text and blank space within each box. Supporting details in the text below are designed to recede, available to those interested in reading further.108        CONCLUSION 109Understanding these six Key Considerations is just the first  step to creating effective designs. The real work lies in building  your design skills, and persevering  through the design process.u  Final thoughtsAs a wrap-up to this report, this page includes reflections on the design process from planning professionals interviewed as part of this project. These words of advice will hopefully be helpful as you begin your own adventures in planning visually.Becoming comfortable with design takes lots of practice. The best way to improve is to just keep finding new projects and opportunities to practice design.Ask for feedback from  a fresh set of eyes.Don’t be afraid to  take risks! Experiment, try new things, break the rules... and then edit, edit, edit.Seek inspiration everywhere, especially from outside of planning. There will be many times  you feel completely stuck on a project. That’s totally normal. ...when it happens,    just take a break from  the project all together, and return to it later.Design is iterative.  Try out different ideas,  even if they’re not perfect,  and revise them over and  over and over again.“Good artists copy. Great artists steal.”- Aaron Lao110        CONCLUSION 111FURTHER READINGp  The Non-Designer’s Design Book, Robin WilliamsWilliams provides an introduction to visual design for absolute beginners. Four basic principles are presented: contrast, repetition, alignment, and proximity. 2p  Visual Communication,  Susan HilligossHilligoss breaks down the process of visual communication in great detail, with an academic perspective. This guide also includes a thorough analysis of various media formats. 2p  Information Anxiety,  Richard Saul WurmanWurman contends that more data leads to information anxiety, not more understanding. Offering key insights for planners, he explores ways to make content meaningful. 2BibliographyAgrawala, Maneesh, Wilmot Li, and Floraine Berthouzoz. “Design principles for visual communication.” Communications of the ACM 54.4 (2011): 60-69.Baer, William C. “General plan evaluation criteria: An approach to making better plans.”  Journal of the American Planning Association 63.3 (1997): 329-344.Bunnell, Gene, and Edward J. Jepson Jr. “The effect of mandated planning on plan quality:  a fresh look at what makes “a good plan”.” Journal of the American Planning Association  77.4 (2011): 338-353.Few, Stephen. Show me the numbers: Designing tables and graphs to enlighten. Analytics Press, 2012.Hilligoss, Susan, and Tharon Howard. Visual communication: A writer’s guide. Longman, 1999.Kerpedjiev, Stephan, et al. “Saying it in graphics: from intentions to visualizations.” IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization, 1998. Proceedings. IEEE, 1998.Malamed, Connie. Visual language for designers: principles for creating graphics that people understand. Rockport Pub, 2011.p  Visual Language for Designers, Connie MalamedMalamed begins with an explanation of how humans perceive, and then presents pages and pages of excellent examples that illustrate her six principles for good design. 2Matthews, Diane L. “The scientific poster: Guidelines for effective visual communication.” Technical Communication 37.3 (1990): 225-232.Watzman, Suzanne. “Visual design principles for usable interfaces.” The human-computer interaction handbook: Fundamentals, evolving technologies and emerging applications (2002): 263-285.Williams, Robin. The Non-designer’s Design Book: Design and Topographic Principles for the Visual Novice. Pearson Education, 2014.Wurman, Richard Saul. Information Anxiety. Doubleday, 1989.ABOUT THIS REPORT Planning Visually was written by Aaron Lao, M.A. (Planning) student at the School of Community & Regional Planning at the University of British Columbia. The report was completed in August 2016.I am immensely appreciative of the guidance I received from Michael Gordon (City of Vancouver) and Dr. Maged Senbel (UBC). As supervisors for this project, they generously gave their time and expertise to support me in making this report possible.The insights contained in this report were drawn from interviews with the following individuals, who took time from their busy schedules to share their knowledge: Thomas Daley (City of Vancouver), Cory Dobson (City of Vancouver), William Dunn (City of Vancouver), David Fitzpatrick (City of Toronto), Hale Jones-Cox (City of Vancouver), Erick Villagomez (UBC), and Rong Yu (City of Toronto). The diagrams on page 81-83 were adapted from Hale Jones-Cox. The diagram on page 98 was provided by Priyanka Chakrabarti, and was created as part of the ARCH 573D Regenerative Design course at the UBC School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture (Fall 2011).112        CONCLUSION 113

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