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The Potential of Regional Planning for the Centro de Investigacion Y Formacion Social (ITESO) De La Peña Domene, Marcela 2008-03-11

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THE POTENTIAL OF REGIONAL PLANNING FOR THE CENTRO DE INVESTIGACIÓN Y FORMACIÓN SOCIAL (ITESO) by MARCELA DE LA PEÑA DOMENE B.A., Universidad de Guadalajara, 1999 A PROJECT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE (PLANNING) in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES School of Community and Regional Planning We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard ...................................................... ..................................................... .....................................................  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 2004 © Marcela de la Peña Domene, 2004  TABLE OF CONTENT EXCEUTIVE SUMMARY ……………….…………….……….……………………. i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS …………………………….……….……………………. ii PREFACE……………………………………………….……….……………………. 1 CHAPTER 1. Introduction…………………………..…………………….……… 2 1.1 A REGION… PIECES OF A PUZZLE…………………………………….………. 3 1.2 THE PURPOSE OF THE PROJECT…..………………………..………….…….. 3 1.2.1 Goal ………………….…………………..…………………………………... 3 1.2.2 Objectives …….………………………….………………………………... 3 1.2.3 Methodology……….……………………….………………………………..4 1.3 STRUCTURE OF THE PROJECT……………………..………..………….…..… 5 1.4 CLOSING THE LOOP……………………………………………….………….….... 5 CHAPTER 2. The External Client: CIFS………………………………………… 6 2.1 ORGANIZATIONAL INFORMATION…………………………….…………….…. 7 2.1.1 ITESO……………………………………….……………………………….. 7 2.1.2 Institutional Structure……….……….……………….…………….…. 8 2.1.3 CIFS…………………………….………….………………………..…….…. 9 2.1.4 General Objective…………………….….…………………………...…. 9 2.1.5 Background……………………………..……………………………….…. 9 The beginnings, 1995-1999………………………... 10 Transition and restructure, 1999-2002…………. 11 Current stage, 2002-2004…………………………... 12 2.1.6 Current Organization…………………………….…………….…….. 14  CHAPTER 3. The Projects……………..………………………….…………….. 17 3.1 THE PROJECTS 2000-2003…………….………………………………….……. 18 3.2 THE PROJECTS 2004………………...…………………………….…………….. 22 3.3 SOUTH AREA OF THE STATE OF JALISCO AND CIFS ….………...…. 23 3.3.1 CIFS in the region. Objectives and methodology…….……… 25 3.3.2 Background of the project…….……………………….………….… 26 3.3.3 Internship at Amacueca…………………………….……………..... 27 Some learning experiences………………..….. 28 CHAPTER 4. Theoretical Framework: Regional Planning………………. 30 4.1 WHAT IS REGIONAL PLANNING………………………………………………… 32 4.2 REGIONAL PLANNING AS A TERRITORIAL MATTER………….………… 32 4.3 STAGES OF THE PROCESS……………………………………………………..... 34 4.4 KEY CONSIDERATIONS …..……………………….………………………..……. 36 4.4.1 Sale and Connectivity ……………………………………………….…. 36 4.4.2 The Physical Survey…………………………….……………………….. 38 4.4.3 Incorporation of local knowledge and skills…………………….. 39 4.5 THE REGIONALIZATION PROGRAM FROM THE STATE OF JALISCO ....… 39 CHAPTER 5. Conclusions ……………………………..………………………. 42 5.1 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ………………………………… 43 5.2 POSSIBILITIES FOR THE FUTURE……………………………………………… 45 ACRONYMS…………………………….…………….………….…………………. 47 BIBLIOGRAPHY…………………………….………………………………….…. 49 ANNEXES…………………………………………………………….…………..…. 54 ANNEX ONE. Brief History of the South area of Jalisco……………… 55 ANNEX TWO. Internship Maps …...…….………………………..………… 58 ANNEX THREE. Pictures from the region ..……………..………….…… 62  LIST OF TABLES  TABLE 1. PROJECTS IN 2000 ………………………………………………………… 18 TABLE 2. PROJECTS IN 2001 ………………………………………………………… 19 TABLE 3. PROJECTS IN 2002 ………………………………………………………… 20 TABLE 4. PROJECTS IN 2003 ………………………………………………………… 21 TABLE 5. PROJECTS IN 2004 ………………………………………………………… 22 TABLE 6. THEMES FOR THE PHYSICAL SURVEY ……………………………… 38  LIST OF FIGURES  FIGURE 1. STRUCTURE OF CIFS 1995 ….…………………………………………. 10 FIGURE 2. STRUCTURE OF CIFS 1999 ….…………………………………………. 11 FIGURE 3. STRUCTURE OF CIFS 2002 ….…………………………………………. 13 FIGURE 4. MAP OF MEXICO …..…………………………………………………….… 24 FIGURE 5. MAP OF THE STATE OF JALISCO ………………………………….… 24 FIGURE 6. MAP OF THE REGIONALIZATION OF JALISCO ….…………...… 41  ______________________________________________________________________________  EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This report results of the work done for the Centro de Investigación y Formación Social (CIFS) - University ITESO.  The purpose of the master’s project is to recommend  regional planning as an alternative approach for projects developed at CIFS in the South area of Jalisco. In order to do that this project is divided in three main sections. The first one presents a general overview of the academic research Centre as the client, with an emphasis on the organizational structure.  The next section provides a description of the projects  undertaken in the last four year at CIFS, an it describes the context of the projects implemented in the South area of Jalisco.  Lastly, the third section points out some  values of regional planning, as a progressive approach for the Centre’s practice. The report concludes by stating that for the most part CIFS had no vision of the region as a whole and how the issues interrelated.  Thus it is necessary to identify  opportunities and advise changes for the Centre’s practice.  In addition, several  recommendations are suggested in terms of looking at the projects through a regional perspective, as opposed of having single and unconnected initiatives. This study was undertaken because of the lost potential that results from the Centre developing single and unconnected projects, when there are many opportunities to gain from an integrated regional approach.  __________________________________________________________________________ i  ______________________________________________________________________________  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I would like to thank the very valuable contribution of Professor Tony Dorcey and my second reader Dr. Jaime Morales for their time and input that made this a better project. A special thanks to Enrique Luengo and Oscar Hernández from Centro de Investigación and Formación Social for believing in me and giving me the opportunity to contribute to the Centre’s improvement. From CIFS I also want to thank Joaquin, Wicho, Sofia and Jorge for their help.  I would also like to thank Becas Magdalena O. Vda. de Brockmann, A.C., Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACyT), and Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Occidente (ITESO) for their financial support that allowed me to complete my master’s degree. Thanks are also due to Tía Phyllis, Yvonne and Luisa for their time of review and editing advice for this project. I thank to my friends from México Fernanda, Alejandra, Judith, Laura and Barbara (from Puerto Rico) for being close to me through these years.  To my new friends from  Vancouver Beatriz, Carolina, Tío Chuy, Pablo, Raquel, Karime, Tamer, Leticia and Mario for making this experience a great one. Not to forget the generation of SCARPies 2004 for a great shared learning experience, especially to those working at WMAX during the summer of 2004 for making that the writing of my project became an enjoyable process. Special thanks to Lino for laughing with me and sharing a great relationship.  All this is possible because of the unconditional support and love from my parents, Salvador and Carmen, and my sisters Paloma and Marinés. As well as the recent arrival of Don Fer who makes me smile.  __________________________________________________________________________ ii  ______________________________________________________________________________  PREFACE In 1997 I was doing my undergraduate degree in Sociology in Guadalajara, Mexico. I started to work at the Centro de Investigación y Formación Social Training (CIFS) as a Research Assistant on a variety of projects. As time went by I learned more about the development of projects that were implemented.  Additionally I got a higher level of  involvement in the projects developed by CIFS.  After five years of working at the  Centre, I realized that several changes needed to take place. However I was not able to propose an alternative for the criticism I had. I had the opportunity to study a Master’s degree in Planning which allowed me to take a step back from work and this gave me some independence from the Centre’s work. The Master’s program gave me new experiences and I learned different approaches to work in particular situations, all of them related to planning processes. Not only in a formal setting, such as a classroom, but also in practice with the opportunity to get involved in situations of learning-by-doing. I also had a chance to reflect on the experience that I had had at CIFS in order to make suggestions to strengthen the projects and the Centre as a whole.  This report  summarizes the Centre’s work and makes recommendations for how it might be advanced.  _________________________________________________________________________ 1  ______________________________________________________________________________  CHAPTER 1: Introduction  _________________________________________________________________________ 2  ______________________________________________________________________________  1.1 A REGION… PIECES OF A PUZZLE For the past nine years, the Centro de Investigación y Formación Social (CIFS), an academic research centre located at the University Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Suepriores de Occidente (ITESO) in Guadalajara, Jalisco, México, has been implementing projects that determine the identity of the Centre, as well as the vision that the Centre has for its contribution to the university and to society.  The projects that this  educational institution undertook since the mid 90’s emphasize social justice, economic self-sufficiency, local empowerment, rural development, and civic education.  The  mandate of the Centre is to engender significant contributions to the social situation in order to improve the quality of life of the people that they work with. This general statement has generated some complicated questions about the extent to which a project is relevant to the Centre, how projects are selected and, particularly, what is the role of the Centre in these projects. However, CIFS is also executing projects that are not aligned with its goals or that are not a priority for its objectives. On many occasions these projects are responding to external demands and funding opportunities. This generates a conflict situation for the Centre and the members within it.  1.2 THE PURPOSE OF THE PROJECT  1.2.1 Goal •  To recommend regional planning as an alternative approach for projects developed at CIFS in the South area of Jalisco.  1.2.2 Objectives •  Present a general overview of the Centre as the client;  •  Provide a description of the projects undertaken in the last four year at CIFS;  _________________________________________________________________________ 3  ______________________________________________________________________________  •  Point out some values of regional planning in practice and the implications for its use;  •  Identify opportunities and suggest changes in the Centre’s practice  1.2.3 Methodology The methodology used in this project varies according to the type of information required. There are three different kinds of information: •  the internal program documents created by the Centre;  •  the conceptual and theoretical framework from the regional planning literature; and  •  the data about the region of South of Jalisco (statistics, history, literature, etc.) from governmental and other sources.  The study addresses theories of regional planning (Mumford, 1938; Aberley, 1985, 1993, 1998; Steiner, 2000), in order to analyze the relationship between nature and social issues, the environment and cultural variables involved. A regional planning approach argues that a region is not determined by political or administrative boundaries, but rather that the region’s geography sets the limits and relationships in a given area. The research addresses the extent to which a regional planning approach is an alternative way to develop projects at CIFS. The literature deals with regional planning as an approach for looking at the context for a project in a broad perspective, where the environmental, economical and social variables are involved. This perspective argues that regional planning is “a territorially oriented perception and practice based on the abilities of bounded physical environment” (Aberley, 1985).  Regional planning has a focus on long-term issues  rather than short-term goals. The worth of this alternative approach is argued in terms of the following three key considerations: first, the importance of the scale and connectivity in a physical space; second, the physical survey as a first step of a planning process; and finally, the incorporation of local knowledge and skills through the survey, plans and implementation.  _________________________________________________________________________ 4  ______________________________________________________________________________  1.3 STRUCTURE OF THE PROJECT The purpose of this project is to recommend the use of regional planning as an alternate approach for the projects developed at the Centro de Investigación y Formación Social in the South area of Jalisco. The following chapter describes the client, the research Centre, with an emphasis on the organizational structure. The third chapter presents the projects that the Centre has develop over the past years.  In Chapter 4, an overview of regional planning as a  progressive and alternative approach in the particular context of the Centre is developed. The intention with this chapter is to present the arguments that sustain the recommendations in this document.  1.4 CLOSING THE LOOP The importance of this project lies in the immediate benefit that the Centre might gain from the employment of a regional planning approach, as well as for the people and the organizations that they work with. This is also an important project because it presents a holistic method of working together: the researchers, the local communities, the civil organizations, and various stakeholders involved in specific issues. This study was undertaken because of the lost potential that results from the Centre developing single and unconnected projects, when there are many opportunities to gain from an integrated regional approach. Concrete actions or determinations are developed for the Centre, reflecting its focus on the South area of the State of Jalisco. This implies that there are some particulars that cannot be generalized for other regions.  _________________________________________________________________________ 5  ______________________________________________________________________________  CHAPTER 2: The External Client CIFS  _________________________________________________________________________ 6  ______________________________________________________________________________  An academic research centre is a place where a particular university is able to develop and implement knowledge for society; at the same time, the society provides a learning context for the university. This is the kind of relationship found between Centro de Investigación y Formación Social (CIFS) and the University Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Occidente (ITESO) in Guadalajara, Jalisco, México. Because of this relationship, CIFS is a place where various opportunities are presented to ITESO. Under the general criteria guiding ITESO, the Centre takes a position of political neutrality. That is, it is neutral because it is not part of any government; however, it can work with the government. It is neutral also because it is an external centre from the government; when it comes to planning processes, this position lends objectivity to CIFS.  Most important, this neutrality allows CIFS to bring different stakeholders  together. The purpose of this second chapter is to present the Centre as the client for this project. To do this, a general overview of the University and its structure is given, locating the Centre within it. Followed by a description and analysis of the background of the Centre and its internal structure, leading up to an emphasis on the current structure and its organization.  2.1 ORGANIZATIONAL INFORMATION 2.1.1 ITESO ITESO is a Jesuit university founded in 1957 in Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. It is the second oldest university in the city of Guadalajara. ITESO has described three main aims in their mandate1 (ITESO, 2003): •  To educate competent professionals who are committed to their jobs and who can provide a service to the society;  _________________________________________________________________________ 7  ______________________________________________________________________________  •  To widen the cultural and knowledge boundaries searching continuously for the truth; and  •  To advise and develop viable solutions related to the transformation of systems and institutions.  To do this the institution emphasises dialogues with diverse  social organizations. Currently ITESO has 8,600 students with 92% in undergraduate programs.  The  University also employs over 1,800 people who work as academics or in the administrative area. The campus is 4.1 hectares.  2.1.2 Institutional Structure The University has a General Director, who is a Jesuit priest appointed by the Board of Governors (ITESO, A.C.). This person is the highest authority of the institution. There are four Directors who report to the General Director. All have comparable powers and they are organized according to the nature of their activities. 1. Dirección General Académica2 (DGA): This director is in charge of the development and management of all academic areas of the university. The DGA is also involved with research and the presentation of its results. All academic departments report to this director.  It is the largest in terms of number of  people involved. 2. Dirección de Administración y Finanzas (DAF): This director is responsible for organizing and controlling the University’s supplies and labour force, as well as to manage them efficiently. 3. Dirección de Integración Comunitaria (DIC): The main purpose of the DIC is to ensure that the ITESO community develops processes of internal integration, as well as to promote the University to the broader community. 4. Dirección de Relaciones Exteriores (DRE): The DRE has the task of assuring the presence of ITESO in society. To do this they focus on building links with diverse groups and institutions, and through continuing education programs.  1  All the documents were translated by the author of this project; some terms are not translated directly but rather re-worded to clarify their meaning in English. 2 See Acronyms for translation.  _________________________________________________________________________ 8  ______________________________________________________________________________  2.1.3 CIFS Centro de Investigación y Formación Social (CIFS) was created in 1995 as an academic centre of the University. CIFS is part of the Community Integration Direction (DIC). The main purpose of CIFS is to strengthen the role of the University in the larger community (CIFS, 2003). Better integration of university and society has two goals. First, to respond professionally and efficiently to demands from the society that the Centre is involved in; and second, to link projects where students, professors, academics and stakeholders are involved. This provides a learning experience for all parties. As a Jesuit University, ITESO strives “to support processes of social transformation that aspire for a more just and dignified life” (ITESO, 2003). CIFS’s purpose is to be involved with social processes that are considered strategic in the spectrum of alternatives for development.  Ultimately, in dialogue with the University community and involved  stakeholders, the Centre looks to promote social change, and to improve the quality of life of the people.  2.1.4 General Objective The overall objective of CIFS is to work towards social transformation, particularly in the State of Jalisco, through research and instruction of university students and citizens. These activities allow CIFS to build development proposals to alleviate social issues, such as poverty reduction measures, and to encourage the development of a new culture of peace, in full respect of human rights (CIFS, 2003, 2004).  2.1.5 Background In 1970, ITESO considered it relevant to start looking for alternative ways to concentrate on social problems and to get involved in helping to reduce them. As a result, three different centres were created. The first one was Centro Polanco, which was formed to address education in marginalized urban areas of Guadalajara and its metropolitan region.  The second centre, CECOPA (Centre of Coordination and  Promotion of Farming and Livestock), worked to support and conduct research in urban _________________________________________________________________________ 9  ______________________________________________________________________________  communities and rural areas. another.  These two centres operated independently of one  In this same decade, the third centre was created: the DGIC. This Centre  was in charge of maintaining and developing a social service program for the students3. In 1980, the Centre of Social Research (CIS) was established to unite the work of the three centres mentioned above.  A decade later, the University Program for Human  Rights (PUDH) was formed to provide training and support for organizations and individuals that were involved in national and international human rights movements (CIFS, 2002, 2003; De la Peña, S., 2002). In 1995 the three centres joined to establish CIFS. The history of CIFS can be divided into three different stages: The Centre’s beginning, from 1995 to 1999; its transition and restructure, from 1999 to 2002; and the current phase, from 2002 to 2004. The Beginnings, 1995-1999 Initially, the Centre was divided into four sub-areas according to the nature of the activities. The following scheme represents this initial structure: Figure 1. Structure of CIFS 1995  CIFS 1995 Coordination of Social Research Coordination of Social Formation (Istruction) Coordination of Social Intervention University Program for Human Rights  Under this arrangement, the theme that best articulated the work of CIFS was social transformation.  However, no formal strategy directions or methodological guidelines  3  In Mexico, social service or volunteer work is a requirement for all university students in order to obtain their undergraduate degree.  _________________________________________________________________________ 10  ______________________________________________________________________________  were established, making it hard to achieve all the tasks for groups that were part of the Centre during these years. Some internal criticisms were identified in the evaluation of the Centre. The issues were about the lack of integration among the projects, that many activities were not planned, and the activities were not in accordance with the goals of the Centre (CIFS 2002, 2003; De la Peña, S. 2002, 2003). Transition and Restructure, 1999-2002 In 1999, the first readjustment of the organizational structure was achieved.  The  people were divided into two major groups: the Local and Regional Development Program (PDL-R), and the Civil Society Program (PSC). Both programs were meant to address decentralization and citizen participation as part of the goals of the Centre; their broader themes were again social transformation, poverty and development. Figure 2. Structure of CIFS 1999  CIFS 1999  Local-Regional Development Program  Civil Society Program  It was apparent that, despite the structural readjustment, no real change had been made with respect to the projects and teams other than renaming and re-labelling them. During these years, there were 20 projects of varying size under two programs; in addition, multiple activities were taking place outside the scope of the projects. There were several critiques of this new structure: there were too many projects and extra activities for the two sections to properly manage the projects that were a priority for the Centre; there was no hierarchy among the projects; there was no clear definition of “project” or “program” status. In other words, the Centre lacked organizational clarity.  _________________________________________________________________________ 11  ______________________________________________________________________________  In the years 2000 and 2001, the PDL-R and PSC teams worked together in the reformulation of the programs. A critical reflection of the Centre’s purpose and utility was part of the reformulation process. At the end of two years, the people from CIFS realised that the organization was not working, and that they needed to make some operating changes. Current Stage, 2002-2004 Small changes took place during the year of 2002.  At the beginning of 2002, the  Centre’s research objectives were clarified after some debate over conceptual definitions. The two major programs, PDL-R and PSC, were dissolved and the people were re-grouped in teams following the new organizational diagram:  _________________________________________________________________________ 12  ______________________________________________________________________________  Figure 3. Structure of CIFS 2002  Research Unit  Intervention Unit  Units of CIFS  Formation Unit  Formative Intervention Unit  It is interesting to note that this new arrangement is very similar to the original one of 1995.  According to the Centre’s documents (CIFS, 2002, 2003; Luengo, et. al.,  2003; ITESO, 2004), the difference lies on the conceptual framework. Some time was also given for each group, or unit, to develop a strategic plan and to define its project. The planning was conducted over a period of two years, and due December 2004.  _________________________________________________________________________ 13  ______________________________________________________________________________  2.1.6 Current Organization The different units of the Centre each deal with a diversity of projects. To understand their work some basic questions have been addressed to each unit for a better understanding of their work, including their general objective, the lines of research, and a summary of the projects that they develop. The projects will be presented in the following chapter. The focus of the Unit of Research is to study the social processes that take place in the development of a region or locality.  This unit works with economic, political,  environmental, cultural and social issues of a geographical area. The objective of their work is to have a useful response to the social processes in which the Unit is involved. Additionally to use the results from their research to strengthen future processes and to empower stakeholders is another goal that the unit seeks. The lines of research of this Unit are: •  Global and Local Development. These projects look at the implications  for local development and access to information with the development of global systems, including international production systems & labour and environmental policies. •  Socio-political and Governance.  This subject deals mostly with the  dynamics between citizens, where the key issues are citizen mobilization, democracy  and  participation;  social  organizations,  political  parties  and  government. •  The Nature-Society Relationship. This area of research focuses on local  environmental sustainability as a strategy for development. The premise comes from a critique that the dominant model of development and its relationship with the environment is not working (CIFS, 2004). The projects developed by the Unit of Intervention are directly focused on improving the specific situations of the communities in which they are involved.  _________________________________________________________________________ 14  ______________________________________________________________________________  The projects are being implemented in three areas: South area of Jalisco, Wixarica Mountains, and several municipalities of the State of Jalisco where many families are living. •  Southern area of the State of Jalisco.  Unequal and unsustainable  development of this region has been linked to the implementation of centralized development policies.  This project aims to reverse these negative impacts in  local and regional development. •  Wixarica Mountains.  This project is one of the oldest that CIFS has  sustained. It began in 1998 at the request of the Union of Indigenous Huichola Communities of Jalisco and the Jalisco Association of Aid for Indigenous Groups, to support a collective project called Integral Reconstruction of the Territory and  Habitat Wixarika. The main purpose of the project is to protect the territory and the environment, to improve their economic production system, and to preserve their cultural traditions. •  SIFRA, a strategy for poverty reduction. This project’s objective is to help  rural  families  gain  economic  independence  through  organizational,  administrative, and financial tools to improve their quality of life.  The  beneficiaries are generally individual farmers who support their families. This project is a partnership between CIFS and the State’s Secretariat for Social Development. The objective of the Unit of Formation is to promote processes and develop methodologies of training for the people of ITESO.  Along with the academic  departments, this Unit encourages in-place learning situations, prioritizing issues that deal with education, democracy and development. Actions and projects undertaken by this unit include: •  Research: to build up a theoretical and methodological framework that  explains what socio-professional formation means for CIFS and for the University. •  Logistics: to promote and supervise formative experiences for university  students through internships, field work, etc.  _________________________________________________________________________ 15  ______________________________________________________________________________  •  Training: to promote training, instruction towards environmental  education, and human rights. (CIFS, 2004; De la Peña, S., 2002) The Unit of Formative Intervention works to develop programs that address stakeholders who are involved in development processes.  The purpose of these  programs is to promote the use of new capacities and competences among stakeholders, and to help build an alternative model of development based on better relationships between stakeholders. The Unit works within a framework that recognizes society’s responsibility towards the natural environment. The projects and lines of action for this unit are: •  The organization of civil society through processes that benefit the  community. •  To educate and change the understanding of the people in the public  sector that is directly related to the citizens and that deal with social policies and local governments. •  To analyze and evaluate the experiences of stakeholders who are  involved with development processes.  _________________________________________________________________________ 16  ______________________________________________________________________________  CHAPTER 3: The Projects  _________________________________________________________________________ 17  ______________________________________________________________________________  “A region becomes more than an area; it becomes an agenda for action, a turf to defend, a series of memories that remind of action and pleasure and history” - Boundaries of Home, Doug Aberley  This chapter provides a brief description of the projects undertaken in the last four years. To conclude, one project is analyzed: The Southern area of Jalisco, because it is considered one of the priorities for the Centre. This project is an excellent opportunity to highlight how regional planning could be a useful approach for projects implemented by CIFS.  3.1 THE PROJECTS 2000-2003 Table 1. Projects in 2000 Civil Society Program 1. Citizens Empowerment 2. Unified Voices (PSC) 3. Citizens Observatory (media) 4. Human Rights in Jalisco (collective initiative) 5. Institutional strengthening 6. Social service (volunteer work) 7. SICA, link between enterprises & organizations and students 8. Environmental education 9. Sinergia 10. Casa Saprin Local and Regional Development Program (PDL-R)  1. Local Development in Sayula 2. Cienega in Chapala 3. Wixarica Mountains 4. SIFRA, strategy for poverty reduction 5. Sustainable Rural Development 6. Education for democracy and development 7. Diagnostic for poverty alternatives 8. Transitional analysis 9. Information access right 10. Milk production in the North area of Jalisco  _________________________________________________________________________ 18  ______________________________________________________________________________  In 2000, CIFS conducted a total of 20 projects between the Civil Society Program and the Local and Regional Development Program. The PSC conducted ten projects, each with different contexts and implications.  Some of them (such as social service and  SICA) require administrative work and management.  Others needed to work with  various NGOs or institutions, as was the case with Unified Voices, Human Rights in Jalisco and Citizens Empowerment. The PDL-R had 10 projects in 2000; while the Civil Society Program operates in Guadalajara, the Local-Regional Development Program works in other areas of Jalisco. This includes projects such as Local Development in Sayula, Cienega in Chapala, Wixarica Mountains, SIFRA, Sustainable Rural Development and Milk production in the North area of Jalisco. The other projects responded to regional variables but were not necessarily located in a particular region, like Education for democracy and development, Diagnostic for poverty alternatives, Transitional analysis and Information access right. Table 2. Projects in 2001 Civil Society: Local and Regional Development: 1. Citizens Empowerment 1. Local Development in Sayula 2. Institutional strengthening 2. SIFRA, strategy for poverty reduction 3. Human Rights agenda/ human rights 3. Wixarica Mountains for children 4. Sustainable Rural Development Research Coordination: 1. Diagnostic for poverty alternatives 2. Social actors in Cuquio 3. Transitional analysis 4. Water, region and future 5. PFI  Formation Coordination: 1. Environmental education 2. Social services 3. SICA  The following year, most of the projects were maintained. However, the structure of the Centre changed.  Two new areas were established at the Centre: the Research  Coordination and the Formation Coordination.  _________________________________________________________________________ 19  ______________________________________________________________________________  Of the ten projects in the Civil Society Program in the year before, three remained under that program for the following year, while three others went to the newly formed Formation Coordination.  The rest were discontinued, as they demanded more  involvement and management than CIFS was able to offer. The Local-Regional Development Program and the Research Coordination were joined in 2000.  In 2001 they worked together on the projects, in regions and municipalities  outside of Guadalajara. Table 3. Projects in 2002 Research Unit  Social and Formation Unit  Intervention Unit  1. Development and exclusion processes in the South area of Jalisco A. Local-global research B. Social actors and the building of citizenship C. SIFRA, strategy for poverty reduction D. Processes, actors and social imaginaries E. Alternative development 2. Transitional analysis 1. Reconstruction of social services 2. Education for democracy and development 3. Theoretical and methodological framework for a socioprofessional formation Formative 1. Evaluation of formative modalities 2. Processes for formation and incidence Territorial 1. Management for local-regional development in the South of Jalisco 2. SIFRA 3. Wixarica Mountains  In the year 2002, as it was previously mentioned, an important restructuring of the Centre was done. This is also reflected in the projects and their organization. The Centre adopted the term “Units” instead of “Coordinations” and four units were created: the Research Unit, the Formation Unit, the Training Unit and the Citizens Training Unit. The Research Unit had two major projects: Development and Exclusion processes in the _________________________________________________________________________ 20  ______________________________________________________________________________  Southern area of Jalisco, to which five minor projects were linked; and Transitional analysis. The Formation Unit is centered on developing projects that deal with social service. In this year, the teams of each unit began to debate about the theoretical and methodological framework that they would adopt, but the discussion did not lead anywhere. The Intervention Unit had two areas of research: the territorial one where most of the regional projects were; and the formative one where the projects were under consideration, regarding their pertinence to the Centre and the University. Table 4. Projects in 2003 Research Unit: 1. Development and exclusion processes in the South area of Jalisco A. Local-global research B. Social actors and the building of citizenship C. Processes, actors and social imaginaries D. Alternative development 2. Transitional analysis 3. Water 4. SIFRA 5. Unified Voices 6. Citizens Power 7. Regional development  Formation Unit: 1. Reconstruction of social services 2. Education for democracy development 3. Responsible consumption  Citizens Training Unit: 1. Social actors and sustainability 2. Processes for formation and incidence  Intervention Unit: 1. Management for local-regional development in the South of Jalisco 2. SIFRA, strategy for poverty reduction 3. Wixarica Mountains  and  The year 2003 saw little change. The projects changed as the people did, but the basic structure was maintained.  _________________________________________________________________________ 21  ______________________________________________________________________________  3.2 THE PROJECTS 2004 The current projects at CIFS are organized in four Units from the past year: Research Unit, Formation Unit, Citizens Training Unit and Intervention Unit where most of the projects continued. The structure is as follows: Table 5. Projects in 2004 Research Unit: Formation Unit: 1. Regional Diagnostic of poverty in 1. Promote in-situ learning, learning by doing Jalisco 2. Contextual analysis of the region and 2. Build a theoretical and methodological framework for the socio-professional the nation practice and formation 3. Public policy of sustainability in small agricultural enterprises located close to an urban centre Citizens Training Unit: 1. Processes for formation and incidence “Educate to transform” (design phase) 2. Analysis and evaluation of formative experiences  Intervention Unit: 1. South area of Jalisco 2. SIFRA 3. Wixarica Mountains  CIFS has worked mostly in urban areas, and a few rural places. This reflects to the fact that the people involved in the projects live in the city and it is easier for them to be involved in projects that are taking place close by. However, in the Planning for 2006 process, during the year of 1999 and 2000, ITESO expressed its intention to have a larger impact on the region.  With this statement, several centres and departments  wanted to explore the possibilities of having an impact in various regions of the State of Jalisco. For reasons such as distance, networks, productive activities, culture, history and natural environment, CIFS proposed to widen its work in the South of Jalisco. The directors in charge chose to develop projects in that region in order to have alternative options for the academics and the students to be involved. _________________________________________________________________________ 22  ______________________________________________________________________________  CIFS was one of the centres with a higher level of interest and the work that was developed in the Centre was relevant to the new objective that the University formulated. Several people began to visit the region and to establish connections with citizens in various municipalities. In the years 2000-2001 some projects were developed in Sayula, Tapalpa, San Gabriel, Ciudad Guzman, and Amacueca (CIFS, 2003; Rocha, 2002). Most of the projects involved one or two people working on specific topics such as citizenship, power relations, sustainability, and empowerment.  However, several  critiques can made of this initial phase. First, there was no physical survey done. There was a document that compiled information from different governmental sources, such as group age of the population, income, crop production, migration, etc. No ecological or geographical variables were incorporated in this document. Second, there was very little interaction among the researchers. They each collected data, interviewed stakeholders, visited the region, but there was no interconnection with their findings or conclusions. The third critique of this process is that the group looked at the region as a geographical area and as important as that is for the purpose of the research, it was not enough. The geographical region needed to be defined and described as an area where many activities could take place, and the research should have been focused on productive processes, such as agriculture, or through natural resources like water.  A wider  perspective and understanding of the general structure of the place comes from the interpretation and interconnections of all these variables.  3.3 THE SOUTH AREA OF THE STATE OF JALISCO AND CIFS To understand the South of Jalisco a brief summary of its development history is provided in this document, however this part is separate from the main text, as Appendix One, in order to make the reading easier. Figure 4 present a map of México,  _________________________________________________________________________ 23  ______________________________________________________________________________  where the State of Jalisco (see Figure 5 below) is located by the Pacific Ocean in the southwest of the country. Figure 4. Map of México  Source:  Figure 5. Map of the State of Jalisco  Source:  _________________________________________________________________________ 24  ______________________________________________________________________________  3.3.1 CIFS in the region. Objectives and methodology The project Local Development in Sayula: society and government in dialogue for a  sustainable compromise is an alternative strategy to the ongoing governmental projects for development. The governmental projects are characterized by centralized power in decision-making processes, and a lack of community participation. The Sayula project is a proposal for local development with an emphasis on communication with local stakeholders: social and civic organizations, municipal and provincial government and local enterprises in order to achieve a collective vision of the place. The project has three objectives: 1. To inform the community and promote collaboration; 2. To present a platform to bring people together and create compromises; and 3. To systematize the information and document the process (Rocha, 2002). The goal of the project is to implement a new methodology that aims for local development with the community’s involvement. The economic support for this project came from an external NGO (Non-Governmental Organization) from Mexico City called DEMOS4. The implementation methodology was called Informed Dialogues. The purpose was to ensure that citizens could have more effective influence on public policies. To do so, it is necessary that participating citizens have a wider understanding of the context of the issues, as well as better information with respect to the specific implications for their interest.  In the case of Sayula, where the project began, it would have been  agricultural, industrial and commercial policy. This context of citizen’s input would set the possibility to develop mechanisms for citizens participating in public decisions.  4, accessed May 5, 2004  _________________________________________________________________________ 25  ______________________________________________________________________________  The intention is to gain information through a dialogue between citizens and civil servants, in order to address the self-identified needs of the community and to propose project priorities. At the same time the civil servants would be building a new way to relate with the citizens. For this methodology to be effective, some elements have to be considered, following DEMOS criteria (Rocha, 2002): a) The approach must be progressive in terms of having an alternative method to manage the information.  The information must be gathered by the participants.  The role of the mediator is to help them to improve their vision and to identify and recognize their biases. b) Contact the stakeholders. The goal is to bring people who are involved with public policy and the government’s actions together with citizens. c) The timing of the project should not be tied to the academic semesters. d) Public policy must be discussed by all concerned.  3.3.2 Background of the Project There are several issues that helped CIFS choose the municipality of Sayula for the project. First, as ITESO had already done community development in Sayula, there was some information already available as well as some established connections.  The  second reason was that in 1998, the Provincial Commission for Human Rights (CEDH) proposed several recommendations5 to the provincial government as well as to the governmental agencies involved (Health, Labour, Transportation, etc.).  These  recommendations were related to the living conditions of agricultural labourers. ITESO, through CIFS as a coordinating centre, became involved in the region by providing a project proposal to develop adequate housing for workers, and architectural guidelines for the shelters themselves. Another area that found support from the University was the legal assessment of some migrant workers who had legal problems with respect to their contracts, beneficiaries and salary.  A survey of the municipality was also  developed by students and academics of ITESO.  5  Lastly, the positive economic, accessed April 21, 2004  _________________________________________________________________________ 26  ______________________________________________________________________________  development of Sayula, as well as the active participation of the people was noticeable: there was a strong identity amongst the people, a strong feeling of belonging, and a desire for improvement. The initial contact was made in June 2000, by an academic group from CIFS and PROMESA, a group of young businessmen who were searching for strategies for the development of the municipality. The approach of the Centre at the time was to act in a neutral capacity, and to contact other groups in the municipality who could be possible stakeholders for the project. At the same time, a former student of ITESO, who was part of PROMESA and was also a consultant, contacted CIFS to establish a first connection and the possibilities of future cooperation. This person later became a key player for the project. 3.3.3 Internship at Amacueca In the months of June and July 2003 during an internship where I was involved with CIFS, many of the issues of the project Dialogos Informados were still a priority to the Centre. Initially it was agreed that the work should be either in Sayula or in Amacueca, two municipalities from the South region of the State of Jalisco where agriculture has been and continues to be an important economic activity. Through the research done, and due to prior experience with the issues, Sayula seemed to be the ideal place for my internship. However, previous misunderstandings between the academic group and the local leaders made it a less cooperative environment and it was decided I should work with Amacueca. Although Amacueca was a new municipality where the Centre had not done any formal work, it was a place with many opportunities because of the recent arrival of tomato enterprises that had been established during that summer. The purpose of this internship was to do a mapping exercise with the community, where the main issues, such as environmental degradation, migration, agricultural practices, could be represented graphically. The expected outcome was to have four different maps with general explanation and an analysis of the experience in constructing them. Some constraints and obstacles were encountered with the work.  First, municipal  nd  elections were taking place on July 2 . The political campaigns and its advertisements _________________________________________________________________________ 27  ______________________________________________________________________________  was all over the State. A personal fear, with respect to this issue, was that if a process like a community mapping exercise was initiated, the people could find it politically oriented or they would relate ITESO with a political party that was beginning to work with some academics of CIFS. Second, the exercise was to last for two months. Since this was the first time that CIFS had contacted the citizens of Amacueca, the team believed that there was not enough time to complete the mapping project and that this might affect the relevance of the project. Third, there were no members of CIFS currently working in Amacueca. While some contact had been made with a group of farmers, there was no other involvement of the Centre. The internship project was a great experience for the participants and a good example of a methodological tool for CIFS. Four handmade maps were completed (see Annex Two) with the information collected from the visits to the place, including some informal conversations with people of the municipality, an interview with the secretariat of the Municipal President, and a former Municipal President, and information gathered from visits to the State’s Secretariat of Agricultural Issues, and to local libraries (ITESO, CIESAS, UdeG). A report was put together with basic information of the municipality and the history of the region. Some learning experiences The issues that the Centre was interested in were mostly approached from a local, rather than a regional perspective. Being local initiatives those that were developed in one or more municipality, did not consider the region as a larger context. For example, the South area of Jalisco, agricultural practices changed and so did the environment. The underground water was being overused, and there were chemicals being used in the fields and contaminating the water of the region.  _________________________________________________________________________ 28  ______________________________________________________________________________  In 1994, as a consequence of an economical crisis, there were two changes in the agricultural practices in Sayula and the municipalities around it. First, the amount of rented land in that year was the highest in the history of the region. The owners of the land instead of cultivating it, rented it to foreign companies. The second change was the switch from traditional crops, such as corn and alfalfa to vegetables for export, for example tomatoes, green pepper, onions, broccoli, etc. (Rocha, 2002). Thus the problems with the tomato fields were seen as Sayula’s problems; the water concerns from Tapalpa that were affecting the region as well, were seen to be related to a different municipality; and the political debates over land ownership were considered to be private concerns. For the most part there was no vision of the region as a whole and how those issues interrelated. The only project that did include the region as a framework was the Rural Sustainable Development project, developed initially in Tapalpa. This project did recognize a connection between the deforestation of woods in the mountains, the ongoing erosion, and the resulting increase of overflows of the rivers that were going to the municipalities of the Valley (Amacueca, Techaluta, and Sayula). The tomato crops arriving in Amacueca were an eye-opener for the population of this municipality. They knew of the dreadful experience that Sayula, El Grullo, and Autlan had had with them in the past 15 years and they were concerned for the environmental and health impacts that they could develop in Amacueca. They saw that connections across the region through the landscape and the availability of natural resources.  _________________________________________________________________________ 29  ______________________________________________________________________________  CHAPTER 4: Theoretical Framework  _________________________________________________________________________ 30  ______________________________________________________________________________  “ When a landscape as a whole comes to mean to the community and the individual citizen what the single garden does to the individual lovers of flowers, the regional survey will not merely be a mode of assimilating scientific knowledge: it will be a dynamic preparation for further activity.” - The Culture of Cities, Lewis Mumford  Regional planning involves the coordination of human activities in time and space, on the basis of known facts about place and people. While typical regional planning is focused on quantitative and administrative boundaries, this project will propose an alternative way to address regional issues in a planning process. This project considers a progressive point of view for regional planning, an ideal for the future development of a region. For the purpose of this project, a region is understood to be a set of activities with a common area of influence, together with the local activities affected by them and the national and international activities located in the area.  A region is also considered cultural, due to the homogeneity among the  people that live there, their behavior, and the identity that they have created. The purpose of this fourth chapter is to point out some values of regional planning in practice and the implications for its use. In order to do this, a first part will present what regional planning is, from basic theory of how regions are typically defined. The second part talks about regional planning from a progressive point of view. Following the work of Mumford (1938), Aberley (1985, 1993, 1998), and Steiner (2000). The next part is a concise description of the four phases of the Regional Planning Stages Plan that Mumford presents in his book The Culture of Cities (1938). The following part describes three key reasons for recommending regional planning as an alternative approach. Finally, a presentation of the Regionalization Program, implemented by the Government of Jalisco in 1996, is described.  _________________________________________________________________________ 31  ______________________________________________________________________________  This project looks at a specific case study of the South area of Jalisco.  While this  chapter builds on existing theories and ideals of what regional planning should be like, the findings for this case study are not necessarily generalizable. It does, however, reveal possible implications for alternative and progressive methods of regional planning in the context of this case study, and anticipates the need for further research in different regions of Mexico.  4.1 WHAT IS REGIONAL PLANNING A region can be understood in different ways, depending on who defines it. From the political and administrative perspective, the region corresponds to quantitative measures, such as population, income, and economic resources.  Alternatively, for a  person that lives off the products of the land, such as an agricultural or livestock farmer, a region is seen through filters of the environment and culture, by natural boundaries such as mountains, rivers, vegetation, and by social boundaries such as festivities and networks.  Nations, regions and municipalities typically respond to artificial jurisdictional boundaries established by different authorities; these are sometimes drawn over natural or cultural boundaries, thus limiting the ability to plan for the future of those areas.  4.2 REGIONAL PLANNING AS A TERRITORIAL MATTER In Mexico, regional planning has been a top-down process which has occurred mainly in the pursuit of governmental values and goals (Iracheta, 1999; Martin, 2000; Morales, 2003). Since 1950, regional planning in Mexico has been developed only within politicaleconomic definitions of “regions”; they called this “territorial planning”. One of the most important gaps in the plans and the planning process is that the territorial plans have not been designed to become policies to guide the governmental _________________________________________________________________________ 32  ______________________________________________________________________________  activities. These documents have a one-sided technical character, and they have no influence on the decision-making process. Current regional planning is focused on the physical and economic aspects; cultural and social aspects are ignored. Regional planning is a guide for improvement and control of development for a physical place that is in constant transformation. Ideally, it is linked to social process. The aim of social process, following Lewis Mumford’s perspective and as a premise for this project “is not to make men more powerful, but to make them more developed, more human” (Mumford, 1938). In its ideal form, regional planning is a holistic approach, it promotes social, economic and environmental equity, it is future oriented, it brings stakeholders together and it has an interdisciplinary character. Regional studies are necessary to gain an understanding of an area, the influences of power relationships, and the role of economic, political and environmental variables. Above all, the argument for regional studies follows from the recognition that planning is linked to natural resources and to the use and management of these resources by the people. Regional planning needs to be more holistic in order to be effective and meaningful. Successful regional planning methods must include social and ecological parity among their goals. The rationale for regional planning is to bring together diverse bits of information about a place. Information with respect to a scientific approach of an environmental analysis, for example climate patterns, topographic records, and geology.  Regional planning  should also provide information about the people who inhabit the land, adding to the previous picture a cultural perspective.  _________________________________________________________________________ 33  ______________________________________________________________________________  According to Iracheta (1999) the main purpose of regional planning is to take advantage of natural resources and opportunities offered in a given territory in order to fulfill development goals previously established by citizens and government. Regional planning should be a guideline for the improvement and management of a physical area. The goals of regional planning are to visualize the future, in order to address physical change and therefore a social change that is the best plan for the place. Regional planning has several characteristics.  It has an interdisciplinary character  because it gains its strength from diverse disciplines that can work together: geographers, sociologists, economists, landscape architectures, etc. It also has a public character because its directly related to governmental concerns as well as external decisions from the region or community involved, thus the stakeholders need negotiation skills.  4.3 STAGES OF THE PROCESS Ideally, regionalization should be a planning and public management tool that can be adjusted to suit varying concrete objectives. It has to be dynamic in order to adapt to the social and natural transformations, and be able to achieve short, medium and long term goals. In The Culture of Cities, Lewis Mumford develops a basis for progressive regional planning and suggests a methodology for its implementation. He proposes four phases in the Regional Planning Stages Plan (Mumford, 1938). 1.  Survey/Inventory. The boundaries of a region are set, following natural  limits as well as the community’s contribution.  Once these boundaries are  defined, a resource inventory is compiled by collecting information, using firsthand visual exploration, and by gathering other facts and relevant data of the _________________________________________________________________________ 34  ______________________________________________________________________________  region. The issues of this inventory or survey will be described with more detail in a following section. 2.  An outline of the region’s needs and activities in terms of social ideals and  purposes. The purpose of this outline is to have a set of needs and priorities for the community, as well as, allowing the community and the government to prioritize what matters for them and to identify all the stakeholders’ interests. Thus the involvement of the local people is crucial in this stage. 3.  Reconstruction and projection of the place’s future.  On the basis of  known facts, observed trends, estimated needs, critically formulated purposes, a new vision of regional life is now developed.  This new vision compiles the  stakeholder’s interests in such a way that everyone is included, and equal priority is given for the place and its inhabitants.  For the first time, a multitude of  diverse projects are set down in a way that discloses their interrelationships. The emphasis is placed on what is planned, not simply as a location or an area, but as an activity-in-an-area, or an area-through-an-activity.  The process  involves many other variables, such as the local communities, economical activities, transportation and communication facilities, and governance. 4.  Transformation of regional plans from policy to action. This last stage  involves the absorption of this plan by the community and implementation through the appropriation by political and economic agencies in order to develop the plan that was established in the previous stage.  Understanding the  resources, the environment, where things come from, where they are produced or manufacture, and what happens to the products and the waste, helps to take more responsibility for impacts in the region. Regional plans are instruments of mutual learning, and without that education, they can only partially achieve the program. This issue is also very important for the Centre. It is, after all, an academic Centre that is concerned with the education of the students as well as with the involvement of citizens in an educative process. _________________________________________________________________________ 35  ______________________________________________________________________________  4.4 KEY CONSIDERATIONS The next section describes the three key considerations that were selected for the purpose of recommending regional planning as an alternative approach for the work done by the Centre. These are: importance of the scale and connectivity, the physical survey and the incorporation of local knowledge and skills.  4.4.1 Scale and Connectivity Political regions and cultural areas do not exist in linear relationship: they overlap, duplicate and conflict. Real communities and regions do not fit into the frontiers and the ideological pattern of the national state. A state is usually too big to define a single region, with its political, economic, and social elements in symmetrical relationships; and is too small to include a whole society in a way that everyone is represented. To understand the characteristics of a region, it is necessary to take an area large enough to embrace a sufficient range of interests, and small enough to keep these interests in focus and to make them a subject of direct collective concern. In other words, the boundaries of the region in question must respond to the understanding of the people who live within it. A region is a comprehensive place that is bounded by natural delimitations, within which physical elements are similar. As well, a region is a place to which people feel identified and attached.  The region, as an organized space, becomes appropriated socially,  politically and symbolically by a social group of individuals with similar class and background (Ochoa, 2001), distinguishing itself from their neighbours. There are many ways to determine the links within a region. One mode, which is easy to visualize, is by examining transportation and communication accessibility (see Annex Two. Map # 1 and # 2)  Transportation systems facilitate contact, social relationships,  exchange production, and can bring together resources that contribute to the specific pattern of a region’s life. The links of a region can be determined with other variables, _________________________________________________________________________ 36  ______________________________________________________________________________  such as agricultural production, water source and distribution, waste collection and management, etc. The boundaries between regions are not sharp but graded.  This statement is  particularly clear with respect to environmental problems, because obviously they don’t recognize political boundaries, and because municipalities and states have different agendas and priorities with respect to environmental concerns. In Mexico, several types of regions coexist, following Iracheta’s study. First is the region formed by its geological and environmental similarities, what we have been referring to in this document. Another type is the nodal region, characterized by its dependency to a metropolitan area or an urban centre. This is the case of the region around Mexico City, Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Queretaro, Aguascalientes and Tijuana among the largest ones in the country. The third type of region is defined as indigenous territories, determinate by the presence of one or more indigenous groups (Iracheta, 1999). In this project, the region is determined following the first type of region that Iracheta describes. An area determined by its natural conformation and ecological likenesses. For the purpose of this project, the region will follow Mumford’s ideas by using natural borders to determinate the general area. Where a region is the unit-area formed by a geologic structure, common soils, watersheds, climate, vegetation and animal life. This area is reformed through the settlement of man, the change of the landscape, and the control over land. Aberley (1985) adds that it refers to both geographical terrain as well as to the place and the ideas that have developed about how to live in that place. The final boundaries of a region are best described by the people who live within it, through human recognition of the realities of living-in-place (Berge, 1980). This is a determinant matter to define the region as a cultural place.  _________________________________________________________________________ 37  ______________________________________________________________________________  4.4.2 The Physical Survey The South of Jalisco is a geographical region. A range of mountains, Sierra de Tapalpa, goes through this area. Further south is the Nevado and Volcán de Colima, which are the two mountains that connect with a second range of hills, Sierra del Tigre. In the middle of these two chains of mountains there is a large flat valley. This valley is a closed basin without rivers around it or water drainage. The salted lagoons that are formed, Zacoalco and Sayula, depend exclusively from the rainfall and the streams that come from the mountains around the valley. Without drainage, the water evaporates until it dries and becomes a dry red salted area during the dry season (October-May)6. As it was mentioned previously, the first step in the Regional Planning Stages Plan is to find out what is there now. This survey needs to be about various issues of the region. The biophysical and cultural themes can be developed following the guidelines in the Bioregional Planning Manual (Aberley, 1998; see Table 6 below). Table 6. Themes for the physical survey Biophysical • • • • • • • •  Geology Physiography Elevations and slopes Soils Hydrology and drainage Climate Vegetation and animal life Ecosystems and ecoregions  Cultural • • • • • • • • • • • •  Indigenous territories Colonial jurisdictions Current administrative borders Settlement patterns Demography Water sources and distribution Solid waste recycling and disposal Land use patterns Land ownership patterns Transportation networks Food production Energy generation  The ultimate task of the regional survey is to educate citizens: to give them tools of action, to have a background for action, and to suggest significant tasks to serve as goals for action.  In other words, the goal is to provide citizens with a good  _________________________________________________________________________ 38  ______________________________________________________________________________  understanding of the context and the place that allows them to make educated decisions about impacts on the area.  4.4.3 Incorporation of local knowledge and skills No scientific information or community story can claim to know all there is to know about a region.  It is only by combining the knowledge of many individuals and  institutions that a full picture of the place can emerge. The inclusion of local and traditional knowledge in the planning process is a necessary and a positive complement to information derived from standard science and demographic information collected by governmental institutions.  It provides a more  compelling and truthful view of people and place because it involves the locals in the process (Aberley, 1998; Ecotrust Canada, 2004). It is the people in their local and regional context, and the immediate activities of their everyday lives, which form the knowledge of a place; therefore local people should guide the actions that affect that place and its culture. Incorporating local knowledge is key to searching out and integrating information about a community or region; in this process, people tend to become more confident about their capacity for understanding and getting involved in processes of governance.  By incorporating local knowledge,  capacity building and empowerment can become important outcomes of the planning process.  4.5 REGIONALIZATION PROGRAM FROM THE STATE OF JALISCO The State of Jalisco is divided into 12 regions since 1996. Each one of the regions has one or two productive activities that are emphasized to develop the economy of that particular area.  6  See Annex Three for pictures of the region.  _________________________________________________________________________ 39  ______________________________________________________________________________  In 1996 the Government of the State of Jalisco, under Gov. Alberto Cárdenas Jiménez, implemented a regionalization program called Programa Estatal de Desarrollo 1995-2000 (Development Program for the State of Jalisco 1995-2000). The Committee in charge of coordinating this program was COPLADE (Committee of Planning for Development of the State of Jalisco). Their mandate was to include all levels of government, the market and citizens in each region to achieve the following three objectives: 1.  To eliminate unequal development among regions;  2.  To make a better use of the economical globalization, and;  3.  To develop a holistic process of regional planning. (Martin, 2000)  The process began in 1997 with a public announcement in the 124 municipalities of the State. Plenary sessions were organized in each region, and received a positive response from citizens. Between 300 and 900 people attended the public meetings. COPLADE collected 2,600 ideas or contributions from the public. The issues most often mentioned were related to infrastructure, economic and social development, and public safety. In this process there were some constraints among the stakeholders and the people involved.  First, several conflicts among bureaucrats became an obstacle for the  program. Second, national elections were to take place in July 2002 and many issues and concerns of the people were at risk of being drawn into partisan politics by the governmental servants linked to political parties. Third, fewer people participated as the process became increasingly time-consuming for the individuals. All these constraints grew into a crisis of the regionalization program and slowed down the process. From the beginning the government intended to create a decentralized planning process.  For this, COPLADE, as the coordinating committee, hired independent  consultants that were not affiliated with the government. Each consultant group was to collect the citizen’s inputs and understand the uniqueness of the region, in order to proceed to a strategic planning stage.  The product of the strategic planning was a  Regional Plan that guided the development of proposals related to territorial, social, economic and institutional development for each area. _________________________________________________________________________ 40  ______________________________________________________________________________  Unfortunately, according to Woo Gómez (1999) COPLADE did not conduct an appropriate evaluation of the technical capacities of some of the consultant groups. Therefore some of those groups were not capable of achieving the assigned task for the Regional Plans. This slowed down the process and made it more expensive. After one year of work, the consultants created a variety of Regional Plans that were presented to the Government of the State of Jalisco. The result of the regionalization process was an amalgamation of 12 regions and their corresponding Regional Plan for the following five years. (See Figure 6 bellow) Figure 6. Map of the Regionalization of Jalisco  _________________________________________________________________________ 41  ______________________________________________________________________________  CHAPTER 5: Conclusions  _________________________________________________________________________ 42  ______________________________________________________________________________  The purpose of this final chapter is to combine the information previously presented in order to recommend regional planning as an alternative approach for CIFS. The chapter is divided in two parts; the first part summarizes the main issues that have been presented in this project, and adds recommendations towards improving the practice of the Centre. The second part presents an exploration of future research that could be addressed by the Centre. As a summary of the project, Chapter two introduced and described the research Centre, regarding its goals and practice. The projects that the Centre has done are explained in Chapter three, particularly the project from the South area of Jalisco as the selected region. An overview of what regional planning is was presented in Chapter four explaining why this approach is appropriate for the work that the Centre performs.  5.1 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS CIFS is a Centre that has many opportunities to facilitate development projects in the State of Jalisco. This project report looks at the potential for regional planning in order to improve the objectives of CIFS.  The Centre lacks a strategy that achieves their  objectives. The main gap in the Centre’s work in the projects developed in the South region of Jalisco is the unaddressed interconnections among projects.  They are  developed in an isolated way. The following recommendations need to be kept in mind in order for the Centre to improve its practice: •  Implementation of the Regional Planning Stages Plan (Mumford, 1938). The key recommendation for implementing this approach is to expand the understanding of the place by applying Mumford’s four steps of planning, with an emphasis on the physical survey. It is important to go through the four phases in order to accomplish a successful and inclusive planning process. It is important to clarify that the intention of this recommendation is not to establish Sayula as the centre of the region; on the contrary, the recommendation encourages researchers and  _________________________________________________________________________ 43  ______________________________________________________________________________  stakeholders to jointly view the region based on natural boundaries, and to conduct a survey of the place in order to gain the benefits from using regional planning, such as having a more integrated future-oriented and equitable planning process. •  Multistakeholders process. It is important to highlight that the Centre exercises a holistic method for working together with local communities, civil organizations, government officers, etc. CIFS retains a neutral character that marks its practice in the role of mediator. The full potential of this element has not been explored; mediation is one of the strong areas that should be developed. This topic is also recommended as a future area of research that is presented in the following section.  •  Conceptual and operational clarity. There is a need for organizational clarity for the Centre and its operations in practice. Thus the recommendation is to clarify the terms and concepts that the centre uses in its discourse. This step should include identifying what is meant by the use of terms such as “social process”, “social transformation” and “socio-formative intervention”, among others. These notions are often used and not clearly defined in practice nor in the documents that the Centre produces. Another recommendation, with respect to the same issue, is to develop the Centre’s strategies to focus and effectively achieve its goals. Since 1995, the Centre has managed to maintain some continuity within the themes and beneficiaries of the projects; however, the Centre has undergone many organizational changes and working structures that have slowed down the operation of the projects, and have required people from CIFS to change and adapt to the new ways of working and they are unable to commit in a longerterm process. This was also the case in using key terms: “Coordination’s” at the beginning, followed by “Programs”, and in the last change it was called “Unit”.  This is  _________________________________________________________________________ 44  ______________________________________________________________________________  confusing for the people that belong to the Centre as well as for the stakeholders that work with it. As a research Centre, CIFS has the opportunity to look at planning processes through a variety of lenses. Regional planning is one of these alternatives, which allows planners to address a vision that includes different interests in planning processes. This project report highlights regional planning as a useful approach for projects implemented by CIFS and provides a basis for discussing how it might be implemented. Due to its physical and natural characteristics, the South area of Jalisco is an excellent place to implement a regional planning approach in the work that CIFS does.  The  project Dialogos Informados (Informed Dialogues) was essential for understanding the context of Sayula and the region, and established significant links with local stakeholders that are key players of the region. One of the lessons learned for the Centre, with respect to this project, was to be aware of the context and the physical environment.  5.2 POSSIBILITIES FOR THE FUTURE In  addition  to  the  recommendations  above,  the  following  section  contains  recommendations for research areas that could be explored in future studies. The first area is within the topic of new forms of management and governance. The Centre  has  addressed  processes  of  citizen  participation,  decentralization  and  empowerment. Thus one of the themes that could be developed in practice, particularly in the South region of the State of Jalisco, is to explore new ways of governance, in which citizens’ participation and contributions are a key part of governance practice. A second area of research may be to identify methods for implementing a multistakeholder process.  This is one of the most promising areas for the Centre  because of the nature of its political stance. The Centre, as it was previously presented,  _________________________________________________________________________ 45  ______________________________________________________________________________  maintains political neutrality that allows it to bring stakeholders together and work together on issues that are relevant for the people and the place. Regional planning takes into account the biophysical landscape, as well as the socioeconomic context of the place. Mumford’s four steps can be a starting point for future research, but it can be developed as a stronger proposal by bioregionalism. The recommendations in this area are to begin with the survey and then look at other experiences that have been implemented with the bioregional principles in order to articulate them for the Centre’s projects Finally, the last area with possibilities for future research by the Centre is the issue of interdisciplinary work among researchers.  Regional planning makes good use of a  diversity of disciplines, where geographers, agronomists, environmental engineers, sociologists, landscape architectures, planners, economists, etc. gather information from the region in order to have a better understanding of the place. This is a complicated issue because it requires a change for the people that are part of the group, as well as a change in their methodology of approaching a place in order to understand a new perspective.  _________________________________________________________________________ 46  ______________________________________________________________________________  ACRONYMS  _________________________________________________________________________ 47  ______________________________________________________________________________  CECOPA  Centro de Coordinacion y Promocion de Agricultura Centre for Coordination and Promotion of Farming anbd Livestock  CEDH  Comision Estatal de Derechos Humanos State’s Commision for Human Rights  CIESAS  Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Superiores en Antropologia Social Centre for Research and Higher Education in Social Anthropology  CIFS  Centro de Investigacion y Formacion Social Centre for Social Research and Training  CIS  Centro de Investigacion Social Centre for Social Research  COPLADE  Comite de Planeacion del Desarrollo del Estado de Jalisco Committee for Planning of the Development of the State of Jalisco  DAF  Direccion de Administracion y Finanzas Management and Finance Direction  DGA  Direccion General Academica General Academic Direction  DGIC  Direccion General de Integracion Comunitaria General Direction for Community Integration  DIC  Direccion de Integracion Comunitaria Community Integration Direction  DRE  Direccion de Relaciones Exteriores External Affairs Direction  INEGI  Instituto Nacional de Estadistica, Geografia e Informatica National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Informatics  ITESO  Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Occidente Technological Institute of Higher Education form the West (of Mexico)  ITESO, A.C.  Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Occidente, Asociacion Civil Technological Institute of Higher Education form the West, Civil Association  PDL-R  Programa de Desarrollo Local-Regional Local and Regional Development Program  PSC  Programa de Sociedad Civil Civil Society Program  PUDH  Programa Universitario de Derechos Humanos University Program for Human Rights  UdeG  Universidad de Guadalajara University of Guadalajara  _________________________________________________________________________ 48  ______________________________________________________________________________  BIBLIOGRAPHY  _________________________________________________________________________ 49  ______________________________________________________________________________  •  ABERLEY, Doug (ed.) (1998), Community-based Mapping in British Columbia: A Bioregional Planning Manual, Vancouver, Canada.  •  ABERLEY, Doug (ed.) (1993), Boundaries of Home. Mapping for Local Empowerment, Canada, New Society Publishers.  •  ABERLEY, Doug (1985), Bioregionalism: a territorial approach to governance and development of Northwest British Columbia, MA Thesis (Planning), Vancouver, Canada, SCARP-UBC.  •  ARREOLA, Juan José (1963), La Feria, México, Ed. Joaquín Mortiz.  •  Asamblea Municipal Amacueca, Jalisco. Octubre 25, 2002 (2002), Construcción de Ciudadanía desde los Procesos Locales en 16 Municipios del Estado de Jalisco en el Marco del Desarrollo Sustentable. Unión Cívica Ciudadana de Amacueca, Jal.- Poder Ciudadano-Jalisco-Secretaría de Desarrollo Social, unpublished.  •  BERG, Peter, and DASMANN, Raymond (1980), Reinhabiting California. Reinhabiting a separate country: A Bioregional Anthology of Northern California, Ed. Peter Berg-Planet Drum, USA, in ABERLEY, Doug (1985), Bioregionalism: a territorial approach to governance and development of Northwest British Columbia, MA Thesis (Planning), Vancouver, Canada, SCARP-UBC.  •  CASTAÑEDA, Carmen (ed.) (1968), Élite, clases socials y rebelión en Guadalajara y Jalisco, Siglos XVIII y XIX, México, El Colegio de Jalisco.  •  CIFS (2004), Centro de Investigación y Formación Social. At, accessed January, 2004.  •  CIFS (2003), Informe 2002, CIFS-DIC-ITESO, Tlaquepaque, Jalisco, México, unpublished.  •  CIFS (2002), Proyecto de Diagnóstico Regional de Pobreza, ITESO, Talquepaque, Jalisco, México, unpublished.  •  Comision Estatal de Derechos Humanos-Jalisco (1998). At, accessed April 21st, 2004  •  Conservation Economy At, accessed August, 2004.  •  COPLADE (2000), Plan de Desarrollo Regional. Región Sur, Guadalajara, Jalisco, México, Gobierno del Estado de Jalisco.  •  CORONA RENTERÍA, Alfonso (1997), Regional Economics of the Mexican environment, in CHATTERJ, Manas, and KAIZHONG, Yang (ed), Regional Science in Developing Countries, Great Britain, Mac Millan Press Ltd.  _________________________________________________________________________ 50  ______________________________________________________________________________  •  DE LA PEÑA, Guillermo, VEERKAMP, Verónica, et. al. (1980), Ensayos sobre el Sur de Jalisco, Cuadernos de la Casa Chata No. 4, México, Centro de Investigaciones Superiores del INAH.  •  DE LA PEÑA, Marcela (2003), Reporte final de Investigación de las prácticas profesionales en Amacueca, Jalisco, CIFS-ITESO, México, unpublished.  •  DE LA PEÑA, Sofía (2003), Hacia la construcción de los PROYECTOS ESTRATÉGICOS del CIFS. Como parte del proceso de planeación trienal 2004-2006, ITESO, México, unpublished.  •  DE LA PEÑA, Sofía (2002), Planeación y Gestión de Proyectos, CIFS-ITESO, México, unpublished.  •  DOMINÉ, André (1997), Del campo a la cocina. Alimentación natural, Francia, Culinaria Könemann.  •  Ecotrust Canada At, accessed February, 2004.  •  Enciclopedia de los Municipios de México (2000), Centro Estatal de Estudios Municipales de Jalisco, Gobierno del Estado de Jalisco. At, accessed June, 2003.  •  ESCOBAR LATAPÍ, Agustín, and GONZÁLEZ DE LA ROCHA, Mercedes (1988), Cañaverales y bosques. De hacienda a agroindustria en el Sur de Jalisco, México, Gobierno de Jalisco.  •  FRIEDAMNN, John (1999), El reto de la planeacion en un mundo sin fronteras, Revista CIUDADES No. 42, Mexico, RNIU.  •  GONZÁLEZ CHÁVEZ, Humberto (1994), El Empresario Agrícola en el jugoso negocio de las frutas y hortalizas de México, MA thesis, Wageningen University.  •  GONZÁLEZ CHÁVEZ, Humberto (1981), Terratenientes, campesinos y empresarios capitalistas. Un estudio socioeconómico local: Amacueca, Jalisco, BA thesis (Social Anthropology), México, Universidad Iberoamericana.  •  HARRINGTON, Sheila (ed.) (1999), Giving the Land a Voice: Mapping our Home Places,, Canada, The Land and Trust Alliance of British Columbia,  •  INEGI (2000), Anuario Estadístico, edición 2000. Jalisco Tomo I y II, México, INEGI.  •  INESER (2003), Red de Información Municipal-Jalisco. At, accessed June, 2003.  •  ITESO (2004), Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Occidente. At, accessed February, 2004.  _________________________________________________________________________ 51  ______________________________________________________________________________  •  IRACHETA CENECORTA, Alfonso (1999) Planeación Regional en México, presented in  “Gobiernos Locales, el Futuro Político de México” IGLOM.  At, accessed Jan 21, 2004  •  LUENGO, Enrique, LÓPEZ, Mario E., DE LA PEÑA, Sofía (2004), Documento de reflexión para la elaboración de la propuesta de plan trienal del CIFS (2004-2006), CIFS-ITESO, México, unpublished.  •  MARTIN, W.A. (2000), La Regionalización en Jalisco. Entre la realidad del reajuste estructural y una perspectiva de desarrollo socialmente sustentable, México, Cátedra UNESCO-ITESO, unpublished.  •  MORALES HERNÁNDEZ, Jaime (2003), Desarrollo rural alternativo en el Sur de Jalisco: experiencias hacia la Sustentabilidad Rural, Informe Final de Investigación, CIFS-ITESO, México, unpublished.  •  MUMFORD, Lewis (1938), The Culture of Cities, New York, United States of America, Harcourt, Brace & Co.  •  OCHOA GARCÍA, Heliodoro (2001), La Organización Territorial Huichol, BA thesis (Geography), México, Universidad de Guadalajara.  •  OROZCO ALVARADO, Javier, and BAÑUELOS VARELA, Blanca (1992), Desarrollo Agrícola en Jalisco 1982-1988, in Cuadernos de Difusión Científica No. 32, México, Universidad de Guadalajara.  •  PALACIOS, Juan Jose (1989), La Política Regional en México 1970-1982, México, Universidad de Guadalajara.  •  PIMIENTA BARRIOS, Eulogio (1999), El pitayo en Jalisco y especies afines en México, México, Universidad de Guadalajara-Fundación Produce Jalisco, A.C.  •  RIOJAS LOPEZ, Carlos (2003), Las intransitables vías del desarrollo. El proceso de industrialización en Jalisco durante el siglo XIX, México, Universidad de Guadalajara.  •  ROCHA QUINTERO, Jorge E., and FLORES ROBLES, Manuel (2002), Diagnóstico General  •  ROSALES HERNANDEZ, Mónico (1984), La Planeación Urbana en el Estado de Jalisco, in Planeación y Desarrollo Urbano en el Estado de Jalisco, México, Memoria del ciclo de conferencias del Instituto de Administración Pública del Estado de Jalisco, A.C.  •  SEIJAL (2001), CEDULAS MUNICIPALES Actualización al 2000, Guadalajara, Jalisco, México, Gobierno del Estado de Jalisco.  •  STEINER, Frederick, (2000), The living Landscape, An ecological approach to landscape, New York, USA, McGraw Hill.  •  VÁZQUEZ, Lourdes Celina (1993), Identidad, cultura y religión en el sur de Jalisco, México, El Colegio de Jalisco.  de la Región Sur de Jalisco y de los Proyectos de Intervención del Centro de Investigación y Formación Social, ITESO, México, unpublished.  _________________________________________________________________________ 52  ______________________________________________________________________________  •  VÁZQUEZ, Lourdes Celina (1992), Desarticulación Regional-Reconstrucción Cultural. Cultura Familiar y Religiosa en el Sur de Jalisco. MA thesis (Sociology), México, Universidad de Guadalajara.  •  WOO GOMEZ, Guillermo (1999), Planeación y Desarrollo. Algunos aprendizajes de la Planeación Regional en Jalisco, presented in “Gobiernos Locales, el Futuro Político de  México” IGLOM.  At:, accessed July, 2004.  _________________________________________________________________________ 53  ______________________________________________________________________________  ANNEXES  _________________________________________________________________________ 54  ______________________________________________________________________________  ANNEX ONE Brief History of the South area of Jalisco The South of Jalisco, is composed of 16 municipalities, and it is characterized by agriculture and livestock farming activities. Although the agriculture provides the main income for the people and the region, there has been unequal development that was emphasized by the social exclusion in the past 25 years. The area of the region is 6,038 km2 (7% of the State of Jalisco) and is divided into four semi-areas, according to Escobar and González de la Rocha (1988): • the area of the Zapotlan lagoon, • the valley of Sayula, • the mountains of Sierra de Tapalpa and Sierra del Tigre, and • the valleys of Zapotiltic, Tuxpan, Tamazula, Pihuamo and Tecalitlán. The South of Jalisco is a region that has particular geographical characteristics as well as a cultural identity reflected in its traditions and the people’s way of living. Historically this region has been exploited because of its natural resources, particularly with respect to agriculture and mineral extraction activities. In the XV century, the valley of Sayula, lands and lagoon were in dispute by diverse indigenous groups because of the salt that was generated there. In 1522 the Spanish conquerors, lead by Alonso de Avalos and Juan Alvarez Chico, founded what they called Province of Avalos, making Sayula the capital city. For the next 20 years, diseases brought by the Spaniards affected the local population. Many people died and this had a negative impact on the labour force that was beginning to be established in the new working structure, through encomiendas7. Agriculture in general was the main activity. Particularly crops like sugar cane, cacao, cotton and corn were the activities that stimulated development of the area. According to Linck (1985) agriculture is a process where intimate links between the nature and society can be developed. As well, agriculture plays an important role in regional integration due to the exchange activities that take place and the identification of similar products and their use. With the indigenous groups, agriculture was based on an integrated system of terraces and chinampas8 that created several sub-watersheds allowing the development of more than 30 km2 of irrigation land, a diversity of ecological levels9 that allowed for a diversity of products during the whole year without over using the land.  7  Social system, based on missions installed by the Spaniards in New Spain in order to control the indigenous communities and including land grants. 8 Type of intensive wetland agriculture. 9 Small ecological areas and micro-environments that correspond to various topographic characteristics.  _________________________________________________________________________ 55  ______________________________________________________________________________  After the Spaniards arrival, new seeds and agricultural technology came to the region such as: wheat, barley, oats, citric fruits and sugar cane. This affected considerably the local vegetation. Some indigenous groups were separated from their lands and communities, the encomiendas were created and the large Haciendas were established in the South of Jalisco. The extraction of minerals, especially in Tapalpa, was another activity that brought benefits into the region. The role of Haciendas in the work dynamics was characteristic and is relevant to understanding the region. The South of Jalisco was consolidated as a whole during the XIX century, based on the organization of the economical and political system, where the Haciendas played an important role. At the end of the XIX century, there was a considerable increase in sugar cane refineries and plantations. A negative consequence was that the region lost the variety of agricultural production. The railroad that was brought into the South of Jalisco was the link with the national and international commerce. The direction of the railroad left in isolation some communities in the mountains, such as Tapalpa and Atemajac, affecting their connection to the rest of the region. In 1910, and for the following 11 years the country went through a civil war. The campesinos of Jalisco supported primarily Emiliano Zapata, who was one of the leaders in this revolution that fought in their favour. Due to the political and economical uncertainty that was occurring in the country, and as a consequence of the revolution, the closing of the mines in 1920 affected the region economically. Six years later, Plutarco Elias Calles, President of the country at that time, began to persecute religious groups. He obligated the close down of churches and religious schools, beginning a persecution of Catholics (Munguía, 1988). This event was very important in the South of Jalisco because the influence of the Catholic Church had had in this region. The agrarian reform of 1934 ended up with the Haciendas having large rural estates. The land distribution incited the creation of a large group of community landowners (ejidatarios) and campesinos that formed part of the bureaucracy of the government, giving more power and control to the state. The region was rich in natural resources and it was an area easily exploited and with a high value added to the production. According to De la Peña, the economical crisis of South of Jalisco was associated with changes in social structures: a violence movement, with a revolution, the Christian war and the agrarian conflicts of 1930’s and 1940’s. Overall, it was a change towards a capitalist model of development (De la Peña, G., 1980)  _________________________________________________________________________ 56  ______________________________________________________________________________  From 1940’s until the decade of 1960 the productive structure of Mexico was becoming urban and industrial. This industrialization led to an uneven development of regions, and four cities in particular benefited from this process: Mexico City, Guadalajara, Monterrey and Puebla (Palacios, 1989). In the mid 60’s there was an economical benefit to the whole country under the policy for substitution of imports. Inequalities between urban and rural areas were becoming more significant. In 1970 a national policy of modernization of agriculture was implemented. This measure caused a national economic crisis, beginning with the agricultural sector. The economic policy of exportation implemented in the 90’s favoured the arrival of agro exportation industries and renting the land was a strategy for survival. These enterprises required cheap labour and they hired agricultural labourers who migrated form southern states of the country, primarily indigenous people (including women and children). In Jalisco, the provincial government as well as several municipal governments provided certain conditions that encouraged the enterprises to establish in the region. These conditions had to do with a low rate of taxation and the provision of infrastructure. In the case of Sayula, the municipality is located close to a major highway that connects to the north with the city of Guadalajara, and to the south with the port of Manzanillo, gateway to the Pacific. The strategy of development through exports has generated problems for the citizens and the government. Natural resources extraction is irreversible, the employment of cheap labourers is affecting rural communities and the economical benefit is not enough for their families nor for the municipality of Sayula. The fundamental problem is the model of development through exports. In this context local development is being recommended. It focuses on economical growth and development but it also prioritizes socio-cultural dimensions.  _________________________________________________________________________ 57  ______________________________________________________________________________  ANNEX TWO Map # 1  _________________________________________________________________________ 58  ______________________________________________________________________________  Map # 2  _________________________________________________________________________ 59  ______________________________________________________________________________  Map # 3  _________________________________________________________________________ 60  ______________________________________________________________________________  Map # 4  _________________________________________________________________________ 61  ______________________________________________________________________________  ANNEX THREE Pictures of the South region of Jalisco  Cactus plantation in Amacueca, Jalisco. July 5th, 2003  Abandoned Tomatoe field in Sayula, Jalisco. July 5th, 2003 _________________________________________________________________________ 62  ______________________________________________________________________________  San Marcos Lagoon. Amacueca and Techaluta, Jalisco. July 5th, 2003  Alfalfa plantation in Sayula, Jalisco. July 25th, 2003  _________________________________________________________________________ 63  ______________________________________________________________________________  Sierra de Tapalpa (looking west) from Sayula, Jalisco. July 25th, 2003  Sierra del Tigre (looking east) from Zacoalco de Torres, Jalisco. July 25th, 2003  _________________________________________________________________________ 64  ______________________________________________________________________________  Broccoli plantation in Sayula, Jalisco.  Cathedral in Amacueca, Jalisco. July 25th, 2003  Portales in Sayula, Jalisco  _________________________________________________________________________ 65  


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