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Solar Photovoltaics in British Columbia: A Scoping Review of Residential, Grid-Connected Systems Tynan, Sean 2010

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©1 Life-cycle emissions from large-scale hydroelectricity, including dam construction and flooding, are estimated at between 24 and 34 grams Co2e/kWh. This range of emissions is likely a low estimate as it does not account for transmission and delivery infrastructure, which is not required for residential PV systems.   2 O. Morton, ‘Solar energy: A new day dawning?,’ Nature 443, September 7th 2006, pp. 19-22, accessed February 23rd 2010 from <http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v443/n7107/full/443019a.html>.  3 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL energy analysts dig into Feed-in Tariffs, June 12th 2009, retrieved March 3rd 2010 from <http://www.nrel.gov/features/20090612_fits.html>.     4 Province of British Columbia, Climate action plan, June 2008, retrieved November 13th 2009 from <http://www.livesmartbc.ca/government/plan.html>.  5 J. Hanova, H. Dowlatabadi, and L. Mueller, ‘Ground Source Heat Pump Systems in Canada: Economics and Ghg Reduction Potential,’ 2007, in Discussion Papers, Resources For the Future: Washington, DC, retrieved January 13th 2010 from <www.rff.org/documents/RFF-DP-07-18.pdf>.   6 Community Energy Association, Powering our communities: Renewable energy guide for local governments in British Columbia, 2008, p.12, retrieved November 12th 2009 from <http://www.communityenergy.bc.ca/>.  7 J. Ayoub, and L. Dignard-Bailey, Photovoltaic technology status and prospects: Canadian annual report 2007, CanmetENERGY, Natural Resources Canada, retrieved November 20th 2009 from <http://www.canmetenergy.nrcan.gc.ca>. 8 L. Stamenic, ‘Developments with BIPV systems in Canada,’ Asian Journal on Energy and Environment, Vol. 5, Issue 4, pp. 349-365.   • To examine the implications of recent changes to the technology and economics of PV, such as progress in Building Integrated Photovoltaic technologies;  • To examine potential environmental benefits of PV deployment;  • To identify and explore the economic barriers to widespread PV deployment within the housing sector; and  • To identify other key barriers.   9 US Department of Energy Office of Building technology, Passive solar design technology fact sheet, December 2000, retrieved September 20th 2009 from  <http://www.energysavers.gov/your_home/designing_remodeling/index.cfm/mytopic=10250>.  10 Because active and PV technologies are referred to as “solar panels” they can sometimes be confused with each other. For the remainder of this document, “solar panels” refers specifically to solar PV unless otherwise specified.  11 Calculated based on polycrystalline PV modules with approximate efficiency of 16%. 12 BC Ministry of Energy, Mines, and Petroleum Resources, Energy plan: A vision for clean energy leadership, 2007, retrieved February 20th 2010 from <http://www.energyplan.gov.bc.ca/efficiency/>.   Figure 1 – Solar Exposure & Sunpath Solar exposure is key to all solar technologies: passive, active, or photovoltaic. In general a south-facing section of the building oriented within +/- 30 degrees of the sunpath is necessary.9  13 A, Curtright, M. G. Morgan, and D. Keith. ‘Assessments future pv,’ Environmental Science and Technology, 2008, Vol. 42, No. 24, pp. 9031-9038. 14 Solar Buzz, Solar Cell Technologies, Solar Buzz website, retrieved January 3rd 2010 from <http://www.solarbuzz.com/technologies.htm>.  15 US Department of Energy, Cell, Module, Array, image retrieved November 7th 2009 from<http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/pv_systems.html>.   16 Stamenic, Op. cit. 17 For more information on PV system economics, see Section 4 of this document.  Figure 2 - Cell, Module, Array15  • PV reduces reliance on fossil fuels, which are often used to generate electricity. This reduces emissions associated with the production of electricity;19 • PV systems provide energy security and can provide a hedge against rising electricity costs;20 • PV provides benefits to the utility by meeting peak energy demand21 and reducing wear-and-tear on existing infrastructure; • PV systems are located at the point of use, which can reduce line losses associated with transmission.22   18 J. Ayoub, and L. Dignard-Bailey, Photovoltaic technology status and prospects: Canadian annual report 2007, CanmetENERGY, Natural Resources Canada, retrieved November 20th 2009 from <http://www.canmetenergy.nrcan.gc.ca>. 19 US Department of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Get your power from the sun: A consumer’s guide, December 2003, p. 5, retrieved October 20th 2009 from <www.nrel.gov/docs/fy04osti/35297.pdf>.  20 Ibid. 21 R. Wiser, G. Barbose, and C. Peterman, Tracking the Sun: The installed cost of photovoltaics in the U.S. from 1998- 2007, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, February 2009, retrieved Tuesday March 2nd 2010 from <http://eetd.lbl.gov/ea/emp/reports/lbnl-1516e.pdf>.   22 Ibid. 23 US Department of Energy, Solar history timeline, image retrieved March 1st 2010 from <http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/m/solar_time_1900.html>.  24 J. Ayoub, L. Dignard-Bailey, and A. Fillion, Photovoltaics for buildings: Opportunities for Canada, Natural Resources Canada, 2000, image retrieved August 1st 2009 from <http://canmetenergy-canmetenergie.nrcan- rncan.gc.ca/eng/buildings_communities/buildings/pv_buildings/publications.html?2001-123>.    Figure 4 Solar Shingles are solar panels which can replace traditional asphalt shingles.23  Figure 3 - Diagram of a Residential Grid- Connected PV System24 25 US Department of Energy, Passive solar design technology fact sheet, Department of Energy Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs, December 2000, retrieved September 20th 2009 from  <http://www.energysavers.gov/your_home/designing_remodeling/index.cfm/mytopic=10250>.  26 Ibid. 27 Ibid. 28 Ibid. Figure 5 – Passive Solar Example A Trombe Wall is designed to absorb solar heat and release it gradually into the home.25   Characteristics of a Passive Solar building Characteristics of a Solar Hot Water System Characteristics of a Solar PV System Function Space heating Space or Water Heating Electricity Production Materials Building materials allow heat to enter (eg. windows) or store heat (eg. brick); Solar collector converts solar radiation into heat; heat is transferred to hot water tank or air entering building; Solar collector converts solar radiation in to electricity; Size and placement A large portion of the homes wall-area should face due south; At least six square meters of south-facing roof space;  At least six square meters of south-facing roof space;  29 Solar Direct, Solar Water Heater, retrieved March 4th 2010 from <http://www.solar-water-heater.com/~images/pt- house.gif>.  30 Ibid.  31 SolarBC, Solar hot water simplified, SolarBC website, accessed March 3rd 2010 from <http://www.solarbc.ca/learn/solar-hot-water-simplified>.  32 SolarBC, Incentives and costs, SolarBC website, accessed March 1st  2010 from <http://www.solarbc.ca/learn/incentives-costs>.  33 SolarBC, Solar in BC’s climate, SolarBC website, accessed March 1st 2010 from <http://www.solarbc.ca/learn/solar- in-bcs-climate>.  Figure 6 - Solar Hot Water Diagram30 • • • • 34 BC Ministry of the Environment, Greenhouse gas reduction target act, January 2008, retrieved September 18th 2009 from <http://www.env.gov.bc.ca/epd/codes/ggrta/>.  35 Province of British Columbia, Climate action plan, June 2008, retrieved November 13th 2009 from <http://www.livesmartbc.ca/government/plan.html>.  36 BC Ministry of Energy, Mines, and Petroleum Resources, For the record: Facts on independent power production, March 25th 2009, accessed March 1st 2010 from  <http://www.gov.bc.ca/fortherecord/independent/in_environment.html?src=/environment/in_environment.html>.   37 Ibid, p. 9.  38 Ibid. One of the major barriers to solar PV uptake is grid interconnection. In the absence of grid-connection, electricity generated and not used immediately would either require storage in a battery or would be wasted. Net metering agreements give customers credit for electricity put back into the grid, increasing the overall efficiency and lowering the cost of PV systems. Both BC Hydro and Fortis BC now allow net metering contracts. At the end of the year, if the net balance on the meter is negative (the household has put more electricity into the grid than it has used) then the utility will pay the customer for excess electricity at market rate. At current  39 N. Miller and Z. Ye, Report on Distributed Generation Penetration Study, August 2003, National Research Energy Laboratory, accesses September 13th 2010 from <www.nrel.gov/docs/fy03osti/34715.pdf>.    40 BC Ministry of Energy, Mines, and Petroleum Resources, Energy efficient buildings strategy: more action less energy, 2008, p. 9, retrieved February 20th 2010 from <http://www.energyplan.gov.bc.ca/efficiency/>.  41 Ibid. 42 BC Ministry of Housing and Social Development, Greening the BC building code: First steps, accessed August 29th 2009 from   <http://www.housing.gov.bc.ca/building/green/ >. 43 Province if British Columbia, Livesmart BC, accessed November 20th 2009 from <http://www.livesmartbc.ca/>.  44 BC Hydro, Reinvesting for generations, retrieved February 12th from <http://www.bchydro.com/news/press_centre/hot_topics/hot_topics_features/hot_topic__renewing.html>.  45 BC Ministry of Community and Rural Development, Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction targets, policies and actions, accessed January 13th 2010. From http://www.cd.gov.bc.ca/lgd/greencommunities/targets.htm>.   Table 2: Provincial Goals Relevant to PV Plan or Strategy Target  Climate Action Plan Reduce GHG emissions at least 33% below 2007 levels by 2020 and 80% by 2050.  BC Energy Plan Electricity self-sufficiency by 2016; At least 90% of electricity from clean/renewable sources. Energy Efficient Buildings Strategy Reduce average energy demand per home by 20 per cent by 2020.  100,000 Solar Roofs Install some type of solar energy system on 100,000 rooftops in BC by 2020.  • • • 46 Ministry of Energy, Mines, and Petroleum Resources, Energy in action, retrieved September 30th 2009 from <http://www.energyplan.gov.bc.ca/bcep/default.aspx?hash=12>.  47 G. Duancey, ‘HST should have been an ecologically harmonized sales tax,’ BC Sustainable Energy Association, August 24th 2009, retrieved February 1st 2010 from <http://www.bcsea.org/blog/guy-dauncey/2009/08/24/hst-should- have-been-ecologically-harmonized-sales-tax>.  48 BC Ministry of Housing and Social Development, Op. cit. 100,000 Solar Roofs for B.C. The goal of the project is to see the installation of solar roofs and walls for hot water heating and photovoltaic electricity generation on 100,000 buildings around B.C. by 2020. 49 City of Vancouver, Pre-piping for roof-mounted Solar Energy generation, retrieved February 13th 2010 from <http://vancouver.ca/commsvcs/cbofficial/greenbuildings/greenhomes/solarenergy.htm>.  50 Association of Canadian Community Colleges,Government of Canada supports training for solar energy workers, December 8th 2008, retreived January 10th 2010 from <http://www.accc.ca/english/publications/media/0812_solar_energy_workers.htm>.   51 BC Ministry of Energy, Mines, and Petroleum Resources, What is solar energy?, retrieved November 20th 2009 from < http://www.empr.gov.bc.ca/RET/RenewableEnergyTechnologies/Solar/Pages/default.aspx>.  52  SolarBC, Solar BC incentives double up: $2000 now available for new buildings and existing homes, accessed February 3rd 2010 from < http://www.solarbc.ca/blog/liz-kelly/2010/02/01/solarbc-incentives-double >.  53Society Promoting Environmental Conservation, Solar technology tours at SPEC, accessed February 1st 2010 from  <http://www.spec.bc.ca/article/article.php?articleID=488>.  Figure 7 - Solar Resources in British Columbia The map shows photovoltaic potential in kWh per kW of installed capacity. The Provincial average hides substantial variation in solar availability.  54 Natural Resources Canada, Photovltaic Potential and Solar Resource Map of Canada, accessed November 29th 2009 from  <https://glfc.cfsnet.nfis.org/mapserver/pv/index_e.php>.   55 For example, with annual solar potential of 700kWh/kW, a two kW PV system will likely yield 1400 kWh of electricity each year.   56 European Commission, Global irradiation and solar electricity potential: Germany, retrieved January 3rd 2010 from   <http://re.jrc.ec.europa.eu/pvgis/cmaps/eu_opt/pvgis_solar_optimum_DE.png>.   57 Natural Resources Canada, Op. cit.   58 Compared to other jurisdictions with more sun, such as California, solar PV potential in BC is relatively low. 59 Under Net Metering revenue is realized through the avoided cost of grid-based electricity.  Table 4 – Solar PV Potential for Selected BC Municipalities (south-facing panel tilted at latitude -15°) Municipality Region PV Potential (kWh/kW) Kelowna Okanagan 1133 Vancouver Victoria South-Western BC 1026 1110 Sparwood South-Eastern BC 1240 Fort Nelson North-Eastern BC 1077  Prince Rupert North and Central- Western BC 787 Provincial Average All ~1,000 60 G. Becker et al., An approach to the impact of snow on the yield of grid-connected PV systems, n.d., retrieved January 30th 2010 from <www.sev-bayern.de/content/snow.pdf>. 61 Canadian Solar Industries Assocation, Frequently asked questions, CANSIA website, accessed March 1st 2010 from  <http://www.canadian-solar.ca/faq/ >. 62 Ibid. 63 Ibid. 64 R. Muenster, ‘Shade happens,’ Renewable Energy World, February 2nd 2009, accessed March 2nd 2010 from <http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2009/02/shade-happens-54551>.  65 Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation, Photovoltaics (PVs), n.d., accessed February 19th, 2010, from <http://www.cmhc-schl.gc.ca/en/co/maho/enefcosa/enefcosa_003.cfm>   66  C. Higgins, Personal communication with the author, February 11th, 2010. 67 R. Kruhlak, A legal review of access to sunlight in sunny Alberta, Edmonton, 1981, retrieved March 1st 2010 from <http://www.cansia.ca/government-regulatory-issues/archives>.  68 Sustainable Energy Authority Victoria, Info fact sheet: Siting and solar access, n.d., retrieved March 3rd from <www.sustainability.vic.gov.au/resources/.../Siting_and_solar_access.pdf>.  69 Community Energy Association Powering our communities: Renewable energy guide for local governments in British Columbia, 2008, p.12, retrieved November 12th 2009 from <http://www.communityenergy.bc.ca/>.  70 Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation, Occupied Housing Type by Structure Type and Tenure, 1991-2006: British Columbia, retrieved March 1st 2010 from <http://www.cmhc.ca/en/corp/about/cahoob/data/data_007.cfm>.  71 These statistics should be treated with caution due to the assumptions regarding the suitability of rooftops to PV systems. The data is intended only to illustrate that a significant quantity of energy could be generated by residential PV systems within the province. This estimate should be supplemented by higher-quality data when available.  Figure 8 - Shadows can extend 2-3 times the height of the object during winter sun.68   72 BC Ministry of Energy, Mines, and Petroleum Resources, Energy plan: A vision for clean energy leadership, 2007, p. 25, retrieved February 20th 2010 from <http://www.energyplan.gov.bc.ca/>.      73 For example, the emissions associated with a solar panel’s life-cycle change substantially based on manufacturing efficiency or the type of solar panel used. Factors such as the energy used by construction workers driving to a worksite every morning can even be included in the analysis, although such an inclusion would represent a fairly wide system boundary.  • Emissions from uring, and production of system were included;  • Balance of System (BOS) components such as aluminum frames and inverters were included; and • Panel life was assumed at or around 30 years.  74 A limitation of most of these studies is that they did not include emissions associated with end of life management (decommissioning, recycling, and disposal) of the system. This issue will be explored in the next section of the document.   75 K. Kato, A. Murata, and K. Sakuta.,‘An evaluation on the life cycle of photovoltaic energy system considering production energy of off-grade silicon.’ Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 1997, Vol. 47, pp. 95–100. Life-cycle emissions from recently produced conventional silicon panels will be approximately 40-50 grams of Co2e/kWh while thin-film would be closer to 25 grams Co2e/kWh. These emissions would likely be lower if the systems were produced using a higher percentage of renewable energy.76 K. Kato, A. Murata, and K. Sakuta, Op. cit.  77 R. Kannan, et al. ‘Life cycle assessment study of solar PV systems: An example of a 2.7kW distributed solar PV system in Singapore,’ Solar Energy 80, 2006, pp. 555–563. 78 H. Hondo, ‘Life cycle GHG emission analysis of power generation systems: Japanese case’, Energy, Vol. 30, 2005, pp. 2042-2056.  79 V. Fthenakis and E. Alsema, ‘Photovoltaics energy payback times, greenhouse gas emissions, and external costs: 2004–early 2005 status’, Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications 14, 2006.  80 V. Fthenakis, H. Kim, and E. Alsema, ‘Emissions from photovoltaic life cycles,’ Environmental Science & Technology 42, 2008, pp. 2168–2174.  81 D. Suna, R. Haas and A. Lopez Polo, ‘Analysis of pv system’s values beyond energy: by country and stakeholder’, Photovoltaic Power Systems Program, International Energy Association, p.  24. Retrieved January 3rd, 2010, from <www.iea-pvps.org/products/download/rep10_02.pdf>.   82 This assumes that the panels were produced recently in Europe or the US, and have a life-cycle of 30 years. 83 V. Fthenakis and E. Alsema, Op. cit. 84 BC Ministry of Energy, Mines, and Petroleum Resources, Energy plan: A vision for clean energy leadership, 2007, p. 25, retrieved February 20th 2010 from <http://www.energyplan.gov.bc.ca/>.      85 BC Housing, Technical bulletin no. 14-08, issued January 18th 2008, retrieved August 20th 2009 from <http://www.bchousing.org/resources/Programs/ILBC/technical bulletins/TB_14_Energy_Performance.pdf>.  86 1 gWh = 1,000,000 kWhs; 22 tonnes = 22,000,000 grams; 22,000,000/1,000,000 = 22 grams/kWh. 87 BC Ministry of Energy, Mines, and Petroleum Resources, Energy plan: A vision for clean energy leadership, Op. cit.    88 BC Ministry of Energy, Mines, and Petroleum Resources, For the record: Facts on independent power production, Op. cit. 89 J. Hanova, H. Dowlatabadi, and L. Mueller, ‘Ground source heat pump systems in Canada: Economics and GHG reduction potential,’ 2007, in Discussion Papers, Resources For the Future, Washington, DC. retrieved January 13th 2010 from <www.rff.org/documents/RFF-DP-07-18.pdf>.  90 G. Hoberg and C. Mallon, Electricity trade in British Columbia: Are we a net importer or a net exporter?, March 17th 2009, retrieved January 13th 2010 from <http://greenpolicyprof.org/wordpress>.     91 BC Hydro, BC Hydro Annual Report 2009, retrieved March 2nd 2010 from <www.bchydro.com>.    92 J. Hanova, H. Dowlatabadi, and L. Mueller, Op. cit., p. 27.  93 D. Weisser, A Guide to Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions from Electric Supply Technologies, n.d.,  International Atomic Energy Association, p. 17., retrieved February 20th 2010 from <http://www.iaea.org/OurWork/ST/NE/Pess/assets/GHG_manuscript_pre-print_versionDanielWeisser.pdf>.  Table 6: Summary of Emissions From PV Compared to Business As Usual Life-Cycle Emissions of Residential PV Systems Average emissions from grid- electricity in BC  (including imports) Approximate Emissions from Large Hydro  (no imports, not counting transmission infrastructure)  Multicrystalline Silicon: 40-50 grams/kWh Thin-film: 25 grams/kWh  ~72 grams/kWh  >24-31 grams/kWh 94 V. Fthenakis, Could CdTe PV modules pollute the environment?, National Photovoltaic Environmental Health and Safety Assistance Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, 2002, retrieved January 3rd 2010 from <www.abound.com>.  95 Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition, Towards a just and sustainable solar industry, January 14th 2009, retrieved March 9th 2010 from <www.svtc.org/>.  96 For example, Metro Vancouver is considering the addition of new Waste to Energy facilities, and a new facility of this type is likely to be constructed at Gold River on Vancouver Island.    97 Cha, A. ‘Solar energy firms leave waste behind,’ Washington Post, Sunday March 9, 2008, retrieved September 30th 2008 from <http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/03/08/AR2008030802595.html>.  98 Ibid. 99 Ibid. 100 V. Fthenakis, ‘Life cycle impact analysis of cadmium in CdTe PV production,’ Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 8, 2004, pp. 303–334.   101 Ibid. 102 Ibid. 103 Ibid. 104 V. Fthenakis et al. ‘Toxicity of Cadmium Telluride, Copper Indium Diselenide, and Copper Gallium Diselenide,’ Progress in Photovoltaics, 1999, V. 7, pp. 489-497. 105 First Solar, Refunded collection and recycling program, accessed January 13th 2010 from <http://www.firstsolar.com/en/recycle_program.php >. 106 Metal frames (generally made from aluminum) along with metal wires and other small electrical components are already recyclable and are unlikely to require special policy or infrastructure adaptations. As such they are not considered in this document.  107 A. Müller, K. Wambach, E. Alsema, ‘Life cycle analysis of a solar module recycling process,’ Materials Research Society, Warrendale, PA, USA, 2007, retrieved February 26 2010 from <http://www.mrs.org/s_mrs/sec_subscribe.asp?CID=6228&DID=170203&action=detail>.  108 First Solar, ‘Refunded collection and recycling program,’ retrieved January 13th 2010 from <http://www.firstsolar.com/en/recycle_program.php >. 109‘PV CYCLE to initiate solar PV module take-back and recycling programme in 2010,’ Renewable Energy Focus, 12 October 2009, retrieved February 3rd 2010 from <www.renewableenergyfocus.com>.   110 ‘Canadian Solar joins ranks of PV Cycle,’ Renewable Energy Focus, July 27th 2009, retrieved February 3rd 2010 from <http://www.renewableenergyfocus.com/view/2720/canadian-solar-joins-ranks-of-pv-cycle/>.  First Solar, a US-based manufacturer of thin-film solar technologies, is the first company in North America to implement a manufacturer take-back and recycling scheme for its PV modules.105 Funds for the recycling program are set aside at time-of- sale. Products are clearly labeled with appropriate information for contacting the manufacturer and pickup of the products is free. The company claims a 90% materials recovery rate.  111 V. Fthenakis, ‘End-of-life management and recycling of PV modules,’ Energy Policy 28, 2000, pp. 1051-1058.  112 Encorp Pacific, ‘Electronics Recycling Fees,’ retrieved September 13th 2009 from <http://www.encorp.ca>.  113 V. Fthenakis, ‘End-of-life management and recycling of PV modules,’ Energy Policy 28, 2000, pp. 1051-1058.  114 Assuming annual solar PV potential of 1,000 kWh/kW.                     Figure 9 - Weighted Average Prices for Photovoltaic Modules (1999-2008) - The prices are shown in dollars per watt of installed capacity and indicate a decline in pricing of nearly 10% annually. The increase in price in 2006 is due largely to a global silicon shortage brought about by high demand and limited production capacity.117  115 J. Ayoub and L. Dignard-Bailey, Photovoltaic Technology Status and Prospects: Canadian Annual Report 2007, CanmetENERGY, Natural Resources Canada, retrieved November 20th 2009 from <http://www.canmetenergy.nrcan.gc.ca>. 116 J. Ayoub and L. Dignard-Bailey, Photovoltaic Technology Status and Prospects: Canadian Annual Report 2008, CanmetENERGY, Natural Resources Canada, retrieved November 20th 2009 from <http://www.canmetenergy.nrcan.gc.ca>. 117 Ibid. 118 This figure is approximate because BC Hydro charges a “stepped rate” and therefore the prices per kWh depend on consumption patterns.  119 BC Ministry of Energy, Mines, and Petroleum Resources, Livesmart BC efficiency incentive program: Home improvement incentive brochure, accessed February 14th 2010 from <http://www.energyplan.gov.bc.ca/efficiency/>.120 S. Bornstein, ‘The market value and cost of solar photovoltaic electricity production,’ Center for the Study of Energy Markets Working Paper, Berkley, January 2008, retrieved January 30th 2010 from <www.ucei.berkeley.edu/PDF/csemwp176.pdf>.    121 Solar Buzz, Module index retail price per watt peak, March 2010, retrieved March 14th 2010 from <http://www.solarbuzz.com/Moduleprices.htm>.   122 V. Fthenakis, ‘Sustainability of photovoltaics; The case for thin-film solar cells,’ Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 13, 2009, p. 2748.  123 J. Pearce, cited in ‘The future of the thin-film solar panel,’ Solar Power Beginner retrieved February 28th 2010 from  <http://www.solarpowerbeginner.com/thin-film-solar-panel.html >. 124 Ibid. 125 R. Wiser, G. Barbose, and C. Peterman, Tracking the Sun: The installed cost of photovoltaics in the U.S. from 1998- 2007, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, February 2009, retrieved Tuesday March 2nd 2010 from <http://eetd.lbl.gov/ea/emp/reports/lbnl-1516e.pdf>.   126 First Solar, Frequently asked questions, accessed January 29th 2010 from <http://www.firstsolar.com/en/faq.php#cost>.  127  128 Interlock Roofing, Solar Roof, retrieved March 13th 2010 from <http://www.bcsbestroof.com/>.  129  J. Pearce, Economics of photovoltaic systems, 2006, retrieved March 1st 2010 from <http://www.appropedia.org/Solar_Photovoltaic_Open_Lectures>.  130 Interlock Roofing, Op. cit.  131 Interlock Roofing Representative, Personal Communication with the Author, March 12th, 2010.  132 Please note that these estimates reflect only the author’s calculations and may differ on a case-by-case basis. The company should be contacted directly for current installation costs.  133 E. Smiley, Green energy study for British Columbia phase 2: Mainland - building integrated photovoltaic solar and small-scale wind, BC Hydro, October 2002, retrieved October 2009 from <http://www.bchydro.com/etc/medialib/internet/documents/environment/pdf/green_energy_study.Par.0001.File.greene nergystudy-summary.pdf >. Figure 12 A BIPV product integrated into a metal roof128 134 S. Lovgren, ‘Spray-on solar-power cells are true breakthrough,’ National Geographic News, January 14th 2005, retrieved January 18th 2010 from <http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2005/01/0114_050114_solarplastic.html>.  135 J. Kalowekamo and E. Baker, ‘Estimating the manufacturing cost of purely organic solar cells,’ Solar Energy, Vol. 83, 2009, pp. 1224-1231.  136 For example, Suddwick Homes is a BC-based installer who offers a 4.1kW system for $41,000, including permitting fees and all installation costs. When compared in $/kW, this is almost 20% more thanthe sample costs shown here. Further information is included in Appendix B. 137 P. Torcellini, et. al, ‘Solar technologies and the building envelope,’ ASHRAE Journal, April 2007, p. 14-22, retrieved February 13th 2010 from <www.ashrae.org>.   Table 7 - Cost and Revenue for a Residential   Grid-Tied Solar PV System in British Columbia*   Cost: Proportion of Total Cost: Sample Prices: Modules (13x230W modules) 48% $13,000  Inverter (1x4kW) 11% $2,995  Frame 10% $2,700  Balance of System (BOS) Remaining BOS 6% $1,500  Electrical Permit 4% $1,000  Labour/Installation costs 9% $2,500  7% PST Exemption 7% $0  Provincial Incentives $260/kW   3% (decrease) $780  General Sales Tax (GST) 5% 4% $1,132  Installed Costs (including incentives and tax) 89% $24,047  Maintenance Cost  (1 inverter replacement at 15 years, including GST)  12% $3,144  Total Life-cycle Costs (including taxes) 100% $27,191  Revenue/Avoided Costs: Proportion of Revenue: Revenue:  3,000 kWh of electricity produced annually for 30 years (Constant electricity price of $0.08/kWh) 100% $7,128  Net life-cycle costs after 30 years  (including revenue and incentives)   $20,063 Price per kWh after 30 years  (including revenue and incentives)   $0.31 *Model based on a 2.9kW system, a 30-year time frame, and no costs for capital financing. 138 ‘BC Hydro seeks 33% rate hike over next four years,’ CBC News, Wednesday March 3rd 2010, retrieved Thursday March 4th 2010 from  <http://www.cbc.ca/canada/british-columbia/story/2010/03/03/bc-hydro-rate-increases.html?ref=rss>.  139 Bornstein, Op. cit. 140 Solar Buzz, Solar energy costs, accessed February 23rd 2010 from <http://www.solarbuzz.com/StatsCosts.htm>.    141 R. Wiser, G. Barbose, and C. Peterman, Tracking the Sun: The installed cost of photovoltaics in the U.S. from 1998- 2007, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, February 2009, retrieved Tuesday March 2nd 2010 from <http://eetd.lbl.gov/ea/emp/reports/lbnl-1516e.pdf>.     142 S. Eng and S. Gill, Solar PV Community Action Manual, Ontario Sustainable Energy Association, retrieved September 30th 2009 from <www.ontario-sea.org/Storage.asp?StorageID=445>. 143 Community Energy Association Powering our communities: Renewable energy guide for local governments in British Columbia, 2008, retrieved November 12th 2009 from <http://www.communityenergy.bc.ca/>.  144 J. Pearce, Personal communication with the author, March 2nd 2010.   145 J. Stonier, Personal communication with the author, March 19th, 2010. 146 Wiser, Barbose, and Peterman, Op. cit.  • Revenue to increase by approximately 4 times, such as through increasing the price of electricity from $0.08 to $0.32 per kWh;  • A 70% decrease in installed system costs; • A subsidy of approximately $7,600/kW, instead of the current $280/kw; or • Some combination of above. 147 A. Curtright, M. G. Morgan, and D. Keith, ‘Assessments future pv.’ Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 42, No. 24, 2008, P. 9033. 148 V. Fthenakis, ‘Sustainability of photovoltaics; The case for thin-film solar cells.’ Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 13, 2009, p. 2747.  149 $US 2.50/W installed equates to $2,500 per kW. Assuming one inverter replacement at the somewhat optimistic price of $1,000/kW this implies a life-cycle cost of $3,500/kW. Substituting this data into the system costs shown in Table 7 and assuming electricity prices of $0.10/kWh, a shortfall of $500 remains at the thirty-year mark. This model still assumes no financing costs would be incurred over the life of the system.   150 ‘BC Hydro seeks 33% rate hike over next four years,’ CBC News, Wednesday March 3rd 2010, retrieved March 4th 2010 from <http://www.cbc.ca/canada/british-columbia/story/2010/03/03/bc-hydro-rate-increases.html?ref=rss>.  151 P. Denholm et. al., Break-even cost for residential photovoltaics in the United States: Key drivers and sensitivities, National Research Energy Laboratory, December 2009, retrieved February 12th 2010 from <www.nrel.gov/docs/fy10osti/46909.pdf>.     152 S. Bornstein, ‘The market value and cost of solar photovoltaic electricity production,’ Center for the Study of Energy Markets Working Paper, Berkley, January 2008, retrieved January 30th 2010 from <www.ucei.berkeley.edu/PDF/csemwp176.pdf>.   153 Although BC Hydro now charges a “Conservation Rate” for residential electricity consumption, this rate is tied to the quantity of electricity used and not the time of use. The rate still represents an average price and does not appear to reflect the cost of delivery at different times of day or during different seasons.  154 S. Brown and I. Rowlands, ‘Nodal pricing in Ontario, Canada: Implications for solar PV electricity,’ Renewable Energy 34, 2009, pp. 170-178.  155 J. Contreras et al., Photovoltaics Value Analysis, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, February 2008, retrieved September 30th 2009, from <www.nrel.com>.  156 Suna, Haas, and Lopez Polo, Op. cit.  157 Ibid.  158 BC Hydro Customer Service Representative, Personal communication with the author, March 26th, 2010.  159 Bornstein, Op. cit.  Figure 13 –  This diagram demonstrates the potential of peak- shaving through the use of solar PV systems.154 The diagram is based on a case study from Ontario, and the data used does not necessarily reflect the situation in BC. Summer (July, August) On-Peak Hours:   9:00 am - 11:00 am Monday - Friday: 13.564¢/kWh  3:00 pm - 11:00 pm Monday - Friday: 13.564¢/kWh  Off-Peak Hours:  11:00 pm - 9:00 am Monday - Friday: 4.394¢/kWh   11:00 am - 3:00 pm Monday - Friday: 4.394¢/kWh  All hours on Saturday and Sunday: 4.394¢/kWh All other months  On-Peak Hours:   8:00 am - 1:00 pm Monday - Friday: 13.564¢/kWh  5:00 pm - 10:00 pm Monday - Friday: 13.564¢/kWh  Off-Peak Hours:  10:00 pm - 8:00 am Monday - Friday: 4.394¢/kWh   1:00 pm - 5:00 pm Monday - Friday: 4.394¢/kWh  All hours on Saturday and Sunday: 4.394¢/kWh Figure 14 Time of Use charges for Fortis BC customers163 160 BC Hydro Green & Alternative Energy Division, Green energy study for British Columbia Phase 2: Mainland, October 2002, retrieved November 12th, 2009, from <www.bchydro.com>.  161 BC Hydro, Conservation Research Initiative, last modified February 24th 2010, accessed March 1st 2010 from <http://www.bchydro.com/powersmart/residential/conservation_research_initiative.html>.  162 P. Denholm, et al., Op. cit.     163 Fortis BC, Rates, retrieved March 13th 2010 from <http://www.fortisbc.com/about_fortisbc/rates/rates.html>.  • • 164 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL Energy analysts dig into Feed-In Tariffs, June 12th 2009, retrieved March 3rd 2010 from <http://www.nrel.gov/features/20090612_fits.html>.     165 Ontario Power Authority, What is the Feed-in tariff program?, Ontario Power Authority website, retrieved February 20th 2010 from  <http://fit.powerauthority.on.ca/Page.asp?PageID=1115&SiteNodeID=1052>.  166 Wiser, Barbose, and Peterman, Op. cit.  167  M. Landler, ‘Germany debates subsidies for solar industry,’ May 16th 2008, retrieved March 13th 2010 from <http://www.nytimes.com/2008/05/16/business/worldbusiness/16solar.html?pagewanted=2&_r=3&sq=Solar%20Valle y%20Overcast&scp=1>.  168 The current FiT in Ontario replaces the former RESOP program, which offered electricity prices of $0.42/kWh on 20 year contracts. This program did not bring about widespread PV uptake, implying that a FiT for PV in BC would need to be priced higher than the former RESOP program.  Table 8 – Selected FiT Prices  for Residential PV Country In place since Current  Tariff Rate  Germany 2000 <$0.60 Ontario 2009 $0.80/kWh United Kingdom 2010 <$0.60/kWh 169 M. Frondel et. al., Economic impacts from the promotion of renewable energy technology: The German experience, Ruhr University Economic Papers, November 2009, retrieved online February 13th 2010 from <http://repec.rwi- essen.de/files/REP_09_156.pdf>.  170 M. Frondel, N. Ritter, and M. Schmidt, ‘Germany’s solar cell promotion: Dark clouds on the horizon,’ Energy Policy 36, 2008, pp. 4198–4204 171 M. Frondel et. al., Op. cit.  172 Ibid. 173 Worren, J.,‘Ontario FIT program off to a cautious start,’ Renewable Energy World, October 12th 2009, retrieved March 3rd 2010 from <http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2009/10/ontario-fit-program-off-to-a- catious-start>.  174 A. Curtright, M. G. Morgan, and D. Keith, ‘Assessments of future pv.’ Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 42, No. 24, 2008, P. 9033. 175 International Energy Agency, Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Germany, 2007 Review, International Energy Agency, OECD, Paris, retrieved March 13th 2010 from <http://www.iea.org/publications/free_new_Desc.asp?PUBS_ID=1922>.  176 P. Denholm et. al., Op. cit. 177 T. Hamilton, ‘Solar panel startup to lease residential rooftops,’ Yourhome.ca, March 10th 2010, accessed March 13th 2010 from <http://www.yourhome.ca/homes/realestate/article/777492--solar-panel-startup-to-lease-residential- rooftops>.  178 Clean Energy Group and Clean Energy States Alliance, Developing an effective state clean energy program: Clean energy loans, March 2009, retrieved February 13th 2010 from <www.cleanenergystates.org/publications/CESA_Loan_Programs_March09.pdf>.   179 US Department of Energy, Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Community solar access, accessed March 13th 2010 from <http://www.energysavers.gov/renewable_energy/solar/index.cfm/mytopic=50013>.  180 Ibid.  F. Barringer, ‘Trees block solar panels, and a feud ends in court,’ New York Times, published April 7, 2008, retrieved September 18th 2009 from < http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/07/science/earth/07redwood.html> 182 Previously the “Doctrine of Ancient Lights” created under British common law protected solar access in Canada, but is no longer in effect. Such guarantees are challenging to regulate and no equivalent law has been enacted in Canada since.  Vegetation and the Shading of Solar Panels: California’s 1978 Solar Shade Control Act181 The 1978 Solar Shade Control Act protects owners of solar systems, including photovoltaic systems, by requiring that no more than 10% of a Solar Collector may be shaded by neighboring trees. A recent court decision applied this law, requiring a family to prune several trees that had grown in size to shade the solar panels on a neighbors property. The case cost each family tens of thousands of dollars in court.    While this case has no legal bearing in BC, it serves to highlight the types of land-use conflicts that can occur as solar energy becomes more prevalent. • Zoning code can include provisions for solar collectors to extend into setback areas; • Solar rooftop equipment can be excluded form building height measurement; • Policies can be created to provide variances in trade for green building features.  • Landscaping; • Siting or form of buildings and other structures; • Specific features in the development; and   • Equipment and systems external to buildings.184  183 Province of British Columbia, Local Government Act, Part 26, Section 903: Zoning bylaws, Queen’s Printer, Victoria BC, accessed January 3rd 2010 from <www.bclaws.ca>.      184 Province of British Columbia, Local Government Act, Part 26, Section 920: Planning and Land Use Management, Queen’s Printer, Victoria BC, accessed January 3rd 2010 from <www.bclaws.ca>.      Development Permit Areas: Development Permit Areas can be used to promote solar access by specifying objectives which: • specify the form and character of a development; • promote energy conservation; and • which reduce greenhouse gas emissions.  Figure 15 The District of Maple Ridge is using DPA guidelines to protect solar access. 187 185 Ibid, Section 919.1. 186 BC Climate Action Toolkit, DPA guidelines, accessed March 1st 2010 from <http://www.toolkit.bc.ca/tool/development-permit-area-guidelines>.   187 District of Maple Ridge, ‘Development permit area guidelines,’ 2006 Official Community Plan, Chapter 8, p 42. Retreived January 19th 2010 from <http://www.mapleridge.ca/EN/main/business/4389/ocp.html>  188 BC Climate Action Toolkit, ‘Fast tracking,’ accessed March 6th from  <http://www.toolkit.bc.ca/tool/fast-tracking> 189 District of Saanich, Green building rebate program, retrieved March 13th, 2010, from <http://www.saanich.ca/business/development/greenbuilding/GreenBuilding.html>  190 R. Kruhlak, A Legal Review of Access to Sunlight in Sunny Alberta, 1981, retrieved March 1st 2010 from <http://www.cansia.ca/government-regulatory-issues/archives>  Figure 16 District of Saanich Permit Rebates189 191 BOMA is another Canadian building standard that assigns points to on-site renewables, including Solar PV. However, because it targets commercial buildings instead of residential buildings it is not discussed here.  192  Canada Green Building Council, ‘LEED green building rating system,’ Rating System and Addenum for New Construction and Major Renovations Version 1.0, December 2004, p. 42-44.   193 Built Green, 2010 Checklist, 2010, p. 3. <http://www.builtgreencanada.ca/>  194 Natural Resources Canada, About the R-2000 standard, retrieved February 25th 2010 from <http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/residential/personal/new-homes/r-2000/standard/standard.cfm?attr=4>  195 Natural Resources Canada, Hot2000 features, retrieved February 25th 2010 from <http://canmetenergy- canmetenergie.nrcan-rncan.gc.ca/eng/software_tools/hot2000/features.html>   • Revenue from PV must increase by approximately 4 times, such as through increasing the price of electricity from $0.08 to $0.32 per kWh;  • Installed system costs must decrease by 70%; • A subsidy of approximately $7,600/kW, instead of the current $280/kw offered through Livesmart BC; or • Some combination of above.  196 BC Safety Authority, Electrical program quick reference fee table: Electrical contractor installations, January 1st 2010, retrieved February 23rd 2010 from <http://www.safetyauthority.ca/?q=feesforms_feeschedules>.  197 City of Vancouver Development Services Department, Electrical permit fee schedule, 2010, retrieved February 23rd 2010 from <http://vancouver.ca/commsvcs/developmentservices/tradespermits/index.htm>.  Solar system owners can expect to pay $540-$1,000 for a solar system sized between 1kW and 3kWs. This represents approximately 3%-5% of total installed system costs. • Download and complete the Net Metering Interconnection Application form from the Utility, including: o An "electric single-line-diagram" of the system to be installed and a site- plan showing the location of the house and means to disconnect the system;   • Submit documents to BC Hydro.   • Customer must wait at least two weeks for BC Hydro to complete a Technical Assessment; • Customer will receive an Interconnection Agreement, which must be signed and returned for the process to continue. • The customer and contractor may now install the system. The actual installation can be completed within one or two days.  • The designated Electrical Inspector must inspect and approve the system. The fee for this is generally around $400-$550 for a smaller system (1kW) to over $1,000 for a 3kW system; • The customer must provide BC Hydro with a signed copy of the inspector's final inspection approval document. • BC Hydro processes and then sends Distribution Operating Order; • The Revenue Meter is installed; • The Customer receives authorization for final interconnection. 198 BC Hydro, Net Metering FAQ, retrieved January 30th 2010 from  <http://www.bchydro.com/etc/medialib/internet/documents/info/pdf/info_net_metering_faq.Par.0001.File.info_net_met ering_faq.pdf>  199 Eng, S. and Gill, S., Solar PV Community Action Manual, Ontario Sustainable Energy Association and Canadian Solar Industries Association, Canada, 2008, page 40. 200 US Department of Energy: Building America, ‘High-performance home technologies: Solar thermal and photovoltaic systems,’ Building America Best Practices Series Volume 6, June 4th 2007, p. 6, retrieved August 2008 from <http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/publications/pdfs/building_america/41085.pdf>  201 R. Harrabin, Solar panel costs set to fall, BBC, updated Monday November 30th 2009, retrieved January 5th 2010 from <http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/8386460.stm>.   Possibly the most important warranty to consider is that which the installer will offer on the installation itself. This should be a minimum of one year, and it is recommended to request a longer warrantee. It should also explicitly include coverage for any roof leaks resulting from the mounting of panels. Prior to the warrantee expiring, it is recommended that the system owner inspect the entire system, including wiring, connections and performance, and report any issues to the installer to ensure repairs or corrections will be covered.204 202 US Department of Energy: Building America, Op. cit., p. 6.   203 Eng, S. and Gill, S., Solar PV Community Action Manual, Ontario Sustainable Energy Association and Canadian Solar Industries Association, Canada, 2008, p. 40, retrieved September 30th 2009 from  <www.ontario-sea.org/Storage.asp?StorageID=445>. 204 Ibid.     Market Survey - PV Module Prices in British Columbia Type Brand/Model Size Price Price/kW Notes Source  Website Multicrystalline Panel Sharp 230 W $920  $4,000   Renewable Future Energy Resources Inc. http://shop.solarp owernrg.com/Solar -Panels_c2.htm  Multicrystalline Panel Day 4 Energy 48MC 185 W $657.50  $3,500 25 year warranty Renewable Future Energy Resources Inc. http://shop.solarp owernrg.com/Solar -Panels_c2.htm  Multicrystalline Panel Day 4 Energy 48MC 185W $1,350  $7,300  Energy Alternatives Website http://www.energ yalternatives.ca/a mazing/items.asp? CartId={8CEVERE ST3C4D49-CFB1- 4848-8553- B83C94445444}& Cc=110&iTpStatus =0&Tp=&Bc=  Multicrystalline Panel Sharp ND- 130UJF130W solar PV module    130W $649  $5,000   Energy Alternatives Website http://www.energ yalternatives.ca/a mazing/items.asp? CartId={8CEVERE ST3C4D49-CFB1- 4848-8553- B83C94445444}& Cc=110&iTpStatus =0&Tp=&Bc=  Multicrystalline Panel Sharp NU-235F1 235W $899  $3,800  25 year warranty We Go Solar Website http://wegosolar.c om/index.php?mai n_page=index&cP ath=35  Multicrystalline Panel Sharp NE-80EJE 80W $399  $5,000   We Go Solar Website http://wegosolar.c om/index.php?mai n_page=index&cP ath=35  Type Brand/Model Size Price Price/kW Notes Source  Website Multicrystalline Panel Kyocera KD205GX-LPU 205W $1,035  $5,000  20 year warranty AEE Solar Website http://aeesolar.co m/catalog/product s/H_ASW_SM_PVM _KYO.htm  Multicrystalline Panel Kyocera KD235GX-LB 235W $1,186 $5,000 20 year warranty AEE Solar Website http://aeesolar.co m/catalog/product s/H_ASW_SM_PVM _KYO.htm  Multicrystalline Panel Mitsubishi PV UE125MF5N 125W $925 $7,400 10 year warranty for 90% power, 25 year warranty for 80% AEE Solar Website http://aeesolar.co m/catalog/product s/H_ASW_SM_PVM _MIT.htm  Multicrystalline Panel Mitsubishi PV UD190MF5 190W $1,276 $6,715 10 year warranty for 90% power, 25 year warranty for 80% AEE Solar Website http://aeesolar.co m/catalog/product s/H_ASW_SM_PVM _MIT.htm  Multicrystalline Panel SW220-mono 220W $1,120 $5,000 10 year warranty for 90% power, 25 year warranty for 80% AEE Solar Website http://aeesolar.co m/catalog/product s/H_ASW_SM_PVM _SWD.htm  Multicrystalline Panel w/ inverter Future Energy 200W AC Solar Panel 200W $930 $4,650 Built-in Inverter; 12 and 25 year power warranty  http://shop.solarp owernrg.com/Futu re-Energy-200- watt-AC-Solar- Panel-AC-Solar- Panel.htm  Roof-integrated PV panels (BIPV) Interlock Solar Roof 1.8kW $20,000 (with roof) $11,000  Interlock Roofing Website http://www.bcsbes troof.com/   Market Survey – Balance of System Prices  Type Brand/Model Size Price Price/kW Notes Source  Website Inverter Enphase MicroInverter M210 210 W $255 $1,210  Renewable Future Energy Resources Inc. http://shop.solarpow ernrg.com/Enphase- MicroInverter-M210- FEIEnphaseM210.htm  Inverter Xantrex GT Grid Intertie Inverter 2.8kW $2,285 $816 10 year warranty Energy Alternatives Website http://www.energyalt ernatives.ca/amazing /items.asp?CartId={ 8CEVEREST3C4D49- CFB1-4848-8553- B83C94445444}&Cc =152&iTpStatus=0&T p=&Bc=  Inverter Xantrex GT Grid Intertie Inverter 4kW $2,995 $748 10 year warranty Energy Alternatives Website http://www.energyalt ernatives.ca/amazing /items.asp?CartId={ 8CEVEREST3C4D49- CFB1-4848-8553- B83C94445444}&Cc =152&iTpStatus=0&T p=&Bc=  Inverter Xantrex GT 2.8 2.8kW $2,375 $848  AEE Solar website http://aeesolar.com/ catalog/products/H_A SW_IN_GT_XTX_R.ht m  Inverter Xantrex GT 4.0 4kW $3,130 $782  AEE Solar website http://aeesolar.com/ catalog/products/H_A SW_IN_GT_XTX_R.ht m  Inverter Magnum MS2012 2kW $1,599 $799  We Go Solar http://wegosolar.com /index.php?main_pag e=product_info&cPat h=93&products_id=4 23  Inverter Magnum MS4024 4kW $2,089 $522 3 year warranty We Go Solar http://wegosolar.com /index.php?main_pag e=product_info&cPat h=93&products_id=7 2  Inverter GTFX3048 Grid-Intertie Inverter 3kW $2,275 $758 2 year warranty Energy Alternatives Website http://www.energyalt ernatives.ca/amazing /itemdesc.asp?CartId ={8CEVEREST3C4D4 9-CFB1-4848-8553- B83C94445444}&ic= GTFX3048&eq=&Tp=  Type Brand/Model Size Price Price/kW Notes Source  Website Inverter KACO Blueplanet 1502xi 1.5kW $2,150 $1,433  AEE Solar website http://aeesolar.com/ catalog/products/H_A SW_IN_GT_KAC_R.ht m    Inverter KACO Blueplanet 3502xi 3.5kW $2,850 $814 10 year warranty AEE Solar website http://aeesolar.com/ catalog/products/H_A SW_IN_GT_KAC_R.ht m  Inverter KACO Blueplanet 5002xi 5kW $3,550 $710  AEE Solar website http://aeesolar.com/ catalog/products/H_A SW_IN_GT_KAC_R.ht m   Inverter Solectria PVI 1800 1.8kW $2,510 $1,394 5, 10, or 15 year warranty options AEE Solar website http://aeesolar.com/ catalog/products/H_A SW_IN_GT_SOL_R.ht m  Inverter Solectria 4000W 3.9kW $3,498 $896 10 year warranty AEE Solar website http://aeesolar.com/ catalog/products/H_A SW_IN_GT_SOL_R.ht m  Market Survey – Complete PV System Prices Type Brand/Model Size Price Price/kW Notes Source  Website Complete system, Equipment Only  Renewable Future Energy Resources Inc.  2.1kW System $16,175  $7,700  Includes mounting structure; excludes tax and shipping costs Wholesaler website http://shop.solarp owernrg.com/Futu re-Energy-Solar- PV-Grid-Tie-Kit- 2100-Watts- FEKitPVGridTie210 0W.htm  Complete system, does not include flashing or conductors  Renewable Future Energy Resources Inc.  4.4kW $16,156  $3,670  Does not include flashing or conductors; excludes tax and shipping costs Wholesaler Website http://shop.solarp owernrg.com/Futu re-Energy-Solar- PV-Grid-Tie-Kit- 2100-Watts- FEKitPVGridTie210 0W.htm  Installed costs for residential PV system Resolution Electric 3kW $25,000 $8,300  Estimate from installer www.resolutionele ctric.ca  Complete system, INCLUDING installation and electrical permits Suddwick Homes 4.1kW System $42,000  $10,240  Complete install, packaged system Installer website http://www.suddw ickhomes.ca/solar package-pv.html  Complete ‘flush- mounted’ system Terratek Energy Solutions Per kW $8,000- $10,000 $8,000- $10,000  Estimate from installer www.terratek.ca  

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