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Planning for the places in between Herod, Megan R. Oct 31, 2015

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By: Megan R. Herod Master’s Project, October 2015Planning for the places in between Submitted to: Planning for the Spaces in BetweenbyMegan R. HerodBachelor of Environmental Studies, University of Waterloo, 2012A PROJECT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OFMASTER OF ARTS in PLANNINGinTHE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIESSchool of Community and Regional PlanningWe accept this project as conforming to the required standard...................................................... ..................................................... .....................................................THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA,  October 2015© Megan Herod, 20152With GratitudeTo the people who fill my life with a sense of community. Thanks to Donna Chang and Cedar Cottage Neighbourhood House for welcoming me into a truly beautiful community and to my project supervisor, Maged Senbel, for his guidance and for reminding me that despite many changes my values have not waivered. Lastly, my family, thank you for always creating the comfort of home.  3Executive SummaryCitizen-led planning is about the power and strength of neighbours to shape the reality they want to create in their communities. It is an approach to planning practice that is driven by local knowledge, community action and the amenities and assets that already exist in a community.  Placemaking is the connection that we feel or create in a space. We facilitate placemaking through individual acts to make a space our own but also through community-led initiatves such as tactical urbanism, everyday urbanism and restorative cities; all models of urbanism that seek to transform spaces into communities that foster a sense of belonging and a feeling of home. The cultivation of this emotional response to a space is the essence of citizen-led planning. These emotions of  love and care for a community or particular place mobilize citizen engagement and ignite change. In our daily environments we seek places for sadness, happiness, stillness, etc. These places that are so crucial to our emotional well-being and sense of belonging are the spaces that improve our everyday reality. They are often places too tiny to  fit into a community plan or strategy. They are the “places in between.” A term created for this project that means places on a neighbourhood scale that are an important party of our everyday routine. This project argues that through innovative approaches to planning, architecture and design, as demonstrated through an example in Vancouver’s Kensington-Cedar Cottage Neighbourhood, we can create communities that truly create a feeling of home and work to address our needs on the smallest of scales: the everyday.  4IntroductionIntroduction My ApproachIntended OutcomeLiterature Review A Photo EssayLiterature  Expert Opinion A Case Study Kensington Cedar Cottage Amenities Neighbourhood Small    Grants Copley Community  Orchard Wine and Cheese Event KCC Community Builders	 Reflections Learnings about  Engagement Conclusion An Invitation Bibliography Appendix 1 Appendix 2  Appendix 3 Outline5715294346Chapter 1The yellow flowers stood out against the backdrop of the red house. The flowers were planted along the edge of the sidewalk. They were planted for everyone to enjoy as they went about their day. 6Introduction “[urban design] the physical domain of everyday public activity, it is the connective tissue that binds daily lives together.”- Crawford (2004)• Introduction• Intended Outcome• My Approach7My interest in placemaking is the culmination of years of placelessness. It’s a result of yearning for home in the midst of moving from place to place for short-term jobs and schooling and a desire for attachment when little pieces of your heart are left behind in every place that you choose to unpack your suitcase. Placemaking is not academic, theoretical or analyzable. It’s a deep-seeded feeling that is felt most profoundly after you’ve picked up and moved to a new place and think back to the places where you used to live.For me placemaking begins in the hours after a move into a new place and I’m sitting in an empty room alone with my boxes. The first thing I unpack is a set of twinkle lights. I string them around the room hanging them from old forgotten nails and tacks left behind from past tenants. I turn the lights off and my twinkle lights on. Only then do I begin the task of unpacking. Wherever I go, my friends joke that my room is always the same - the same twinkle lights, the same photographs and the same artwork fill my walls with colour, memories and love. “Places change but it doesn’t mean the spirit of that place ‘the genius loci’ changes or gets lost. Stability is a necessary condition for human life. How is stability compatible with the dynamics of change?” - Stephen Norberg-Schulz (1979)Introduction8Space is a reflection of your character. Architect Avi Friedman argues that we need the ability to individualize a space to make it feel like home. Privacy is so essential to the fundamental function of humanity within a space and a key component of privacy is the ability to make a space your own (2015). Community is a patchwork of individualized acts that people create to make their spaces become home. We plant flowers, vegetables or fruit trees, we paint beautiful colours on our walls, doors and fences. We hang swings from trees and put out tables and chairs. When it’s a holiday we decorate our porches, doorways and front yards. We make these small investments in our spaces in order to make them comfortable for us but also to share and invite our friends and neighbours in. Friedman advocates that a sign of good community is when this emotion that we feel towards our homes comes to life and is shared with others around us (2015). “Put a wreath on the front door. Put a marking that brings a place to life. Where are the weekend papers? Where are	the	slippers	on	the	floor?	Where	are	the dirty dishes in the kitchen?Homes are a comfortable space for people to live in and enjoy.”- Avi Friedman (2015)9The relationship between place and identity is integral to our sense of belonging. Our connection to place begins when we are children. We develop a relationship and feeling of connection to the environment in which we grow up (Norberg-Schulz, 1979).When we introduce ourselves to someone we always identify where we come from as the main characteristic that sets us apart and make us who we are. Our spatial orientation, where we come from, influences the core of who we are. Friedman writes that “places give the people who inhabit, visit, and use them an identity” (2015) and architect Stephen Norberg-Schulz writes: “identification and [spatial] orientation are the bases for man’s sense of belonging.” He continues, “human identity is to a high extent a function of places and things” (1979).While scholars agree that our identity is shaped by the place we spend time, I believe that this is a dynamic process that evolves over our entire lives. We change and shape these places on a daily basis depending on our emotional response over time through different stages of life. The feelings that a space evokes and that we intentionally create is a powerful tool to harness. This emotion of love and caring for our environment propels us to act and make a difference for our community. The differences that we make accumulate to make change (Ed. Mehrotra, 2005). Chase, Crawford and Kaliski, in their work, Everyday Urbanism, explain that “emotions are the power of the everyday and function as the starting point for social change” (1999). Our ability to create meaning and individuality in a space is the foundation of building beautiful communities. This is the core of citizen-led planning: engaged citizens who care about the places in which they live. *Citizen is a term used throughout this project that merely implies members of a community. It is not tied to national or institutional defitions of citizenship. 10Intended OutcomeThe objective of this report is to provide inspiration for citizen-led planning through which the power and strength of neighbours shape the reality they want to create in their communities. It will advocate that the emotions that a space evokes are the framework that should guide planning practice. In my review of relevant literature I will introduce an innovative model of architecture that works to create spaces in our cities for people to experience a feeling of peace. I will draw upon literature that calls for citizen-led planning and will feature emerging types of urbanism that provide a counter narrative to mainstream planning, design and architecture. In addition, I will demonstrate how this translates to action in Vancouver’s Kensington-Cedar Cottage neighbourhood. The theme of placemaking will be woven throughout this report. Placemaking is the term I will use to describe the connection we feel to a particular space. Placemaking has two main components: it is the physicality of a space, the attributes and characteristics that uniquely identify a space, for example, a big old tree or a playground, and, second, it is the people who activate or bring life to the space. They bring the warmth, comfort and sense of belonging that turn a space into a place. In every neighbourhood we seek out places of solace and reflection, places for entertainment and excitement, places for relaxation and places for activity. These needs cannot always be categorized as quantifiable needs that are calculated and considered in a planning process. These emotional needs are part of the spaces in between - the simple requirements of our environment that create the experience of our daily lives.How do we create the places in between in our communities? The challenge of placemaking is to maintain the local identity of a place amidst a constant influx of change and new development. While we search for the places that create sense of belonging, happiness and peace, our environment is rapidly changing around us. In planning school we learn about creating plans: strategic plans, community plans, land use plans, master plans, comprehensive plans, etc. We rely on these plans to lead us into the future to guide new development, add new services and social amenities and create the cities where we want to live. A plan can only do so much. It is my belief that for everything in between, “The Places in Between,” it is our collective responsibility to shape, meld and change based on our values as citizens, neighbours and members of a community. 11My ApproachCreating places for belonging and a feeling of home is emotional, value-based and experiential. As a result, the methodology of this report will include narratives woven together through conversations with community members and my own experiences, primary analysis through interviews, meetings and events with my community partner, Cedar Cottage Neighborurhood House, and a literature review of notable work completed by architects, designers and planners contributing research that demonstrates the importance of place, emotion and meaning as integral components to this discipline. I have drawn upon the field of asset-based community development (ABCD) to frame my approach to the writing of this report. ABCD developes out of practice as opposed to theory (Green and Haines, 2012). As such, it finds its theoretical framework in the field of appreciative inquiry, an analytical methodology that advocates for communities to be agents of their own change (Mathie and Cunningham, 2003).  Appreciative Inquiry supports the idea that the way in which communities see themselves influences how they behave. For example, a community that sees itself as negative will continually evolve in this downward spiral while, in contrast, a community that has a great sense of pride will demonstrate that through positive action (2003).The methodology relies upon interviews and storytelling as the main form of gathering qualitative information. In ABCD, actions supersede academic research and expert knowledge. It is rooted in the belief that it is the strength of a community to build capacity and shape its future. From the strength of the community becomes the possibility for creativity, new sources of funding and neighbourhood change (Kretzmann and McKnight, 1993). ABCD encourages active citizenship and builds the capacity of individuals to access the assets they need.  In ABCD communities drive planning processes (Green and Haines, 2012).  My report is inspired by the ABCD model and shares the core values which include: citizens as the agents of change in their community, place-based knowledge as central to planning practice and public participation at the heart of decision-making. 12How do we fulfill our need for stability and familiarity when our physical environment - the places where we live out our everyday routine - are always changing and evolving around us? We seek places for quiet and places for activity in our daily environments. These places which are crucial to our emotional well-being and sense of belonging are part of the spaces in between. They are the spaces that improve our everyday reality but are not necessarily a part of a community plan or strategy. How do we create and plan for the places in between in our communities? Summary of Guiding Questions:PlacemakingCitizen-led PlanningCreating Spaces to Experience EmotionKey	Themes	Identified:	13Chapter 214“to create suitable conditions for pedestrians to shop, to stand, to sit, to rest, to sunbathe, to people watch and to chat. such places are fundamental to our enjoyment of urban life. but investigate any part of our city and it will be discovered that there are surprisingly few such places, and their number is decreasing.”– Demshinsky (Ed. 1989). An Approach Grounded  in Literature • A Photo Essay• Literature & Expert Opinion• Addressing Binaries• Navigating Difference15Placemaking Creating space for the fullness of everyday livesShe pulled a chair into the morning sun on the tiny patch of grass that sets the building back from the road. For all to see she created the intimacy of her own backyard. She opened a book and lounged as one should always do on a Saturday. Photo Essay16Place, Memory and IdentityCreating the familiarity of homeThe tiny apartment above the shops shared no resemblence to the countryside bungalow where she had grown up. Despite this, the apartment had a feeling of home. She decided it was the memory of the little pots. All in a line. All in bloom. Welcoming you home. 17CommunityA space for celebration An afternoon meal shared by a community. The laughter of children playing games and the chatter of conversation greeted everyone who walked past. Hidden beneath the foliage of the tree canopy, was a party in the small space nestled between two adjacent buildings.  A place of worship and a place of celebration. 18Daily ins and outsThe simplicity of our daily routineThey cut through the alley on their way home. It was a  simple detour that shaved minutes off their walk from the Safeway back to the house. Amidst the trash cans and  rejected furniture were discarded pieces of lives lived. 19Placemaking is about the attention to detail. Things that are easy to overlook	at	a	first	glance.	For	example,	a	neighbourhood	house.	It	is located on a busy street with an exterior no different than any other but, once inside, you are instantly immersed in community life. There are seniors dancing, babies crying, children laughing, phones ringing and music playing. At any moment someone is leaving and someone new is coming.2021 It’s	the	fine-grained	details	that	make	a	city	a	neighbourhood	and	a place a home: a sunny chair to read a book, a space to throw a party	and	celebrate	and	a	garden	to	grow	food	and	flowers.	We hold onto these seemingly small details that help us feel like we belong.A Tribute to the Basement Dwellers of Dunbar I lived on a street with mature trees and beautiful homes. I could walk to the grocery store, bike to school and take public transportation everywhere else… a novelty that still provides me with a sense of freedom and excitement that I think can only truly be understood by people who grew up in a rural area. My front yard had gardens and huge trees. It had a big porch with wide front steps in which I always envisioned as perfect for sitting and drinking a cup of tea, but these particular front steps always remained vacant. When I approached my house, instead of stepping up to the porch I took a sharp right and headed around the side of the house to the back yard. The entrance to my house had grey and, always, wet crumbling cement steps which led to my sub ground cave. It was a little basement suite with low ceilings and damp air. It was the loneliest place I’ve ever known in the most vibrant of cities I’ve ever lived. The way our world is spatially represented influences how we live our lives. Our homes, work, school, transportation, shopping, and recreational activities are all programmed into our urban realm, the urban landscape in which we interact (Findley, 2005). These decisions that, arguably, dictate the way in which we live our lives are planned and designed on our behalf.  It is our democratic right to participate in the decisions that influence our lives (Arnstein, 1969). When it comes to planning we have a role in changing and shaping how our cities, towns or villages are formed and evolve. Arnstein’s seminal work, A Ladder of Citizen Participation, argues that citizen participation is the way in which we redistribute societal power and is how we create the society that we want to live in.  Participation takes many forms. In her work, Arnstein describes a hierarchy of participation that demonstrates the influence citizens have to make meaningful change. At the bottom of the hierarchy she illustrates degrees of non-participation in which a citizen has little to no power. In the middle, she describes tokenism, which involves informing citizens and consulting them about change. At the top of the hierarchy she describes participation in which citizens hold the power (Arnstein, 1969). Citizen-led planning is the model in which citizens hold the power as illustrated at the top of Arnstein’s ladder. In citizen-led planning we enable all the voices to come together, some competing and some harmonizing, to propel change and momentum.  Literature & Expert OpinionCitizen-led Planning22The term “place” is the root of placemaking. Many researchers make the distinction between place and space. For example, the organization Placemaking Chicago which work to facilitate public space improvements, defines spaces as physical and spatially oriented locations, and places as spaces that generate an emotional response (2008). Further, Tim Cresswell in his work, A Short Introduction to Place, defines place as spaces where people attach meaning (Cresswell, 2004). The idea of place as an emotional response to a location is central to the research of Barbara Toews and Deana Van Buren, researchers and designers working to capture the emotion evoked from places as a form of healing (Toews and Van Buren, 2014). Fundamental to their work is the question: how do we create spaces where people can be vulnerable, for people to cry, to love, experience forgiveness, peace and the comfort of home? Toews and Van Buren draw upon the field of restorative justice, an alternative to the criminal justice system that approaches justice through a lens of healing as opposed to punishment.  Their research identifies how planning, architecture and design can create the spaces needed for peace (2014). The researchers worked on a project with US inmates to visualize how to make institutions - courtrooms, jails, prisons - places of peace and places where inmates could truly heal. The responses revealed a range of spaces. Some imagined quiet places such as a reflective place underneath a tree while others described wanting wide open fields and large views. These places that people sought were the places in between, the places that we need to experience emotion (2014). In addition, when asked to redesign a courtroom, a space designed for justice and equality, the inmates produced a circular chamber and a roundtable where each party was able to sit at an equal level (2014). The research concluded that different backgrounds, emotional states, preferences, life experiences, etc. influence what we need from the places in which we spend time in order to make them places of inclusion, belonging and comfort (2014). The work of Toews and Van Buren transcends beyond institutions for incarceration. Van Buren’s portfolio is filled with examples of renderings illustrating the transformation of spaces into places for restorative justice in cities. Extrapolating the idea of restorative justice from more than just a response to a criminal act is Van Buren’s idea of restorative cities.  These are cities designed with the values of restorative justice. They are cities that reimagine justice as an integrated network of parks, schools, housing, policing, city services and a holistic approach to policy making.  These cities are designed with the goal of “restoring and repairing people and relationships.” Restorative cities show the potential for a new lens to planning (FOURM Design Studio, 2015). Restorative Places23Re-thinking planning from a restorative justice lens creates the opportunity for new ways of thinking about citizen-led planning. It encourages a shift of thinking about city planning as a top-down approach guided by experts and politicians to a process that works for everyday people taking into account their emotions and their needs. Professor Margaret Crawford has developed the term “everyday urbanism” to advocate for exactly this approach to planning. She defines everyday urbanism as “the nooks and crannies of existing urban environments” (Ed. Mehrotra, 2004). It means connecting urban design with everyday life. It’s a situational approach to planning recognizing that the everyday routine is different for everyone. A practical application of everyday urbanism would be retrofitting an existing space to better accommodate the needs and demands of everyday use. For example, planting flowers in a traffic circle is everyday urbanism because it improves the quality of life for everyone who walks, bikes and drives past it every single morning and evening on their way to and from work or school. It is simplistic in its ideology with only the rituals of daily life as its framework but powerful in its ability to shift a mindset. Everyday urbanism demands repositioning the designer from a professional expert to an ordinary user of a space. It equalizes the power because everybody who uses the space is an expert.  Most importantly it creates opportunity for citizen-led planning. We all have emotional responses to space and taking these emotions “functions as the starting points for social change (Chase, Crawford and Kaliski, 1999). Further it is “not a master plan, but a local improvisation; not a strategic plan, but a tactical strike” that evolves incrementally and overtime accumulates to make change. (Ed. Mehrotra, 2004). This same sentiment is echoed by Toews and Van Buren whose works seeks to “inspire people to think about the design of spaces and give them basic knowledge and skills to make their own changes, including changes that require little or no cost” (Van Buren, 2013). Tactical urbanism otherwise known ass DIY, participatory, grassroots or guerrilla urbanism is another approach to citizen-led planning that also prioritizes simplistic and effective changes at the neighbourhoold level (Ed. Lydon, 2012).  The principle idea is to make small “tactical” changes that will lead to long-term improvements. Its completely localized and specific to a neighbourhood. Examples include guerrilla gardening or pop-up urbanism, where ideas are turned into actions through temporary interventions that work to address a need not being met by traditional city planning. The overall objective of this method of urbanism is a more engaged and involved community that wants to invest in and take care of the place where they live (Ed. Lydon, 2012). Everyday UrbanismTactical Urbanism24Expert vs. Local KnowledgePlanning expertise often implies formal education in architecture, planning or design fields. The challenge for planning is that the “expert” is not necessarily an expert on the location being planned. Expert and local knowledge are often seen as competing interests. Planning theory and practice does not always address how to create opportunity for both types of knowledge to work together when, so often, they are both one in the same (Arefi, 2014). Asset-Based vs. Need-Based An asset-based approach to placemaking versus a needs-based approach to placemaking looks at citizen participation in planning from very different perspectives. A needs-based approach is based on what is lacking in a community. It focuses on the gaps or what’s missing in a community.  It is based on a quantitative analysis of what a community needs as a result of the population statistics and existing amenities in the community (Arefi, 2014).  This approach dominates our societal approach to urban planning and service delivery (Mathie and Cunningham, 2003.) In comparison, an asset-based approach looks as what the community already has and works to expand upon the existing successes. Assets are the strengths, skills and talents of individuals or an organization (Green and Haines, 2012). An asset-based approach encourages active citizenship and works to build the capacity of individuals to achieve what they need. One of the principles of an asset-based approach is that relying on others from outside of the community weakens the power and level of control that citizens have over their community (Mathie and Cunningham, 2003). Asset-based thinking is part of a larger approach to community development, referred to in the previous section of this report, called Asset-Based Community Development (ABCD).  ABCD argues for the strengths of a community to create momentum and change (2003). Physical vs. Social AssetsFurther analysis of assets suggests that there are two types of assets. Physical assets include geographic elements such as parks, mountain views, access to public transportation, etc. Social assets are the strengths of a community and the individual abilities of the people who live there (Arefi, 2014). Both physical and social assets influence how we approach citizen-led planning and lead to innovative placemaking. Addressing Binaries25The beauty and challenge of the public realm is that everyone has different preferences, different everyday routines and different needs, hopes and dreams for the same spaces, public spaces. Some people prefer private, enclosed spaces as opposed to more open and public spaces. It is not uncommon to have privacy fences or hedges erected, and social life is more dictated by organized activities such as heading to the community centre for a fitness class or through dropping a child off at school. The informal interactions that happen in shared spaces are minimized. In cases of social isolation, such as described in the beginning of this chapter about Dunbar, people need a reason to go to a public place and find something to break down barriers to interaction (Demchinsky, 1989). While creating the balance between private and public space is a challenge, it is through creating comfortable public spaces that we can start to break down barriers and build community. Every community has community organizers, pools of talent and expertise, the big ideas people, action people, detail-oriented thinkers, etc. When these assets come together we have the ability to reimagine our communities and make a difference. It’s through new and innovative types of urbanism, such as restorative cities, everyday urbanism and tactical urbanism that citizen-led planning emerges as a way to create the spaces we need to plan for the places in between. Navigating Difference26Inspirational Types of UrbanismRestorative Justice and ArchitectureTactical/DIY/Pop-up UrbanismEveryday UrbanismThese types of urbanism are part of a movement to change planning as an expert driven, top-down processes into citizen-led actions that are cost effective, simple and work as a powerful tool to transform urban landscapes or the public realm into people-oriented spaces that improve daily life for everyone who lives there. It is through these new models of urbanism that we plan and create the places in between.27Chapter 3Chapter 328Kensington-Cedar Cottage:A Case Study• Kensington Cedar Cottage• Amenities• Neighbourhood Small Grants• Copley Community Orchard• Wine & Cheese Event• KCC Community Builders“places make themselves known only decades after they have been built – when the trees go wider and when the homes age gracefully and so on. there are a few markings of community that make them work well. there is a main street to go sit and meet your friends. the scale is beautiful with a street not wide. the car is hidden. then the magic happens. people tend to smile. this is a unique element when people smile to each other.”-	Avi	Friedman	(2015) 29Kensington-Cedar Cottage (KCC) is a neighbourhood located in East Vancouver. It is a neighbourhood comprising of children and families that celebrates its great ethnic diversity. It’s Vancouver’s third largest neighbourhood by population with a growing youth population, especially for young people between the ages of 25-29 (Statistics Canada, 2011). The geography of the neighbourhood is very large with many key arterial streets running through. As a result, it is a neighbourhood with many centres. This creates multiple areas for shopping, activity and gathering but also a challenge in creating a cohesive community that reflects the interests of the diversity.The last community plan for the neighbourhood was conducted in 1998. While many of the recommendations are still relevant, the growing community has needs and interests being sought through the strength of the community. Cedar Cottage Neighbourhood House is located in the community. It offers a place for seniors, after-school care and an array of programming from dance classes to cycling workshops to gardening. It has a community notice board and distributes a community newspaper. It’s a hub for activity but also a place to come, relax and have a cup of coffee. Kensington-Cedar CottageKing EdKnightKingswayNanaimoContext Area Map of the NeighbourhoodVictoriaFraser30Amenities in the City of Vancouver are associated with density. A greater volume of buildings and people generates an increased need for parks, childcare, recreational facilities and other core needs. Amenities can be negotiated through large developments or they can be built through the strength of a community. KCC is amenity rich. It is filled with examples of amenities brought to the community through the hard work of the people who live there. The Neighbourhood House is an example of an amenity that houses services of support, community space and fosters neighbourhood connections.  While the City focuses on calculating amenities to leverage density, the community builds amenities as an incremental process based on needs and a desire for change.  It is through both processes that neighbourhoods develop and evolve over time. In spite of its strengths, KCC is a community in need of more amenities. While the next pages will outline amenities brought about through community action such as Neighbourhood Small Grants, a granting program that provides citizens with the funding to implement community improvement initiatives and Copley Community Orchard, a citizen-initiated fruit tree orchard, the neighbourhood is experiencing a shortage of day care, community gathering spaces, affordable housing and social services along with safety concerns regarding prostitution along Kingsway. These complex challenges require innovative solutions, partnerships and secured funding. The City has a role to play. Creating an opportunity for community capacity building while, at the same time, creating a case for City funding for community amenities is the goal of the KCC community builders, a group that has evolved as a result of this project and the vision of the Cedar Cottage Neighbourhood House. We are a group at the beginning stages with big ideas and lots of momentum. This initiative will be explained in more detail later in the chapter. Amenities31The Neighbourhood Small Grants program is an initiative of the Vancouver Foundation. It provides grants to community members who have ideas on how to improve their local community. It works to connect neighbours and facilitates a growing sense of community. The program was initiated in 1999 based on the premise that when people feel a sense of belonging to their neighbourhood they are more likely to engage in ideas and initiatives that improve their community (Vancouver Foundation, 2014). The projects must be started and completed by local residents with the following goals in mind: 1. Connect and engage neighbourhood residents2. Share residents’ skills and knowledge within the community3. Build sense of ownership and pride4.  Respect and celebrate diversityKCC was awarded grants for garden projects, block parties, toy exchanges, barbecues, neighbourhood imrovement projects, activities for seniors, etc.  Across Metro Vancouver and Vancouver Island a huge diversity of projects are implemented every year as a result of the initiative (2014). Neighbourhood Small Grants build on the momentum of neighbours who care about where they live.  It is citizen-led  planning. NSG Examples in KCC:“Summer social. Meet neighbours and get to know Cedar Cottage Greenway, the first of Vancouver’s Greenway projects. Plant identification and labelling, children’s activities. Refreshments provided” (2014).“Stories of East Van is a one-hour walking tour that focuses on the Kensington-Cedar Cottage neighbourhood north of Kingsway. The goal of this tour is to highlight the diversity of history, culture and interesting stories that abound in the very places we live and play but often forget to appreciate: our own neighbourhoods” (2014). Neighbourhood Small Grants32Copley Community OrchardCopley Community Garden is a community greening project initiated by community members to transform a vacant lot into an orchard. The site was historically an orchard but sat vacant for many years. Vancouver’s Environmental Youth Alliance worked with Community Studio, a volunteer organization of planners and landscape architects, to design the orchard into a neighbourhood place for food production and community gathering (Copley Community Orchard, 2012). 33Wine & Cheese EventOn Thursday, May 14, 2015, I assisted in hosting the annual community wine and cheese event at Cedar Cottage Neighbourhood House. Community members gathered from around Kensington-Cedar Cottage neighbourhood to discuss what amenities exist in the neighbourhood and which amenities are facing pressure as the community develops and expands. The Neighbourhood House has hosted the community wine and cheese event every year for the past four years to focus on issues impacting the community and to engage citizens in visioning for the year ahead. It’s a chance to gather as a group and share in conversation. Some people were new and others had participated in the years prior. Many of the people in attendance had never met before. The event treats neighbours to wine and cheese appetizers and celebrates their commitment to the neighbourhood.We filled the gymnasium with energy, excitement, laughter and focused conversations about what people love about Kensington-Cedar Cottage and what they wish they could change.  The gymnasium was organized into tables so that each table worked together in a small group to participate in the activities. In the first activity each table was asked to introduce themselves and to come up with a team name in order to build a light-hearted and fun atmosphere and to encourage people to get to know each other.  In the second activity each group used a map provided to their table to plot the location of amenities that they believe already exist in the community and ones they would like to see in the future.  Each group was asked:  What attracts you to live in this community?What would make KCC even better? Each table scribbled across their maps with hearts, arrows, and colourful lines and descriptions to illustrate the places where they love to spend time. The third activity asked each group to imagine that they had been chosen to sit on an elite panel of citizens to select which amenities they would advocate for as being integral to the well-being and quality of life of their community. In essence, which priorities would they bring to Council given the opportunity. Each group was asked to refer to the list of dreams for amenities they would like to see in KCC that they had created in the previous activity and to record their five main priorites.  Once the groups had chosen their priorities they were asked to post them on the wall for all the groups to see. In the final activity, everyone in the room was given three stickers and asked to tour around the room, reviewing all of the groups’ main 34priorities and selecting three preferences by placing their stickers next to them. By the end of the event, as a group, we had created a long list of incredible ideas and important priorities. The three main priorities that won in the sticker tally were: 1. Free fun for families • Pools, playgrounds, waterparks and picnic space • Forest and green space • Places for social interaction and bumping into each other• Fitness in the park – dog park2. Community celebrations • Block parites• Activities in parks• Potluck/food share/community kitchen• Music making• Neighbourhood festival3. Art space • Theatre space• Gallery• Art and music programs for pre-school and school-aged youth• Stage for musicThe full agenda of the event with a detailed explanation of the activities is provided in Appendix 1. These results indicated a strong desire and need for places for all ages to gather in the neighbourhood and spend time. Based on the results, this space, or multiple spaces, would have some level of programming in order to facilitate neighbourhood interactions. The wine and cheese event was a starting point, but it demonstrated thatanytime a community gets together it’s a chance for people to make new connections. New acquaintances engage in conversation and soon identify common friends or interests. The more they chat the more they learn, and by the end of the night one person is lending another their old laptop in exchange for a perennial they have been searching for to plant in their garden. Then, a few weeks later they are at the local grocery store and run into that same person and, as easy as that, community building has happened! 35Themes: Public Spaces: Where do you like to spend time?  Environment: What are your favourite green spaces such as parks, community gardens, orchards, etc.? Arts/Culture/Recreation: Where are the places that you go to exercise, take a class or gather with neighbours?  Transportation: What route do you take regularly and what is your mode of transportation? Safety: Where do you feel most safe in the community? Social Services: Where have you seen services or programs that address key needs in the community? Where are the places you go to seek support or receive training? Day-to-Day needs: Where are there daycares, children’s play places, grocery stores, schools, health services, dog parks, etc.?* List adopted from Vancouver Foundation’s Youth Vital Signs Project (2013)The following list was provided at the wine and cheese event in order to inspire workshop participants to think about the everyday activities, services and amenities they need in order to make their community home. 36 Each table was tasked with answering the following questions:A)	Map	what	you	love	about	Cedar	CottageB)	Map	what	amenities	already	existC)	Map	what	you	dream	for	this	community37On May 14, 2015, 20 + neighbours came together to talk about what they dream for the future of Kensington-Cedar Cottage. What you read here is the result.Every table worked together to create a list of its dreams for the community. The results from each table have been categorized into themes and are represented in the following list: 38Increasing places for neighbours to gather:• Places to eat, drink and socialize • Pubs • Meeting spaces• Community gathering events• Theme day celebrations• Community kitchen space Improvements to the public realm:• Full-size pool/outdoor pool • Playgrounds/waterparks• Shade trees for picnics• Outside active space for youth• Benches for seniors• Garbage cans on streetsCreating more gardening opportunities and green space: • Garden club• Restore creeks• More natural spaces• Greenway revivial• Fruit bearing trees• Community gardens• Pocket farmers marketsProviding services to meet the demand:• Daycare• Pre-school for children under 5• Health centre in the SW part of the neighbourhood • Public phones • Public washrooms• Off-leash dog parks• An affordable grocery store at Broadway and Clark• Bigger library• Washrooms at Nanaimo Skytrain StationSpaces for the arts and community programming:• Art space and theatre• Book club• Music programs for children• English-learning programming• Community exercise for moms• Tai chi in parks• Youth centreAffordable housing options:• Co-ops and co-housing • Affordable housing for low-income people young families and young adults• Housing for seniorsIncreased active/public transportation:• Frequent trips for the #20 bus and the #19• More bike routes• Senior transportation discounted/community buses• Bike route on the alley behind Kingsway on the North sideImprovements to Cedar Cottage Neighbourhood House and schools:• Relocating CCNH to Brewers park• A bigger CCNH• Satellite locations of CCNH with daycare• Auto faucets and dryers in the new CCNH• Seismic upgrades to schoolsCelebrating existing amenities and improving the planning of new amenities:• Celebration of amenities that exist in the neighbourhood• Bringing amenities closer togetherWhat we dream for Cedar Cottage39After the wine and cheese event a handful of neighbours decided they wanted to move forward with the ideas generated at the event and continue their involvement in the community. We came together as a focus group in September to begin our brainstorming. The group placed an emphasis on creating opportunities for the community to come together and to facilitate connnections. This same priority surfaced during the wine and cheese event as the area in which they wanted to focus their energy. Together we came up with new ideas from pop-up dances, to holiday parties and even a parade and discussed how to communicate the results from the wine and cheese back to the community. The group has decided to take the work one step further by surveying a wider group of neighbours through all of our existing networks to see if they also felt that their prioirties aligned with the ones we had already settled on at the wine and cheese. Although, the group is in its early days, there are two main goals that began to emerge. The first is that Kensington-Cedar Cottage is a special community. It has a level of comfort that isn’t felt in other places across the city. It’s home, and everyone should feel that way. Second, the group wants to see a community where everyone feels a sense of love and pride for their community that can only be achieved by being engaged and connected to one another. The first meeting ended with excitement and an eagerness to get started. As we sat in the library of Cedar Cottage Neighbourhood House laughing and chatting and making plans for our next meeting, in a moment of inspiration the name of our group emerged:We are the KCC Community Builders. KCC Community Builders40On a Friday evening in fall, the KCC Community Builders gathered in the Cedar Cottage library to discuss how they wanted to make a difference in the community. 41Chapter 442after a community workshop you look down at your hands and see dots of colourful marker staining your skin. it was a session so filled with ideas, inspiration and vision that it would have been impossible to contain it to a piece of paper. Reflections• Learning about Engagement43Almost a year ago I first became part of this project with Cedar Cottage Neighbourhood House. In reflection, I will summarize what I have learned about community engagement and citizen-led planning.• Community engagement requires letting go of structure and rigid plans. It is fluid and ever-changing. It includes lots of laughing, listening and time for sharing.   At the same time, it requires organization and creativity to design an engagement session with which everyone is comfortable and that will achieve the needed outcome. • Community engagement is about facilitating the excitement and energy present in the room and transforming it into action and momentum.  I have found that there are moments when the room is electric, and in these moments, the ideas are bursting from everyone in all directions. It is a challenge to keep up with the group and capture their ideas on paper but, sooner or later, the energy in the room will change, and it will be your job to build the room back up again. It is a constant ebb and flow. • Your excitement sets the tone.  I have seen the way long-time community builders at the Neighbourhood House get just excited about an idea as the person who came up with the idea, and as a result, everyone becomes excited. It doesn’t matter how many past projects you have seen succeed or fail -  all ideas are valuable.In practice, some ideas will be forgotten while others will move forward, but the act of brainstorming, visioning and planning requires complete openness and a willingness to listen. • Position an issue as a positive as opposed to dwelling on a negative. For example, instead of discussing gaps and what is missing in a community turn the conversation into a discussion about strengths and assets. The gaps will naturally get exposed as the conversation progresses, but the emphasis will never be all about the weaknesses.  • Little details contribute to a successful outcome.   Re-arrange tables and chairs into a configuration that facilitates conversation and connections.   Provide food as a form of appreciation that people are taking the time to come out to the event.  Place markers, scrap paper, images and maps on every table to help inspire ideas.   Develop a pre-activity to help people engage when they first come Learning about Engagement44into the room and don’t know anyone yet. The activity is something small they can work on at their table while people arrive.    Although these may seem like minor details, I have found that they help build a comfortable and positive atmosphere. In my last session with the Neighbourhood House, we discussed planning another event. I was imagining a large event with lots of people and activities, and it was evident everyone else was as well when the Executive Director of the Neighbourhood House quietly added, “It’s ok to have just a few people. That’s how we build.” This is my last reflection: the goal of community planning is to build -- to build capacity within the community, to build a more engaged and connected community and to build slow and gradual change that is inspired and created by and for a community. 45Conclusion46This project is just the beginning of a project to invite neighbourhood dreams. When we posed this invitation to members of Kensington-Cedar Cottage Neighbourhood House, we heard dreams for community spaces, Olympic-sized swimming pool, a new neighbourhood house, parks, bike lanes and the simple desire to live in a community where everyone knows each other’s name. We heard big ideas that were bound by no limits to small improvements at the everyday scale.Emerging from this project is the beginning of a citizen-led initiatve in Kensington-Cedar Cottage to act on these dreams by implementing the little actions and details that make a neighbourhood a home. This project is also a celebration of citizen-led planning demonstrated through examples of restorative justice in planning, everyday urbanism and tactical urbanism. These innovative types of urbanism embody the strength of citizen-led planning. As we move through life stages, our community is always changing around us. Amidst that constant change we crave stability, comfort and a sense of home. It is through the small, intricate, seemingly insignificant details - a sunny chair in which to read a book, a small planter for growing flowers or a stoop on which to sit and drink a cup of tea, these tiny places in between - help us feel like we belong.  An Invitation47BibliographyArefi, M. (2014) Deconstructing Placemaking: needs, opportunities and assets. NY: Routledge. Arnstein, S. (1969). A Ladder of Citizen Participation,Journal of American Institute of Planning, 35: 4, July 1969, 216-224.Chase, J, Crawford, M and Kaliski, J. (1999). Everyday Urbanism. NY: The Monacelli Press, Inc. Copley Community Orchard (2012). Copley Community Orchard History. Retrieved from: http://www.copleycommunityorchard.com/copleyhistory/. Crawford, M and Speaks. M.  (2004). Everyday Urbanism: Michigan Debates on Urbansim Volume 1, (Ed.) Mehrotra. MI, Ann Arbor: The     University of Michigan.Cresswell, T. (2004). Place: A Short Introduction. MA: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Demchinsky, B. (Ed.). (1989). Grassroots, Greystones and Glass Towers: Montreal Urban Issues and Architecture. Montreal: Véhicule Press.Findley, L. (2005). Building Change: Architecture, Politics and Cultural Agency. NY: Routledge. FOURM Design Studio. (2015). Restoratived Environments. Retrieved from: http://www.fourmdesignstudio.com/Restorative-Environments-1.Friedman, A. (2015) Interview on CBC Tapestry by Mary Hynes, Sunday September 13, 2015.Friedman, A. (2015) A View from the Porch: Rethinking Home and Community Design. Montreal: Véhicule Press.Green, G.P. and Haines, A. (2012). Asset Building and Community Development. CA: SAGE Publications Inc. Kretzmann, J. and McKnight, J. (1993) Building Communitie from the Inside Out. Chicago: ACTA Publications.Lydon, M. (2012). Tactical Urbanism 2: Short Term Action and Long Term Change. The Street Plans Collaborative. Retrieved from:      http://issuu.com/streetplanscollaborative/docs/tactical_urbanism_vol_2_final?e=4528751/2585800.Mathie, A. and Cunningham, G. ( 2003). From Clients to Citizens: Asset-Based Community Development as a Strategy for Community-Driven    Development. Development in Practice, 13:5, 474-486.48Norberg-Schulz, S. (1979) Genius Loci: Towards a Phenomenology of Architecture. New York, NY: Rizzoli.   Placemaking Chicago. (2008). What is placemaking? Retrieved from: http://www.placemakingchicago.com/about/.Statistics Canada (2011). Census Data for City of Vancouver Local Areas 2011. Retrieved from: http://data.vancouver.ca/datacatalogue/censusLocalAreaProfiles2011.htm.Stott, R. (2013, August 26). Restorative Justice: An Interview with Deanna VanBuren. ArchDaily. Retrieved from:        http://www.archdaily.com/419868/restorative-justice-an-interview-with-deanna-vanburen. Towes, B. and Van Buren, D. (2014, December 10). Restorative Justice by Design: Using restorative justice values to design transformative spaces.    Restorative Justice Webinar Series from the Center for Justice and Peacebuilding. Retrieved from:         http://www.emu.edu/cjp/restorative-justice/webinars/design/.Vancouver Foundation. (2014). Neighbourhood Small Grants. Retrieved from: http://neighbourhoodsmallgrants.ca.   Vancouver Foundation. (2013). Youth Vital Signs. Retrieved from: http://youthvitalsigns.ca/#intro. *All photography by Megan Herod49Appendix 1. Wine and Cheese AgendaWine and Cheese Program AgendaMay 14, 20156:15 to 6:45 Mingle as People ArriveSign in table – staffed by NH• name tags• email listAt tables:• Map puzzle• Conversation starter questions: What do you love to do in your neighbourhood? Where is your favourite place to go and relax? What do you enjoy most about Cedar Cottage? What do you see is the role of the Neighbourhood House in negotiating community amenities? • Images to help facilitate brainstorming amenities * Materials required: • markers• stickies• maps• inspirational images6:45 to 7: IntroductionsClaudia – Welcomes everyone, introduces board and introduces Meg and her project: developing an amenities plan for Cedar Cottage based on the neighbourhood’s vision7 to 7:05 (5 Min) – Ice BreakerMeg – • Ask everyone at their table to introduce themselves and their connection to the neighbourhood and to come up with a group name7:05 to 7:30 (25 Min) Round 1: A) Map what you love about Cedar Cottage. What Already exists? B) What do you dream for this community? 50Meg – • Explain activity• Ask each table to self-select a note taker and facilitator. If the group needs help they are welcome to ask a staff to help out. Participants will be asked to write on the map or place stickies on the map describing what amenities already exist and to brainstorm what they would like to see in the future.  *Note taker to record on flip chart the ideasGuiding thought questions: • What attracts you to live in this community?• What would make KCC even better? Themes: • Public Spaces: Where do you like to spend time?  • Environment: What are your favourite green spaces such as parks, community gardens, orchards etc.? • Arts/Culture/Recreation: Where are the places that you go to exercise, take a class or gather with neighbours?  • Transportation: What route do you take regularly and what is your mode of transportation? • Safety: Where do you feel most safe in the community? • Social Services: Where have you seen services or programs that address key needs in the community? Where are the places you go to seek support or receive training? • Day to Day needs: Where are there daycares, children’s play places, grocery stores, schools, health services, dog parks etc.?7:30 to 7:35 (5 Min) CAC presentation Meg – • Explain CACs• Get brochures from the City7:35 to 7:50 (15 Min) Round 2 – How do we bridge the gaps? Tanya – Explanation of ActivityParticipants will brainstorm ideas to bridge the gap between what amenities currently exist and what types of amenities they would like to see in the future. 51Question to pose to the group: You’ve been chosen to sit on an elite panel of citizens to select which amenities you would advocate are integral to the well-being and quality of life of your community. Which priorities would you bring to Council? Based on the list of community dreams you’ve created in Round 1 of dreams, which ones will you make a reality? On a new flip chart paper record the group’s 5 priorities and hang on the wall (or leave at the table).  7:50 to 8pm (10 Min) Prioritizing Amenities Tanya and Meg – Explanation of ActivityEveryone will be given 3 stickers to use to select their top 3 priorities based on the results gathered and hung up around the room on flip chart paper. People will get up and read each group’s list of 5 priorities that are hung on the wall and out of all the ones recorded they will choose their personal top 3 by plac-ing their stickers next to the ones they want.  Materials required:• stickers• tape8pm – Donna to CloseClosing question: We would like to know if there are people in the room who would like to help us move this project forward? • Direct people to sign-up sheets at tables52 Appendix 2. Invitation to Wine and CheeseCedar Cottage Neighbourhood House Annual Wine and Cheese Invitation 2015Join us for an evening to celebrate neighbours, brainstorm ideas and discuss new directions for an ever changing and growing community. As our community develops and expands we face new pressures to our existing neighbourhood amenities. How do we benefit from growth and at the same time ensure that our needs are met?  Over a glass of wine, we will share conversations about existing amenities that you enjoy and new amenities that you envision for the future; parks, libraries, recreation facilities, cultural centres, grocery stores, daycare… what is already here and what needs to be here? Cedar Cottage Neighbourhood HouseKingswayKing EdwardKnight BroadwayCommercial Victoria 53 A Community Vision for Amenity ContributionsPrepared by Meg Herod for Cedar Cottage Neighbourhood HouseAppendix 3. Wine and Cheese Report54 Neighbourhood SpaceS and  favourite placeSOn Thursday, May 14, 2015, Cedar Cottage Neighbourhood House hosted their 4th annual wine and cheese. Community members gathered from around Kensington Cedar Cottage neighbourhood to discuss what amenities exist in the neighbourhood and which amenities are facing pressure as the community develops and expands. The room was divided into tables and each table was tasked with the following questions:A) Map what you love about Cedar CottageB) Map what amenities already existC) Map what you dream for this community. The answers are illustrated on the maps andon the following pages. Themes provided to each table to help guide the brainstorming process: • Public Spaces: Where do you like to spend time?  • Environment: What are your favourite green spaces such as parks, community gardens, orchards etc.? • Arts/Culture/Recreation: Where are the places that you go to exercise, take a class or gather with neighbours?  • Transportation: What route do you take regularly and what is your mode of transportation? • Safety: Where do you feel most safe in the community? • Social Services: Where have you seen services or programs that address key needs in the community? Where are the places you go to seek support or receive training?• Day to Day needs: Where are there daycares, children’s play places, grocery stores, schools, health services, dog parks etc.?Image: Commercial Street Cafe - a favourite place in the neighbourhood. Neighbourhood House  “A welcoming place where everyone, all ages, nationailites and abilities can attend, partcipate, belong, lead and learn through programs, services and community building.” -  ANHBC55 the placeS We love & amenitieSThe amenities identified in the maps on page 2 and on page 3 are listed below:Parks• Jones Park• Trout Lake• Brewers Park• Clark Park• China Creek South Park• Gray’s Park• Kensington Park• Kingcrest Park• Mackenzie Park• Glen Park• Sunnyside Park• Skate ParkSmall shopping districts• 41st and Victoria• Fraser Street shops• 20th and Commercial Coffee shop• The Drive • Chinese stores on VictoriaSchools• Dickens Annex• Gladstone• Selkirk• Tacumseh AnnexGardens and Orchards• Trout Lake Farmer’s Market• Community Gardens at Victoria• Copley Community OrchardTransportation/bus routes• Windsor Street bike path• The bus on 33rd Street• The #20 bus• Neighbourhood gathering places• Cedar Cottage Neighbourhood House• Cedar Cottage pub• Croatian Cultural Centre• Grace ChurchServices• Library• Kensington Community Centre• Shopper’s Drugmart• Famous Foods• Public Health Unit• Safeway at Broadway and CommercialOther Special Amenities• Free pop-up libraries• Views of the North Shore Image: Top RIght - Neighbours brainstorming the places they love in Cedar Cottage. Bottom - VPL branch in Kensington-Cedar Cottage56 57 Increasing places for neighbours to gather:• Places to eat, drink and socialize • Pubs • Meeting spaces• Community gathering events• Theme day celebrations• Community kitchen space Improvements to the public realm:• Full-size pool/outdoor pool • Playgrounds/waterparks• Shade trees for picnics• Outside active space for youth• Benches for seniors• Garbage cans on streetsCreating more gardening opportunities and green space: • Garden club• Restore creeks• More natural spaces• Greenway revivial• Fruit bearing trees• Community gardens• Pocket farmers marketsProviding services to meet the demand:• Daycare• Pre-school for children under 5• Health centre in the SW part of the neighbourhood • Public phones • Public washrooms• Off-leash dog parks• An affordable grocery store at Broadway and Clark• Bigger library• Washrooms at Nanaimo Skytrain StationSpaces for the arts and community programming:• Art space and theatre• Book club• Music programs for children• English-learning programming• Community exercise for moms• Tai chi in parks• Youth centreAffordable housing options:• Co-ops and co-housing • Affordable housing for low-income people, young families and young adults• Housing for seniorsIncreased active/public transportation:• Frequent trips for the #20 bus and the #19• More bike routes• Senior transportation discounted/community buses• Bike route on the alley behind Kingsway on the North sideImprovements to Cedar Cottage Neighbourhood House and schools:• Relocating CCNH to Brewers park• A bigger CCNH• Satellite locations of CCNH with daycare• Auto faucets and dryers in the new CCNH• Seismic upgrades to schoolsCelebrating existing amenities and improving the planning of new amenities:• Celebration of amenities that exist in the neighbourhood• Bringing amenities closer togetherWhatWe dreamfor cedar cottageEvery table worked together to create a list of their dreams for the community. The results from each table have been categorized into themes and are represented in the following list: A NEIGHBOURHOOD STREET  While Kensington-Cedar Cottage changes with every new development, there are many things that we want to stay the same. For example, the beautiful parks and mountain view and the street where you grew up. We balance neighbourhood change and fulfill our dreams for Cedar Cottage by investing in new amenities that support the people that live here! 1. Free fun for families Pools, playgrounds, waterparks and picnic space Forest and green space Stage for musicPlaces for social interaction and bumping into each otherFitness in the park – dog park2. Community celebrations Block partiesActivities in parksPotluck/food share/community kitchenChildcare sharingMusic makingNeighbourhood festival3. Art space Theatre spaceGalleryArt and music programs for pre-school and school-aged youth 4. Affordable Housing Co-opsCohousingNew subsidized housingAffordable rentalHousing for homeless 5. More connected and safer neighbourhood Safe prostitution Less pot shops controlled to areas not affecting kids and community Less isolation for people – more community watchMore financial support for community policing DCG list serve6. Separated bike lane/more bike routes Bike lane on Kingsway from Knight to Fraser7. Bigger modern Cedar Cottage Neighbourhood House More CCNH locationsCCNH at Brewers Park8. Priorities for Seniors and ChildrenSeniors transportation discounts and accessible modes Affordable childcare locations Activities for all ages – low cost/ low barrierModern playgrounds housing for seniors childcare/preschooltop prioritieSIn the last session of the evening everyone was asked to rank their most important priorities. The ordering of the list corresponds to highest number of votes per priority. These are the results. 9. Meeting Spaces“Granville island” – restaurants, food, entertainment Cafes/ pubs/ meeting spacesPubsCommunity kitchens/commissaries connected to community gardens/wood-fired oven 10. Retain and promote nature in communities despite developmentAttractively planned “hoods”Ex. Planting more treesNature/green spaces11. ServicesGarbage cans (maintenance)More public washrooms A health centre in SW area12. CACS – funds go back to community A focus on long-term amenities Image: Bottom Left - A family neighbourhood on Commercial StreetTop Right - Priority setting activity at the Wine and Cheese Event58 

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