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SPACE FOR CHANGE - Partnership examples: Local Government and Youth Wilkinson, Clarissa K Apr 30, 2009

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Space for Change Partnership examples: Local Government and Youth Claire Wilkinson In acknowledgement of the young people who lead by example with creativity, innovation and flair. I would like to recognise the two mentors of this project, Dorothie and Sabina. As my teachers, both gave and shared so much to assist and enlighten me in Nairobi. I would also like to thank the United Nations Human Settlements and Cities- Partners and Youth Division for hosting my internship (Anantha Krishnan, Mutinta Munyati, Paul Wambua). Thank you Doug Ragan for your patience, advice and belief in youth and for your connections to friends from the University of Colorado, Children Youth and Environments Centre for Research and Design. I am very grateful to those who have taken the time to review and provide comment to this document. The Canadian Department of Foreign Affairs Young Professional Program sponsored travel to Nairobi and financial support for the 2006 to 2007 Internship with UN-Habitat. Masters Project Submitted April, 2009 School of  Community and Regional Planning University of  British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada Space for Change - 3 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .......................................................................................... 7 PART A Introduction ............................................................................................. 8  A1 Definition of  Youth ....................................................................................... 8  A2 International Recognition ........................................................................... 10  A3 UN Habitat-The Global Partnership Initiative ...................................... 10  A4 Youth Demographics .................................................................................... 10  A5 Issues Facing a Dispraportionate Population ......................................... 11  A6 Protective Factors ......................................................................................... 12  A7 Local Government ......................................................................................... 13  A8 Summary .......................................................................................................... 13 PART B Participation............................................................................................. 15 B1  Descriptive Models ....................................................................................... 16 B2  Important Conditions ................................................................................... 18 B3  Youth Adult Partnerships ............................................................................ 19 B4  Youth Led Development .............................................................................. 20 B5  Defining “Meaningful Participation” ........................................................ 20 B6  Civil Society and Citizenship ...................................................................... 20 B7  Summary .......................................................................................................... 20 PART C Case Study Overview ...................................................................... 22 C1 Research Approach ........................................................................................ 24 C2 Methodology .................................................................................................. 24 C3  Global Partnership Initiative Background .............................................. 24 C4 Distribution of  Space ................................................................................... 26 C5 Formal Partnerships and Service Provision ........................................... 28 C6  Informal Partnerships-Youth Led Development Case Examples ...... 32 C7  Other Activities and Use of  Space ............................................................ 36 C8 Measuring Participation .............................................................................. 36 C9 Summary .......................................................................................................... 37 PART D Observations and Recommendations ............................... 38  D1  Factors for Success ........................................................................................ 38  D2  Objectives and Areas of  Intervention ...................................................... 40  D3  Areas for Improvement  ............................................................................... 42  D4 Operationalizing Participation ................................................................... 42  D5  New Spaces for Learning ............................................................................. 43  D6  Summary .......................................................................................................... 44 CONCLUSION ................................................................................................................ 47 REFLECTION ................................................................................................................... 49 BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................................................ 51 Space for Change - 5 This research project centres around the topics of participatory planning and community development. It specifically investigates and illustrates the contributions of youth through their participation in initiatives that contribute to the improvement of the communities in which they live. According to the United Nations Human Settlements and Cities statistics, the global population has quadrupled since 1950 and cities of the developing world account for over ninety percent of the worlds urban growth. The measures also highlight that the world is also more youthful. Even as decreasing birth rates and longer life spans are influencing an overall trend toward population ageing, in absolute numbers, there are more people under the age of 25 today than ever, nearly 3 billion or half of the total global population (UN-Habitat 2007). The purpose of this project is to address what planners can do in cities where youth, or those aged under 25, are the age majority of the urban population. The research: •   investigates what issues are associated with such demographic trends •   questions what facilitates successful youth participation •   questions how local authorities can create opportunities given this situation •   examines what role physical space can provide. A mixed methodology is used to examine and present one case study of a space called the One Stop Youth Information Research Centre (One Stop) which exists in Nairobi, Kenya. The One Stop is a hub for youth to engage in cultural and physical activities such as music, theatre and sports, allowing them to interact positively with their community and their peers. The research was conducted in 2006 and 2007 using interviews, site visits, observational analysis, an architectural study of space and supplementary data analysis. These were conducted as part of an internship project with UN-Habitat. The Once Stop case example is part of the UN-Habitat Global Partnership Initiative. At a local level, it has been used as a strategy to facilitate meaningful youth participation within local government and community. To introduce the case study, particular emphasis is given to existing studies that have investigated youth empowerment, engagement, participation, and support mechanisms. The case study demonstrates how young people have the ability to take the lead in determining what action is needed to address the concerns that they face, and are demonstrating this ability through meaningful initiatives. It also demonstrates the passion and energy of young people when they are engaged in a collaborative effort to bring about transformation in improving their world. Underpinning this research is the assertion that providing a formalised, physical space can be the fundamental catalyst for positive youth action and development. The examples, observations and recommendations from this project have been documented for UN-Habitat, and also the Nairobi City Council, who operationalised this initiative in Kenya. The findings and profile may also be of use to other local governments, policy makers, civil society and those who share a willingness to take action and generate an investment in youth, and an interest in reaping the associated rewards and dividends. Executive Summary Space for Change - 7 Introduction If cities are seeking to be responsive to a large youth demographic it is important to understand what this means. To comprehensively introduce this research project, background literature and studies that address what is meant when referring to youth are presented. Many international programs already exist and have relevance to youth. Part A of this project acknowledges this, and focuses upon the initiatives of the United Nations, particularly the strategies of the Human Settlements and Cities division. To support the relevance of this, it is important to give an overview of current demographic trends and provide brief mention of some key contextual issues that impact youth in the region where this research project takes place. Part A also touches on what researchers identify as fundamental requirements to support youth, and the important role that local agencies can play, and are currently playing. DEFINITION OF YOUTH The terms ‘adolescents’, ‘youth’, and ‘young people’ are used differently in various contexts. These categories are associated (where they are recognized) with different roles, responsibilities and ages that depend on local cultures and realities. The United Nations, for statistical purposes, defines ‘youth’, as those persons between the ages of  15 and 24 years. This definition was made during preparations for the International Youth Year (1985), and endorsed by the General Assembly (see A/36/215 and resolution 36/28, 1981). All United Nations statistics on youth are based on this definition, as illustrated by the annual yearbooks of  statistics published by the United Nations system on demography, education, employment and health. By this definition, children are those persons under the age of  14. It is, however, worth noting that Article 1 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of  the Child defines ‘children’ as persons up to the age of  18. This was PART A intentional, as it was hoped that the Convention would provide protection and rights to as large an age-group as possible and because there was no similar United Nations Convention on the Rights of  Youth. Internationally, a number of  additional classifications exist when defining and speaking to young people. Many countries draw a line on youth at the age at which a person is given equal treatment under the law often referred to as the “age of majority”. This varies between countries from 18 to 21 years old. Once a person passes this age, they are considered to be an adult. However, the operational definition and nuances of  the term ‘youth’ often vary from country to country, depending on the specific socio-cultural, institutional, economic and political factors. Simpson (1997) articulates this point particularly well. He asserts that definitions of childhood and youth are social and cultural constructs that vary according to geography, gender, ethnicity, and class. An Expert Committee on Health Needs of  Adolescents in 1976 recognized adolescence as a formative period for behaviour patterns and activities important to health.  In the mid 1980’s a study group of  the World Health Organization in Geneva drew on the expertise of  medical sociologists, health promotion experts, researchers, and clinicians to extrapolate from the general youth definition of  the United Nations (Bennett/Tonkin 2003). It was felt that the ages 15 to 24 excluded consideration of  the special characteristics and needs of  young adolescents. The World Health Organization thus proposed a composite age range of  10 to19 to formalize this important time of  human development and growth. For the purposes of  this research report, what appear to be the most commonly used definitions, in different demographic, policy and social contexts are used. These are - Adolescents: 10 to19years of  age, Youth: 15 to 24 years of age, Young people: 10 to 24 years of  age. Space for Change : Part A - 9 INTERNATIONAL RECOGNITION Internationally, member nations of  the United Nations first officially acknowledged the vital role of  young people when endorsing, in 1965, the Declaration on the Promotion among Youth, the Ideals of  Peace, Mutual Respect and Understanding between Peoples. Two decades later, the United Nations General Assembly observed the 1985 International Youth Year. This spurred international debate and discussion which reached a high point on the tenth anniversary of  this year. In 1995 the United Nations adopted the World Programme of  Action for Youth to the Year 2000 and Beyond. Since then many agencies within the United Nations have worked with the international community to address  challenges specific to youth and their development. An excellent summary of  current international activities was recently prepared by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (2009). This resource profiles thirty-one divisions within the global agency that have activities, research and initiatives with goals to proactively respond to issues affecting youth. Many of  these are coordinated, led and advised by young people. UN-HAbITAT-THE GLObAL PARTNERSHIP INITIATIvE This research project examines and discusses one particularly interesting project within this system. It is an initiative of  the United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat), the agency which aims to promote socially and environmentally sustainable towns and cities with the goal of  providing adequate shelter for all. It is also an agency that regards young people as a major force in a participatory approach to promote employment, training, and crime prevention. Guided by the Habitat Agenda which was adopted by 171 countries at the 1996 City Summit in Istanbul, Turkey, UN-Habitat has many programmes that engage with youth. The Global Partnership Initiative on Urban Youth Development (GPI) is the leading youth programme within UN-Habitat. Launched in 2004, the GPI seeks to integrate the goals of  the United Nations with development programmes at the city level focusing on and working with urban youth, local governments, civil society and other relevant United Nations agencies. One of  the key programmes of  the Global Partnership Initiative has been the creation of  resource centres for youth. UN-Habitat and local governments have set up computerized “One Stop” Youth Information Resource Centres in several African cities to prepare young people for employment through training in entrepreneurship, computer technologies and apprenticeships. The centres also provide health-related training and prevention programmes and activities, as well as information on local governance. The Centres are hubs for youth to engage in cultural and physical activities such as music, theatre and sports, allowing them to interact positively with their community and their peers. It is the purpose of  this Masters research project to take one example of  a One Stop Youth Information Resource Centre, in Nairobi, Kenya and discuss the results of  creating partnerships within a local context and profile what challenges exist. YOUTH DEmOGRAPHICS As forementioned, the importance of  research focused on young people is reinforced by the realities of  today’s global situation. Statistics support and reinforce the fact that a significant proportion of  the world’s population is young. The 2007 State of  the Worlds Cities report illustrates that nearly half  of  the world’s population - more than 3 billion people - are under the age of  twenty-five, with 1.2 billion of  these being younger than 15. It is clear that youth embody a significant proportion of  the world’s human capital; but 85% of  those who are of  working age live in the developing world, primarily in Southern Asia and Africa where more than 500 million live on less than $2 a day (UN-Habitat 2005) and employment opportunities are far and few between. Africa comprises the largest segment of young people. Available estimates show that in most African countries, including Kenya, Tanzania, Zimbabwe and Zambia, the youth and children aged 25 years and younger constitute around or above 70% of  the population. ISSUES FACING A DISPROPORTIONATE POPULATION With so many youth coming of  age in the grip of  poverty and facing the peril of  illness and disease such as HIV and AIDS, the lives of  young people are pressured by a combination of  intense human injustice and inequalities. There exists well documented studies of  critical conditions facing a vast proportion of  humanity’s struggles in daily existence. These, are obvious factors which disadvantage youth. The critical nature of  this situation is further compounded by continued global and regional trends that impact communities in ways that serve only to further disadvantage the capacity of  large parts of  society to access even basic necessities. Acknowledging this, there are four critical points that provide contextual background to this research report. These relate to the location of  this undertaking within Africa, the external and internal characteristics that define this region of  the world, and more generally, consideration of  the impact of  social values and the perception of  how life should be lived. LEGACIES OF POLITICAL INSTAbILITY During the empire-building that occurred in Africa at the end of  the nineteenth century, European powers staked claims to virtually the entire continent. At meetings in Berlin, Paris, London and other capitals, European statesmen and diplomats bargained over the separate spheres of interest they intended to establish there. The result today is a continent whereby sustained conflict presents huge challenges for communities. Wars of  independence have been rapidly replaced by civil wars. Angola is an extreme example where war has become an ever-present feature of  life for almost fifty years. Civil wars in Mozambique, Zimbabwe and Uganda have also devastated many communities for over twenty-five years. Sporadic coups, counter coups and revolutions have destabilized individual countries and neighbouring countries, such as those between Ethiopia and Eritrea, and the Great Lakes Region and the Democratic Republic of  Congo. Horrific conflicts have devastated human life and property, spiralled influxes of  refugees across African landscape and deepened human suffering and poverty. Such legacies have left war-affected children, child soldiers and the expanding trade in small arms. Corruption has also bankrupted many post-independence states, such as Nigeria, Chad and the Democratic Republic of  Congo1. This is the political landscape of  much of  the African continent. PRESSURES ASSOCIATED wITH URbANISATION According to UN-HABITAT, the year 2007 marked a turning point in human history where the world’s urban population for the first time equalled the world’s rural population and the number of  slum dwellers exceeded the one billion mark. Now is a time where one in every three city residents lives in inadequate housing with no, or few, basic services.  The global urban population has quadrupled since 1950, and cities of  the developing world account for over ninety percent of  the world’s urban growth. Current trends predict the number of  urban dwellers will keep rising, reaching almost five billion by 2030. Economically, it is highlighted that cities have tremendous potential as the engines of  economic and social development as well as the main source of  countries’ jobs. The flipside of  this is a situation where cities generate and intensify social exclusion. The UN-Habitat Strategy Paper on Urban Youth in Africa discusses how existing urban areas are not equipped to accommodate such rapid population increases, emphasizing the lack of  investment in infrastructure and its maintenance, and outdated city plans as key factors that compound problems (2005). Repeatedly, global research to date warns of  how cities in the developing world are characterized by a lack of  access to basic essentials such as housing and shelter, core urban services such as clean water, sanitation and electricity, as well as to education and health care. The harsh realities are that the unplanned and overcrowded settlements and informal housing areas that provide accommodation also present chronic difficulties for the delivery of  urban services. In Nairobi for example, the location for this research report, sixty percent of  the population live in informal settlements. These housing areas are squeezed into less than six percent of  the cities’ land, and the vast majority of  plots in these settlements have neither toilet nor water connections (UN- Habitat, 2001). A study of  the Kibera slum in Nairobi found that while 14 public primary schools were situated within walking distance of  the slum, the schools could only accommodate 20,000 of  the more than 100,000 primary school-age children living in the area (UN-Habitat 2007). DETERIORATING HEALTH, ECONOmIC AND SOCIAL CONDITIONS With so many young people living with so little, deprived of the basic necessities of  life, there are often too few strategies to respond to the social effects of  this situation. In such settings there is often a grey area between what is legal and what is illegal, particularly when survival 1    For an excellent and comprehensive chronological account spanning the entire continent - see Meredith, 2006 for a narrative of  Africa’s political trajectory since independence. Space for Change : Part A - 11 depends on improvisation. In cities of  the developed world, more jobs are being created in the financial sector and in information management as a result of  globalization, while in the developing world, trends point toward an increasing ‘informalisation’ of  the urban economy, as the formal sector fails to provide adequate employment opportunities for the number of  young people and adults seeking work. This observation is reinforced by the International Labour Organization who has estimated that 85% of  all new employment opportunities around the world are created in the informal economy. It is in this precarious environment that the majority of  youths are socialised, and many have not had a family member with a contract or steady salary in the last two generations. The correlation between poverty and social exclusion is not new, particularly the negative effects distinguished by limitations in access to education and health care and also poor access to power and decision making structures, (UNICEF 2002). NEGATIvE ImPACTS OF A COmmERCIAL wORLD The portrayal of  life in developed countries is a scenario where privilege and success is increasingly characterised and complemented by social values which encourage competition and consumption, rather than community and reciprocity. These values are impacting the lives and cultures of  young people throughout the world, even in countries where economic and social conditions are rapidly deteriorating. They affect all aspects of  life, including relationships, attitudes and behaviour. The consumer world presents youth with an image of  a society in which people are valued on the basis of  their assets yet fails to grant most of  them access to those assets. One of  the manifestations of  urbanization is the disintegration of  existing normative and ethical value systems. In Africa, the concept of  ‘ubuntu’ refers to the principle that we are all connected to each other, and influenced by the people around us. It recognises the importance of  relationships, and of  building communities. The disintegration of  ubuntu is occurring at a number of levels, but is especially significant in relation to the family, the school and the local neighbourhood (UN-Habitat 2005). PROTECTIvE FACTORS Despite what appears to be overwhelming negative pressures, the situation remains that youth are at a formative stage in life, with energy, curiosity and openness to acquire knowledge, learn skills and absorb values. Shaw and Tschiwula (2002) suggest a number of  common protective factors which strengthen children and young peoples’ resilience in the face of  difficult living conditions. These include such things as good parenting, a stable and supportive home environment, a healthy and a supportive environment in general, and good school achievement. In the situations where these are missing other protective factors may exist to encourage resiliency such as positive role models and peers, supportive community, safe living environment and access to opportunities for education or learning. Internationally, the 2007 World Development Report provides a schematic model of  many of  these factors together with a youth strategy that references youth development taking place in overlapping and interrelated spheres. They point to the home, family, school and community environment and profile the enabling factors in any youth’s environment. The strategy also reinforces how youth play a pivotal role themselves. At its core, the framework identifies nine interlinked building blocks as key areas of  intervention along the life- cycle. The upper four blocks, ranging from education to healthy behaviours and youth employment, contain policies and programs geared towards youth up to 25 years of age.  According to these observations, increased synergy is needed among sectors with specific attention to three broad categories to create an enabling environment for the well- being of  children and youth. In discussing the concept of  “demographic dividend”, Bloom speaks of  the economic incentives that a large youth demographic can provide in terms of  potential labour and income generating capacity that younger populations contribute (2002). Lundberg and Lam go on to point out that for large youth populations to translate into economic growth, governments and the international community must provide opportunities, capabilities and chances for young people (2007). Essentially, these opportunities must foster the protective factors needed for increased capacity, involvement and decision making. This research paper speaks to the role that local government and youth themselves can also play LOCAL GOvERNmENT Cities are the places where injustices and the negative impacts that correlate with poverty and the pressures of urbanisation are most obvious. It is in this context where the issues are laid bare and impacts are most immediate. At this level the local authorities are often inadequately equipped or prepared to develop policies and programs to respond. Questions worth addressing are, how can this role also be something that is positive, and what mechanisms can be used as a means for empowerment and constructive response to the issues and disparities faced by so many. In a compendium of  papers discussing responses to the youth explosion in developing world cities, different authors speculate on approaches to reducing poverty and conflict (Ruble, Tulchin et al 2003). Within this compendium, Millar examines youth employment and in doing so touches on some important reasons as to why local government is an important interface. His observations and conclusions are aimed specifically at job creation for youth, but they also speak more generally to the fundamental importance that local governments have. They include: REGULATORY ENvIRONmENT. Cities are involved in the development of  policies and programs, zoning regulations, regulations governing the establishment of  enterprise, regulation on the commission of public contracts and tendering procedures, and regulations linked to the delivery of, and provision of, infrastructure and support services. These are important grounds to acknowledge, given their propensity to give youth legitimacy through a formalized framework of  local strategies and regulations that foster contributions from youth in a way that can facilitate change. INFORmAL ECONOmY City governments can also act as a key place to improve and give recognition to the urban informal economy. Particularly in areas where unemployment is high, this is a crucial supplement to the formal economy and workforce. In addition to the provision of  basic infrastructure, support can be facilitated through places providing training, microfinance initiatives, and by acknowledging the informal-sector workers and enterprises and assisting with ways for them to grow, improve working conditions, organise and create representative associations. ALLIANCES City governments have a unique perspective in their ability to form local partnerships to create alliances in favour of supporting particular interest groups. Whether it is small business, youth, minority groups or other sectors of  diverse communities, the local government is the body closest to the community where the notion of  public-private partnerships and collaboration appears most workable. There exist many more functions of  local authorities that can be adapted to demonstrate how government structures can foster and enable young people to be protected and supported. The three mentioned are examples that have relevance to this research project. At the national level, many countries have broadly based policies aimed at improving the lives of  youth. Things such as increased access to health clinics, improved school enrolment, and legislation for protection from exploitative labour are three such examples of  policy reform. Local authority initiatives often work in tandem with these, equipping schools in poor urban communities, staffing health centers, and providing vocational training schemes. SUmmARY The purpose of  this background profile has been to give context to what is meant by youth and to discuss what has been increasing international acknowledgement of  the distinct issues that are facing young people today. With a broad profile of  what these issues entail and suggestions regarding the agencies best positioned to assist, this overview narrows on one project before highlighting some specific protective factors that have been offered as mechanisms to strengthen young peoples resilience in the face of overwhelming challenges. The following section expands on literature associated with what it means to actively contribute, to be engaged and ‘meaningfully’ involved. This reflection is helpful to consider where young people exist in this situation, particularly their position in instituting change and/or action. As the focus of this research, The Global Partnership Initiative is intended to prepare young people and facilitate increased participation be it through employment, training, or increased cultural and physical activities. The case study of  the One Stop requires reflection to consider how theories and models of participatory planning relate to practice. (World Bank, World Development Report 2007) Space for Change : Part A - 13 Participation In society today, we are presented with a plethora of words and expressions describing the state of being an active contributor, and these words are often the same used when referring to youth. There is a recurring and growing recognition that youth need to be ‘meaningfully’ involved - not just for their own health but for the health of their communities - a point that pervades initiatives which exist for young people. The question that results from this is one of measurement. That is, how can we judge what is meaningful involvement, and what is mere token involvement? This paper situates the role of young people within literature on participatory planning and conceptualizes the role that youth can play. It is relevant to draw from the vast body of academic work that specifically surrounds youth engagement, involvement and participation. Generally speaking, literature on public participation rarely articulates the role of youth in transformative learning and action. However this is not always the case.  Gurstein, Lovato and Ross (2003) give an excellent illustration of how youth can play a critical role, specifically showing different organizational contexts in which youth and their adult supporters successfully implement youth participation in practice. PART b Space for Change : Part B - 15 DESCRIPTIvE mODELS It is useful to reflect on the various models that exist in relation to participation. A number of  authors have developed models of  youth participation that portray the degree or type of  participation, the institutional arrangements, and the purpose of  participation. This project illustrates five main ones that exist in this field. In researching this area it is important to note that many other hybrid variations exist.  (i)   The earliest general model of  participation appears to be Sherry Arnstein’s ladder of participation (1969). She described the level of real citizen involvement in the public planning process in the United States. Her model relates to adults’ participation. At that time, citizen involvement became a practical demonstration of  developing communities using principles of democracy and rights. Over time, changing views on children and youth have led writers to adapt Arstein’s model to one where children and young people can be supported to participate in decision making.  (ii)   Roger Hart was the first to adapt Arnstein’s model to work with children and young people and identify degrees of  children’s participation by recognizing their developing capacity to participate. Hart uses a ladder consisting of eight rungs as a framework for his model of  participation. Rungs one through three represent non-participation by children and young people and the remaining rungs represent degrees of  participation. It is interesting to note that the usefulness of  this model has been criticized because it assumes participation at lower levels is less valuable than those described on the higher rungs. Some researchers point out that non-participation can be a form of participation as long as the child or young person has had the opportunity of  making the choice about whether they wish to participate or not (Thomas, Philipson, et al.1998).  (iii)   Barry Checkoway (1998) identifies five types of  involvement: citizen action, which empowers citizens in general for social change; youth action, which empowers youth for social change; youth development, which promotes positive development of  youth; neighbourhood development, which promotes housing, economic and physical development of  local areas; and neighbourhood-based youth initiatives, which promote youth and neighbourhood development simultaneously. This implies a progression from general civic engagement to specific participation that is positive and youth specific, personally and also for the broader community.  (iv)   Clare Lardner provides another useful model worth referencing. This is one which uses a grid, rather than a ladder, to represent how participation occurs (Lardner, 2001). According to Lardner, the ladder model assumes that it is better to aim for the highest level of participation possible. However, she argues that different levels of  participation may be more appropriate to different situations. She makes the link between the concepts of  empowerment and participation and developed a grid model to better represent these complexities. Citizen control Delegated power Partnership Placation Consultation Informing Therapy Manipulation Degrees of citizen power Degrees of tokenism Non-participation (Sherry Arnstein’s Ladder of Citizen Participation) 8.  Youth-initiated, shared decisions with adults 7.  Youth-initiated and directed 6.  Adult-initiated, shared decisions with youth 5.  Consulted and informed 4.  Assigned but informed 3.  Tokenism 2.  Decoration 1. Manipulation Non-participation Degrees of participation (Roger Hart’s Ladder of Participation, Children’s Participation: From Tokenism of Citizenship, UNICEF) Adult initiated Adult decide on agenda Adult make decisions Adults have most of information Relies on adults to implement action Replicates or linked to adult structure Informal structure and links Young people have most of information Young people make decisions Young people decide on agenda Relies on young people to Implement action Young People initiated Adults have power Young people have power Shared in between Youth Forum Youth Jury (Clare Lardner’s Grid Model) Neighborhood- Based Youth Initiatives Neighborhood Development Citizen Action Youth Development Youth Action (Barry Checkaway’s Five Types of Participation) Space for Change : Part B - 17  (v)   Shiers model is based on five levels of participation, along with three stages of commitment at each level of  participation, called ‘Openings’, ‘Opportunities’ and ‘Obligations’ (Sheir, 2001). An opening occurs as soon as an individual/ worker is ready to operate at that level and they make a personal commitment to work in a certain way. It is only an opening, because at this stage, the opportunity may not be available. Opportunity occurs when the needs are met that will enable the individual/ worker or organization to operate at this level in practice, such as having the appropriate resources, skills and knowledge. Obligation is established when it becomes the agreed policy of  the organization that staff  should operate at this level. ImPORTANT CONDITIONS In reviewing these models some overarching elements can be highlighted as common. Three basic conditions are important for effective youth participation. These are as follows: KNOwLEDGE It is vital that youth have access to information about what is taking place and what is of  relevance to them. This information must be presented or available in a format or through structures that are attractive and accessible to youth. Access to this information should stimulate the impetus for participation, encourage contributions and informed input which is meaningful and can influence change or decisions affecting them. A barrier develops when organisations often rely on their internal mechanisms to provide this kind of information on behalf  of  those affected, but do not put anything in place to ensure that the information is available or in a format that allows access for youth. OPPORTUNITY As well as having information, the conditions must exist for participation. The opportunity is there and  genuine. To ensure that there are ways to involve children and young people so that they can voice their concerns in decisions that affect their lives. There are many ways that organizations can guarantee that opportunities exist for the participation of young people. For it to be effective, this needs to be part of the organization’s culture. Essentially, a ‘business as usual’ component is required; one that reflects the true value that the organization places on youth and their commitment to the decisions that affect their own lives.. SUPPORT The support of  an adult or older youth can provide the motivation, and be a catalyst for participation. This is applicable to all young people, but it’s of  particular relevance in situations where a sense of  powerlessness prevails. YOUTH-ADULT PARTNERSHIPS The merits of  youth-adult partnerships are given praise by many authors as a positive strategy for building intergenerational relationships to strengthen community development initiatives (Jones & Perkins 2003, Camino, 2000; Wunrow & Einspruch, 2001, Zeldin & Olson, 2000). In many ways the relationship is somewhat of  a mentorship role, where a trusting relationship between an adult or older youth creates a relationship that offers guidance, support and encouragement. The relationship can create a foundation from which youth can be active agents in their own development, the development of  others and the benefit of  the community and civil society. In addition it can create a situation where new social activities, increased learning of  essential life skills, positive personal development and community contribution can occur (Kirshner, O’Donoghue, & McLaughlin, 2002; Zeldin, 2004). Strong relationships emanate from reciprocity in leading and learning between youth and adults, especially when the two parties are engaged as partners in community building or activism (Zeldin, Larson, Camino & O’Conner 2005, Kirshner, 2007). In recognising the merits of  this approach, further research has been called for in respect to diverse cultural models of  youth-adult relationships. In countries where the youth population is so large it is often the case that increased role responsibilities are a matter of  survival from a Space for Change : Part B - 19 (Shier’s model is based on five levels of participation, along with three stages of commitment at each level of participation called ‘Openings’, ‘Opportunities’ and ‘Obligations’) Levels of     Openings              Opportunities Obligations Participation 5.  Children share power and responsibility for decision- making 4.  Children are involved in decision- making process 3.  Children’s views are taken into account 2.  Children are supported in expressing their views. 1.  Children are listened to Are you ready to share some of your adult power with children? Is there a procedure that enables children and adults to share power and responsibility for decisions? Is it a policy requirement that children and adults share power and responsibility for decisions? Are you ready to let children join in your decision- making processes? Is there a procedure that enables children to join in decision- making processes? Is it a policy requirement that children must be involved in decision-making processes? Are you ready to take children’s views into account? Does your decision making process enable you to take children’s views into account? Is it a policy requirement that children’s views must be given due weight in decision- making? Are you ready to support children in expressing their views? Do you have a range of ideas and activities to help children express their views? Is it a policy requirement that children must be supported in expressing their views? Are you ready to listen to children? Do you work in a way that enables you to listen to children? Is it a policy requirement that children must be listened to? The point is the minimum you must achieve if you endorse the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child START HERE section has presented a number of  models that have been used by authors to illustrate the many ways that participation takes place and what is particularly important to ensure that this is successful. Adult partnerships are one such factor. The following section will provide practical illustration of applied concepts such as youth-adult partnerships, youth-led development, and the common elements of  what models of participation stipulate as the basic conditions for effective engagement. What is particularly encouraging about these observations is  how this can redefine the possibilities of local government response and citizen participation; as youth engage proactively in issues of  importance to them their community,  and civil society in general. The Nairobi One Stop example has much relevance to the field of  community development, planning practice and citizen engagement. young age (Rogoff, Sellars, Pirrotta, Fox & White, 1975). In some situations this may be a cultural norm, but in the vast majority it is likely a result of  poverty, loss of  parents or adult mentor. YOUTH LED DEvELOPmENT Youth led development is the development of  youth capacity to undertake social, environmental and economic initiatives for the benefit of  their community. Youth led development goes beyond the traditional teacher-student model in that youth learn the skills, attitudes and discipline to be self- reliant, self  motivated and self-organized. It involves projects or programs which engage youth in shared decision making and youth led and initiated actions characterised by peer to peer learning and adult youth mentorship and collaboration. Whether it is youth peer to peer relationships, or youth/ adult mentorship, the creating of  trust between the partners is vital to the success of  youth led development. These partnerships make up the core team from which a program, project and youth led agency is built. In operation, the youth-led agency develops ideas and drives decision making with their own skills and motivation with little to no support from adults. The Global Partnership Initiative and many of  the activities at the One Stop in Nairobi are an example whereby youth-led agencies use space to coordinate and mobilize their own programs or projects that responded to their own identified need for  community. In many instances the youth take the lead in seeing that their projects are carried out from inception to completion. DEFINING  “mEANINGFUL PARTICIPATION” Governments, international organizations, non-government organizations and community based groups have rallied behind the idea that all people have a right to be part of decisions that affect their lives.  It is important to consider that the pursuit of  inclusive planning processes is not solely about building the experience base for young people. It is also about shifting organizational and governmental attitudes and policies to approach decision-making with youth as routine practice. Researcher Sheridan Bartlett describes the objective as a deeper and broader change in local attitudes towards children and youth that begins to work like yeast throughout a city, raising awareness so that it becomes mainstream and common to think in terms of  the rights of  younger citizens (Bartlett, 2005) CIvIL SOCIETY AND CITIZENSHIP This brings about an important observation of  what it is that underpins this goal of  ‘meaningful participation’ in terms of planning theory. For instance, Friedmann defines civil society as “those social organizations, associations and institutions that exist beyond the sphere of  direct supervision and control by the state” (Friedmann 1998). He asserts that “civil society is a re-emerging force in the construction of a new citizenship, creating a path of  urban and regional development that reorients public value away from the materialism of  consumer society towards the quality of human relationships”. Friedmann contends that civil society groups are becoming a dynamic force in the political arena as they elaborate a “politics of  identity,” reclaiming their members’ social rights as citizens. The work of  the planner in supporting this movement is to be “passionately engaged in a transformative politics for inclusion, opportunity for self- development and social justice”. This transformative politics speaks to the work of  all planners and other community leaders who, allied with young people and their causes, understand citizenship as representing the story of  a lifetime. Starting at a very young age, all people need to be provided with outlets for realizing skills and knowledge that can serve in the work of  community building such as creating opportunities for self-development (Gurstein, Lovato, Ross, 2003) A complementary analysis to Friedmann’s commentary on civil society and citizenship is the work of  Hart et al (1997). Hart asserts that youth organizations who are best able to engage and sustain the participation of  people share a few important characteristics. Namely that young people understand that they are needed and have valuable resources to offer.  There is also an opportunity to assume a variety of  roles. As a result of  this environment, the organization that results is a space which allows for a rich and complex participation of  young people in multiple cultures and identities, defined on their own terms. Gurstein, Lovato and Ross make an important link observing that when this engagement allows for the expression of  unique cultures to emerge from the social fabric, youth are free to develop their own “politics of  identity” and be recognised as agents in the evolution of  civil society. Theoretically, this reinforces the claim that participation prepares young people for engagement in a democratic society. At a time when social scientists find that many people have “disengaged from democracy,” there is need for new strategies which will awaken them to community problems and motivate them to take action (Putnam 2000; 2004). In this way, participation is the stimulus that provides information for competent citizenship. SUmmARY One of  the main assertions of  this paper is that young people are already actively engaged in community work and that their activities and achievements are yet to be truly celebrated, valued and legitimized by broader society. This Space for Change : Part B - 21 Case Study Overview The following case study advocates for a deconstructed stereotype of youth, asserting the view of “youth as resources” and maintaining that young people are positive assets and competent citizens with a right to participate and a responsibility to serve their communities. This view contrasts with the frequent news media portrayal of youth as “victims of poverty” and “problems in society”. The following section of this research project provides a contrast to many social science studies of youth as “alienated from community” and “withdrawn from participation”; digressing from a professional focus on the deficiencies and service needs of youth. When perceptions remain stuck in a view of young people as troubled and troubling, and youth accept adult conceptions of themselves, this weakens rather than strengthens the roles of young people in a democratic society (Finn and Checkoway 1998, Kurth-Schai, 1988). In the year before my internship with UN- Habitat, I was working in Vancouver at a youth non-government organisation which frequently connected with a large group of well spoken, smart and inspirational young people based in Nairobi. Each time we connected with this group via email or on a crackly phone line, they told me about a partnership they shared with the local government whereby, the Nairobi City Council provided formal use of a building. As I came to know more of the young women and men from that city who were part of this, I came to suspect that it was a place where motivated change agents were going to get things organised and find out about positive initiatives taking place across the city. In September of 2006 I moved to Kenya and lived for a number of months in Nairobi working from the Partners and Youth Division of UN-Habitat. As part of my time allocation I decided to undertake research to further investigate what the provision of space for young people was achieving in a city where young people dominate the urban demographic . Sponsored in part by the Center for Urban Youth Development (CUYD) in Vancouver and with the support of UN-Habitat I set forth to work with the young people who were using a space called the One Stop Youth Information and Research PART C Centre (One Stop), the partner agencies and local authority who had enabled this initiative. Since my research took place, a sequence of events greatly impacted the ability of the City of Nairobi to continue providing space in the building where the One Stop was first located. From August 2003 until August 2007, it occupied a large institutional building in the downtown core of Nairobi City. The large colonial building had initially been the headquarter offices for Kenya Railways, but those operations and staff had since moved leaving the ground floor of the building unoccupied. Successful negotiations took place between the City of Nairobi, UN-Habitat and a number of service agencies to open the ground floor to establish the One Stop.  In 2007, a large fire destroyed many buildings on the Kenya Railway lands behind the One Stop. The City of Nairobi was pressured to re-allocate the lower floor of the building to accommodate businesses displaced by the fire. The One Stop has now relocated to a smaller office. A facility of comparable size has not been available since. This research is an account of the One Stop after three years in action and a profile of what the centre had become before the fire. Informed by the struggles and achievements of years leading up to this, the work provides a summary of both formal and informal components of the initiative. Since the One Stop is now much smaller, the relevance of this work lies in an evaluation and profile of the merits associated with this provision of space. An optimistic narrative is reflected concurrently with the evaluation. Space for Change : Part C - 23 RESEARCH APPROACH Before setting forth to collect information and report on the One Stop initiative as a case study, endorsement and review of  my work was sanctioned by UN-Habitat, and the CUYD. Advice and review of  the proposed methods was reviewed internally. To comply with the ethics review standards of both host agencies it was required that once in Nairobi at the One Stop, a research committee be formed on site. Regular meetings were held for all committee members to comment on the purpose of  study, proposed methodology and data collection techniques. The research committee incorporated representatives from UN-Habitat, the Nairobi City Council, Youth leaders and representatives from One Stop, external consultants, One Stop staff  and service providers. The committee was instrumental in ensuring the accountability of  this research and the necessary internal support. Before setting forth to participate in the everyday activities and carry out approved methods for data collection at the centre, I was assigned two internal mentors to oversee and review my research information for accuracy; also to ensure that those who participated had consented to be involved. One, a senior internal staff  member - Sabine Mungai and the other - a young woman with her own youth organization and a very involved One Stop participant called Dorothie. Over the four months that I regularly frequented the One Stop to conduct research, both Sabine and Dorothie would join me, often insisting to help collect information, providing their experience and knowledge and also sitting with me on a weekly basis to carefully review the reporting that I had prepared for accuracy. For purposes of  anonymity, the names of  all youth have been removed or disguised in this final report. mETHODOLOGY Before my daily trips catching the local transports - the Mutatus - to downtown Nairobi, I was able to source a large collection of  background material about the One Stop once arriving in Kenya, e.g. strategic plans, results from scoping missions, overviews, and other reports and information. This was useful in providing a formal overview of  how the One Stop had started, plus critical perspectives and suggestions for development. There were profiles and examples of  the many networks that had been established between organizations across the city, the region, and in some instances, nationally and internationally. I deemed it useful to build on this comprehensive collation of  largely unpublished work and further contribute to the picture created. No matter how thorough my background research, nothing prepared me for what I was about to experience and observe. Nothing I read could prepare me for the inspiration of  what I endeavoured to document and upon which I continue to reflect. To this day I am both humbled and overwhelmed by the sincerity and generosity which was extended.  It was a privilege to meet potential young community builders with drive and ambition like no-one I’d ever met before.  These were young people whose honest humility defined them even more so. My research used a mixed method approach in the hope that the chosen techniques would give a very visual depiction of  the One Stop space and activities. The different research methods incorporated were:  i)   Interviews with various people and organisations associated with the One Stop  ii)   Photo study of  both the space within the building and the activities  iii)   Site visits and regular observational analysis of various components  iv)  Architectural study of  space within the building  v)  Six month review of  formal daily records GLObAL PARTNERSHIP INITIATIvE bACKGROUND The One Stop in Nairobi is part of  the Global Partnership Initiative of  UN-Habitat. It is a private - public partnership consisting of  formal space with services and staff  that is open Monday through Friday from 9 am to 5 pm. Unpublished documentation from within UN-Habitat reference five objectives that are central to the project:  i)   encourage partnerships with relevant stakeholders in the delivery of  youth development;  ii)   increase knowledge, skills and attitude change of young people;  iii)   respond to educational, socio-economic, recreational, emotional and psychological needs of  young people in an integrated way;  iv)   encourage youth to have greater ownership of development;  v)   offer leadership and mentorship to young people. The research undertaken as part of  this case study will speak to each of  these objectives by reviewing activities and initiatives that have occurred on a daily basis in Nairobi. In an action plan developed in 2004, a set of  long term activities for the centre was also outlined with targets to achieve (ITDG, 2004). These are a good basis for comparative analysis. They address the central areas of  intervention at the Centre. Broadly, these are as follows: •   Employment and Entrepreneurship: to build capacity Space for Change : Part C - 25 of  youth to participate effectively in urban poverty reduction through training and by offering employment opportunities in self-employment, formal and informal sectors; •   Governance and Advocacy: to enhance youth contribution towards better governance by promoting increased youth participation in local government matters, particularly those concerning youth development; •   Health: To provide services aimed at preventing and solving reproductive health problems amongst youth by provision of  information, skills training, education on reproductive health, counselling and referral services; •   Communication and Information: To establish mechanisms to effectively communicate and disseminate information to youth, youth organisations and other partners involved in youth work; •   Environment and Resource Management: To strengthen youth engagement in the protection and improvement of  the environment by promoting their participation in environmental justice and governance initiatives. A UN-Habitat programme officer involved with the GPI reinforced in an interview for this project that: “the main enabling factor of the Nairobi One Stop is the commitment and support of various partners to provide space and mobilize services that provide for, are supported by, and in many instances led by young people. The networking, presence and commitment from both private and public sectors has been testimony to the driving force which sustained the initiative, addressed challenges and worked toward self- sufficiency” (ITDG, 2004) The following summaries of  research conducted at One Stop exemplify this. Space for Change : Part C - 27 STORAGE SPACE Description:  Locked. Has window. Is not completely full and is very organized. No inventory of what exists in storage. RECEPTION Description: A cubicle set behind a very high desk and windows. There is one window opening for youth to interact with information officers. Currently two information officers are usually in the reception and greeting booth. The Reception is open Monday to Friday from 8 am until 5 pm. INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS AND TECHNOLOGY TRAINING ROOM Description: Teaching space set up with fourteen computers at individual desks. Two volunteer staff host daily training sessions in this space. CAREER COUNSELLING OFFICE#1 (YOUTH OFFICE) Description: Used predominantly for meetings by One Stop youth- particularly the Junior Council. Ideal meeting area but is also used creatively during special functions or events (e.g. on Habitat day the space was used as a games room, lunch assembly kitchen and graffiti area). One Stop Youth members use this space as an area type concept material/minutes/ proposals/ funding applications. VOLUNTARY COUNSELLING AND TESTING ROOM Description: Hope World Wide Kenya is a service provider currently partnered with the One Stop Youth Resource Center and provides free testing for HIV and sexually transmitted diseases. Volunteers work the reception and keep a record of the visitors to see the counsellor/physician. There is one counsellor/physician who uses this room. Sessions with the physician take 45 minutes to an hour. The counsellor can usually see 7 to 8 clients per day. The services are testing and referral. VOLUNTARY COUNSELLING AND TESTING WAITING AREA Description:  Volunteers work the reception and keep a record of visitors to see the counsellor/ physician. The service is free and open to all ages. Those under the age of 16 must be accompanied by an adult. The waiting area is filled with chairs and has a television which shows videos on reproductive health. CAREER COUNSELLING ROOM #2 (OFFICE FOR ONE STOP NAIROBI STAFF) Description: This room is the office of the Senior Training Officer. There is a spare desk and computer that is used by specific One Stop Youth representatives. This space is an area where young people come for advice from One Stop Staff or youth who are very familiar with the activities and programs of One Stop. Youth and staff hold strategy meetings in this space for the betterment of the Center. It is a welcoming space and is a particular resource for mentorship and peer to peer exchange. MAIN HALL Description: This is the largest space. It can comfortably seat 80-100 people and is used for large training sessions, lectures, and special events. The hall is used on a daily basis for a lecture series. RECEPTION WAITING AREA Description: An open area with some basic seating to accommodate visitors. The three notice boards in this space serve to keep visitors to the One Stop informed of upcoming job opportunities, events, bulletins and other notices. The reception is the main contact point. OFFICE OF THE COORDINATOR Description: This small room located at the south east corner of the one stop is a space dedicated for the coordinator. The space is used as an office and area for promotional sessions about the One Stop. COWA Office Description: This small office is dedicated for career counselling sessions and appointments of the Companionship of Works Association. When the representative from this partner agency is not at the One Stop the space is locked. DIAGRAm 1 : DISTRIbUTION OF SPACE Essentially social interaction and communication takes place in context; space is the primary context for all types of communication. Major contemporary social theorists have pointed out significant relationships between space and communications (see Carey, 1981, Castells, 1989; Harvey, 1989; Lefebvre, 1991). This research project takes an approach that examines spatially differentiated elements where social interaction takes place. At the One Stop, physical space is divided into different uses. The following floor plan provides a base study of  how the Nairobi One Stop was organised in the Kenya Railways building. Initially it highlights what functions and services are provided. An additional floor plan is included in the observations and recommendations section to elaborate on the distinguishing elements associated with the use of  this space. This first graphic is provided for spatial reference to the areas being discussed. SCALE 1:100  N FORmAL PARTNERSHIPS AND SERvICE PROvISION At the time of  this research there were five formal partners who have services and operations in the One Stop. The formal service provisioning is based around communication and information technology training, health services, governance and employment. These partnerships are the elements most prevalent in literature about the One Stop model. 1.  Companionship of  works Association Spaces Used: COWA Office As partners since the centre started, the Companionship of  Works Association (COWA) has physically occupied a small satellite office in the One Stop since late 2004. An adult employee comes Monday to Friday for appointments with youth. The organization provides employment related services with their main activities being to provide career guidance. This officer from COWA uses an office next to the reception for private meetings (the second counselling room). The organization also focuses on empowerment of  young people, advocating that this occurs when working together to market their skills and abilities and make themselves job ready. The COWA group was initially for Catholic youth but now welcomes all. The services are more of  a labor exchange than an employment bureau or agency. A review of  the register of  youth who use the service finds that on average five consultations are held each day. There are over 4500 youth who have registered with the organisation across the City of  Nairobi. Of  these statistics the COWA representative states that approximately 260 young people have found employment after registering and 35 have started their own entrepreneurships. 2. Hope world wide Kenya - Counsellors and volunteers Spaces Used: VCT Testing Room/VCT Waiting Area A free voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) service is also provided at the One Stop. This service operates daily and is supported by volunteers who register clients and provide assistance and information. The Counselling room sees between five to ten people a day, however demand is generally much higher. A visit takes approximately 45 minutes in duration. Two interviews are held with Hope World Wide counsellors. This is the organisation that supplies staff  each week; it is a rotational roster of  counsellors. The One Stop VCT is only one of  many initiatives that this organization provides. The employees I interview tell me that a session begins by having a discussion about prevention techniques to avoid the contraction of  HIV and then demonstrations about condom use. Then the counsellor will contextualize the discussion around the client to get an understanding of  their concerns and risk factors. The counsellor will also explain what is involved with the HIV test and they discuss what the client will do if  the results are positive or negative. Referral services and support groups for HIV are discussed, as are some of  the stigmatization factors about HIV. Treatment and drug therapy are also discussed before the HIV test takes place. If  the client has concerns about other sexually transmitted infections referral services are provided. Clients will find out straight away if  they are positive. The room where the testing takes place is private; however there is no running water or a proper examination table. 3. One Stop Staff Spaces Used: Reception, Career Counselling Room #2, Career Counselling Room #1, Office of  the Coordinator, Storage Space There are a number of  staff  who work at the One Stop full time, all of  whom have been involved since the initiative started and the space was provided by the City Council of Nairobi. The staff  can be considered formal service providers but also play roles that extend beyond this. The seven formal positions are as follows:  vi)   Coordinator  vii)    Senior Training Officer (newer position for one year)  viii)  Three Information Officers  ix)    One Security Staff  x)      Computer Maintenance and Networking- Contract Additional staff  from other organizations such as the Mathare Youth Sports Association also support the One Stop Staff  by assisting at the reception area during busy periods. One Stop Staff  provide mentorship to individuals and groups (e.g. Junior Council, youth artists, Members and Organizations like those profiled in the Informal Partnerships section of  this report). This mentorship extends far beyond the daily 8 to 5 pm duties and extends to weekend support. Staff  demonstrate their confidence in youth by attending their events, by sharing food, their computers, their knowledge and contacts within the City of  Nairobi and other youth led and youth serving organizations. The information officers help to answer enquiries. They also facilitate meetings, provide referrals and assist with the coordination of  youth activities such as Habitat Day, Youth Market Place, City Council of  Nairobi events. The staff  clean the One Stop and coordinate bookings and use of space. They collect and post information and also conduct outreach services. During my visit there were two examples where One Stop Initiatives were discussed with youth at outreach events. For example a presentation about One Stop was given by staff  to over 80 youth at a Social Hall in the Embakasi district of  Nairobi. Staff  also participate in positive community events with youth from the One Stop such as garbage clean up initiatives (e.g. the African Youth Parliament initiative in the Eastleigh South district). In 2004, Staff  from One Stop did intensive field research to ground test a database of  active youth organizations in Nairobi. Over two weeks the information officers described how staff  visited 100 to 150 different youth organizations that had expressed interest in affiliation with One Stop. This database of  affiliate youth organizations was shown to me. To join One Stop as an organization the group must bring a profile of  their organization and a valid registration certificate. If  the group fits the thematic areas that One Stop addresses, they can then become an affiliate. The validity of the database is questioned as it is many years since many organizations joined and some may now have disbanded. 4.  Information Computer Technology - Training Initiatives Spaces Used: Information Communications and Technology Training Room Fourteen computers were donated to the One Stop by Computer Aid. Only one is not in working order. Two trainers have worked with One Stop to provide six month courses for youth - specifically focusing on basic computer training. It is an excellent example of  peer to peer education. The two training staff  are volunteers. One young man is Space for Change : Part C - 29 volunteering as an intern with the One Stop from Kenya Polytechnic. The other is a graduate student who completed an Information Technology course with Nairobi Aviation and also has Information Management Systems certification from Computer Pride. The youth from Kenya Polytechnic have been at the One Stop for two months. He enjoys it and says that it is his first time as a teacher. He sees his volunteer work as a bridge to formal employment where he can practically apply the knowledge and academic work that he has completed.  He comments that the One Stop is an opportunity to share knowledge with his peers. The other trainer hosts other lectures outside of  the One Stop and is a member of  a separate youth organization called Youth Environment Alliance in Ruai about twenty kilometres from Nairobi City. He helps his students find ‘attachments’ (work experience) and has been working with information technology accreditors to advocate for his students to receive formal certification for the skills that they have acquired. He has negotiated a discounted rate for his students to sit the official examination (1000ksh). Unfortunately only four of the twenty students in his class can afford this. The trainer in an interview highlights that 75% of  youth who come to his One Stop computer class represent vulnerable and disadvantaged youth. His example to illustrate this describes a programmed visit to a cyber cafe to teach participants how to set up an email account. “When I told everyone that we would visit a cyber, I was surprised to find that the majority of  the class had never been to any establishment with computer services.” He went on to explain that “my students didn’t think that they were allowed to enter such premises because of  their socio-economic status, and the majority don’t have the money for the cyber cafe visitation fees” . On one visit to the One Stop, I was invited to sit in on a training session. I ask three students who are taking the course in the morning what they think of  the program. All agree that it is very worthwhile and an excellent opportunity to strengthen their skills. One young woman is training herself  to use Microsoft Access. She tells me that she would like to use the skills she is developing to do freelance journalism. Another participant is interested in studying mechanical engineering. He comments that the One Stop computer training is unique because it is free. “.. it is a good way to connect the youth community to technology so that the training can be used as a precursor to formal testing”. “the One Stop program is a good way to practice before going for a formal testing elsewhere”. Youth Participant 5. Datobel Lecture Series Spaces Used: Main Hall The main hall at the One Stop is often used by varying formal service providers and partners of  the One Stop to provide training or other opportunities for youth and of relevance to the central areas of  intervention outlined as part of  the One Stop official mandate. During the time of  my research, Datobel is the organisation using the main hall to offer accreditation courses for youth in Business Management. The sessions are for Certificate I and also Diploma. I am told that the first class will soon be graduating with accreditation recognized by the Kenyan National Examinations Council. Starting in January, 2007 there will be additional sessions for advanced Certificate II and advanced Diploma. The classes are beneficial because they provide opportunities for underprivileged youth who haven’t had the opportunity to attend further training and haven’t the capacity to afford training elsewhere. The first sessions have been very popular with nearly thirty youth attending each. In an interview, the director of  the program mentions that the Datobel organisation has partnered with lecturers from local universities and colleges, explaining that lecturers regularly come to the One Stop to host guest seminars. “this is a mechanism that ensures students access to local academic institutions without the barrier of university fees”. Datobel Director 6. Youth in Governance- Nairobi Junior Council Spaces Used: Career Counselling Room #1, Main Hall Another partnership that has existed at the One Stop since its first beginnings has been a formal group, encouraging youth participation in governance. Initially part of  an international network called ‘Youth for Habitat’ this partnership has been working towards the development of six junior councils in major towns across Kenya including Nairobi.  A successful action example of  this goal to institutionalize youth forums within local Government structures, operates from within the One Stop space. There are 55 civic wards in Nairobi and the Junior Council has a representative for each of  these civic areas who is between the ages of  15-24. Every Friday the junior council meets in the main hall at the One Stop. In October and November 2007 these meetings saw 20+ representatives and covered about a half  of  all the wards. The chairperson of  the Nairobi junior council is 22 and has been involved for the last two years. He tells me how the One Stop was initially requested by the City Councillor of  Nairobi to prepare a City Wide Youth Policy. Based on examples such as the Malindi Junior Council and the Brazilian Youth Charter, young people at the One Stop held 8 consultative forums across divisions of  the city to work with youth in the development of  this policy. The junior council worked with welfare officers from the City Council of  Nairobi Social Services department to have access to the Cities Social Halls for the purpose of  these consultations. Over 100 youth came to the sessions. This relationship has continued with the city welfare officers and youth at the One Stop also use the social halls for outreach purposes. The Youth Policy awaits adoption by the City of Nairobi Councillors. The Junior Council chair is the elected official for the Mukuru constituency. This year has been very successful for him. He lobbied local government for financial support of youth organizations working towards poverty alleviation. His efforts secured funding for youth in his Mukuru district. He tells me that a business plan competition is underway amongst the organizations in his area to determine where the financial resources will be allocated. Garbage collection, environment, HIV/Aids awareness, crime prevention, governance and sports are all focus areas that the different groups in Mukuru youth are passionate about. Other Junior Council members were also successful in lobbying council for youth funding. The junior councillor for Kayole also secured some funding assistance. In May of  2007 the Junior Council decided to promote dialogue with Kenyan ministries. To do this they used the One Stop space to host a ‘youth open day discussion’. At this session ministers were invited to see what youth are doing in relation to the theme of  youth and development. Since this session, One Stop youth have become active partners with the Ministry of  Youth Affairs and also the Ministry for Sports and Culture - Department of  Social Services. The Junior Council chair was appointed to join the National Steering Committee for the Kenyan Youth Day and Harambee Youth Week. During these events young people came to showcase their talents and propose strategies for government to move forward in relation to youth affairs. These have been successful ways for youth to interface with government on a national level. As part of  an interview, the Junior Council chair reflected on his enthusiasm around a recent invitation to present and report in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia for the African Development Forum. The African Union launched the African Youth Charter at this event and he referred to the compelling deliberations of  youth in its adoption. “The Junior Council’s participation in these broader forums allows us to lobby very seriously for the African Youth Charter we really contributed. One of the things we were trying to see included was that young people are involved in decision making. That there be opportunities in East Africa like those that exist in West Africa. We would like to see youth equally involved as elected officials” Junior Council Chairperson Space for Change : Part C - 31 INFORmAL PARTNERSHIPS- YOUTH LED DEvELOPmENT CASE ExAmPLES In this case study of  the One Stop I seek to explore beyond only the formal partnerships and programs that are operating in this physical space.  In an effort to give voice to elements of  the One Stop that are not as broadly discussed or publicised;  and by way of  illustration, I have also chosen to profile eight particularly inspiring stories associated with the individuals who are active at the One Stop. 1. Rueben Youth Starship Association Spaces Used: VCT Waiting Area, An important component of  formal services provided at the One Stop is the associated youth volunteer participation. An excellent example of  this is a group of  eight young people from a youth organisation who are volunteering with Hope World Wide Kenya in the VCT clinic. These young people are from the Kitengela area and are part of  an active youth organisation called the ‘Rueben Youth Starship Association’. With approximately fifty youth members, the group is chaired by eight founders. In an interview with a young woman and man who are both founders of  the group it becomes evident that they are at the One Stop to learn and receive mentorship about health services and counselling. Both speak about how Hope World Wide Kenya has helped facilitate travel for different members from their organisation to come to Nairobi to volunteer and learn at the One Stop. The Rueben Youth Starship association is not the only youth-led group that is associated with the VCT clinic, and I am humbled by their passion and motivation to contribute to the health of  their peers and young Kenyans in general. One of  the volunteers tells me of  another Hope World Wide Kenya project that he has been giving time to. It is a night operation working to provide a safer environment for sex trade workers on a key transportation corridor in Kenya, he is very proud of  his involvement in this work. “It is often a long and difficult trip. We travel 400kilometers each way to the site where services are provided and when we are there the activities that the youth are doing are risky. There is often no protection from sexual disease and the risk of abuse is high.” Founding member interviewee. In addition to the interests of  this youth organisation around health, the Reuben Youth Starship Association also works to mobilize around other issues, share their learning and education with their friends through peer training. The group hosts music and drama activities, show educational movies and organize games and community building activities. 2. Reformed Youth Association Spaces Used: Career Counselling Room #1, Career Counselling Room #2, Reception Waiting Area, Main Hall A number of  the junior council members are also active within their own youth led groups. One particular junior councillor is enthusiastic to share his achievements.  During my visits to the One Stop I am introduced to three young men from his organisation. The One Stop staff  are quick to point out that these young people are inspiring examples of  marginalized youth taking action and empowering themselves. The chair, secretary and spokesperson whom I met were formerly street youth who have now formed a coalition of approximately 300 members. They have been coming to the One Stop since January 2006 and formally registered as an organization in June of  2006.With the support and mentorship of  One Stop Staff, the Reformed Youth Association members have worked together to secure a letter of  support from the Mayor of  the City. They have now used this support to lobby for private funding. “I can remember when one of  the One Stop Information officers came to some of  the ‘youth bases’ in the City which are places where street youth meet” reflects the secretary. He is referring to spaces in Nairobi like the Mutatu stations or large carpark areas. “I was one of  these youth and was tired of  my life on the street”. A goal of  the Reformed Youth Association is to acquire space in their community, within the district of  Embakasi. The group has a strong relationship with the social welfare officer in Embakasi. The secretary of  Reformed Youth Association tells me that this is something that they have worked on for some time and that there is now a strong relationship with the City of  Nairobi and also that the welfare officer in their community avails the Social Hall for youth regularly. On World Aids Day, December 1st - I was invited to visit the Embakasi social hall to see the outreach activities of the Reformed Youth Association. Initially, no one is in the main hall and I wonder if  an event is really taking place. I ask my research mentors who are with me, plus a group of women doing tailoring in the room next to the main hall. I am assured by all that there is, in fact, a very large event taking place. Within twenty minutes over eighty youth under 25 greet me behind a large banner which reads: “Stop Aids - keep the Promise - men say no to sex without consent” and another small group holds a banner reading: “Youth in Action”. There is poetry, a representative from the Ministry of  Health gives an address, youth perform a play, there is a boxing demonstration to represent the fight against AIDS, and a lively question and answer session take place. We also visit an area in the local Sokoni slum where homeless youth members of  the Reformed Youth Association have built a temporary home amongst the garbage and are currently conducting a recycling initiative. The secretary introduces us to the “boys” and we sit and talk about how they hope to lobby the city for acquisition of  this land. The Reformed Youth Association acquisition of  land would allow the group to pursue development of  small business skills such as tailoring, drivers, security guards, waste management and recycling. The Reformed Youth Association regularly visits the One Stop. The chairperson is currently running for election in the Embakasi district. An information officer from One Stop tells me that reformed youth used to access the social halls where they had access to food, shelter and a place to sleep. This is not consistently provided anymore, presenting a challenge that the youth led group is fighting to redress. The Reformed Youth Association uses the One Stop every Friday. The chairperson and the secretary were at the One Stop on most of  the occasions that I visited. 3 Empowerment of  Young women / Eastsiderz Spaces Used: Career Counselling Room #2, Reception For the past two years, “Eastsiderz” have been meeting on Thursdays to conduct waste collection in the Eastleigh estates. Of  16 youth members, my youth mentor is the only female. The group requests 100 Kenyan shillings per week from those who live in the estates where they are managing waste. The fee goes towards the collection of  garbage; and organization for a collection agency to come and pick up the waste. The group is registered under the ministry for social workers and the youth are striving to be recognized as useful service providers in their neighbourhood. Members are between 18 to 25 years and all reside in the Eastleigh Civic ward. It is often difficult for the youth because the money that is raised does not leave enough for protective clothing such as gloves or overalls. The group does not have a formal space to meet and there are no formal agencies as partners. To date the clothes that the group uses have been donated in kind. My youth mentor has been a regular member of  the One Stop since early in 2006. She is passionate to see more young women frequenting the Centre. Recently she has founded a women’s empowerment group comprising 12 young women aged between 15 to 20. The group is not yet registered but as a core advocate she has been working with these women to conduct outreach in rural areas to address issues affecting women such as fostering self  esteem, addressing cultural Space for Change : Part C - 33 barriers to participation and changing perceptions associated with harmful cultural practices such as female genital mutilation. As a mentor to me, I am regularly inspired by her ideas and proposals and plans for women’s empowerment that she would like to see advanced through her involvement at One Stop “Much of my project for young women is still in the research stage. I have many ideas but it is difficult for young women to be as involved as I would like. There are many other responsibilities and there are so many young men who come here to One Stop that it can sometimes be intimidating. I would like to develop more opportunities for young women to feel welcome” Dorothie, Youth Mentor In the months leading to my trip to Kenya, my mentor had been the focal person in Nairobi for an international Youth Employment Summit. She also had acted as personal assistant to the Kenyan country coordinator and was based at the One Stop full time as a Youth Employment Summit volunteer representative for youth interested in the Summit. 4.  YPARD- Young Professionals Platform for Agricultural Research and Development Spaces Used: Career Counselling Room #2, Reception, Reception waiting area, Main Hall This youth led organization has an international membership base, and the young woman I interview is one of  two co-founding members from Kenya as well as being the regional focal point in East Africa. Of  the 20 current members, some are from Germany, Italy and Uganda. The group works together on issues of  food security through sound agricultural practices. As one of  the founders she has spent the last ten months since the group’s inception trying to promote the environmental benefits of  sustainable agriculture. She is trying to infuse environmental issues as a core area of  importance at the One Stop. A frequent One Stop participant since January 2006, she tells me about another interesting project she has been working on- a ‘Youth Friendly Guide for Nairobi’. In partnership with two other Nairobi youth the Guide is currently in first draft. “I have talked to a lot of  young people about what the publication should feature” she explains to me as I review the comprehensive list of  over 30 different information areas. From cheap places to access food, to parks and Mutatu information - the Nairobi City Guide has a broad collection of  useful information for young people. In her spare time, this young woman has also recruited 10 youth for a One Stop choir and is also spearheading an initiative to develop a library with another young woman. Many publications have been donated by the United Nations and the campus of  African Technologies and Policies Studies. They are now seeking ways to secure resources for building materials to construct shelving for the collection. 5. Action for Life Spaces Used: Main Hall, Reception Waiting Area Another elected representative on the Nairobi Junior Council also coordinates a well known youth organization in Kibera. With some 30 members, all are active youth between the age 15-35. The group has been together for two years and has regularly used the Habitat field office in Soweto East. Up until the age of  18, the Junior Council representative tells me that he had never left the Kibera area even to visit the city centre. Since being part of  the youth lead “Action for Life”, this has changed. At age 20, he travelled to Vancouver to participate in the UN-Habitat World Urban Forum III in June 2006. He mentions that the experiences he gained from this were helpful and that he feels he can use what he learned on the ground in Kibera. “I have never written a report from my trip to Canada” he states, “but if  you actually visit me in my community you will see I am more about real action”. I am told that a significant proportion of  the members from Action for Life are young women. The youth organization works around issues such as HIV Aids, volunteers and volunteer placement, theatre, ethics and governance. Recently the group started a girl’s soccer program. The organization is linked with a number of  other youth groups in Kibera such as Carolina for Kibera and the Kibera Community Youth Program. My interview is cut short for another meeting with the ‘Kibera for Kibera’ organization to discuss the Assembly for the Poor initiative. As a youth advocate, the junior councillor and Action for Life member is looking to help youth from the three civic wards in Kibera represented in a meaningful way in the World Social Forum in Nairobi in January. Before leaving I am reminded that ‘youth voice’ is a fundamental goal for this group and it is not without challenges. “I am constantly fighting perceptions. Every time I present myself there are assumptions made because I do not ‘look’ like a person of poverty from a slum..... what people don’t appreciate is that slum dwellers have pride and will make every effort to show the world that living in a ghetto doesn’t rust your brain or condemn you to rag clothing- we are sharp!” Nairobi Junior Councillor, Kibera Ward 6. TENCORA Tena and Inner Core Estates merged Spaces Used: Reception, Main Hall Another youth led organization associated with the Junior Council is based in the Umoja district. With approximately 30 members, the focus area of  the group is entrepreneurship, environment and youth empowerment. The group convenes in the Umoja Catholic Church. The junior counsellor explains to me that meeting in church is a fundamental way that she is able to relay information she has gathered from the One Stop. Many youth go to church and it is an ideal location to share information, plus there is adequate space. She takes posters, pamphlets and applications to Umoja youth. At 22 and one of  few female youth councillors on the Junior Council, she has been active for two years at the One Stop but comments that it is a challenging position and can often be very intimidating as a woman. Despite bringing her female friends on many occasions, few retain an interest in attending. The ratio of  young males involved at the One Stop is much higher than young women. Kurth-Schai address this gender imbalance addressing the additional role responsibilities and maternal duties that are expected of  young women (1988). These roles may restrict the time availability to participate in the same way that young men do.  7.  NEYREP - Nairobi Eastlands Youth Rehabilitation Program Spaces Used: Career Counselling Room #1, Reception waiting area, Main Hall From the Kamukunji constituency, I meet a youth who explains his role as a project consultant with an umbrella youth organization representing 52 youth groups in this area. It was founded in 2004 by the East African Regional Youth Network under the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (program addressing Youth issues). The group has been given a mandate to survey and provide data from Kamukunji and its environs. NEYREP has been working on a project that spearheads environmental management. Led by youth, they have developed an urban forestation development programme and coined this the ‘adopt-a-tree concept’. The group works with scouts/girl guides, 35 schools, church clubs, mosques and community clubs to provide education on the Kenyan Environmental policy using the Adopt-A-Tree concept. Youth are given a seedling to look after and nurture until it is large enough to be self  sufficient.  Establishment of  tree nurseries has been introduced in ten schools as part of  a pilot phase. The project is supported by National Environmental Management Authority, Forester, St. Johns Ambulance, and a Community Development Fund. Space for Change : Part C - 35 My interviewee from NYREP reveals that he is also the co-ordinator of  another youth lead community based organization called Sun City Youth. This group addresses issues associated with HIV Aids, and the victimization of  women. Currently the group is working to produce a documentary in the Naivasha region to bring about awareness of  the rape of  women in that area.  The documentary aims to provide information about what is being done to support victims, to shed light on the challenges women currently face and to raise strategies to improve the situation for women in this region. The project is an initiative of  Suncity Youth Group, in partnership with the African Health Community Programme, One Stop Youth Center, and other community based organizations. It is hoped that the documentary will assist to bridge the perceived reality and the factual evidence about sexual abuse among women and children in rural and urban areas, using Naivasha as an example. It is also hoped that the documentary will stimulate Governments, Communities, Donor agencies and stakeholders to respond with actions directed towards controlling and preventing the situation. OTHER ACTIvITIES AND USE OF SPACE On different occasions the One Stop goes beyond day to day service provision and involvement of  existing youth. The large spaces within the building lend themselves to host mobilizations and special events. Large workshops and celebration activities occur monthly. For example - on the occasion of  World Habitat Day, the One Stop filled with youth who had come to listen to presentations from UN- Habitat, speeches from service providers at the One Stop, and addresses from their peers about projects and groups where involvement is welcome. The inspirational success of  these events cannot be overstated enough. Pictures tell the story and show every available chair taken with still more attendees squeezing into the main hall where most of  the program is hosted. At special events the whole One Stop fills with bodies full of  discussion and positivity, there is music, dance, and creative theatre and the energy levels overflow. Analysis of  booking sheets over a six month period shows that of  all the spaces within the One Stop Centre, the hall and the computer training room have the greatest number of  youth using them. In the four months of  research, six large celebrations of  more than 100 youth take place. These include Market Day, City Council Celebrations, Habitat Day, International Youth Day - Human Rights Event, a Peace and Conflict Resolution - Training and Capacity Building Day and a large workshop hosted by an international youth agency (Taking It Global - Youth Information Communication and Technology Open Forums). The main hall space is regularly booked for smaller gatherings and scheduled training workshops. Research suggests that this use is predominantly service delivery based with most young people attending lectures or training sessions which are being provided by volunteers or One Stop partner agencies. Youth led organizations also book the spaces to host meetings or discuss their organizational activities. The Youth Office is popular for this and has multiple meetings. Youth gatherings happen on a daily basis. mEASURING PARTICIPATION FORmAL DATA COLLECTION Registration and enquiry forms are collected from youth who visit the One Stop. A review of  six months of  data from these forms (May to October 2006) indicates that the most common registrants were youth seeking information about the Centre itself, about what trainings take place in the Centre and how to access employment resources such as advice and career counselling. Each month, just over half of  the total number of  registrations and enquiries are first time visits to the One Stop and approximately 90% are males. A large component indicate being under the age of  twenty five but there are also a large proportion who do not specify age. Another predominant reason that youth cite for visiting the centre is to link and mobilize with other youth groups. Staff  at the One Stop mention that many youth who come to the One Stop do so with the purpose of  registering and raising awareness to support their own community based organizations. After reviewing all the data collection sheets from the One Stop it seemed that the register was not adequately capturing the true number of  youth coming to the facility each day. To test the accuracy of  the formal register a full daily attendance count was undertaken on fourteen occasions during the research timeframe spent in Nairobi. Results showed daily visitation between sixty to two hundred youth. The formal data sheets recorded these numbers as monthly statistics. These finding showed that the true levels of youth participation have not been represented by the formal registration processes. SUmmARY There is much that can be said about the One Stop case. The purpose has not been to showcase the One Stop as the only example where services are being provided for youth and young people use space to effect change and address the issues in their community. This example is useful because it provides and demonstrates successful formal partnerships between youth at a local government level. It is a way to show the results of  a localised strategy that is giving youth legitimacy through involvement in their city. The following section will further elaborate on this by suggesting some of  the factors for success. Particularly in terms of  the space itself  and how its use facilitates participation. Observations will be made regarding the objectives and goals of  the One Stop and also the main difficulties that exist. Space for Change : Part C - 37 Factors for Success In the case study profile of the One Stop an attempt is made to illustrate the distinguishing elements associated with use of space. Diagram 2 shows five core elements that can be used to define what takes place. These core elements are essentially the fundamental spatial building blocks for the One Stop initiative:       Activity space/event hosting        Spaces for formal partnerships and service provision        Informal space for youth led activities    Information promotion/notice boards    Formal spaces that are also supportive of youth-led activity On closer review of this, a number of further characteristics exist that support youth engagement and are particularly successful features within this layout. These elements or ‘factors for success’ are also useful when reflecting on the descriptive models of participation outlined in Part B - Participation as they generally relate to the overarching conditions that are important for effective youth participation. They include: Spatial Flexibility, Personal Freedom, Spatial Function, and Spatial Partnerships. PART D Space for Change : Part D - 39  (viii)   Respond to educational, socio-economic, recreational, emotional and psychological needs of  young people in an integrated way;        Individual needs assessments are not conducted for each of  the youth who visit the One Stop. Some services have incorporated this into their program - such as the employment and career counselling service and the voluntary counselling and testing service but generally the programs do not explicitly address this objective.      This said, the more informal peer to peer interactions of  youth at the One Stop does indirectly support this objective; particularly the instances where youth are educating or training other youth. Peer to peer exchange allows connections amongst youth who have similar life experiences. These methods have often been used in drug education, assisting youth involved in the legal system, or youth who are at risk. The United Nations Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention defines peer to peer learning as: “The use of  same age or same background educators to convey educational messages to a target group” (International Centre for the Prevention of  Crime, 2005). Peer educators work by endorsing “healthy norms, beliefs and behaviours within their own peer group or community, and challenging those which are unhealthy”.  (ix)   Encourage youth to have greater ownership of  development;    The number of  action oriented projects, that relate to employment and entrepreneurship, governance, health, education, recreation, and environment and resource management are testimony to the ways in which youth are encouraged to contribute and lead lives that they have reason to value.  (x)    Offer leadership and mentorship to young people;    The youth interviewed as part of  this project speak of  the intergenerational relationships that they have formed whereby a youth-adult partnership often contributes to their learning and development. A particularly strong example is the youth who work with VCT service providers who are passionate about the health of  their peers. Another strong example is the Reformed Youth Association. Overtime and with support from adults these youth demonstrate how they have moved from life on the street to become an advocacy group and supportive network for their peers.   Information promotion/notice boards   Formal spaces that are also supportive of youth-led activity SPATIAL FLExIbILITY The majority of  space in the One Stop is available for youth to use for their own activities and for mobilization or activism. The junior councillors for example, use the main hall as a place to host regular formal meetings on issues of  local governance. As a flow-on from this, the junior councillors who are associated with other youth led activities can and will also use this space to coordinate their local action projects. A strong example is profiled in the case study is the Reformed Youth Association. The spatial flexibility of  the One Stop is a genuine opportunity and condition for engagement and participation. PERSONAL FREEDOm The use of  ‘formal’ and ‘informal’ to distinguish use of  space within the One Stop predominantly refers to the degree of adult supervision exercised in each space.  The majority of  space within the One Stop is supervised. Informal space indicates freedom for activities to take place in these areas/space that have been organised by and for youth. An important and successful element in this arrangement is trust. One large office is dedicated for youth and adult mentors and staff  allow this area to be coordinated by youth. What results is an enhancement of  personal freedoms that allows youth to lead lives that they have reason to value but with the knowledge that support is literally next door. SPATIAL FUNCTION The use of  space for services that are orientated specifically for youth is another successful factor, be it for employment, governance and advocacy, educational purpose, or the provision of  health care, the functions of  space speak to community issues and offer access to information about what is taking place and of  relevance. It essentially creates an outlet for realising skills and knowledge that can serve in the work of  community building. The spatial function within the One Stop acts as an impetus for participation. As a result of this environment, the organization that results is one that allows for the expression of  personal identity. SPATIAL PARTNERSHIPS The flexibility and function of  the different spaces within the one stop creates opportunities for youth in other ways. It incubates alliances.  This includes but is not limited to networking and connections formed with other youth, adult mentors, authorities from government, academic institutions, private enterprise, researchers and volunteers. These partnerships are a factor for success because they extend access to a supportive network of  friends and community. It can be the partnerships that develop the building blocks for positive and healthy behaviours, for learning, livelihoods and employment. The majority of  youth who access the One Stop have a personal trajectory distinguished by lack of access, injustice, tragedy and poverty. The accessibility and exposure to positive influences may be the protective factor that encourages resiliency. ObJECTIvES AND AREAS OF INTERvENTION The Global Partnership Initiative background highlights five objectives that are given for the One Stop Youth resource centre. Using the research of  this project a number of observations and comments can be made in relation to measurement of  these objectives. Each is taken from an action plan developed in 2004 for the One Stop centre. Targets were also given. These objectives and targets are a good basis for comparative analysis over time.  (vi)   Encourage partnerships with relevant stakeholders in the delivery of  youth development;    At the time of  this research there are five core partners that deliver services at the One Stop on a daily basis. In addition, a multitude of  other partnerships are also in place (as outlined in ‘Factors for Success’). While these partners are not always an obvious component of  the space they include - the immediate support and affiliation with UN-Habitat, government agencies, international and local non-government organizations with expertise in youth development, charitable organizations, local and international academic institutions, consulting firms, and an extensive volunteer base.  (vii)   Increase knowledge, skills and attitude change of  young people;    The seven narrative profiles of  Youth-Led development case examples are testimony to how the provision of  services and space for youth can increase knowledge, skills and attitude change. This research profiles only a small handful of  different activities that youth are leading and finding support at the One Stop. A more extensive quantification of associated youth led groups would broaden the demonstration of  how this local initiative meets this objective.    The Computer Training Initiative is another good measure of  knowledge and skills increase. Of  the few students who can afford to take the end of  course official examination - 100% pass with high or very high distinctions. This is particularly notable given that power for the computers at the One Stop is not always in operation and 75% or youth who attend the One Stop computer class have no previous training. Space for Change : Part D - 41 DIAGRAm 2 : ANALYSIS OF SPACE  Activity space/event hosting   Spaces for formal partnerships and service provision   Informal space for youth led activities SCALE 1:100  N Generally the partners of  the One Stop provide leadership and mentorship in some way. This includes, but is not limited to, advice for personal development, contacts or connections to further new social activities, and increased learning for essential life skills. Based on trust, these relationships offer guidance, support and encouragement. The staff  and partner support from the One Stop extends beyond the general service hours and often involves accompanying youth to support, give encouragement and advice to the initiatives and action projects they coordinate. AREAS FOR ImPROvEmENT The observations generally show that the One Stop meets its objectives and areas of  intervention. To give a more critical perspective there are a number of  elements to consider.  (i)   Gender balance    The spaces within the one stop are predominantly used by young men. Young women that were interviewed as part of  this research asserted that it is difficult to welcome new women because the space is not as friendly as it could be.  (ii) Operations    Basic utility services are not always available. Provision of  electricity is not always guaranteed and money to finance electrical bills is often lacking. At one time the One Stop was without electricity for a number of  months. Without electricity services such as computer training are seriously impaired.  (iii) Revenue    There are minimal operating revenues for the space. Generally what exists and takes place within the building is done in kind. The different groups within the One Stop often struggle to host events or provide services because direct funding is absent.  (iv) Information Updates    As an information centre the One stop does not have print mechanisms to keep information updates current. Many of  the information spaces and walls have outdated posters and there is rarely funding to create or print notices about new initiatives. This means that much of the information distribution about upcoming events or initiatives is distributed by word of mouth. Sometimes this is problematic because not everyone has equal access to the information and it is not possible to convey updates to all participants at the center. OPERATIONALISING PARTICIPATION Despite the difficulties at the One Stop the participation rates are high. In a compendium of  promising strategies and programmes from around the world on urban crime prevention and youth at risk, specific examples are given showing how city governments or local community organizations have been able to successfully establish and sustain good partnership crime prevention structures, and reduce levels of  crime and violence through coordinated urban development and participatory approaches (ICPC, 2005). The One Stop initiative broadly facilitates five different forms of  positive participation in community planning. The following articulation of  these types is recommended for other agencies with an interest in supporting youth to consider. •   Social action groups whereby youth are organizing around issues such as environmental protection, political voice, and neighbourhood revitalization. Exemplifying how youth are joining together for social action and increasing their collective capacity. •   Community planning efforts at the local level that include steps to assess local conditions, formulate action plans and build support for implementation. •   Public advocacy whereby young people advocate with legislators about policy proposals, hold agencies accountable for administrative regulations, and build coalitions supporting the interests of  youth. •   Community education that strengthens the consciousness, competence, and confidence of  youth to ‘transform the world’ instead of  sitting in silence and accepting the roles which adults attribute to them, the One Stop is an example where youth are encouraged to question their circumstances and change their community. •   Local services development whereby youth are involved in efforts to develop community-based services that are responsive to needs such as education, employment, health, and environmental management. It is important to recognise that the types of  activities that youth are involved in at the One Stop are twofold. There are both community service programs where youth perform service related activities, but also activism initiatives whereby, once empowered, or working with other youth and/or adults, participation in more activist orientated groups occurs. These collaborations are positive insofar as the involvement seeks to influence public policy and change institutional practice.  The focus is often on social justice. In this sense, such groups exemplify a critical form of  civic engagement in which youth are encouraged to question the status quo and envision better alternatives for themselves and their peers. Although these roles are consistent with recent advances in youth development, and social research new paradigms are often resisted by those who have a stake in the status quo (Kuhn 1962). NEw SPACES FOR LEARNING As a result of  such active participation in community development initiatives, an interesting argument can be made. By providing physical space, and allowing youth to lead their own projects as groups within this space, initiatives such as the One Stop create an environment that not only supports youth by providing services, but goes beyond to foster and legitimize creation of  new spaces for learning. Krishner contends that youth activism groups serve a function by providing distinctive environments for learning and development that move away from more traditional forms of  schooling. He includes their role in providing such things as collective problem solving, exploration of alternative frames for identity, and bridges to academic and civic institutions (2007). These are of  particular relevance to the One Stop example because they are also characteristic of what has developed. To articulate and give evidence to this it is useful to draw on the following examples. COLLECTIvE PRObLEm SOLvING To foster opportunities for collective problem solving a shift in focus takes place from individual to group and learning as a team. An excellent example is working together on a social action campaign to accomplish goals that any individual would be hard-pressed to accomplish on their own. Take the example of  the Nairobi Citywide Youth Policy. In this instance complex tasks were undertaken by the youth in the Nairobi junior council in collaboration with each of the councillors from the different wards of  the city, and an older youth mentor and the staff  at the One Stop. In this instance city wide policy to support youth was sought. Junior councillors organised workshops, lobbied the local authorities and collaborated to have a working draft adopted by city officials. Young people’s accomplishments in groups such as this defy predictions about what adolescents are capable of doing according to standard developmental theory (Youniss & Hart, 2005). Such experiences may contribute to feelings of  collective efficacy (Bandura, 1999). ALTERNATIvE FRAmES FOR IDENTITY Being active in projects and groups that strive to create change enables participants to forge identities as powerful civic actors. One way that they do so is through the actions that they take in the public realm. By participating in civic venues, such as city council meetings, youth position themselves and are positioned by others as competent political actors (Nasir & Kirshner, 2003). In becoming a dynamic force in the political arena groups are essentially achieving what Friedmann contends is a politics of  identity. The projects and examples of  engagement at the One Stop enable youth to see how issues can be reframed as a collective responsibility. Framing social problems as such can be significant in identity development because it contributes to feelings of  empowerment and collective self-determination. A paramount example of  this is the transformation and Space for Change : Part D - 43 determination of  the street youth of  the Reformed Youth Association. Their collective struggle to legitimize space for their peers has resulted in a politically active group of  youngsters who have developed their own ‘politics of identity’. This group exemplifies being passionately engaged in the political area with the goal to reclaim their peers’ social rights. bRIDGES TO ACADEmIC AND CIvIC INSTITUTIONS Many of  the examples of  youth activities at the One Stop demonstrate where civic engagement for  youth has been facilitated through direct forms of  civic action. Youth participate as leaders and decision-makers in projects designed to address pressing social problems through research, advocacy, education, and action. In doing this there are opportunities to marshal academic skills in the service of meaningful public-oriented goals. In addition, youth seek the training provided at the One Stop by formal service providers and will use what is learnt as a way in which to further study or apply their learning to effect change or contribute meaningfully. Two of  the service providers within the One Stop provide excellent examples. The teacher who volunteers time to share knowledge of computer technology sees this academic service as a bridge to formal employment. Interviews with youth who were taking part in this training also suggested that the training was being used as a mechanism to strengthen further study opportunities.The Datobel lecture series is another direct bridge to academic accreditation for those without the financial capacity to attend training elsewhere. SUmmARY The commitment of  many young people today is to operationalize key elements of  deliberative participatory planning (Forester 1999, Friedmann 1998, Sandercock 1998). The value of  such a respectful dialogue, advocacy, critical education and cooperative organizing cannot be underestimated. Initiatives like the One Stop represent new roles for young people in organizations and communities. When young people become active participants in evaluation and research rather than passive recipients of  information, this challenges the usual roles ascribed to them, raises questions about age- appropriate methodology, and suggests “a new epistemology” or “way of  knowing” about the roles of  youth in society (Checkoway, Richards-Schuster, 2004). Space for Change : Part D - 45 Space for Change - 47 The importance of research focused on young people is reinforced by the realities of the current global situation. Statistics support the fact that a significant proportion of the world’s population is young. This report introduced this problem with an overview of youth demographics and the characteristics that have come to define young peoples existence. Particularly the issues of poverty, legacies of political instability, urban population growth, health, economic and social disparities and the negative impacts of global values which encourage competition and consumption. In the face of this situation we must ask what can be done to encourage resiliency. Creating an enabling environment involves participation and empowerment, enabling policies and institutions and supportive families and communities. Action oriented examples of success are useful to consider in light of such overwhelming global disparities. In cities and communities across the globe, there are many inspiring examples of youth leading positive community action projects. There are also many examples of spaces that have been provided and shared for young people to use and collectively mobilize. The reason why the Nairobi One Stop Youth Resource Centre provided such an interesting case for research has been its exceptional function as a hub for engagement, networking and social action. The support and legitimacy that it receives from the local municipality is important for other cities to consider as an example. By examining a physical space, this research has presented the layout and the functions of a building that after four years no longer exists as a space for youth. The value in this research has been the opportunity to reflect and examine what were the fundamental spatial building blocks that support and incubate youth participation. Concluding that flexible space, partnerships and personal freedom play a crucial role. What results is essentially a new and distinctive space for learning. Conclusion Space for Change - 49 Students like myself have much to learn from our international comrades, particularly those who are taking action in ‘development initiatives’ which demonstrate an enhancement of freedoms that allow them to lead lives that they have reason to value. In the first days of my arrival to the One Stop I remember how quickly I was forced to re- evaluate my existing perceptions and academic training. Before I knew it, a total deconstruction of self occurred as a result of what I saw and experienced. Not by ‘culture shock’ as the Department of Foreign Affairs Canada had warned in my training; nor by the continued UN broadcasts about how dangerous the environment around me was. On the contrary, it was something positive, life affirming and inspirational. Concurrently, the 2006 Youth Employment Summit was taking place, and youth from the One Stop had negotiated with the Kenyan Minister of Youth Affairs to incorporate a showcase of many of their associate youth groups who use One Stop as a place for mobilization. On that day I met one outstanding person in particular, four years younger than myself. He was presenting an initiative on show in a tent at the convention centre where the Summit was being convened. I listened while he casually discussed aspects of a business plan that he had developed with peers, going further to tell me about what it was that this initiative worked to achieve. Here was someone barely in their twenties showing me, for example, a cooking stove prototype that he had been constructing in collaboration with other youth in his rural area. It was a simple contraption shaped from the clay soils of a village near Thika. Its beauty was that the design helped maintain heat for cooking and reduce the consumption of coal fuel. This was designed, produced and marketed entirely by youth. Still excited to tell me about it at 10 pm, despite having set forth for travel to Nairobi at 3 am that morning, other young international interns from the United Nations were with me and we huddled around eager to learn from this born-natural educator. The expertise was captivating and awe inspiring. Energy and drive like nothing I have experienced. To this day I will remain humbled by the knowledge that so many youth across the globe exemplify this kind of activism, leadership and vision. I have been liberated from the tunnel-vision conditioning that suggests youth are always in need, alienated from community, and withdrawn from participation. That kind of scenario is far from the whole picture. The case example of Nairobi is a digression from a focus on only the deficiencies and service needs of youth. 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