UBC Graduate Research

Riverview Heritage Inventory Merrill, Andrew 2009

You don't seem to have a PDF reader installed, try download the pdf

Item Metadata

Download

Media
[if-you-see-this-DO-NOT-CLICK]
SCARP_2009_gradproject_Merrill.pdf [ 65.86MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 1.0107188.json
JSON-LD: 1.0107188+ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 1.0107188.xml
RDF/JSON: 1.0107188+rdf.json
Turtle: 1.0107188+rdf-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 1.0107188+rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 1.0107188 +original-record.json
Full Text
1.0107188.txt
Citation
1.0107188.ris

Full Text

Riverview Heritage InventoryAndrew MerrillSchool of Community and Regional Planning | UBCSeptember 2009This page intentionally left blankRIVERVIEW HERITAGE INVENTORYby B. Andrew MerrillA PROJECT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS (PLANNING) in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES School of Community and Regional Planning (SCARP)We accept this project as conforming to the required standard ...................................................... (Maged Senbel) ..................................................... (Andrew Young) THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 2009 ©Andrew Merrill, 2009This page intentionally left blankAndrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          TABLE OF CONTENTSIntroduction        3 Site Map       5Methodology       6Key Elements and Values of the Site    7 Site Timeline        9 Original Site Plan       2 Air Photo       22The Heritage Core       23 West Lawn       26 Centre Lawn      30 East Lawn       34 Crease Unit       38 Crease Cafeteria      42Riverview Support Buildings     47 Boilerhouse       48 Fire Hall       50 Administration Building     52 Fernwood Lodge      54 Bakery       56 Roadside       58 Brookside       60 Leeside       62 Pennington Hall      64 Transport Garage      66 Central Supply      68 North Lawn       70 Tuck Shop       72 HEY Building       74 Tele-service Building     76 Patient Services      78 Industrial Services      80 Distribution Centre      82 Hillside       84 Connelly Lodge      86 Cottonwood Lodge     88Boys Industrial School and Valleyview    9 Valleyview Lodge      94 Cottage No.       96 Cottage No. 2      98 Cottage No. 3      00 Unit 5        02 Unit 6        04 Unit 8        06 Valleyview Auditorium     08 Valleyview Pavilion     0Landscape Features      3 Arboretum       4 Finnie’s Garden      6 Cemetery       8 Riverview Landscape     20 Other Landscape Features    22Cottages        25 Cottage 03      262 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009 Cottage 04      28 Cottage 05      30 Cottage 06      32 Cottage 08      34 Cottage 09      36  Cottage 0      38 Cottage       40 Cottage 2      42 Cottage 3      44 Cottage 4      46 Cottage 5      48 Cottage 6      50 Cottage 8      52 Cottage 9      54 Cottage 20      56 Cottage 2      58 Cottage 22      60Recommendations      64Figure Ground       65Site Plan        66Watercourses       67References        69    Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          3INTRODUCTIONRiverview Hospital is a provincial mental health facility and is located in Coquitlam, British Columbia, a city in the northeast area of Metro Vancouver. Riverview is on a sloping site and bordered on the east by the Lougheed Highway. In 904, an  405 hectare site was designated by the provincial government as the “Hospital for the Mind at Mount Coquitlam”. The current Riverview site is 98.75 hectares and consists of the majority of the uplands portion of the original land dedication. The lowland portion of the original site, located in the flood plain of the Coquitlam and Fraser Rivers, was the location of Colony Farm, now Colony Farm Regional Park, which was a provincially owned research farm and provided much of the food and agricultural products to Riverview. The history and function of Riverview and Colony Farm are intrinsically linked. However this project deals principally with only the Riverview Hospital portion of the site.Riverview is also closely linked with Woodlands, formally The Public Hospital for the Insane and originally The Provincial Asylum, located in New Westminster. A history and inventory of Woodlands is also outside the scope of this project. Riverview, through its design and layout, illustrates the development of the theory and practice of mental health care. Prior to the establishment of Riverview, the Provincial Asylum at New Westminster was severely overcrowded and necessitated the acquisition of new land for a new institution. The use of voluntary patient labour in gardens and farms had previously been established at the Provincial Asylum. (Davies, 994) Dr. Henry Esson Young, the Provincial Secretary and Minister of Education was inspired by the theories of the therapeutic benefits of a natural setting and the sense of purpose that comes through work in the treatment of mental illness. (ibid)There are numerous buildings on the Riverview site, including several massive masonry wards, hospital structures, housing, service buildings and an active cemetery. Access roads are arranged in a linear manner that follows the site’s natural topographic contours, and there are large vistas to the east across the Coquitlam River and south across the Fraser River. Associated with the site and its buildings are thousands of mature trees and plantings including many notable rare and large specimen trees. Natural meadows, ravines and watercourses are also found on site. Riverview also provides an ecological connection to Colony Farm to the east and Riverview Forest to the west. Riverview experienced rapid population increases from the 930’s through the 950’s. This era is commonly considered the sites heyday.Riverview represents a legacy of over a century of therapeutic care, and is an exceptional creative achievement in concept, design and planning to provide quality mental health care. Early in its history Riverview was recognized as a model of psychiatric health care and was noted as one of the most progressive mental health care facilities in North America. (Luxton, 2008) Riverview remains a working mental health facility and a sanctuary for patients. Since public and government interest in the Riverview site was piqued in the mid-990’s there have been many reports written on various aspects of the site, including several of the individual buildings and the arboretum, however a full inventory of the site has never been taken. The goal of this project is to provide an inventory of all the buildings and important landscape features on the riverview 4 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009site. The project also seeks to provide a complete snapshot of Riverview as it exists in its current state and to collect a number of ideas from different reports into one document. It will also help to inform the City of Coquitlam and other decision markers as they decide of the future of the Riverview site. While not all of the buildings provide heritage value, Riverview should be taken as a collection and forms a cultural landscape. As a consequence the whole site is more valuable than any one of the individual pieces.Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          5SITE MAP0     50    00          200           3006 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009METHODOLOGYThe Riverview Heritage Inventory is intended to provide a starting point for the planning and implementation of future heritage or redevelopment policies. As such, it follows certain principles in the selection and evaluation of buildings and landscape features.  The inventory involved a number of steps, the first of which was a literature review of previous reports and documents relating to the site.  The entire site was then field surveyed, photographed, and an inventory form was prepared for each building or feature.  After this stage was complete, a final grading was undertaken which took into account available background information for classification. The evaluation process sorted the buildings into three categories. Criteria focused on the architectural, heritage and contextual significance of each structure. The landscape features are not ranked due to the difficulty of separating and ranking individual landscape elements. for example, The arboretum covers the entire site and is difficult to classify on an individual basis.    Class A:  Buildings are considered to have outstanding quality and/or heritage value. They retain almost all of their original features, and/or have had sympathetic renovations to maintain heritage features and/or are unique in terms of their age, design, location or use.  Class B:  Building that have not been substantially altered and may contain some heritage elements, but are not considered to have high heritage value and/or quality. Class C:  Buildings that do not have any heritage value and/or quality.The inventory is divided into five parts with the buildings in each part presented in chronological order. (With the exception of the cottages which are presented numerically by name.) The first section, the Heritage Core, describes the five  principle buildings located in the “lawn” area of Riverview. These buildings are generally considered to have the highest heritage value and many previous reports have focused on this area.  The next section details the support buildings, these buildings have marginal or questionable heritage value, yet they support the larger institution and form an important part of the cultural landscape of the site.The Boy’s Industrial School and Valleyview section looks at the northern part of the Riverview site. For many years this area functioned as a separate institution that had close ties with Riverview Hospital. Several of the early cottages could be considered to have good heritage value. The forth section is on the landscape features of the site, many of these features have high heritage and cultural value including the Arboretum and Finnie’s Garden.The final inventory section describes all of the residential houses on the site. The 8 remaining cottages were constructed from 90 to the late 930’s and provide an important link to when Riverview functioned as a complete community with the majority of staff living on site. The evaluation of the current condition is solely based on a subjective visual survey of the exterior of each building and does not reflect the interior or structural condition.Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          7KEY ELEMENTS AND VALUES OF THE SITESince its founding Riverview has been in continuous use as a psychiatric hospital and is represented by a unique collection of buildings, landscaping and infrastructure developed over a century as a mental health care facility. The Riverview site is valued for its historic significance, beautiful and unique landscaping and its important place in the community. The City of Coquitlam’s Statement of Significance report identified five key heritage values for the Riverview Lands, including therapeutic integration of buildings and landscape, a strong sense of community, architecture, ecology, and innovations in mental health. Riverview is important as a demonstration of a change in attitude towards the care and treatment of mental health, which is shown in the integration of hospital buildings with a designed landscape of horticultural features and mental health therapy. The previous way of treating people with mental illness was to lock people away into Asylums or poorhouses that often resembled a jail more than a hospital. As that attitude changed there was still little medical professionals of the day could do to treat mental illness, so they instead focused on keeping the patients comfortable in a park like setting and provided them with purpose in the form of farm work and gardening. (Cook, 2008) The Riverview/Colony Farm complex is the expression of that change in attitude.In addition to its hospital function, Riverview was the site of western Canada’s first true botanical garden and the third in Canada. The first botanical garden in Canada had been established at Queen’s College in Kingston in 86 and the second was started by Agriculture Canada in Ottawa in 887. (Golds, et al, 2004) John Davidson was hired in 9 as BC’s first Provincial Botanist, and Edward Bence Stinchcombe, was overseer of the grounds and works at Riverview, together they were instrumental in the establishment of this garden. An integrated landscape design for Riverview was developed, based on the English romantic tradition. This became the starting point for the botanical garden at UBC and was a very influential model for the design of subsequent gardens in Canada. (ibid)The present grouping of landscape resources, also known as the Riverview Arboretum is the result of a planting design developed to include specimen trees from around the temperate world. The landscape was designed to be reminiscent of a country estate. The plantings have matured into a magnificent park like setting, especially in the Lawn areas. The exotic tree species on the site, as well as stands of mature indigenous trees, are some of the oldest and largest in the Lower Mainland. In 95, staff member Art Finnie, an occupational therapist, and patients built a pioneer horticultural therapy garden later known as ‘Finnie’s Garden’, that is still maintained to the present day. (ibid) The Riverview site was also used as a provincial tree nursery that supplied trees for public works projects throughout the province; some rows of mature nursery trees are still visible on the site.Dr. Henry Esson Young integrated highly successful occupational and recreational therapies into the design of the complex. Patients were tasked on a voluntary basis to maintain the gardens, buildings and perform farm work at Colony Farm. These tasks provided outdoor recreation, purpose and valuable job skills. Recognized as a signature model for psychiatric health care, Riverview was known as one of the most progressive asylums in North America and later received funding from the Rockefeller Foundation. (Davies, 994)8 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009Riverview is valued as a modern legacy of a self-sufficient, contained community with strong ties to the neigbouring communities in Coquitlam and Port Coquitlam as well as being a vital part of the regional economy. In combination with Colony Farm, Riverview supplied its own vegetables, fruits, dairy and meat products for both patients and staff, had its own power plant, central steam heat system, water supply, train station, recreation centre, bowling alley, post office, employee housing and school. At its peak year in 956, there were over 4,300 patients and 2,200 staff. Public recreational and educational use of the site continues to this day. There are also many elements of historic infrastructure including early road alignments, and retaining walls.The value of Riverview also lies in its high-quality architecture, coordinated for many decades with remarkable consistency in scale and materials, by the Provincial Department of Public Works. (Luxton, 2008) Several massive red-brick hospital buildings, laid out in a campus arrangement, demonstrate an early large scale use of reinforced concrete. Structures for many different functions were added over time, designed in varied and changing styles but in a complimentary and coherent manner. One can infer from the elegant detailing and high-quality construction the province’s pride in the site and concern for providing quality mental health care. Lastly Riverview is an important ecological site, positioned between the Coquitlam River, Colony Farm and Riverview Forest, the site harbours natural wildlife trails, salmon spawning streams, and remnant meadows. With the site’s sloping natural topography and unparalleled views to and from the site, Riverview is an ecological oasis preserved within a rapidly growing urban region. Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          9SITE TIMELINERiverview, Riverview Site and Riverview Hospital refer to the current 98.75ha (244 acre) site.Colony Farm refers to the lands located south and east of the Lougheed Highway and the Canadian Pacific Railway line, that today comprise Colony Farm Regional Park.Essondale refers to the historical name for the Hospital and the site. The name Essondale was used primarily in the first half of the twentieth century.Boy’s School refers to the Provincial “Boy’s Industrial School” which occupied the northern portion of the Riverview site from 92 to 936.Valleyview refers to Valleyview Hospital the contemporary name for the ‘Essondale Home for the Aged’, which took over the Boy’s School site in 936.The Kwitwetlem First Nation summer camp was located near the mouth of the Coquitlam River on what would become Colony Farm. Their gravesite was located on the Riverview Hospital Lands.862 The Royal Engineers lay out the Pitt River Road, the second road in British Columbia, through the forest to the northeast of the Coquitlam River. This road would cut through the centre of the future Riverview site.878  The Provincial Lunatic Asylum opens at New Westminster after three years of planning and construction. It is expected to be as self-sufficient as possible and the institution establishes its own flower beds, gardens, a small farm, and repair shops. The Asylum was located adjacent to the B.C. Penitentiary so that the prison staff could provide assistance in times of emergency. New Westminster was chosen as the location for two reasons: to compensate the town for the loss of status as the province’s capital, and the availability of a suitably large, government-owned plot of land.886 The Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) completes a spur line running along the western edge of the Coquitlam River and the north shore of the Fraser River to New Westminister. This spur line would eventually form the boundary between Riverview and Colony Farm. There are now 65 patients in residence at the Provincial Asylum. The garden produces 20,000 pounds of vegetables, mostly through patient labour. The Hospitals for the Insane Act is passed, and the Provincial Asylum is renamed ‘The Public Hospital for the Insane’.0 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 200990 Edward Pohlman buys the land known as Cranberry Bog for speculative development on the supposition that Coquitlam would become a major port for the Vancouver area. When the CPR main line by-passed Coquitlam, Pohlman was eager to divest. His land would eventually become Colony Farm.904  Dr. G.H. Manchester advises the Provincial Government to develop a modern mental hospital that will be entirely self-sufficient.The Province formally dedicates 000 acres (405 hectares) of land at ‘Mount Coquitlam’ on the west side of the Coquitlam River as the ‘The Hospital for the Mind at Mount Coquitlam’. The hospital will be developed on the uphill side and Colony Farm will be developed on the flat floodplain. This land is at the junction of the Fraser and Coquitlam Rivers, and is accessible by rail and steamboat. The low-lying portions (approximately half the site) are composed of rich alluvial soil ideal for farming, considered by many to be the best agricultural land in the province. Approximately 0 hectares are upland and heavily covered with timber; this is now the site of Riverview. Edward Bence Stinchcombe becomes overseer of the grounds & works, and becomes responsible for most of the early plantings.A temporary station is opened on the rail line at Riverview. The Public Hospital for the Insane in New Westminister has been filled beyond its capacity, and there is pressure to develop the new hospital in Coquitlam. The Hospital’s annual report states:“It would be wise policy for the Government to lay out plans for the erection of a complete modern hospital for the insane on that property, and convert the present institution into an idiot and chronic asylum...the uses to which Colony Farm should be put at once are the production of all necessary vegetables for the Hospital, fodder for the horses and hogs, all dairy products by the maintenance of a large dairy herd and the supply of fuel for the bakery and for the boilers in summer. By so doing a vast saving can be effected in the general economy of the institution, as well as much healthy and pleasant occupation secured to the patients.”905 Clearing work begins at Colony Farm. The farm was designated to have a dual purpose, to supply Riverview with fresh meat, dairy and produce, as well as aid in treating the patients. Dr. Charles E. Doherty is promoted to Medical Superintendent, and clearing begins both at Colony Farm and at the upland site for the new hospital. The first buildings are erected at Colony Farm and much of the labour for clearing the site is undertaken by patients. Money has not yet been allocated for permanent buildings on the site, and overcrowding at the Provincial Asylum is severe. Dr. Doherty, Superintendent Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          of the Hospital, states in the Annual Report that he believed that farming could help ‘cure madness’.906 Dr. Henry Esson Young (862-939) is appointed as Minister of Education as well as Provincial Secretary, posts that he holds until 97. Seven hectares have been cleared by the patients at Colony Farm.907 Dr. Esson Young is also given responsibility for the health portfolio. He places the resources of the provincial government behind this new hospital site, and links the concept to the development of the provincial university. At the time, there are three sites being considered for the campus, which is expected to have a large agricultural component; the North Shore, Point Grey and Mary Hill in Coquitlam.908 Dr. Esson Young approves the funds for the building of the ‘Hospital For The Mind at Mount Coquitlam’ on the uplands site from Colony Farm. An architectural competition is held among B.C. architects to design a new mental health facility for ,800 patients. It calls for the building, in stages, of a number of structures, each specialized as to function: an administration building; an acute building; a sick and infirm building; an epilepsy building; a pair of chronic buildings; and adequate living quarters for nurses. Franklin B. Ware, State Architect of New York, is appointed adjudicator, and his selection committee chooses prominent architect J.C.M Keith’s plan, which also received the highest commendation from the New York State Lunacy Commission. The buildings are to be laid out in the ‘corridor-pavilion style,’ with a central administration building having twin domed towers that reflect the symmetrical division of the site into male and female halves arranged around a surrounding horseshoe. Keith did not remain involved during construction. For unknown reasons. Likely due to the size and experience of his offices in Vancouver and Victoria H.S. Griffith is retained to prepare the working drawings and specifications. It is decided that the massive Male Chronic Building (West Lawn) should be constructed first. It is one of the earliest large-scale applications of reinforced concrete in BC as this technology was just becoming locally available. In the same year, the University of British Columbia (UBC) is founded by an act of the provincial legislature.Clearing work at the Riverview site started. Patients worked four to six hours a day clearing and cultivating the lands. 909 Construction starts on West Lawn and clearing of the site continues. Some sixty-five patients are now housed in a temporary building, 9 metres by 18 metres and two storeys high. Approximately 32 hectares are now cleared and leveled. Construction begins on the agricultural buildings at Colony Farm.2 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 200990 Some 203 hectares are now cleared, and low-lying lands at Colony Farm are dyked. The first sod is turned for the construction of the Farm Cottages. The major buildings at Colony Farm are constructed in 90 and 9. G.K. MacLean is hired as the engineer and landscape architect for the grounds, as well as for the Point Grey campus for UBC, the site of which has now been chosen with the assistance of Dr. Young. It is recognized that appropriate grounds will have to be landscaped and developed for the Hospital. MacLean reports at the time: “...it will be advisable to start with the land immediately adjacent to the Main Building. While the locality does not lend itself to formality in any large degree, it would be suitable that the ground between the Main Building and the railway track should be laid out in formal design... It is recognized that there exists in British Columbia, a certain prejudice, more or less vague, against formal work in gardens. This prejudice, among those who share it, may perhaps be traced to the fact that there are but few examples of really good formal work to be found in the Province. The immense possibilities of formal work carried out with a due measure of knowledge and care are practically unlimited.”9 Dr. Esson Young hires John Davidson as Provincial Botanist. Davidson is given three main areas of responsibility to; survey the native flora of British Columbia; collect native specimens for a botanical garden; and create an outdoor museum of native botanical specimens, preparatory to the founding of a Department of Botany at the new University. Davidson gives shape to the vision of a provincial botanical garden at Essondale. The Royal gardens at Kew in London are one of the inspirations for the layout of the grounds. Davidson solicits specimens from schools throughout the province, as well as from surveyors working in outlying districts. The patients work on a voluntary basis in the garden, in clearing the land, in the planting of trees, and in the maintenance of the grounds. At the same time, agricultural crops continue to be grown on the site, allowing for a high degree of self sufficiency. Colony Farm, in addition to its role of providing food for the hospital, develops into the provincial experimental farm. Considered the best in Western Canada, Colony Farm produces over 700 tonnes of crops and 90,000 litres of milk this year.The cornerstone of the Male Chronic Building is laid, inscribed with the names of His Honour Thomas Paterson, Lieutenant-Governor, the Hon. Thomas Taylor, Minister of Works, the Hon. Henry Esson Young, Provincial Secretary, Dr. Charles E. Doherty, Superintendent, and H.S. Griffith, Architect. Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          3“That mystic rock, the cornerstone, which we all like to know is well and truly laid is to the right side of the entrance. It was laid on the 25th November, 9.” [Coquitlam Star, May 8, 92, p.8]92 H.S. Griffith prepares plans for the Female Chronic Building but construction never begins. Construction of the Mount Coquitlam train station, to cost $8,000, is announced in May. The station was located near the present-day intersection of Colony Farm Road and the Lougheed Highway. 93 Around this time the name is changed from Mount Coquitlam to Essondale (named after Henry Esson Young, the Provincial Secretary.) to prevent confusion between the Hospital and the nearby Town of Coquitlam. The first building, West Lawn opens on April 1. The building is symmetrical, in a corridor-pavilion style, built of red brick. 340 male patients are transferred from the Public Hospital in New Westminster.94 There are now 520 patients at West Lawn. Plant specimens from all of the province’s climatic regions begin to arrive in large quantities, and most are successfully germinated, transplanted and raised. Six hundred native species of plants have now been established at Essondale. The Essondale Botanical Garden takes on a life of its own, separate from the hospital activities. Research is undertaken in the areas of hybridization and horticultural practice. Trees grown in the nursery are used to landscape other sites, such as highways and the grounds of the B.C. Legislature.96 The collection of specimen plants at Essondale, by now 25,000 in number, is transferred to the UBC. Point Grey campus as the basis for its permanent botanical garden. There are now 687 patients at Riverview.97 Jack Renton is hired as Head Gardener for Colony Farm. He takes charge of landscaping the Essondale grounds, and what remains on the site today is largely the result of his work. Renton had previously worked landscaping gardens for Welsh and Scottish castles and estates, and had trained at Kew Gardens. He imports trees from all over the temperate world, using extensive grafting to propagate. Renton designs new grounds for each of the buildings at Essondale, so that the whole ensemble, when mature, will resemble an old country estate.99 Work commences on the Subnormal Boys’ School for Juvenile Delinquents, later known as the Boys’ Industrial School. 4 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 200992 The 92 Superintendents Report states:“At Essondale five cottages for employees have been completed and are very comfortable indeed... A great deal of time has been given by Mr. Fitzgerald and Mr. Lonsdale, as well as other members of our mechanical staff, to construction-work in connection with the Subnormal Boys’ School. A very great amount of work has been accomplished during the year and the buildings are now within a few months of being ready for occupation. Much work, however, still remains to be done before the grounds are graded and in shape to compare favourably with the buildings erected.” 922 The Boy’s Industrial School opens. (Now known as Vallyview) The plant nursery now covers 2 acres and supplies trees and shrubs for public institutions and highways throughout BC.924 Centre Lawn opens on November . Originally known as ‘Acute Psychopathic Unit’.925 Boiler House built. One mile of roads built and paved, 93 patients at Riverview.927 The Fire Hall, one of the first in the area, is built along with the Old Carpenter Shop and original Transport Garage. Essondale is a self-sufficient community complete with a school for children of staff living on the hospital grounds.928 The Managers House is built at Colony Farm. Nurses Home No.  is built at Riverview. Five more cottages are built for medical staff and their families.929 Plans are prepared for the first section of the ‘Veterans’ Block’, to be used for veterans of World War One, mainly shell-shock victims. Construction was delayed due to the Depression, and took from 930 to 934. Edward Bence Stinchcombe dies on September 9, and is succeeded by Head Gardner Jack Renton, who becomes Overseer of the Grounds & Works.930 East Lawn opens on October 2. Originally known as the Female Chronic Building. Patient cost at this time is 98 cents per day.932 Essondale begins to serve a teaching function, graduating psychiatric nurses until 973.Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          5934 The first phase of the Crease Clinic opens. Originally known as the Veterans’ Unit. 935 The Provincial Home for the Aged Act is passed. Five cottages originally built for the Boys Industrial School are upgraded and handed over to the Home for the Aged on May 4, 936.937 The average daily population on the site is almost 4,000.938 A second nurses home, Fernwood Lodge, is built.940 The bakery is built. The Mental Hospital Act is amended and references to “lunatic” and “insane” are deleted.945 Units 5 and 6, are built at Valleyview each having a capacity of 00 beds.947 The arboretum now contains over 60 species/varieties of trees.948 Brookside, Leeside and Roadside are built as nurses residences. Severe flooding of the Fraser River causes extensive damage to Colony Farm.949 The Crease Clinic of Psychological Medicine opens on November 6 along with the second phase of the building.950 On April  the various Provincial Mental Health activities are amalgamated as the Provincial Mental Health Services. The Male and Female Chronic buildings became West and East Lawn and the Acute Psychopathic Unit becomes Centre Lawn. The hospital itself is now known as The Provincial Mental Hospital, Essondale, B.C. 95 Severe overcrowding noted at Riverview. 3479 patients in 7 buildings. Pennington Hall opens as a recreation building. The Central Stores and Laundry building is built.Art Finnie and a group of patients begin to build “FarmView”, a therapy garden later known 6 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009as “Finnie’s Garden”. The Lougheed Highway is completed through the Coquitlam area following the CPR line through the Riverview site.952 A third 00 bed unit, Unit 8 is built at Valleyview.955 North Lawn opens on May 4th, with a capacity of 230. Originally known as Tuberculosis Unit. The Post Office/Tuck Shop opens. The Industrial Therapy building is destroyed by fire. 956 Peak year for Riverview. The site accommodates 4,306 patients and 2,200 staff. Over the next several years community services and new treatments cause the numbers to steadily decline.958 New School of Nursing and Nurses Home opens at Riverview. Now known as the Henry Esson Young building.959 The Home for the Aged act is repealed and is placed under the Mental Hospitals Act, The Home for the Aged is renamed Valleyview Hospital. The Admission and Infirmary Building for the Aged, called Valleyview 300 opens on May 22. It has a capacity of 300 beds.962 New telephone exchange and the Credit Union opens.963 New Industrial Therapy building opens.965 On April , a new Mental Health Act is passed. The Crease Clinic of Psychological Medicine and the Provincial Mental Hospital, Essondale are combined to function as one mental health facility, known as Riverview Hospital. Valleyview continues to operate as a separate entity and administration.966 Hillside, a 60 bed rehabilitation unit opened.973 The last psychiatric nursing class graduates from Riverview; training is transferred to community colleges.Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          7974 The ‘C’ side of West Lawn closed.983 West Lawn permanently closes. Colony Farm ceases to be a working farm. 69 hectares of the upper part of the site is developed into Riverview Heights residential subdivision. An additional 25.5 hectares of this land formed what is now the forest preserve called Riverview Forest, managed by the City of Coquitlam.985 Changes in hospital operations and public opinion necessitate cutbacks in the use of patient labour. The grounds are now maintained by gardening staff.986 Riverview and Valleyview Hospitals amalgamated under one administrative unit and are referred to as Riverview Hospital.988 Fire Hall closes after 6 years in operation.989 Valleyview 300 is renamed Valleyview Pavilion.990 A new Provincial Mental Health Initiative intends to move many mental health services to smaller, more specialized regional facilities, Riverview will continue as a smaller specialized centre of excellence.992 The Crease building is closed. Riverview Horticultural Centre Society (RHCS) is founded as the Friends of the Riverview Trees.993 On March 7, the Riverview Horticultural Society (RHCS) hosts its first walkabout on the Riverview grounds, with about 60 people attending. Additional guided walks planned for May. The Hillside building is closed.994 British Columbia Building Corporation (the legal owners of the site on behalf of the Province) undertakes the Riverview Heritage Tree Inventory. 995 The Riverview Heritage Tree Inventory is published, with 1800 significant trees tagged and identified. Colony Farm plus surrounding lands become Colony Farm Regional Park, managed by the Greater Vancouver Regional District (now Metro Vancouver).8 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009On October 5, the Riverview Festival of Trees is held (later renamed TreeFest), it is hosted by the RHCS and the City of Coquitlam. In October in response to local public pressure the provincial government establishes a Riverview Land Use Advisory Committee with representatives from the Burke Mountain Naturalists (BMN) and RHCS.996 In Spring, a public open house and forum are held to solicit feedback from the public on the value of the Riverview lands. Ray Spaxman is hired to conduct the planning process for future development at Riverview. The public forum takes place over two days to accommodate the large number of people who wish to present. Strong sentiments are expressed for the protection of the Riverview lands and continuation of mental health care on site. In September, the Advisory Committee is suddenly placed on hold until further notice. The City of Port Coquitlam (which borders the Riverview site) passes a resolution calling for preservation of the Riverview lands. 997  The Burke Mountain Naturalists (BMN) hold their first ‘Backyard’ tours, taking people into the more natural areas of Riverview. The province formally suspends the Riverview Land Use Advisory Committee in June.998 The Provincial government publishes a new Mental Health plan that states, “Riverview Hospital will continue to play a critical role in the mental health system in the Province of British Columbia for the foreseeable future” but indicates that Riverview Hospital will close in seven years with its 663 beds to be replaced by beds in a number of smaller facilities, one of which could be located on the Riverview grounds. BMN and RHCS encourage people to write letters to the provincial government to protest the planned closure.999 At their Spring Convention, the BC Liberal Party, moved by Port Moody MLA Christy Clark, passes the following motion:“Whereas the remaining Riverview Lands are an irreplaceable asset for the people of British Columbia as a regional green space; and, whereas, these lands have a long history as a special sanctuary for all British Columbians, be it resolved that the BC Liberal Party encourage the government to preserve the remaining Riverview Lands as park land complementing the existing Colony Farm Regional Park, as a regional greenspace; and be it further resolved that the BC Liberal Party encourage the government to preserve the Riverview site as a means of promoting economic development of the horticultural industry and tourism.”Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          9In December, the local New Democratic Party passes a resolution on Riverview calling for a completion of the Riverview Land Use Public Advisory Process and preservation of the entire hospital site as a place where the mentally ill will receive care in a restorative setting and where the ,800 trees will continue to be enjoyed by residents and visitors alike.2000 Regional health authorities are established and patients are gradually transferred to regional facilities. The new model for delivering mental health care in B.C. is to provide care closer to the patients’ home in smaller community settings, thus the future of the hospital and lands are uncertain.   An application by British Columbia Building Corporation to sell off 32 hectares of the site is abandoned. A petition with 22,000 signatures calling for the preservation of the Riverview Lands is presented in the B.C. Legislature. In April, BMN appears as a delegation to Coquitlam City Council to ask them to pass a resolution calling for the protection of the Riverview Hospital lands and encouraging the city to develop a “made in Coquitlam” solution for the future of Riverview. 2002 The Riverview Stewardship Group learns in September that provincial budget cuts are making proper grounds maintenance at Riverview a formidable challenge. Present patient population of 800 is expected to shrink to 25 within three years.2003 Connolly Lodge, a 23 bed facility, is opened by the Fraser Health Authority, the first new building in 50 years.2005 East Lawn Building closed and the City of Coquitlam publishes a task force report called “For the Future of Riverview”.2006 Cottonwood Lodge, a 24 bed specialized mental health facility, is opened in October.2007 North Lawn closes and the rest of Riverview Hospital is slated for closure with the exception of Connolly and Cottonwood Lodges. In November, a new petition, with ,000 signatures, calling for the protection of the Riverview lands and support for the City of Coquitlam’s Riverview Task Force Report, is presented to the provincial legislature by MLA’s Diane Thorne and Mike Farnworth. 2008 The City of Coquitlam recognizes the Riverview lands’ heritage value by including it in its Community Heritage Register and by adopting a statement of significance. This inclusion automatically places the lands on the Provincial Heritage Register, although it does not formally protect them.20 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 20092009 The Riverview site is included on Canada’s Register of Historic Places.Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          2ORIGINAL SITE PLANOriginal site plan for the ‘Hospital for the Mind at Mount Coquitlam’ by architect J.C.M Keith.Only West Lawn (Male Chronic Building) was built to this plan. BC Archives22 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009AIR PHOTONMETERS0     50    00          200           300Site BoundaryAir Photo courtesy of the City of CoquitlamAndrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          23THE HERITAGE CORE24 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009THE HERITAGE COREImage Source: Pictometry Canada Corp. 2008 Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          25THE HERITAGE COREThe heritage core includes the most significant portion of the arboretum and the five large principle heritage buildings on the property. Both the buildings and trees are impressive unto themselves. Together they provide an outstanding cultural landscape unequaled in Western Canada. Riverview is truly an example of the whole being greater than the sum of its parts. The arboretum consists of heritage trees from BC and around the world. They were planted primarily in groups on huge gently sloping lawns with large spaces around them. As a result they were allowed to grow freely to their natural mature size and form. The trees display their beauty throughout the year. The five principle buildings are positioned among the trees.. Constructed from 93 to 934, these buildings are examples of high quality architecture for their time. The buildings are large multi-winged masonry structures and have the richness of detail that is characteristic of buildings of the era. Their placement in a group around the arboretum contributes to the stately quality of the landscape.The heritage core forms a noteworthy institutional complex, which displays a remarkable consistency in scale and use of materials. The first building, West Lawn, was designed through an open competition in 90. The Provincial Public Works Department designed all the subsequent buildings. Chief Architect Henry Whittaker was in charge of the design at the site from just after the First World War until just after the Second World War, leading to a coherence of design rarely seen in public institutions. In the context of their designed landscapes these buildings form a unique campus setting. (Luxton, 2008)The “Lawn” buildings are typical examples of large Edwardian institutional buildings and are similar to the main building at Woodlands (The former Provincial Asylum). They were built at a time when the need for natural light and ventilation dictated sprawling, multi-winged plans. Essondale in the mid 1930’s, BC Archives26 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009WEST LAWNAndrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          27WEST LAWNHeritage Classification: Class AYear Built: 93Current Use: Currently AbandonedPrevious Use: Male chronic patientsPrevious Name: Male Chronic BuildingCurrent Condition: Several roof tiles are missing or damaged and there is evidence of water penetration into the building. Many of the wooden elements appear to be rotting and vegetation has taken hold in these areas. Some of the concrete decorative elements are in need of repair. Design/Style: West Lawn is a large four story building with a raised basement and usable attic. There is a partial sub-basement for mechanical services. The building is of corridor pavilion style being essentially two pin-wheel sections connected by a narrower central building element. The building is 52,300 sq.ft. in size.Featuring a hip roof with hip dormers it retains its original slate roofing, however it is in poor condition. The basement is concrete with horizontal banding while the exterior is uniform smooth red brick. The windows are steel frame and many are original. There is a three-level classical entrance porch flanked by twin towers. There were extensive exterior colonnaded verandahs on the outer wings, which have since been enclosed. Many of the original floors were wood with Carrera marble used for wainscoting, in bathrooms and in stairwells. Due to the buildings use as a mental hospital, movement between the floors and to the outside was limited in the original design, enclosed fire stairs have since been added to the exterior in an attempt to correct this deficiency. The large extended wings add to the vertically of the long front façade and help to lend the buildings their residential character. Notes: In 90, the provincial government announced a competition open to the architects of the province to design a new hospital complex to house ,800 patients. Franklin B. Ware, the State Architect of New York, was appointed adjudicator. B.C. architect Henry Sandham Griffith was chosen to design the first building based on J.C.M Keith’s plan. Construction was started in 90 and the building opened on April , 93. The Westholme Lumber Company of Victoria was contracted to construct the building. (Davies, 994)West Lawn was closed in 983. For years after its closure it was used for filming, It now sits completely abandoned.28 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009WEST LAWNMale Building, 194-   BC Archives  B-00275 Image Source: Pictometry Canada Corp. 2008 Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          29WEST LAWNWest Lawn, 1915   BC Archives30 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009CENTRE LAWNAndrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          3CENTRE LAWNHeritage Classification: Class AYear Built: 924Current Use: Adult ServicesPrevious Use: Acute PatientsPrevious Name: Acute Psychopathic UnitCurrent Condition: While this building is is use and is well  maintained, there is some evidance of wear and detoriation to the exterior. Design/Style: Centre Lawn is a large three-story building with a raised basement, hip roof with hip dormers and a red brick façade. The windows are multi-paned, steel frame. The two-level entrance portico is smaller than the one featured at West Lawn. The original outer wing sun porches (since enclosed) are set into the building instead of being exterior verandahs as at West Lawn. The forward wings are very close to the front entrance porch. Notes: Opened on November , 924 as the Acute Psychopathic Unit with a capacity of 300 beds. Centre Lawn was designed by Henry Whittaker, the Supervising Architect for the Public Works Department. Mr. Whittaker designed all of the principle buildings at Riverview until just after the Second World War. The top floor of the building was originally set aside as a psychopathic admission unit. All patients admitted to the hospital were received in this department where physical, laboratory and medical examinations were done. Patients would then go to a staff clinic where their case was studied and recommendations made for further treatment. The patient would then be transferred to the department of the hospital best suited to their needs and requirements. (Davies, 994)32 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009CENTRE LAWNAcute Building, 1924,   Hospital Annual ReportAcute Building, 1924,   Hospital Annual ReportAndrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          33CENTRE LAWNHydrotherpy,  Hospital Annual Report Image Source: Pictometry Canada Corp. 2008 34 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009EAST LAWNAndrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          35EAST LAWNHeritage Classification: Class AYear Built: 930Current Use: Film Industry for location shootingPrevious Use: Female chronic patientsPrevious Name: Female Chronic BuildingCurrent Condition: Good, with little deterioration evident.Design/Style: East Lawn is a large three story building with a raised basement. It has a hip roof with shed dormers and a red brick façade. The windows are multi-paned, steel frame. The windows are paired to create a rhythm on the elevations and decorative Haddington Island stone inserts accentuate the corners. The two level entrance porch is similar to Centre Lawn. The original sun porches (since enclosed) are also set into the structure, similar to Centre Lawn.The building completes the three “Lawn” buildings in the Heritage core of Riverview. Its design is similar to the other two lawn buildings, however wings have been placed father apart to allow for more natural light. The original entry lobby of East Lawn is almost completely intact, with a marble and terrazzo floor, a pastoral stained glass panel above the entry, and inlaid wooden doors. The slate roof is original, but in a state of disrepair. Approximately half the windows have been replaced with more modern aluminum windows.  Several enclosed fire stairs have been added to the exterior in a similar fashion to West Lawn. East Lawn opened with a capacity of 675 beds and at 360,903 sq. ft. it is the largest building at Riverview. Notes: The majority of female patients were transferred to East Lawn when it opened on October 2, 930 and this greatly reduced overcrowding at the Hospital in New Westminster. The children at Riverview were transferred to New Westminster, where the Public Hospital for the Insane would become the Woodlands School. East Lawn was closed in 2005. (Tremere, 2005)36 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009EAST LAWNCity of Vancouver Archives, M-17-4, 1929Female Chronic Building, 1931   Hospital Annual ReportFemale Chronic Building, BC ArchivesAndrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          37EAST LAWNDormitory, 1949   BC Archives NA-39916 Patient Dining Room, 1949,  BC Archives na-39917Image Source: Pictometry Canada Corp. 2008 38 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009CREASE UNITAndrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          39CREASE UNITHeritage Classification: Class AYear Built: 934 and 949Current Use: Film Industry for location shootingPrevious Use: Veterans UnitPrevious Name: Veterans UnitCurrent Condition: The building is in generally good condition, however several of the pre-cast stone elements are showing signs of deterioration and the roof needs to be replaced. Design/Style: The building is four stories with a raised basement and is symmetrical in plan and elevation with numerous projecting wings that repeat the arched window pattern of the main entrance. The attic space is unfinished but accessible. The building is linear in plan with all rooms located on either side of a central corridor.The basic structure is reinforced concrete, with the exterior being random yellow and red coloured combed brick with arches, lintels, cornices and other detail elements in pre-cast stone. A terra-cotta square tile is used as a decorative element. The grand main entrance shows Italianate and Spanish Revival influence in its double stair, cast concrete balusters, Romanesque arched windows and loggia. The windows are multi-pained steel-sash. The raised basement has been highlighted with horizontal banding. There are projecting decorative balconies that feature wrought iron railings. Crease unit is 44,000 sq. ft. is size, however its long front facade and visual promance from the Lougheed Highway, make it appear larger than the other “Lawn” buildings.Notes: The Crease Unit was constructed in two phases; the smaller original portion was built in 929, the depression and the war delayed construction of the second phase until 944. The design and construction of each phase is consistent as to form one coherent building. The original architect was Henry Whittaker. A different architectural style was chosen for the Crease Unit specifically because of its use as a veterans unit. There was a desire to set this building apart from the “Lawn” buildings and the rest of the Riverview complex as the veterans suffering with “shell shock” were seen as different from the rest of the Riverview population. (Luxton, 2009)In 949 the Crease Clinic of Psychological Medicine took over the Veterans Building. This clinic was conceived as a new way of providing psychiatric treatment for mental patients; the idea that mental and physical illnesses could have the same cause was relatively new at the time. Patients were certified here rather than committed, and the maximum stay was four months. The clinic was designed to care for the earlier, and more hopeful cases, of mental illness. (Davies, 994) The veterans were transferred to a new unit at Colony Farm called Riverside which would later became the Forensic Psychiatric Unit. The Crease Unit was closed in 992. 40 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009CREASE UNITNew Veterans Block, 1935   Hospital Annual ReportAndrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          4CREASE UNITRecreation Room, 1935   Hospital Annual ReportDormatory, 1935   Hospital Annual Report42 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009CREASE CAFETERIAAndrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          43CREASE CAFETERIAHeritage Classification: Class AYear Built: 934Current Use: Currently AbandonedPrevious Use: Dining pavilionPrevious Name: Veterans’ Unit Dining BlockCurrent Condition: Generally good, some of the wooden doors and windows are showing signs of deterioration.Design/Style: The building is two storeys high, symmetrically massed with a central entry. A decorative balcony with a wrought iron railing is featured above the entry. The entry is at ground level, and an internal staircase leads to the dining area on the upper floor. The concrete base is articulated with horizontal banding and the brick walls match the main building. The trim is artificial stone that matches the main building in detail. The windows are double-hung wooden sash.Notes: Located directly behind the main building, this smaller freestanding pavilion was built as the “Veterans’ Unit Dining Block”. It is the companion building to the main block, and is faced in the same palette of materials. The design is simple but elegant. It is connected to the main building by an un-derground passage.As an integral part of the design of the Veteran’s Unit, this dining pavilion is equaled in heritage significance to the main building.44 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009CREASE CAFETERIAPatient Dining Room, 1935   Hospital Annual ReportKitchen and Dining Block 1935   Hospital Annual ReportAndrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          45CREASE UNIT AND CAFETERIAImage Source: Pictometry Canada Corp. 2008 46 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009This page intentionally left blankAndrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          47RIVERVIEW SUPPORT BUILDINGS48 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009BOILERHOUSEAndrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          49BOILERHOUSEHeritage Classification: Class BYear Built: 924Current Use: Central steam plantPrevious Use: SamePrevious Name: NoneCurrent Condition: Good, however the origional building has been impacted by the later addition.Design/Style: The Boilerhouse is an example of early monolithic, concrete industrial building in British Columbia. The original structure is a symmetrically balanced group of cubes and towering smoke stacks. The windows are large metal-frame industrial style windows. Decoration includes, cast-in-place circles over the windows, heavy banding below the parapet and art deco inspired tops on the smoke stacks. However, a later addition on the front and large oil-storage tank at the rear makes have altered the original structure.50 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009FIRE HALLAndrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          5FIRE HALLHeritage Classification: Class BYear Built: 927Current Use: Currently AbandonedPrevious Use: Fire HallPrevious Name: NoneCurrent Condition: Fair, the building need overall maintenance and painting. Some wooden elements are showing signs of deterioration.Design/Style: The fire hall has had many additions over the years. The original, central part of the building is two and half storeys and has a large cross-gable roof with mock tudor half timbering in the gables and wooden knee brackets. The southern portion is a double-height three bay garage with a flat roof. The northern portion is two storeys with a flat roof. The exterior of the whole building is wooden clapboard siding. The windows are all double-hung wooden sash.Mental Health Services Report, 1956-5752 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009ADMINISTRATION BUILDINGAndrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          53ADMINISTRATION BUILDINGHeritage Classification: Class BYear Built: 928Current Use: Riverview administrationPrevious Use: Nurses residencePrevious Name: Essondale Nurses HomeCurrent Condition: Good, the modern entry doors and awning detract from the heritage character. Design/Style: The Administration Building is built in the English Arts and Crafts style. The building is two and a half storys, with paired wooden sash double-hung windows and several projecting window bays. The building has mock-tudor elements including half-timbering in the gables. The interior is in a tudor revival style with the main reception room having fir paneling, stenciled beamed ceiling, oak floors, stained glass windows and a grand fireplace with inglenook seats. Notes: This building is interesting for how designs are often borrowed from other famous buildings; this building is strikingly similar to “Hog’s Back” in Surrey, UK. The administration building is currently used by Riverview Administration. 54 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009FERNWOOD LODGEAndrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          55FERNWOOD LODGEHeritage Classification: Class BYear Built: 937Current Use: Various social servicesPrevious Use: Nurses residencePrevious Name: NoneCurrent Condition: Good, the modern entry doors and awning detract from the heritage character. Design/Style: Fernwood Lodge is a two story stucco structure with a hip roof. There are a number of projecting bay windows on the front façade with gable roofs. The windows are wooden sash double-hung with divided-lights in the upper sash.Notes: This building is currently used by various social service organizations.56 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009BAKERYAndrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          57BAKERYHeritage Classification: Class CYear Built: 940Current Use: Currently AbandonedPrevious Use: BakeryPrevious Name: NoneCurrent Condition: Fair, the building is not currently being maintained and need to be painted. The windows are borded up and their condition is unknown. Design/Style: The bakery is a relativity simple single story support building.  It has been built is several phases and each section uses a different style and materials. The larger, newer portion is painted concrete with large window openings and a flat roof. The smaller, older portion of the bakery is wood framed with wooden siding and a gable roof. The windows are small and wooden framed.    58 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009ROADSIDEAndrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          59ROADSIDEHeritage Classification: Class CYear Built: 948Current Use: Dentistry and securityPrevious Use: Nurses residencePrevious Name: NoneCurrent Condition: Good, the building is starting to show its age, but is generally well maintained. Design/Style: The building is two storeys with a partial raised basement and is reminiscent of many immediate post war government buildings. The exterior is stucco, the windows are small and regularly spaced. Roadside is 20,985 sq. ft. and is identical to Brookside and Leeside.60 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009BROOKSIDEAndrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          6BROOKSIDEHeritage Classification: Class CYear Built: 948Current Use: Patient residencePrevious Use: Nurses residencePrevious Name: NoneCurrent Condition: Good, the building is starting to show its age, but is generally well maintained. Design/Style: The building is two storeys with a partial raised basement and is reminiscent of many immediate post war government buildings. The exterior is stucco, the windows are small and regularly spaced. Brookside is 20,985 sq. ft. and is identical to Roadside and Leeside. 62 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009LEESIDEAndrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          63LEESIDEHeritage Classification: Class CYear Built: 948Current Use: Patient residencePrevious Use: Nurses residencePrevious Name: NoneCurrent Condition: Good, the building is starting to show its age, but is generally well maintained. Design/Style: The building is two storeys with a partial raised basement and is reminiscent of many immediate post war government buildings. The exterior is stucco, the windows are small and regularly spaced. Leeside is 20,985 sq. ft. and is identical to Brookside and Roadside.64 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009PENNINGTON HALLAndrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          65PENNINGTON HALLHeritage Classification: Class BYear Built: 95Current Use: Recreation centrePrevious Use: SamePrevious Name: NoneCurrent Condition: Good, the building is generally well maintained. Design/Style: Pennington Hall is two storys and is typical of early 950’s institutional buildings. The exterior is painted concrete with some brick accents around windows and doors. Many of the windows are wood-frame divided-light.Notes: Pennington Hall opened in September of 95 and would serve as Riverview’s recreation centre. It housed a gymnasium, auditorium, coffee shop, bowling alley, weight room, games room and other offices and small rooms. The auditorium also doubled as the chapel and movie theater. The building was named for Mr. R. A. Pennington, the Deputy Provincial Secretary. Pennington Hall served as the centre of various sports teams, dances, concerts and the annual sports and field day. British Columbia pioneered the concept of recreational therapy and people would come from all over North America to study Riverview’s methods. Pennington Hall acted both as a centre for recreational therapy and also as the social centre 66 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009TRANSPORT GARAGEAndrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          67TRANSPORT GARAGEHeritage Classification: Class CYear Built: 953Current Use: Garage and vehicle maintainancePrevious Use: SamePrevious Name: NoneCurrent Condition: Good, the building is starting to show its age and needs a coat of paint but is generally well maintained. Design/Style: The transport garage is another building that has seen many additions over the years. Built in an “L”-shape, the southern portion is a large double-height garage with a gable roof. The northern portion is a single height garage with a gently sloping shed roof. Notes: Also found on site are several other garages often built to accompany employee housing. The example to the right is found to the rear of the Central Supply building and dates from the 1930’s. It has a stucco finish and is set back into the hill.68 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009CENTRAL SUPPLYAndrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          69CENTRAL SUPPLYHeritage Classification: Class CYear Built: 955Current Use: Laundry and storesPrevious Use: SamePrevious Name: Laundry and Stores BuildingCurrent Condition: Good, the building is starting to show its age, but is generally well maintained. Design/Style: The Central Supply building is a large four story concrete building with a flat roof. The exterior is painted concrete. The windows are large divided-light and aluminum framed. There are two raised horizontal concrete bands connecting the windows on each floor.Construction of Laundry and Stores, 1955  Hospital Annual Report70 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009NORTH LAWNAndrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          7NORTH LAWNHeritage Classification: Class BYear Built:955Current Use: Currently AbandonedPrevious Use: Tuberculosis patientsPrevious Name: NoneCurrent Condition: Good, the building is generally well maintained given that it is abandoned.Design/Style: North Lawn is a two story building with a raised basement. The exterior is painted concrete with red brick on the raised basement portion. The windows are large divided-light and aluminum framed. It is designed in a chevron shape and located at the top of the site giving it impressive views down to the river valley and to the mountains beyond. Notes: North Lawn was opened on May 4, 955 as a tuberculosis hospital for Riverview patients with a bed capacity of 230. During Riverview’s early years about 5% of the patient population was diagnosed with TB. Isolating those patients with TB was an ongoing problem.  Therefore in the early 950’s the decision was made to construct a new tubercular-mental hospital to house TB patients at Riverview. The bottom floor of the building was reserved as a small treatment unit for the early isolation of patients suffering from other infectious diseases.North Lawn, 1955   BC Archives72 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009TUCK SHOPAndrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          73TUCK SHOPHeritage Classification: Class CYear Built: 955Current Use: Currently AbandonedPrevious Use: Tuck shop, post office, bus stopPrevious Name: NoneCurrent Condition: Fair, several of the wooden building elements are showing signs if deterioration and the roof has a thick layer of moss.Design/Style: The tuck shop is a simple wooden single-story structure with a shed roof. The building is narrow and long with the back of the building is partially built into the hill. The doors and windows are wooden frame. The building has little internal circulation with access to different sections being from the outside. Tuck Shop, 1955  Hospital Annual Report Post Office 1955  Hospital Annual Report74 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009HENRY ESSON YOUNG (HEY) BUILDINGAndrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          75HENRY ESSON YOUNG (HEY) BUILDINGHeritage Classification: Class BYear Built: 957Current Use: Library and conference centrePrevious Use: Nursing school and nurses residencePrevious Name: School of Psychiatric NursingCurrent Condition: Good, the building is generally well maintained. Design/Style: The HEY building is a modernist structure. The main materials are brick, painted and exposed concrete. The windows of the residential tower are small and regularly spaced. The windows of the education wing are large picture windows. Notes: The HEY building provided residence for 00 nursing students and educational facilities. In 973 the Psychiatric Nursing program moved to BCIT and the last class of nurses graduated from Riverview. This building currently houses the Riverview library and provides conference facilities.76 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009TELE-SERVICE BUILDINGAndrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          77TELE-SERVICE BUILDINGHeritage Classification: Class CYear Built: 960Current Use: Currnetly AbandonedPrevious Use: Tele-servicePrevious Name: NoneCurrent Condition: Fair, the building is starting to show its age and requires painting. Design/Style: This building is a simple single story concrete block building. The windows are small and vertical. It is connected by a covered walkway to the adjacent Patient Services Building.78 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009PATIENT SERVICESAndrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          79PATIENT SERVICESHeritage Classification: Class CYear Built: 96Current Use: Review panelPrevious Use: Credit UnionPrevious Name: Credit Union BuildingCurrent Condition: Fair, the building is starting to show its age and requires painting. Design/Style: This building is a simple two story concrete block building. The windows are a mixture of wooden frame vertical windows on the ground floor and double-hung wooden sash on the second floor. It is connected by a covered walkway to the adjacent Tele-service Building.80 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009INDUSTRIAL SERVICESAndrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          8INDUSTRIAL SERVICESHeritage Classification: Class CYear Built: 962Current Use: Industrial therapyPrevious Use: Industrial therapyPrevious Name: Industrial Therapy BuildingCurrent Condition: Good, the building is generally well maintained.Design/Style: The Industrial Services building is a modernist two story structure. The exterior is a mixture of painted poured concrete and concrete block. The building features a large roof overhang, helping to lend the buildings its horizontal appearance. The windows are large aluminum frame. Notes: this building replaced an earlier building destroyed by fire in 1955. This building contains numerous departments, including; the apparel shop, carpentry shop, metal shop, emergency operations centre, central sterile supply, the riverview museum, hairdressing, art therapy, and pharmacy.Mental Health Services Report 1962-6382 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009DISTRIBUTION CENTREAndrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          83DISTRIBUTION CENTREHeritage Classification: Class CYear Built: 963Current Use: Provinical Sherrif’s Office and The Society for the Preservation of Antique Radio in Canada (SPARC)Previous Use: PharmacyPrevious Name: Distribution CentreCurrent Condition: The building is in fair condition and requires painting. Design/Style: The distribution centre is a large two and half story warehouse building with a simple low-gable roof. The windows are aluminum sliders and the cladding is vertical aluminum siding. Notes: This building represents a low point for design and construction at Riverview.84 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009HILLSIDEAndrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          85HILLSIDEHeritage Classification: Class CYear Built: 966Current Use: UnknownPrevious Use: RehabilitationPrevious Name: NoneCurrent Condition: Good, the building is well maintained. Design/Style: The 60 bed Hillside unit, according to Hospital reports, is stated to be in “Danish-modern style” , however the building would be better described as modern. The exterior is a mix of painted concrete and pebble stucco. The windows are large aluminum frame picture windows. There were 30 beds on the west side for men and 30 beds of the east side for women. Notes: Opened in January of 966, for the rehabilitation department for those patients beginning to prepare themselves for outside living on their own. All of the staff wore civilian clothing to emphasize their role of instructors rather than nurses. The unit was set up much like a home with kitchen, living and dining rooms and patients were responsible for the cooking and cleaning. The patients also went on regular shopping and field trips to help with their integration back into society.86 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009CONNELLY LODGEAndrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          87CONNELLY LODGEHeritage Classification: Class CYear Built: 200Current Use: Mental Health Patients Residential FacilityPrevious Use: SamePrevious Name: NoneCurrent Condition: Good, the building is well maintained. Design/Style: Connelly Lodge is a simple single story residential building with a hip roof. The cladding is vertical wooden siding and the windows are vinyl frame. This building is located on the hill above the Valleyview site giving it great views over the valley below. Notes: Operated by the Fraser Health Authority. Connelly Lodge is the first new building built at Riverivew is almost 40 years. The decline in design and quality of materials is evident when compared to the early buildings at Riverview. It is also interesting to note that existing buildings are closed and abandoned as new ones such as this are built.88 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009COTTONWOOD LODGEAndrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          89COTTONWOOD LODGEHeritage Classification: Class CYear Built: 2006Current Use: Mental Health Patients Residential FacilityPrevious Use: SamePrevious Name: NoneCurrent Condition: Good, the building is well maintained. Design/Style: Cottonwood Lodge is a one and half story building with a double height entrance hall and a low gable roof. The exterior is a mix of vertical and horizontal composite siding. The windows are aluminum frame.This building is located on the hill above the Valleyview site giving it great views over the valley below. Notes: Operated by the Fraser Health Authority90 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009Image Source: Pictometry Canada Corp. 2008 Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          9BOYS INDUSTRIAL SCHOOLANDVALLEYVIEW92 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009BOY’S INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL Boys Industrial School Gardens 1929, BC ArchivesAdministration Building, BC Archives Auditorium Building, BC Archives CA195Cottage No. 2, 1921 BC ArchivesAndrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          93BOY’S INDUSTRIAL SCHOOLOriginally the Provincial Industrial School for Boys, The Boy’s Industrial School was constructed on the site in 920-2 as a school for “incorrigible youth”. Consisting of five Tudor-revival style cottages several additional buildings were quickly added as the school grew. The school was the successor to the provincial juvenile reformatory system established in 890 with a mandate to guide the education, industrial training and moral rehabilitation of boys sentenced to confinement by law. (Davies, 994) The architect for the Boy’s Industrial School was Department of Public Works under Henry Whittaker. Likely sited at Riverview because of its relative isolation from urban centres. The school took advantage of medical or psychiatric therapy available through Riverview hospital. The boys were full participants, along with patients and staff, in the social and recreational activities that took place on the site. There was a policy in place in which doctors from Riverview alternated in caring for the boys at the Industrial School. (Cook, 2008)Other buildings that were on site but have now been demolished include: Kitchen and Dining Room Block consisting of kitchen, four dining rooms, dental & first aid rooms, band rooms, tailoring department, shoemaking shops and several small rooms used for stores.Auditorium Building consisted of a large auditorium seating 300, two classrooms, a room for religious worship, swimming tank and gymnasium.Workshops (temporary) consisted of carpentry, plumbing, electrical and blacksmith departments.Farm buildings consisted of a dairy barn, silo, feed rooms, bullpens, horse barn, piggery and poultry houses.••••The school had an active farming component, generally located towards the northwest of the site adjacent to and above the playing fields. The grounds were also heavily landscaped with extensive gardens.In 935 the Provincial Home for the Aged Act was passed and the Boy’s School cottages were upgraded and handed over to the Home for the Aged (now Valleyview) in May of 936. (Davies, 994)The origional Administration building, now known as the Valleyview Pavilion and the three cottages are currently abandoned.  Boys Industrial School, BC Archives I-2803294 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009VALLEYVIEW LODGEAndrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          95VALLEYVIEW LODGEHeritage Classification: Class AYear Built: 920Current Use: Currently AbandonedOriginal Use: Boys Industrial School administrationPrevious Name: Subnormal Boys School for Juvenile Delinquents AdministrationCurrent Condition: The building is in good condition and requires painting.  Some of the wooden doors and windows are showing signs deterioration. Design/Style: Valleyview Lodge is a two story building in tudor revival style, with brick foundations and trim and a raised basement. The building consists of roughcast stucco cladding on the main floor, stucco and half-timbering on the second floor and a prominent hip roof with a projecting gable over the front entry. The windows are double-hung wooden sash. Valleyview lodge is 7833 sq. ft. 96 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009COTTAGE NO. 1Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          97COTTAGE NO. 1Heritage Classification: Class AYear Built: 92Current Use: Currently AbandonedOriginal Use: Boy’s School ResidencePrevious Name: NoneCurrent Condition: The building is in good condition and requires painting.  Some of the wooden doors and windows are showing signs deterioration. Design/Style: Cottage no.  is a two story building in the tudor revival style, with brick foundations and trim and a raised basement. The building is shaped like a “T” with a rear extention. There is also a projecting front entry. The building consists of roughcast stucco cladding on the main floor, stucco and half-timbering on the second floor with a prominent hip roof. The windows are modern aluminum frame. Cottage No.  is ,423 sq. ft.Notes: Cottage No.  is identical to Cottages Nos. 2 and 398 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009COTTAGE NO. 2Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          99COTTAGE NO. 2Heritage Classification: Class AYear Built: 922Current Use: Currently AbandonedOriginal Use: Boy’s School ResidencePrevious Name: NoneCurrent Condition: The building is in good condition and requires painting.  Some of the wooden doors and windows are showing signs deterioration. Design/Style: Cottage no. 2 is a two story building in the tudor revival style, with brick foundations and trim and a raised basement. The building is shaped like a “T” with a rear extention. There is also a projecting front entry. The building consists of roughcast stucco cladding on the main floor, stucco and half-timbering on the second floor with a prominent hip roof. The windows are modern aluminum frame. Cottage No 2. is ,423 sq. ft.Notes: Cottage No. 2 is identical to Cottages Nos.  and 300 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009COTTAGE NO. 3Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          0COTTAGE NO. 3Heritage Classification: Class AYear Built: 922Current Use: Currently AbandonedOriginalUse: Boy’s School ResidencePrevious Name: NoneCurrent Condition: The building is in good condition and requires painting.  Some of the wooden doors and windows are showing signs deterioration. Design/Style: Cottage No. 3 is a two story building in the tudor revival style, with brick foundations and trim and a raised basement. The building is shaped like a “T” with a rear extention. There is also a projecting front entry. The building consists of roughcast stucco cladding on the main floor, stucco and half-timbering on the second floor with a prominent hip roof. The windows are modern aluminum frame. Cottage No. 3 is ,423 sq. ft.Notes: Cottage No. 3 is identical to Cottages Nos.  and 202 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009UNIT 5Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          03UNIT 5Heritage Classification: Class CYear Built: 945Current Use: BCBC administrationOriginal Use: Seniors care facilityPrevious Name: Home for the AgedCurrent Condition: Fair, the building is starting to show its age and requires painting. Design/Style: Unit 5 is a two-story stucco structure with brick accents around the windows and flat roof. The front façade is articulated with four projecting bays and there is a rear central extension. The windows are divided-light aluminum frame. There is some vertical detailing above the front entry which helps to counterbalance the long horizontal of the building. The interior featured long ramps in place of stairs or elevators for easy patient movement between floors. Each building had a capacity of 00 beds.Notes: Unit 5 is of the same design as Units 6 and 804 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009UNIT 6Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          05UNIT 6Heritage Classification: Class CYear Built: 945Current Use: Tri-Cities Home HealthOriginal Use: Seniors care facilityPrevious Name: Home for the AgedCurrent Condition: Fair, the building is starting to show its age and requires painting. Design/Style: Unit 6 is a two-story stucco structure with brick accents around the windows and flat roof. The front façade is articulated with four projecting bays and there is a rear central extension. The windows are divided-light aluminum frame.  There is vertical detailing above the front entry which helps to counterbalance the long horizontal of the building. The interior featured long ramps in place of stairs or elevators for easy patient movement between floors. Each building had a capacity of 00 beds.Notes: Unit 6 is of the same design as units 5 and 806 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009UNIT 8Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          07UNIT 8Heritage Classification: Class CYear Built: 952Current Use: Police & Fire Training CentreOriginal Use: Seniors care facilityPrevious Name: Home for the AgedCurrent Condition: Fair, the building is starting to show its age and requires painting. Design/Style: Unit 8 is a two-story stucco structure with brick accents around the windows and flat roof. The front façade is articulated with four projecting bays and there is a rear central extension. The windows are divided-light aluminum frame. There is vertical detailing above the front entry which helps to counterbalance the long horizontal of the building. The interior featured long ramps in place of stairs or elevators for easy patient movement between floors. Each building had a capacity of 00 beds.Notes: Unit 8 is of the same design as units 5 & 6 which is notable given the seven year time differnece between the buildings.08 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009VALLEYVIEW AUDITORIUMAndrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          09VALLEYVIEW AUDITORIUMHeritage Classification: Class CYear Built: 955Current Use: Day careOriginal Use: Auditorium and chapelPrevious Name: NoneCurrent Condition: Good, the building is generally well maintained. Design/Style: The Valleyview Auditorium is a single story building with a large vaulted roof. The windows and doors are wooden frame. The building is reminiscent of many post-war religious building designs. Mental Health Services Report 1955-560 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009VALLEYVIEW PAVILIONAndrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          VALLEYVIEW PAVILIONHeritage Classification: Class CYear Built: 960Current Use: Seniors care facilityOriginal Use: SamePrevious Name: Valleyview 300Current Condition: Good, the building is generally well maintained. Design/Style: Valleyview Pavilion is a five storey concrete building with a flat roof. The exterior is a mixture of painted concrete and coloured panels. The windows on the front side are small aluminum frame with the rear windows being larger aluminum picture windows. Notes: The Valleyview Pavilion was opened on May 22, 960. Originally known as Valleyview 300 the building had 6 wards and 328 beds. 2 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          3LANDSCAPE FEATURES4 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009ARBORETUM Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          5ARBORETUM One of the main treasures of Riverivew is its tree collection. Over 1800 significant trees have been catalogued throughout the Riverview site and form a nationally significant collection of trees from around the temperate world. The Riverview arboretum is the second oldest in Canada and the most extensive in Western Canada with 63 species and 33 varieties identified. (Golds, et al, 2004)It was Provincial Botanist, John Davidson’s vision in 9 to have trees from around the world in one location for the education and enjoyment of the people of British Columbia. Visitors to the site today quickly realize that they are experiencing a highly designed landscape where the interplay of colour, shape, proportion and light has been thoroughly planned. The changing seasons provide varying experiences of the site. The tree collection is mostly unknown to the wider world, though groups such as the Riverview Horticultural Society and the Burke mountain Naturalists provide education and lobby to preserve the site from redevelopment. The International Society of Arborists valued the individual trees at over $50 million, however as a collection their value is much greater.The International Society of Municipal Arborists stated, “Examples of trees such as are found on this ground are priceless in terms of their aesthetic, educational and scientific values. This site will be world renowned if it becomes a preserve or educational centre.” (Ibid)Riverivew is also home to a former Provincial tree nursery, remnants of this nursery can be seen in several areas of the sire. 6 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009FINNIE’S GARDENAndrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          7FINNIE’S GARDENArthur Brian ‘Art’ Finnie worked as a nurse in the wards at Riverview for 32 years from 937 to 969. In 95 he received head injuries from a patient who was an ex-boxer and took six months of sick leave. When he returned to Riverview, Mr. Finnie began an early form of therapeutic gardening with a group of mentally handicapped patients. (Golds, et al, 2004)This 2 acre plot of land, originally known as “Farmview,” is set up the hill from the main buildings of Riverview and was a early start at horticultural therapy. Started on April 8,95 Art Finnie, took on this task with gusto, and the garden quickly became known as “Finnie’s Garden”. The land was all cleared by hand and was terraced with hand-built stone retaining walls; the majority of the work done by patients who enjoyed the opportunity to work outside and create the garden. The stone terraces remain, as do a large stone barbecue, a pond and a shed. At one time there was also greenhouse and a log cabin. (ibid) The garden is a very special place at Riverview because of the peacefulness and serenity of the setting. The richness of its history and the evidence of incredible attention and effort, which went into its design and construction, also benefit the site.8 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009CEMETERYAndrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          9CEMETERYThe cemetery at Riverview is the final resting place for many people for whom the Riverview was their home. The cemetery was established in 958 and was open to any patient or staff member who wished to be buried there.  Prior to its establishment patients were buried at the cemetery at Woodlands. It is a simple relatively sparse landscape surrounded by a fence. Designed by the Department of Public Works. The cemetery is an open lawn with one road into the centre, headstones are very small and flush with the ground. Cemeteries tend to be spiritual places and this one is no less so. In its starkness and simplicity, it is a reflection of the challenges that marked the lives of those buried in it.20 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009RIVERVIEW LANDSCAPE Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          2RIVERVIEW LANDSCAPERiverview is highly valued for its important landscape features which vary from the managed hospital grounds to remnant fields and orchards to more naturalized forested areas. These landscapes help to lend Riverview its tranquil and restful qualities. The site is often divided into the managed ‘frontyard’ area which included the hospital buildings and open lawn areas and the ‘backyard’ areas which are no longer maintained and are slowly reverting to a more natural state. (Golds, et al, 2004)The site also provides habitat for a number of small mammals and bird species and the several of the watercourses are fish baring. However several areas could have their habitat values improved.  It is important to note that the whole riverview landscape has been impacted by human intervention and none of it is original state. 22 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009OTHER LANDSCAPE FEATURESAndrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          23OTHER LANDSCAPE FEATURESThe Riverview site is also notable for a number of other built landscape features. These include retaining walls, playing fields, pathways and stairs.The retaining wall by the Boy’s School playing field is notable for the water taps built into the wall. It is unknown if they used piped water or had a system for collecting ground water behind the wall. There is also a system of underground steam tunnels connecting the boilerhouse to many of the principle buildings.24 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          25COTTAGES26 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009COTTAGE 103Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          27COTTAGE 103Heritage Classification: Class BYear Built: 924 Current Use: Forensic services - mini care residencePrevious Use: Medical Officer’s residenceCurrent Condition: Good, the cottage is well maintained. Design/Style: Cottage 03 is a two story four-square house. The exterior is stucco with a brick foundation. The roof is hip with a central chimney. There is a projecting front bay with a hip roof and extensions on both sides. The windows are double-hung wooden sash with a lintel beneath each window. Notes: Cottage 0 and 02 have been demolished. The 979 Riverview Inventory states that Cottage 0 was Georgian Revival style and Cottage 02 was Norman Revival style. These cottages were most likely lost during the construction of Mariner Way which is adjacent to cottage 03. 28 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009COTTAGE 104Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          29COTTAGE 104Heritage Classification: Class BYear Built: 930Current Use: Forensic Services - mini care residencePrevious Use: Medical Officer’s residenceCurrent Condition: Good, the cottage is well maintained. Design/Style: Cottage 04 is a two story ‘L’-shaped house, with a hip roof. The exterior is wide lapped wood siding and the windows are double-hung wooden sash.  The cottage features an offset entry porch and a side extension.30 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009COTTAGE 105Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          3COTTAGE 105Heritage Classification: Class BYear Built: 926Current Use: Forensic services - mini care residencePrevious Use: Medical Officer’s residenceCurrent Condition: Good, the cottage is well maintained. Design/Style: Cottage 05 is a two story four-square house with a hip roof and central chimney. The cladding is stucco and the windows are double-hung wooden sash and feature a lintel beneath each window. The cottage has a two story side entry porch and a projecting front bay. The foundation is brick.32 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009COTTAGE 106Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          33COTTAGE 106Heritage Classification: Class BYear Built: 98Current Use: Vocational servicesPrevious Use: Farm Superintendent’s residenceCurrent Condition: Good, the cottage is well maintained. Design/Style: Cottage 06 is a  one and a half story building with a raised basement. The cottage features a jerkhin roof with front jerkhin dormer and a central chimney. The exterior is stucco and the windows are double-hung wooden sash. The entry porch is off-set lending the cottage an non-symmetrical appearance.BC Archives34 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009COTTAGE 107Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          35COTTAGE 107Heritage Classification: Class BYear Built: 920Current Use: Patient Empowerment SocietyPrevious Use: ResidenceCurrent Condition: Good, the cottage is well maintained. The replacement front steps do not match the style of the cottage.Design/Style: Cottage 07 is a two and a half story, double fronted house with a partially raised basement. The exterior is stucco, and features a hip roof, with hip dormers and large cornice line moulding. There is a  front entry porch and small rear extension.36 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009COTTAGE 108Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          37COTTAGE 108Heritage Classification: Class BYear Built: 927Current Use: Patient Sexuality ProgramPrevious Use: Chauffeur’s residenceCurrent Condition: Good, the cottage is well maintained however some elements require painting.Design/Style: Cottage 08 is a two story house with a hip roof and a central chimney. The cladding is stucco and the windows are double-hung wooden sash. The front entry porch is off-set. 38 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009COTTAGE 109Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          39COTTAGE 109Heritage Classification: Class BYear Built: 94Current Use: Pastoral Services and the Volunteer DepartmentPrevious Use: ResidenceCurrent Condition: Good, the cottage is well maintained. The original wooden porch posts have been replaced with modern metal ones. Design/Style: Cottage 09 is a one and a half story, double fronted house with a full width front porch. The exterior is stucco and features a side gable roof with two octagonal front hip dormers. 40 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009COTTAGE 110Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          4COTTAGE 110Heritage Classification: Class BYear Built: 922Current Use: Personal Independence ProgramPrevious Use: Chief Steward’s residenceCurrent Condition: Good, the cottage is well maintained.Design/Style: Cottage 0 is a two story four-square house with an off-set entry porch. It features a hip roof and a stucco exterior. The windows are double-hung wooden sash and feature a lintel beneath each window. 42 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009COTTAGE 111Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          43COTTAGE 111Heritage Classification: Class BYear Built: 922Current Use: Coast Mental Health Forensic patientsPrevious Use: Official’s residenceCurrent Condition: Good, the cottage is well maintained. Some of the wooden elements are showing signs of deterioration. Design/Style: Cottage  is a two story house with a side gable roof. The exterior is stucco and the windows are double-hung wooden sash. The cottage features an offset side entry porch with shed roof, front and rear jerkin-headed projections44 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009COTTAGE 112Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          45COTTAGE 112Heritage Classification: Class BYear Built: 922Current Use: Occupational therapyPrevious Use: Official’s residenceCurrent Condition: Good, the cottage is generally well maintained.Design/Style: Cottage 2 is an one and a half story house with a full width front porch. The side gable roof has front and rear hip dormers. The exterior is stucco and the windows are double-hung wooden sash. 46 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009COTTAGE 113Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          47COTTAGE 113Heritage Classification: Class BYear Built: 922Current Use: Legal AidPrevious Use: Official’s residenceCurrent Condition: Good, the cottage is generally well maintained.Design/Style: This  and a half story cottage features a side gable roof with front and rear hip dormers and an offset entry porch. The cladding is stucco and the windows are double-hung wooden sash. 48 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009COTTAGE 114Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          49COTTAGE 114Heritage Classification: Class BYear Built: 940Current Use: UnknownPrevious Use: ResidenceCurrent Condition: Good, the cottage is generally well maintained.Design/Style: Cottage 4 is a ‘L’-shaped Bungalow with a stucco exterior. The side gable roof with projecting offset front gable features mock Tudor in the gables ends. The windows are double-hung wooden sash. 50 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009COTTAGE 115Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          5COTTAGE 115Heritage Classification: Class BYear Built:90Current Use: AbandonedPrevious Use: Employees residenceCurrent Condition: Fair, the cottage requires painting and is no longer maintained.Design/Style: This bungalow features a projecting enclosed front porch with a shed roof. The exterior is wood shake siding with wide corner boards. The roof is a side gable with a projecting front gable over the front reception room and wooden knee brackets and mock tudor half timbering in the gable ends.Notes: Cottage 5 is the oldest remaing building on the Riverview site.52 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009COTTAGE 116Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          53COTTAGE 116Heritage Classification: Class BYear Built: 99Current Use: West Coast Clinical ResearchPrevious Use: Employees residenceCurrent Condition: Good, the cottage is generally well maintained. Some elements require painting.Design/Style: This craftsman style bungalow features an inset entry porch with a shallow arched opening. The roof has a side gable with a projecting front gable and wooden knee brackets, half-timbering in the gable end. The cladding is lapped wooden siding. The windows are double-hung wooden sash.54 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009COTTAGE 118Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          55COTTAGE 118Heritage Classification: Class BYear Built: 99Current Use: Chairperson P.E.S. residencePrevious Use: Employees residenceCurrent Condition: Good, the cottage is generally well maintained. Some elements require painting.Design/Style: This craftsman style bungalow features an inset entry porch with a shallow arched opening. The roof has a side gable with a projecting front gable and wooden knee brackets, half-timbering in the gable end. The cladding is lapped wooden siding. The windows are double-hung wooden sash.56 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009COTTAGE 119Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          57COTTAGE 119Heritage Classification: Class BYear Built: 99Current Use: Hawthorne Lodge (for out of town family)Previous Use: Employees residenceCurrent Condition: Good, the cottage is generally well maintained. Some elements require painting.Design/Style: This craftsman style bungalow features an inset entry porch with a shallow arched opening. The roof has a side gable with a projecting front gable and wooden knee brackets, half-timbering in the gable end. The cladding is lapped wooden siding. The windows are double-hung wooden sash.58 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009COTTAGE 120Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          59COTTAGE 120Heritage Classification: Class BYear Built: 99 Current Use: Duty-Doctor residencePrevious Use: Employees residenceCurrent Condition: Good, the cottage is generally well maintained. Some elements require painting.Design/Style: This craftsman style bungalow features a shed roof entry porch. The roof has a side gable with a projecting front gable and half-timbering in the gable end. The cladding is wooden shake siding. The windows are double-hung wooden sash.60 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009COTTAGE 121Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          6COTTAGE 121Heritage Classification: Class BYear Built: 99Current Use: New View Society Drop-In CentrePrevious Use: Employees residenceCurrent Condition: Good, the cottage is generally well maintained. Some elements require painting.Design/Style: This craftsman style bungalow features an inset entry porch with a shallow arched opening. The roof has a side gable with a projecting front gable and wooden knee brackets, half-timbering in the gable end. The cladding is lapped wooden siding. The windows are double-hung wooden sash.62 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009COTTAGE 122Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          63COTTAGE 122Heritage Classification: Class BYear Built: 923Current Use: Ambulance StationPrevious Use: ResidenceCurrent Condition: Good, the cottage is generally well maintained.Design/Style: This craftsman style bungalow features an inset entry porch with a shallow arched opening. The roof has a side gable with a projecting front gable and wooden knee brackets. The cladding iswooden shakes and the windows are double-hung wooden sash. There is wooden siding over the foundation. 64 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009RECOMMENDATIONSThis inventory is hoped to provide an indication of the breadth of the physical elements on the Riverview site. Riverview is an important component of the history of British Columbia and demonstrates local innovation in the treatment of mental illness. This report should provide decision makers with an overview of the Riverview site and help to inform the process of determining the future of Riverview.The site is also important not only for an individual building, action, landscape feature or group of trees, but for the collection as a whole and the individual elements relationships to each other.  Any future use of the site must take the site as a complete whole. Moving forward, adaptive reuse of the site in keeping with the original mandate of being a space for the treatment of mental illness is the preferred use for the site. If that is not possible the site should be maintained under public ownership and developed with public uses that respect the integrity of the site and allows the people of British Columbia to experience Riverview.The site deserves further detailed study into the people who lived and worked at Riverview and their actions and experiences. These personal and professional stories form an important part of Riverview that moves beyond the physical elements of the site that this report covers. Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          65FIGURE GROUNDNMETERS0      50     00           200             300Site Boundary66 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009SITE PLANNMETERS0     50    00          200           300Site BoundaryRoadsLougheed HighwayRailwayStreamsCoquitlam RiverAndrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          67WATERCOURSESNMETERS0     50    00          200           300Site BoundaryStreamsCoquitlam RiverAir Photo courtesy of the City of Coquitlam68 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009This page intentionally left blankAndrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009         Riverview Heritage Inventory          69REFERENCESAnnual Reports, Public Hospital for the Insane. Available at the Riverview Hospital LibraryBC Archives: GR-049 Provincial Industrial School for Boys records 99-978BC Mental Health and Addiction Services (2007) A Brief History of North Lawn. Colony Farm Land Use Study Steering Committee (995) Colony Farm Land Use Plan. British Columbia Mental Health Society (996) Position Paper of Riverview Land Use. Davies, David (994) Our History in a Nutshell, a brief outline of the Growth and Develop-ment of the Mental Health Services of British Columbia. Riverview Hospital Library, Co-quitlam, BC.Davidson Yuen Simpson Architects (994) West Lawn/Crease Unit Building for Alternative Use Study. Prepared for, The British Columbia Building Corporation (BCBC), The Province of British Columbia: Victoria.Denise Cook Design (2008) Riverview Cultural Landscape History. Prepared for: Accom-modation and Real Estate Services (ARES), Ministry of Labour, The Province of British Co-lumbia, Victoria, BC.Donald Luxton and Associates (2008) Statement of Significance, Riverview. Prepared for The City of Coquitlam: Coquitlam, BCDonald Luxton and Associates (2009) Crease Clinic Heritage Assessment. Prepared for: Read Jones Christoffersen (RJC): Vancouver, BC.Dunster and Associates (2003) Best Management Practices for Trees at the Riverview Lands. Prepared for, The British Columbia Building Corporation (BCBC), The Province of British Columbia: Victoria.F.G. Architectural and Planning Consultants (995) Riverview Heritage Evaluation. Pre-pared for, The British Columbia Building Corporation (BCBC), The Province of British Co-lumbia: Victoria.Golds, Elaine, with Austin, Lori and Otton, Victoria (2004) The Riverview Hospital Site, Re-specting its Past, Realizing its Future. The Burke Mountain Naturalists: Coquitlam, BC.GVRD Regional Parks Department (200) A History of Colony Farm 1910-1963. Greater Vancouver Regional District: Burnaby, BC..2.3.4.5.6.7.8.9.0..2.3.4.70 Riverview Heritage Inventory Andrew Merrill | Professional Project | SCARP 2009REFERENCESPhilips Wuori Long Inc., Alpine Tree Services Ltd. and Fisher, Brian. (995) Riverview Heri-tage Tree Inventory. Prepared for, The British Columbia Building Corporation (BCBC), The Province of British Columbia: Victoria.Riverview Horticultural Centre Society (2003) Land Use Position Paper. Available Online: www.rhcs.org. Riverview Horticultural Centre Society (n.d.) Riverview Arboretum 244 acres. Available Online: www.rhcs.org.Riverview Task Force (2005) For the Future of Riverview. The City of Coquitlam: Coquitlam, BC.Riverview Hospital Heritage Inventory (979) Prepared for, The British Columbia Building Corporation (BCBC), The Province of British Columbia: Victoria.Dunster, Julian (2005) Riverview Tree Inventory. Prepared for, The British Columbia Mental Health Society: Victoria, BC.RPG Partnership (995) Riverview Hospital Replacement Project, Site Selection Report. Prepared for, The British Columbia Mental Health Society: Victoria, BC.RPG Resource Planning Group (993) Riverview Hospital Replacement Project, Planning Stage, Site Selection Report. Prepared for, The British Columbia Mental Health Society.Shared Services BC (2006) Riverview Tree Collection Vision, Background and Summary Report. ARES, The Province of British Columbia,: Victoria, BC.Shared Services BC (2007) The Riverview Lands Tree Collection Vision. ARES, The Province of British Columbia,: Victoria, BC. Tremere, Anna (2005) East Lawn 1930-2005. Riverview Hospital: Coquitlam, BCWilliams, Niall A. (2008) Riverview Hospital   Available Online: http://riverviewhospital.blogspot.comAll photos are by the author, unless otherwise indicated.5.6.7.8.19.20.2.22.23.24.25.26.27.This page intentionally left blankRIVERVIEW HERITAGE INVENTORYAndrew MerrillUniversity of British Columbia  |  School of Community and Regional Planning2009

Cite

Citation Scheme:

    

Usage Statistics

Country Views Downloads
Canada 25 2
China 13 25
United States 13 1
France 4 0
Ukraine 1 0
City Views Downloads
Unknown 22 2
Beijing 13 0
Dallas 3 0
Atlanta 2 0
Vancouver 2 0
Toronto 2 0
Oliver 2 0
Ashburn 2 0
Mountain View 1 0
Pitt Meadows 1 0
Port Coquitlam 1 0
Delta 1 0
Richmond 1 0

{[{ mDataHeader[type] }]} {[{ month[type] }]} {[{ tData[type] }]}
Download Stats

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.310.1-0107188/manifest

Comment

Related Items