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AMS Lighter Footprint Strategy Doherty, Eric 2008-01-31

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Consultation Draft ? January 15, 2008 1AMS Lighter Footprint StrategyConsultation Draft ? Jan 15, 2008This is a consultation draft, not the final document. We need your input to make the AMS LighterFootprint Strategy an effective document that reflects the views and desires of UBC students.Please send your comments and suggestions to Sustainability@ams.ubc.ca.Prepared by Eric Doherty, MA Candidate, UBC School of Community and Regional Planningfor theStudent Society of UBC Vancouver (AMS)www.amsubc.caConsultation Draft ? January 15, 2008 2Executive SummaryIn January 2007 the AMS approved an Environmental Sustainability Policy designed to makethe AMS?s well-established environmental actions more effective and consistent. The Policyvision includes the responsibility the AMS has with respect to the current ecological crisis andstrongly states our commitment to meeting this obligation:The AMS recognizes the ecological crisis humanity faces and the special responsibilityuniversities, and university students, have in finding and implementing solutions. Weacknowledge our obligations as global citizens and strive to create a sustainable andequitable future for all.The AMS will be a leader in reducing the university campus? ecological footprint tosustainable levels and in fostering environmental justice in our own operations andthrough our relationships with the University community and the broader community. TheAMS will be an engine for new ideas and innovation, and will be a model for theUniversity and for other student organizations to follow.The purposes of the Strategy defined in the AMS Environmental Sustainability Policy include:?  To guide the AMS?s work to areas where we can have the greatest effect.?  To establish procedures for monitoring and reporting on progress.?  To showcase the AMS?s leadership in order to distinguish the AMS and our businessesfrom the University as a whole.AMS Accomplishments to DateEven without a formal environmental strategy, the AMS has long shown leadership inenvironmentally sound practices by taking actions such as:?  Selling only organic, fair trade coffee.?  Providing discounts for students who bring their own mugs or food containers to AMSoutlets?  Supporting the Student Environment Center.Sphere of InfluenceSome of the AMS?s most important environmental achievements have involved collaborationwith other organizations, and have effects well beyond the UBC campus. For example, the U-Pass program is a cooperative effort between the AMS, TransLink, UBC and Vancity CreditUnion. The benefits of U-Pass also extend beyond purely environmental gains:As a result of the U-pass program, students enjoy a collective transportation cost savingsof more than $3 million per month . . . and greenhouse gas emissions have beenreduced by 16,000 tonnes per year.1The Lighter Footprint Strategy acknowledges the need for inter-organizational cooperation andfacilitates selecting effective actions both on and off campus.  While actions internal to the AMSmay be easier to implement, actions that require interaction with other campus bodies andexternal organizations may sometimes the most effective in reducing environmental impact. Theimpacts committee will take both the ease of implementation and the overall potential to reduceecological footprint into account when prioritizing actions.                                                          1 Nathan Cato - Social Sustainability of Alternate Transportation Modes at The University of British Columbiahttp://www.trek.ubc.ca/research/pdf/social%20sustainability%20of%20alternative%20transportation.pdfConsultation Draft ? January 15, 2008 3Ecological FootprintAs specified in the AMS Environmental Sustainability Policy, the AMS Lighter Footprint Strategy(LFS) uses the concept of ecological footprint (EF) to guide the AMS?s work to areas where wecan have the greatest impact.Ecological footprint is a measure of how much productive land and marine area a group ofpeople requires to produce the resources it consumes and to absorb the waste it produces.According to the Global Footprint Network, humanity's EF is now over 23% higher thansustainable levels.In other words, it now takes more than one year and two months for the Earth toregenerate what we use in a single year. We maintain this overshoot by liquidating theplanet's ecological resources.2Canadians have much larger footprints than the global average. It would take over fouradditional earth-like planets to support the world's population if everyone's EF was a big as theaverage Canadian?s.The main purpose of using ecological footprint is to ensure we are focusing our efforts in onmost effective actions, and not misdirecting effort to things that make little difference. Ecologicalfootprinting is a very useful concept for making decisions; however, there are also importantfactors that are extremely difficult to translate into EF, such as emissions of cancer causingchemicals and environmental justice considerations. Thus although Ecological Footprint isimportant, it is not the only factor used to decrease the environmental impact of the AMS.LFS StructureThe Purposes defined in the AMS sustainability policy have determined the broad objectives ofthis strategy. The Targets are the more specific desired goals and outcomes. Action Planshave been developed to meet these targets.TargetsThe LFS includes targets divided into two broad categories. Internal targets, like paper use inthe SUB, are areas that the AMS can act on independently. Interactive targets, like curriculum,are areas that require cooperation with other campus bodies or external organizations.General targets specify that action should be taken regarding a specific goal. For example, toincrease student awareness of AMS actions taken under the Lighter Footprint Strategy.Quantitative targets specify the results that are being aimed for by a specific date. Forexample, reducing electricity consumption by 22%.Proposed Initial Targets:Internal TargetsFood & Beverage- Internal:?  Significantly reduce the average per-serving EF of food and beverages sold by the AMS byOctober 31, 2011.  This includes a focus on local purchasing as well as reducing high impactingredients like meat and dairy. (General Target)Materials ? Internal:?  Establish a monitoring system to track the quantities of key materials used in AMSoperations, reduce the quantities used, and significantly reduce the ecological footprint perunit of these materials. (General Target)                                                          2 Source: Global Footprint Network http://www.footprintnetwork.org/gfn_sub.php?content=footprint_overviewConsultation Draft ? January 15, 2008 4?  Decrease use of toxic materials and ensure proper disposal of toxic materials, including E-waste, in compliance with all applicable legislation. (General Target)Interactive TargetsBuilding Energy ? Interactive:?  Work with UBC Land and Building Services (Sustainability Office) to reduce SUB energyconsumption and greenhouse gas emissions by at least 33% by 2020. (Quantitative Target)Materials ? Interactive:?  Work with UBC and lease holders to establish a monitoring system to track the quantities ofkey materials used in the SUB, reduce quantities used and significantly reduce theecological footprint of these materials. (General Target)Food & Beverage - Interactive:?  Work with UBC Food Services and others in the UBC community (e.g. UBC Food SystemProject3) to encourage a significant reduction in the average per-serving EF of food sold atUBC. (General Target)Transportation ? Interactive?  Work actively with AMS members and other members of the campus community to improvetransit service, cycling facilities and on/near campus student housing, with the target ofreducing the number of single occupant vehicle trips to campus by 33% below 2007 levelsby 2020. (In support of the province?s commitment to reduce GHG emissions by 33% by2020). (Quantitative Target)Campus Development & Policies ? Interactive?  Establish a clear structure to co-ordinate the AMS?s involvement in campus developmentwith the AMS Environmental Sustainability Policy. This should include a clear reportingrelationship between the Impacts and Campus Development Committees (or a re-vamping ofthe committee structure to accomplish the same). (General Target)Curriculum & Learning Spaces?  Work with interested faculty, the UBC Sustainability Office, and others to develop moreproblem-based learning curriculum aimed at reducing our EF and to make UBC into a moreeffective ecological learning space. (General Target)?  Work to make the SUB a leading ecological learning space on the UBC campus (GeneralTarget)Action Plans will be developed to meet each target. These action plans include anapproximation of EF reduction, potential costs and benefits and a timeline for potential projects.These projects will be focused on feasible means to reduce our EF and on information gatheringwhere more knowledge is needed in order to set quantitative targets.Monitoring & ImplementationThe AMS Lighter Footprint Strategy calls for a significant increase in environmental sustainabilityactions. However, placing the responsibility for these projects on already over-worked staffmembers and volunteers will not lead to successful implementation. It is recommended that theAMS allocate resources to hire an Environmental Sustainability Coordinator.                                                          3 The UBC Food Systems Project is a partnership between the AMS food and beverage department, UBC foodservices, the faculty of Land and Food Systems and the Sustainability office to target local food procurement.Consultation Draft ? January 15, 2008 5Table of ContentsExecutive Summary 21.0 Introduction 61.1 Lighter Footprint Strategy Structure 72.0 AMS Accomplishments 73.0 Ecological Footprint 83.1 Greenhouse Gas Footprint 104.0 Decision Making Using Ecological Footprint Analysis 114.1 Key Elements of the AMS Sustainability Policy 135.0 Initial AMS Footprint Audit & Proposed Initial Targets 145.1 Initial Audit Description 145.2 Setting Targets 155.3 Internal Impacts and Targets 155.31 Food & Beverage - Internal 155.32 Materials - Internal 165.4 Interactive Impacts 175.41 Building Energy - Interactive 175.42 Building Materials - Interactive 175.43 Food & Beverage - Interactive 185.44 Transportation - Interactive 185.45 Campus Development & Policies - Interactive  195.46 Curriculum / Learning Spaces - Interactive 196.0 Staffing 20AppendicesAppendix A  Target Descriptions & Action PlansAppendix B Producing the Annual AMS Lighter Footprint Strategy Progress ReportConsultation Draft ? January 15, 2008 61.0 IntroductionThe University of British Columbia?s student society, the Alma Matter Society (AMS), has longbeen a leader in campus sustainability initiatives, and in January 2007 approved a formalsustainability policy designed to build on this leadership role. The AMS Lighter FootprintStrategy is guided by the following vision and purpose set out in the AMS EnvironmentalSustainability Policy:The AMS recognizes the ecological crisis humanity faces and the special responsibilityuniversities, and university students, have in finding and implementing solutions. Weacknowledge our obligations as global citizens and strive to create a sustainable andequitable future for all.The AMS will be a leader in reducing the university campus? ecological footprint tosustainable levels and in fostering environmental justice in our own operations andthrough our relationships with the University community and the broader community. TheAMS will be an engine for new ideas and innovation, and will be a model for theUniversity and for other student organizations to follow.This vision statement reflects UBC?s commitment and vision as a signatory to the HalifaxDeclaration which is quoted in the University?s Sustainable Development policy:?Human demands upon the planet are now of a volume and kind that, unless changedsubstantially, threaten the future well-being of all living species. Universities are entrustedwith the major responsibility to help societies shape their present and future developmentpolicies and actions into the sustainable and equitable forms necessary for anenvironmentally secure and civilized world.? 4The Halifax Declaration emphasizes the interconnection between equity and sustainability,asserting that we have an ethical obligation to address the ?intolerable human disparity which lieat the root of environmental unsustainability?5.The AMS Environmental Sustainability Policy clearly sets out the purpose of this strategy andoutlines some of the ways the strategy will be implemented:Purpose?  To work towards environmental sustainability independently and in cooperation withorganizations such as UBC, other students? organizations, and relevant governmentalbodies.?  To maintain and enhance the AMS?s leadership role in promoting environmentalsustainability on and off campus. ?  To showcase the AMS?s leadership in order to distinguish the AMS and ourbusinesses from the University as a whole and other businesses on campus.?  To guide the AMS?s work to areas where we can have the greatest effect, directlythrough AMS operations and through interaction with other organizations.?  To establish the Impacts Committee as the body responsible for overseeing theSustainability Strategy and presenting an annual progress report, including new orupdated targets, to Council by October 30 of each year.                                                           4 http://www.universitycounsel.ubc.ca/policies/policy5.pdf5 http://www.iisd.org/educate/declarat/halifax.htmConsultation Draft ? January 15, 2008 7?  To set a manageable number of goals and timelines (in consultation with staff andother interested parties), and assign responsibilities to pertinent persons anddepartments for achieving them.?  To establish procedures for monitoring and reporting on progress. Procedures forupdating and adjusting targets will also be part of the Strategy.1.1 LFS StructureThe Purposes defined in the AMS sustainability policy have determined objectives of thisstrategy. The Targets are the desired goals and outcomes. Action Plans have been developedto meet these targets.2.0 AMS AccomplishmentsEven without a formal environmental strategy, the AMS has been a leader in environmentallysound practices at UBC.  The AMS has shown leadership independently, with the support ofAMS members, by taking actions such as:?  Selling only organic, fair trade coffee.?  Providing discounts for students whobring their own mugs or food containersto AMS outlets?  Reducing paper usage by switching toelectronic documents?  Supporting the Student EnvironmentCenter.The UBC administration has followed the AMSlead on some of these initiatives, such as sellingorganic coffee, greatly increasing theenvironmental benefit. However, some of theAMS?s most important environmental achievements have involved working in interaction withother organizations. For example, the U-Pass program is a cooperative effort between the AMS,TransLink, UBC and Vancity Credit Union. The benefits of U-Pass extend beyond purelyenvironmental gains:The economic and environmental benefits of the student U-Pass program at UBC havebeen well established and documented. As a result of the U-pass program, studentsenjoy a collective transportation cost savings of more than $3 million per month; the needto build 1,500 more parking stalls over the next two years has been deferred, producing acost-savings of $20 million; and greenhouse gas emissions have been reduced by16,000 tonnes per year.6The automobile trip reduction after U-Pass is illustrated below in Figure 2.0.1                                                          6 Nathan Cato - Social Sustainability of Alternate Transportation Modes at The University of British Columbiahttp://www.trek.ubc.ca/research/pdf/social%20sustainability%20of%20alternative%20transportation.pdf AMS FarmAde 2007 in Support of UBC FarmConsultation Draft ? January 15, 2008 8Other AMS achievements reached by interacting with other groups include:?  Working with the UBC Farm and the UBC Food Systems Project to purchase organicallygrown food from within two kilometers of the SUB.?  Establishing the AMS Bike Kitchen and Co-op?  Composting 100% of pre-consumer food waste, and some post consumer food andcompostable paper waste, in cooperation with UBC Waste Management.?  Purchasing 30% recycled paper in cooperation with UBC Supply Management?  Reducing SUB electricity consumption by over 1million kWh per year in cooperation withUBC Land and Building Services. This is enough savings to supply 100 typicalhouseholds.?  Establishing Sprouts, UBC?s food cooperativeFigure 2.0.1 After U-Pass Was Introduced Automobile Trips to UBC Dropped by Over20%: But Severe Overcrowding on Buses Has Stalled Progress7Source: UBC Fall 2006 Transportation Status Report.  Figure 3.53.0 Ecological FootprintAs specified in the AMS Environmental Sustainability Policy, the AMS Lighter Footprint Strategyuses the concept of ecological footprint (EF) to guide the AMS?s work to areas where we canhave the greatest impact, directly through AMS operations and through interaction with otherorganizations.What is Ecological Footprint?Ecological footprint analysis is a technique developed by UBC's Dr. William Rees and MathisWackernagel. When they published Our Ecological Footprint in 1996 it was a new and obscureconcept even at UBC. EF analysis is now used around the world and the term ecologicalfootprint is one of the most common ways of describing environmental impact. The developmentof ecological footprint analysis is one of the most significant contributions UBC has made toecological sustainability.                                                          7 Traffic volumes declined by about 23% between 2002 and 2005; but then increased slightly in 2006, apparently dueto severe overcrowding on transit buses and the promotion of discounted parking by UBC Parking Services.0100002000030000400005000060000700002002 2003 2004 2005 2006Automobile Trips Per DayU-PassIntroducedConsultation Draft ? January 15, 2008 9Ecological footprint is a measure of how much productive land and marine area a group ofpeople requires to produce the resources it consumes and to absorb the waste it produces. Theamount of resources used and wastes produced per person are largely determined by thedecisions large organizations such the AMS, UBC and governments make. But individualbehaviour also has a large impact.According to the Global Footprint Network, humanity's EF is now over 23% higher thansustainable levels.In other words, it now takes more than one year and two months for the Earth toregenerate what we use in a single year. We maintain this overshoot by liquidating theplanet's ecological resources.8The scientists who worked on the United Nations Global Environment Outlook (GEO-4) suggestthat overshoot is even worse than this, calculating a global EF almost 40% greater than what issustainable.9Canadians, at 7.6 hectares per person, have much larger footprints than the global average of2.2 hectares per person. It would take over four additional earth-like planets to support theworld's population if everyone's EF was a big as the average resident of Canada. The averageCanadian greenhouse gas footprint alone is over four hectares, more than twice the 1.7 hectareper capita sustainable footprint on a global scale10.Figure 3.0.1 Good Planets are Hard to Find                                                          8 Source: Global Footprint Network http://www.footprintnetwork.org/gfn_sub.php?content=footprint_overview9 The fourth Global Environment Outlook (GEO-4) was released in October 2007. Note that the UN calculates EFdifferently from the Global Footprint Network, resulting in higher per capita footprints and productive land area ? 21.9and 15.7 hectares respectively (21.9/15.7 = 139%). http://www.unep.org/geo/geo4/media/index.asp10 Ecological Footprint and Biocapacity (2006 Edition) ? Global Footprint Network (GFN)http://www.footprintnetwork.org/gfn_sub.php?content=national_footprints . Note that the GFN calculates footprintdifferently from the UN and caution must be used when comparing footprint data from different organizations.Consultation Draft ? January 15, 2008 10"The Ecological Footprint provides a systematic resource accounting tool that can helpus plan for a world in which we all live well, within the means of our one planet."11The danger of consuming more than the earth can sustainably support is that carrying capacityis gradually eroded which will lead to an eventual ecological and economic collapse if EF is notreduced to below carrying capacity, as illustrated the overshoot and collapse scenario in Figure3.0.2 below. Overshoot does not necessarily cause an immediate crisis. The overshoot andrecovery scenario illustrates how the earth?s carrying capacity, which has already been reduced,could stabilize if humanity?s ecological footprint was quickly reduced to sustainable levels.Thus the purpose of estimating Ecological Footprints is to enable people to take the mosteffective personal and collective actions to reduce our impacts to within the means of our planet.Figure 3.0.2  Collapse or Recovery? Ecological footprint will return to within Earth'scarrying capacity, either through societal collapse or deliberate choiceSource for 1961-2007 Ecological Footprint - Global Footprint Network.  October 6th is ecological debt day.http://www.footprintnetwork.org/gfn_sub.php?content=overshoot  Accessed Nov. 29 2007. Post-2007 trends areshown to illustrate the concept and are not intended as quantitative projections.3.1 Greenhouse gas footprintMore than half of humanity's EF is due to greenhouse gas emissions, which have grown muchfaster than other Footprint components12. Both direct and indirect emissions contribute to GHGfootprint (also known as carbon footprint13 since the vast majority of GHG emissions are carbondioxide, CO2). An example of direct emissions is the carbon dioxide emitted by the petroleumgas burned in the UBC steam plant; an example of indirect emissions are the GHG emissionsfrom the manufacturing and transportation of the reinforcing steel used to build the newThunderbird Parkade.  The steel was likely manufactured and shipped from China or EasternCanada.                                                          11 Global Footprint Network http://www.footprintnetwork.org/gfn_sub.php?content=footprint_overview12 http://www.footprintnetwork.org/gfn_sub.php?content=app_carbon_footprint13 http://www.footprintnetwork.org/gfn_sub.php?content=app_carbon_footprintConsultation Draft ? January 15, 2008 11Figure 3.1.1 Over Half of Canada?s Ecological Footprint is Greenhouse Gas Footprint0%10%20%30%40%50%60%GreenhouseGasForest Land Cropland Nuclear GrazingLandBuilt Land FishingGroundSource: Ecological Footprint and Biocapacity (2006 Edition) ? Global Footprint Network.http://www.footprintnetwork.org/gfn_sub.php?content=national_footprintsGHG footprint illustrates an important point about EF analysis; it is necessary to reduce everycomponent of EF to sustainable levels, not only the total EF. If GHG pollution is not greatlyreduced climate change will greatly decrease the productive capacity of the Earth. This will inturn shrink the sustainable footprint even further. For example, global warming caused by GHGpollution is a great threat to salmon that depend upon cold river water for survival andreproduction. On a global scale, drought-inducing effects of climate change have alreadyreduced agricultural production greatly in the Sahel region of Africa14.4.0 Decision Making Using Ecological Footprint AnalysisEcological Footprint analysis involves measuring the resources used or wastes emitted and thentranslating each type into land and marine (aquatic) areas. For example, fossil fuel footprints arecalculated by estimating the area needed to sequester (absorb) the greenhouse gases (GHG)emitted when the fuel is burned. Figure 4.0.1 below shows the EF proportions by consumptioncategory calculated for the average Canadian; note that education is included in ?Services?.Measuring consumption and emissions, and then determining the best conversion factor intoland area to arrive at a precise value can be a very difficult task. Many of these difficulties, suchas having to determine if beer is shipped by truck or rail and the fact that different sources givesignificantly different figures for the same material, are discussed in Ecofootprinting thePendulum Restaurant.15  However, the most significant difficulty is the uncertainty inherent indetermining the ability of the earth to sequester the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide.   Forexample, one recent study used two alternate values - 7.2 tCO2/ha/yr and 5.3 tCO2/ha/yr - whichresulted in a variation in the greenhouse gas footprint of about one third16. In addition, recentresearch suggests that global GHG assimilation rates are slowing due to global warming, with                                                          14 NOAA GFDL CLIMATE MODELING RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS Jan. 2007http://www.gfdl.noaa.gov/research/climate/highlights/PDF/GFDLhighlight_Vol1N2.pdf15 http://www.sustain.ubc.ca/seedslibrary/files/Ecofootprinting%20the%20Pendulum%20Restaurant.pdf16 Pacholsky, Jens. (2006) The Ecological Footprint of Berlin (Germany) for the Year 2000, StirlingUniversity, Scotland http://www.gdrc.org/uem/footprints/berlin-eco_footprint.docConsultation Draft ? January 15, 2008 12some areas that were once GHG sinks even becoming net sources.17 However, for manydecision-making purposes, high levels of precision are not necessary.Figure 4.0.1 Average Canadian?s Ecological Footprint by Consumption Category0 %5 %1 0 %1 5 %2 0 %2 5 %3 0 %3 5 %F o o d H o u s in g T r a n s p o r t a t io n C o n s u m e rG o o d sS e r v ic e sSource: Mathis Wackernagel & William Rees. (1996) Our Ecological Footprint: Reducing HumanImpact on the Earth. P 82-83.For the purposes of the AMS Lighter Footprint Strategy only rough estimates are neededto identify the most important areas for improvement; more precise measures can bedeveloped over time while we reduce our ecological footprint (EF). The key question to ask iswould more research be likely to significantly change our decision? If the answer is no,then we have a precise enough estimate of ecological footprint for the decision at hand. Even ifthe answer is yes, lack of precision should not be used as an excuse to delay action. Often, onlya subjective description of ecological footprint will be enough to make a decision; for examplewhen deciding between a project that has the potential to reduce EF by a very large amount andone that has the potential to reduce EF by only a small amount.  If other factors are equal, ourlimited resources should be devoted to actions that will lead to greater reductions in EF.The EF of food and materials is primarily 'upstream', from production, processing andtransportation while disposal impacts are significant but usually make up a small percentage ofoverall impacts. For example, the EF reduction from using a re-usable mug instead of using apaper cup is much greater than the EF reduction of composting a disposable cup rather thanthrowing it in the garbage. Similarly, there is a greater EF reduction by reducing the amount ofpaper used by 100 Kg than for diverting 100 kg of paper from the garbage to recycling18. Thisdoes not mean that we can neglect EF reduction of recycling and composting, only that wecannot be effective if we neglect the biggest impacts. For example, an EF audit of the Universityof Newcastle, Australia, noted that:The footprint identifies that current actions such as the reduction of waste goingto landfill are of limited value in terms of actions for sustainability. EcologicalFootprint Analysis identifies the need to refocus action to areas having thegreatest impact.19                                                          17 e.g. CHRIS D. JONES, PETER M. COX, CHRIS HUNTINGFORD (2006) Climate-carbon cycle feedbacks understabilization: uncertainty and observational constraints Tellus B 58 (5), 603?613.18 Recycling paper at UBC likely reduces EF more than composting paper does since 100% post-consumer recycledpaper has a much lower EF than virgin paper. E.g.http://www.co.marin.ca.us/depts/CD/main/pdf/planning/Footprint_Final_Report.pdf19 Flint, K. 1999. Institutional ecological footprint analysis - A case study of the University of Newcastle, Australia.Department of Geography and Environmental Science, University of Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia.Consultation Draft ? January 15, 2008 13The ranked list below shows the most important impacts at the University of Newcastle, with thelargest impact at the top. Note that the footprint of private transport (automobiles) is estimated tobe over 600 times greater than the footprint of waste disposal, and dairy consumption has overten times the footprint of bus travel:Ranked List of University of Newcastle?s Ecological Footprint Categories (hectares)1 Building Operation 1138.22 Private Transport 636.63 Air transport of O?S Students 5164 Building Embodied Energy 432.65 University Vehicles 353.16 Dairy Consumption 124.17 Cleaning 113.38 Office Paper Use 108.79 Meat Consumption 90.310 Alcohol Consumption 3411 Water Consumption 17.612 Rail Travel 15.213 Bus Travel 11.514 Waste Disposal 0.91     (p 87)This list is based on rough estimates, and there are some important differences between theUniversity of Newcastle and UBC. For example, most electricity in Australia is generated in coalfired plants leading to a much larger footprint per unit of electricity and therefore also for buildingoperations. However, it gives a rough idea of what the larger footprint categories might be atUBC and where we should focus our attention.Ecological footprinting is a very useful concept for making decisions; however, it is difficult toachieve precision with available data. There are also important factors that are almostimpossible to translate into EF, such as emissions of cancer causing chemicals andenvironmental justice considerations20. Thus Ecological Footprint is not the only important factorin decreasing the environmental impact of the AMS but it is a very important one.4.1 Key Elements of the AMS Sustainability PolicyThe AMS Environmental Sustainability Policy sets out the vision and context for decisionmaking. Some key aspects of the Policy to consider include:?  The special responsibility universities, and university students, have in finding andimplementing solutions. And the importance of new ideas and innovation.?  Showcasing the AMS?s leadership in order to distinguish the AMS and our businessesfrom the University as a whole.?  Guiding the AMS?s work to areas where we can have the greatest effect, directly throughAMS operations and through interaction with other organizations.?  Keeping the number of targets and projects manageable, and ensuring that theresources such as money and staff time are available to do the work.                                                                                                                                                                                           http://www.eng.newcastle.edu.au/~gevans/CHEE3930-6930/Case%20Study%202/KFlint's%20ecof'print%20-U-N-2000.pdf p i.20 The Global Footprint Network report Measuring Marin County?s Ecological Footprint  notes that ?human health [is]not within the research domain addressed by the Footprint? (p. 10)http://www.co.marin.ca.us/depts/CD/main/pdf/planning/Footprint_Final_Report.pdfConsultation Draft ? January 15, 2008 14?  Establishing clear responsibility for actions and for monitoring progress.EF analysis is important for decision making on target setting as well as for deciding betweencompeting priorities. However the Impacts Committee will have to consider all aspects of AMSpolicy in making decisions.5.0 Initial AMS Footprint Audit & Proposed Initial TargetsThe AMS represents over 42,000 UBC students and operates student services, businesses,resource groups and clubs. The AMS also leases space to businesses in the SUB. In addition tooffering services to students, such as the Sexual Assault Support Centre, the AMS advocates forstudent issues to the University Administration, the Provincial and Federal governments, andorganizations such as TransLink.Although the AMS? sphere of influence extends beyond the University?s geographical boundary,it is still necessary to have some idea of what the AMS?s direct environmental impact is, andwhat areas of significant environmental impact the AMS has influence over. However, the AMSis not like a country with fixed boundaries where the per capita EF can be calculated reasonablyeasily. Attempting to do such a calculation for an organization such as the AMS would be verycomplicated unless an arbitrary definition of our sphere of influence was used. Instead, this auditidentifies the major categories of environmental impact that the AMS has influence over.The judgment of how broadly or narrowly to define the AMS' sphere of influence is subjective;but asking the question ' where and how can the AMS most effectively reduce EF?'  will give agood indication of where the AMS should devote its limited money and time. AMS membershave expressed a strong interest in initiatives that allow them to reduce their EF such as the U-Pass program, which suggests that the AMS should at least consider such initiatives as part ofthe Lighter Footprint Strategy.5.1 Initial Audit DescriptionIn this audit the AMS?s sphere of influence is not precisely defined, and it may becounterproductive to do so arbitrarily. And the data on material and energy consumed at UBCand in the SUB is still incomplete; for example, data on food consumed at every outlet oncampus has not been collected. Therefore this audit does not attempt to quantify EF precisely,and instead uses the ranked categories of impact Moderate, High and Very High.This audit is based on both quantitative studies done at UBC and other institutions discussedabove, and on the incomplete data easily available for UBC and the AMS. The estimated EF foreach impact was derived through a subjective analysis, largely based on subjective comparisonsbetween UBC and institutions and areas where quantitative EF estimates are available. Forexample, the data for Canada in Figures 3.1.1 and 4.0.1 and the data for the University ofNewcastle shown in Section 4.0 provided important information for ranking each impact. Anearly draft of the audit was then circulated for comment and correction by knowledgeablemembers of the university community.For the purpose of this audit, the impacts that the AMS has influence over are divided into twobroad categories internal and interactive:Internal impacts are those that the AMS can act on without the cooperation of external parties,such as changing AMS purchasing policies.Interactive impacts are those that require interaction with groups such as the UBCadministration, TransLink, the City of Vancouver, or student organizations at other universitiesand colleges. Interaction with other bodies should strive to build cooperative relationships, butConsultation Draft ? January 15, 2008 15does not exclude active lobbying and campaigning when this is judged to be the most effectivestrategy.The results of the initial audit are listed below in sections 5.3 and 5.4 along with the relatedtargets and proposed action plans.5.2 Setting TargetsAs discussed above, targets are divided into two broad categories internal and interactive. Forclarity, targets are further divided into two categories:General targets specify that action should be taken regarding a specific goal, but do not specifythe action to be taken or set a quantitative target to be met by a certain date. For example,increase student awareness of AMS actions taken under the Lighter Footprint Strategy.Quantitative targets specify the results that are being aimed for by a specific date. Forexample, reducing electricity consumption by 22%.The Impacts Committee is responsible for reporting on every target in the annual LighterFootprint progress report. Therefore, the number of targets must be kept to a manageablenumber.The impacts committee has the responsibility to set a manageable number of targets (inconsultation with staff and other interested parties), and to create action plans for achievingthem.Targets should be selected based on clear criteria, for example:?  There is a significant potential to reduce ecological footprint (EF), even if baseline datadoesn?t exist or EF is very difficult to calculate precisely.?  Actions will either result in visible cost savings or benefits for the AMS or AMS members(to maintain and build support for the strategy)?  There is support from the staff or others who will have to implement the action plan toreach the targets?  Where the possibility of failure to meet targets might be facilitated by lobbying or securingcooperation of other parties (e.g. failure of TransLink to improve bus service to reducegreenhouse gas emissions)?  If the target involves data collection or research, will this research advance the goals setout in the AMS Environmental Sustainability Strategy?5.3 Internal Impacts & Targets - (AMS can effectively act independently of otherorganizations). 5.31 Food & Beverage - Internal: Food and beverages sold in AMS outlets is by far thelargest impact that the AMS can act on independently. The AMS runs several very busyfood outlets that sell many tonnes of food per year. For example, the AMS?s Pie RSquared pizzeria uses about 10 tons of mozzarella cheese every year. The ecologicalfootprint of food is difficult to calculate precisely, but the key factors that determine theecological impact of food, such as the distance it is transported and the proportion ofanimal products, are well established. An ecological footprint analysis of the PendulumRestaurant has already been done21. Food is also listed as an interactive impact below.Estimated EF ? High                                                          21 http://www.sustain.ubc.ca/seedslibrary/files/Ecofootprinting%20the%20Pendulum%20Restaurant.pdfConsultation Draft ? January 15, 2008 16TargetSignificantly reduce the average per-serving EF of food and beverages sold by the AMSby October 31, 2011.  This includes a focus on local purchasing as well as reducing highimpact ingredients like meat and dairy. (General Target)Proposed Action Plan?  Actively support and work with AGSCI 450 professor and students on researchproject. (Winter 2008)?  Based on AGSCI 450 research, have a plan in place by October 31, 2008 to reducethe average per-serving EF of food and/or beverage sold at least one AMS outlet.The plan should include quantitative targets if practical.?  Determine next steps, based on AGSCI 450 research, by October 31, 2008.5.32 Materials ? Internal: The AMS uses a significant amount of materials, such aspaper, in the AMS offices. But AMS businesses use a much larger quantity of materialssuch as paper (CopyRight), disposable cups, plates, napkins, cutlery and water (AMSFood Services). For example, AMS food outlets use over 250,000 paper cups every yearThe AMS has already taken important steps to reduce the quantities of these materialsconsumed, such as giving discounts to students who use reusable coffee mugs. Thisreduces the upstream impacts such as logging, and greenhouse gas emissions fromprocessing and transport. The downstream impacts of disposable cups, which are farless significant, are also addressed through a composting program.Estimated EF:           Office - ModerateBusinesses ? HighTargetEstablish a monitoring system to track the quantities of key materials used in AMSoperations, reduce the quantities used, and significantly reduce the ecological footprintper unit of these materials. (General Target)Proposed Action Plan?  Establish a system for tracking and reporting on key materials used.?  Lug-a-Mug project to reduce disposable cup usage (from the present ratio 85%disposable cups to 15% hard mugs). Note that a SEEDS project and some otherresearch has been competed.?  Investigate costs and benefits of offering self-serve scanning at CopyRight.?  Complete stage-2 SUB materials stewardship SEEDS project.?  Research benefits and costs of re-usable vs compostable food containers.?  Investigate costs and benefits of reduced footprint materials such as 80 or 100%recycled content paper.?  Set priorities for coming year by October 31, 2008 & report annually on activities andprogress.TargetDecrease use of toxic materials and ensure proper disposal of toxic materials, includingE-waste, in compliance with all applicable legislation. (General Target)Proposed Action Plan?  Improve waste management to ensure electronic waste from SUB is disposed ofproperly.Consultation Draft ? January 15, 2008 17?  Set priorities for coming year by October 31, 2008 & report annually on activities andprogress.5.4 Interactive impacts - require interaction with groups such as the UBC administration orTransLink to effectively reduce impact.5.41 Building Energy - Interactive: The Student Union Building (SUB) is operatedcooperatively by the AMS and UBC Building Services. The AMS does not directly pay forthe energy used, and until recently did not even have data on energy usage. The amountof energy used is quite high as the SUB was built in the 1960s, and has had only hadmodest energy efficiency upgrades. For example, 2006 electricity consumption in theSUB was 4 million kWh - enough to power 400 average homes.22 The SUB's heating andhot water is generated by the UBC steam plant which is fired by petroleum gas; a steammeter was installed recently and we do not yet have a full year of consumption data. Asmaller quantity of petroleum gas is also used directly in the SUB. The AMS could takesome small steps to reduce energy usage independently, but major improvements wouldrequire joint action with the UBC administration.Estimated EF - Very HighTarget?  Work with UBC Land and Building Services (Sustainability Office) to reduce SUBenergy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions by at least 33% by 2020.(Quantitative Target)Proposed Action Plan?  Monitor and display SUB energy consumption.?  A number of possible short and longer term actions are outlined in the SUB energyaudit, ranging from small items such as improving the efficiency of vending machinesto major items such as investigating converting to a heat pump to heat the SUB.?  Improvements to the loading dock area are being investigated as short-termmeasures to reduce energy usage, improve indoor air quality, and reduce cold draftsin the lower level of the SUB.?  Undertake a major energy efficiency upgrade as part of the SUB Renew process.?  Investigate ground source heat pump heating through a district hot water heatingsystem.?  Set priorities for coming year by October 31, 2008 & report annually on activities andprogress.5.42 Building Materials - Interactive: The SUB was built in the 1960s so the impact ofinitial construction is spread out over decades, but materials are used for operations,maintenance and renovations every year. Major renovations or a replacement of thebuilding may take place fairly soon. A building replacement would require many tonnes ofmaterials such as concrete and steel which result in large quantities of greenhouse gaspollution.  Materials used in building operations include the water and cleaning chemicalsused on a daily basis in the SUB.Estimated EF: Normal Year - High                       Years of major renovation / replacement - Extremely High                                                          22 The average household in BC Hydro?s service area uses about 10,000 kWh per year.http://www.bchydro.com/rx_files/info/info3519.pdfConsultation Draft ? January 15, 2008 18TargetWork with UBC and lease holders to establish a monitoring system to track the quantitiesof key materials used in the SUB, reduce quantities used and significantly reduce theecological footprint of these materials. (General Target)Proposed Action Plan?  A second stage materials stewardship (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle) SEEDS project hasbeen submitted.?  An updated waste audit is needed (a project description has been completed).?  A sustainability checklist for SUB renovations has been proposed to ensure materialsfootprint is minimized during renovations.?  Set priorities for coming year by October 31, 2008 & report annually on activities andprogress.5.43 Food & Beverage - Interactive: Food is one of the largest components ofCanada?s ecological footprint. Food and drink sold in AMS outlets is listed as an internalimpact above; however, the total impact of food on the UBC campus is much larger thanthat sold at the AMS. The AMS has already shown leadership in food policy, for exampleby shifting to shade grown organic coffee, a move that UBC food services later followed.The AMS has also been very active in supporting the UBC farm and purchasing locallygrown food. The AMS is well positioned to continue showing leadership in food policyand influencing food policy throughout the campus and region.TargetWork with UBC Food Services and others in the UBC community (e.g. UBC FoodSystem Project23) to encourage a significant reduction in the average per-serving EF offood sold at UBC. (General Target)Proposed Action Plan?  Actively support and work with AGSCI 450 professor and students on researchproject.?  Determine next steps, based on AGSCI 450 research, by October 31, 2008.?  Maintain partnership between AMS and UBC Food Services.?  Report annually on activities and progress.5.44 Transportation ? Interactive: Transportation accounts for as much as half ofCanada's greenhouse gas footprint,24 and is therefore one of the largest contributors toCanada's EF. The AMS influences transportation footprint through the U-Pass program,and through other sustainable transportation initiatives such as the Bike Kitchen. TheUBC TREK office estimates that U-Pass has reduced tailpipe greenhouse gas emissionsby 16,000 tonnes per year.?25 The AMS represents the largest organized group of transitriders in Metro Vancouver and therefore has significant potential lobbying power ontransit issues.                                                          23 The UBC Food Systems Project is a partnership between the AMS food and beverage department, UBC foodservices, the faculty of Land and Food Systems and the Sustainability office to target local food procurement.24 The greenhouse gas footprint is more than just tailpipe emissions from cars, planes and other vehicles. It alsoincludes the emissions from refining transportation fuels, and the emissions from the materials used to build vehiclesand transportation infrastructure such as roads and parking structures. Note that this estimate is based only onemissions covered by the Kyoto protocol and is therefore not a complete accounting of GHG footprint. Source:Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Transportation Options Hydro Quebec 2006. www.hydroquebec.com/sustainable-development/documentation/pdf/transport_en_2006.pdf25 Nathan Cato - Social Sustainability of Alternate Transportation Modes at The University of British Columbiahttp://www.trek.ubc.ca/research/pdf/social%20sustainability%20of%20alternative%20transportation.pdfConsultation Draft ? January 15, 2008 19The AMS also pays directly for a significant amount of travel, such as executivemembers flying or traveling by train to conferences.26 The total amount of travel on UBCrelated business is much higher. The AMS could both reduce its own long distance travelEF, and encourage the UBC community to do the same.Estimated EF - Very HighTargetWork actively with AMS members and other members of the campus community toimprove transit service, cycling facilities and on/near campus student housing, with thetarget of reducing the number of single occupant vehicle trips to campus by 33% below2007 levels by 2020. (In support of the province?s commitment to reduce GHG emissionsby 33% by 2020). (Quantitative Target)Proposed Action Plan?  Enhanced transit lobbying campaign, which could include mobilizing AMS members.?  Track transportation-related GHG emissions in co-operation with UBC TREK orothers. (Note that UBC TREK supervised SEEDS project was completed on this, butUBC TREK has not yet been able to make the computer program function.)?  Set priorities for coming year by October 31, 2008 & report annually on activities andprogress.5.45 Campus Development & Policies ? Interactive: The AMS has some influenceover campus development and policies for all of UBC, which has a much larger impactthan AMS operations and the SUB. Campus development has an impact on buildingenergy, building materials, transportation, and food as it relates to the UBC Farm andagriculture on campus. University policies determine how high a priority is put onreducing environmental impacts, and where UBC Endowment funds are invested.Estimated EF - Very HighTargetEstablish a clear structure to co-ordinate the AMS?s involvement in campus developmentwith the AMS Environmental Sustainability Policy. This should include a clear reportingrelationship between the Impacts and Campus Development Committees (or a re-vamping of the committee structure to accomplish the same). (General Target)Proposed Action Plan?  Set priorities for coming year by October 31, 2008 & report annually on activities andprogress.5.46 Curriculum / Learning Spaces - Interactive: The AMS has some influence overwhat is taught at UBC, and the lessons the campus itself teaches. Since teaching andresearch is the primary role of the university, it is likely the area where the university hasthe biggest influence over EF.27                                                          26 For simplicity, the travel that the AMS controls directly is grouped with the interactive aspects of travel since it is avery small percentage of the total.27 For example see: What Is Education For? Six myths about the foundations of modern education,and six new principles to replace them by David Orr http://www.context.org/ICLIB/IC27/Orr.htmConsultation Draft ? January 15, 2008 20Although the AMS could take some actions to make the SUB an ecological learningspace, this would be much more effective if it was a cooperative endeavor focused onmaking, for example, energy efficiency improvements in the SUB visible to our members.Estimated EF - Very HighTargetWork with interested faculty, the UBC Sustainability Office, and others to develop moreproblem-based learning curriculum aimed at reducing our EF and to make UBC into amore effective ecological learning space. (General Target)Proposed Action Plan?  Expand number of SEEDS and similar research and outreach projects.?  Investigate ways to integrate ecological learning into campus spaces (For example,displaying energy consumption and GHG emission data on campus buildings)?  Work with interested students and faculty to support & promote ecological learning inall UBC faculties.?  Set priorities for coming year by October 31, 2008 & report annually on activities andprogress.TargetWork to make the SUB a leading ecological learning space on the UBC campus (GeneralTarget)Proposed Action Plan?  Integrate into SUB Renew / energy upgrades process.?  Track and Display Utility Use in SUB (Electricity, Steam, Petroleum Gas, and Water).?  Lug-a-Mug project?  SUB Materials Stewardship project?  SUB Waste Audit?  Maximize learning potential of other sustainability projects through displays in SUB,special events, or other means.?  Set priorities for coming year by October 31, 2008 & report annually on activities andprogress.The categories above represent the largest categories of ecological footprint over which theAMS has significant influence. However, not every impact will fit neatly into one of thesecategories. The AMS can act to reduce some impacts independently, but might be able toaccomplish much more by also interacting with other groups. For example, switching to shadegrown organic coffee in the AMS had an impact, but when UBC food services followed our leadit had a much larger impact.There are very important social and environmental impacts that are not quantified in terms ofecological footprint, for example, cancer-causing chemicals and noise pollution. These impactsshould be considered in all decision making.Detailed explanations of each target and more information on proposed actions are included inAppendix A. Annual updates will be posted on the AMS Lighter Footprint Strategy webpage.6.0 StaffingUntil now, environmental sustainability activities at the AMS have been handled by acombination of elected representatives, staff taking on extra responsibilities, student interns,Consultation Draft ? January 15, 2008 21volunteers and part-time student employees. The AMS has had some significant success withthis model, largely due to volunteer efforts and staff taking on extra responsibilities and workingextra hours without compensation.The AMS Lighter Footprint Strategy (LFS) calls for a very significant increase in environmentalsustainability actions, however, the current level of staff resources devoted to the issue is clearlyinadequate. It should be noted that there would be significant benefits, such as cost savings, forboth the Student Society and its members from many footprint reduction actions. It isrecommended that an Environmental Sustainability Coordinator be established as a studentcoordinator position. This would cost the AMS approximately $12,000 -18,000 per year.Some of the responsibilities of the position would include:?  Providing support to staff and elected representative in developing and following through onLFS action plans?  Tracking and reporting on progress towards LFS targets, including preparing the annualprogress report required by the AMS Environmental Sustainability Policy?  Writing grant applications for larger LFS projects?  Coordinating the work of student interns and work-study employees?  Providing support to lobbying efforts on transit service and other sustainability-related issues?  Coordinating with the UBC Sustainability office on SEEDS projects, energy monitoring, andenvironmental education initiatives.?  Maintaining and updating the AMS sustainability website and displays in the SUBConsultation Draft ? January 11, 2008 1Appendix A:AMS Lighter Footprint Strategy: Target Descriptions & Action PlansConsultation Draft ? January 11, 2008IndexReduce AMS Food Ecological Footprint (Food & Beverage ? Internal) ....................................................... 2Reduce Materials Footprint (Materials ? Internal) ......................................................................................... 4Reduce Toxic Materials (Materials ? Internal)............................................................................................... 6Reduce SUB Energy Use and GHGs 33% by 2020 (Building Energy ? Interactive)..................................... 8Reduce Materials Footprint in SUB (Materials ? Interactive)...................................................................... 10Reduce UBC Food Ecological Footprint (Food & Beverage ? Interactive) ................................................. 12Reduce SOV Trips 33% by 2020 (Transportation ? Interactive).................................................................. 14Coordinate Campus Development Activities with the AMS Environmental Sustainability Policy. (CampusDevelopment & Policies ? Interactive)......................................................................................................... 16UBC as an Ecological Learning Space (Curriculum & Learning Spaces ? Interactive)............................... 18SUB as an Ecological Learning Space (Curriculum & Learning Spaces ? Interactive)............................... 20Consultation Draft ? January 11, 2008 2Target Description & Action Plan:Reduce AMS Food Ecological Footprint (Food &Beverage ? Internal)Target:Significantly reduce the average per-serving EF of food and beverages sold by the AMS byOctober 31, 2011.  This includes a focus on local purchasing as well as reducing high impactingredients such as meat and dairy. (General Target)Target Description & Assessment TableEstimated Footprint Reduction LargeProbability of Success Moderate to HighCost to AMS - $ Low to Moderate (but possible net savings). Could beincreased food costs with a shift to organic & local food.Cost to AMS - Labour (includesvolunteer labour)Moderate for paid staff; Land and Food systems studentswill likely do much of initial research.Risks or Disadvantages Risk that this could be seen as attempting to imposevegetarian eating. Need to focus on providing choice forhealthy, low footprint menu options.Benefits or Savings for AMS - $ orotherPotential reduced per-serving cost of foot with shift to lessmeat & cheese. Potential increased business with morevegetarian, vegan, local & organic foods.Benefits or Savings for AMSmembers - $ or otherPotential for healthier options, and overall stable pricesdespite likely increased costs for meat & cheese.Social and Environmental JusticeImplicationsGenerally Positive as this initiative would support theUBC farm and local producers.Who is responsible for takingaction?AMS Food & Beverage Manager is already involved inactions aimed towards this general target in cooperationwith the AMS Sustainability Coordinator & the UBC foodsystems project.Timeline Substantial progress by October 31st, 2011Other Comments An Agricultural Sciences 450 class will likely completeinitial research in Spring 2008.Consultation Draft ? January 11, 2008 3Action PlanActions Completed:This is an ongoing focus for the AMS; numerous projects have been completed over a period ofyears.A proposal for an Agricultural Sciences 450 project focused on reducing the food footprint ofAMS operations has been prepared and accepted. Research will likely start in January 2008.Proposed Actions:Actively support and work with AGSCI 450 professor and students on research project. (M. Stein& N. Toogood)Based on AGSCI 450 research, have a plan in place by October 31, 2008 to reduce the averageper-serving EF of food and/or beverage sold at least one AMS outlet. The plan should includequantitative targets if practical.Determine next steps, based on AGSCI 450 research, by October 31, 2008.Report annually on activities and progress.Consultation Draft ? January 11, 2008 4Target Description & Action Plan:Reduce Materials Footprint (Materials ? Internal)Target:Establish a monitoring system to track the quantities of key materials used in AMSoperations, reduce the quantities used, and significantly reduce the ecological footprint perunit of these materials (General Target).Target Description & Assessment TableEstimated Footprint Reduction ModerateProbability of Success GoodCost to AMS - $ Moderate - may be net savingsCost to AMS - Labour (includesvolunteer labour)TBDRisks or Disadvantages Likely low risk, some lower footprint materials such as 80or 100% recycled paper may cost more per unit.Benefits or Savings for AMS - $ orotherReduced materials use may result in cost savings.Benefits or Savings for AMSmembers - $ or otherTBD - Cost savings are possible from activities such asPDF scanning at Copy Right.Social and Environmental JusticeImplicationsSome positive impacts with cost savings to members.Who is responsible for takingaction?TBDTimeline TBDOther CommentsConsultation Draft ? January 11, 2008 5Action PlanActions Completed:This is an ongoing focus for the AMS; for example actions such as switching to electronicdocuments to reduce paper use, and using 30% recycled paper.AMS food services offers discounts to people who bring their own re-usable mugs and the re-usable mug ratio is monitored periodically (is about 15%).A SEEDS project has been completed on ways to increase the use of re-usable mugs (Lug-a-Mugproject)A SEEDS materials stewardship project has been completed on ways of reducing littering andencouraging reducing, reusing and recycling in public spaces in the SUB.AMS office paper usage is now being tracked.A SEEDS proposal has been prepared for monitoring SUB water consumption.Proposed Actions:Establish a system for tracking and reporting on key materials used.Lug-a-Mug project to reduce disposable cup usage (from the present 85% disposable 15% hardmug ratio). Note that a SEEDS project and some other research has been competed.Investigate costs and benefits of offering self-serve scanning at CopyRight.Complete stage 2 Sub materials stewardship SEEDs project.Research benefits and costs of re-usable vs compostable food containers.Investigate costs and benefits of reduced footprint materials such as 80 or 100% recycled contentpaper.Set priorities for coming year by October 31, 2008 & report annually on activities and progress.Consultation Draft ? January 11, 2008 6Target Description & Action Plan:Reduce Toxic Materials (Materials ? Internal)Target:Decrease use of toxic materials and ensure proper disposal of toxic materials, including E-waste, in compliance with all applicable legislation (general target)Target Description & Assessment TableEstimated Footprint Reduction N/A ? Toxins are not generally quantified in ecologicalfootprint analysisProbability of Success HighCost to AMS - $ TBD ? Likely Low to ModerateCost to AMS - Labour (includesvolunteer labour)TBDRisks or Disadvantages Low riskBenefits or Savings for AMS - $or otherThere could be health and productivity benefits.Benefits or Savings for AMSmembers - $ or otherHealth benefits for SUB users.Social and Environmental JusticeImplicationsPositive - e.g. Ensures electronic waste is not disposed ofillegally in low-income countries.Who is responsible for takingaction?TDBTimeline TDBOther Comments Electronic waste is now being accepted free of charge atprovincially approved facilities.Consultation Draft ? January 11, 2008 7Action PlanActions Completed:Sustainability Coordinator has confirmed that most cleaning products used in SUB are Green Sealcertified.Other past actions to be documented.Proposed Actions:Improve waste management to ensure electronic waste from SUB is disposed of properly.Set priorities for coming year by October 31, 2008 & report annually on activities and progress.Consultation Draft ? January 11, 2008 8Target Description & Action Plan:Reduce SUB Energy Use and GHGs 33% by 2020(Building Energy ? Interactive)Target: Work with UBC Land and Building Services (Sustainability Office) to reduceSUB energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions by at least 33% by 2020.(Quantitative Target)Target Description & Assessment TableEstimated Footprint Reduction LargeProbability of Success Moderate ? depends on cooperation from UBCAdministration, likely an AMS referendum to raise fees,and perhaps grants from government agencies.Cost to AMS - $ HighCost to AMS - Labour (includesvolunteer labour)High, but much has already been committed to SUBRenew process.Risks or Disadvantages This is an ambitious target with a significant chance of notmeeting the target if SUB Renew renovations do notproceedBenefits or Savings for AMS - $ orotherLarge - SUB renovations could provide a much morepleasant and productive work space; greatly enhancedreputation for AMS as a sustainability leader, andsignificant cost savings over time.Benefits or Savings for AMSmembers - $ or otherSUB renovations could provide a much more pleasantspace for AMS members.Social and Environmental JusticeImplicationsIf fees are raised to cover costs, there are some negativeimplications for low-income AMS members. However,there may be net savings over time if the AMS ends uppaying for energy used in AMS facilities.Who is responsible for taking action? TBD ? Impacts, Renovations and SUB Renewcommittees all have roles to play.Timeline Referendum for SUB renew in Winter 2008 will influencethe timeline for AMS energy projectsOther Comments The 33% by 2020 goal is taken from the provincialcommitment to reduce GHGs by the same amount andUBC will likely adopt targets based on the samecommitment. Some provincial funding has already beenannounced to upgrade public buildings to help meet thiscommitment.Consultation Draft ? January 11, 2008 9Action PlanActions Completed:The AMS commissioned an energy audit of the SUB in 2007, which is available on the AMSwebsite.The AMS has put the SUB forward as a candidate for the UBC Renew program.A SEEDS proposal to create an automated energy consumption monitoring and display systemfor the SUB has been submitted.Proposed Actions:Monitor and display SUB energy consumptionA number of possible short and longer term actions are outlined in the SUB energy audit, rangingform small items such as improving the efficiency of vending machines to major items such asinvestigating converting to a heat pump to heat the SUB:?  Energy Upgrades: Cooling systems?  Energy Upgrades: Solar Hot Water Heating?  Energy Upgrades: upgrade Air Handling Units?  Energy Upgrades: Loading Dock Heating Systems?  Energy Upgrades: Turn out the lights policy, energy efficient light bulbs?  Energy Upgrades: Vending machine energy misersImprovements to the loading dock area are being investigated as short-term measures to reduceenergy usage, improve indoor air quality, and reduce cold drafts in the lower level of the SUB.Undertake a major energy efficiency upgrade as part of the SUB Renew process. A sustainabilitycharrette is scheduled for January 2007.Investigate heat pump heating through a district hot water heating system.Set priorities for coming year by October 31, 2008 & report annually on activities and progress.Consultation Draft ? January 11, 2008 10Target Description & Action Plan:Reduce Materials Footprint in SUB (Materials ?Interactive)Target: Work with UBC and lease holders to establish a monitoring system to track thequantities of key materials used in the SUB, reduce quantities used and significantly reducethe ecological footprint of these materials. (General Target)Target Description & Assessment TableEstimated Footprint Reduction ModerateProbability of Success Moderate - Requires cooperation from multiple partiesCost to AMS - $ TBDCost to AMS - Labour (includesvolunteer labour)TBDRisks or Disadvantages Requires cooperation from multiple parties, therefore ismore complex to implement than some other targets.Benefits or Savings for AMS - $ orotherTBD - Possibility for enhanced reputation and reducedlitter in SUB spaces.Benefits or Savings for AMSmembers - $ or otherTBDSocial and Environmental JusticeImplicationsPositive as related to footprint reductionWho is responsible for takingaction?TBDTimeline TBDOther Comments Many materials related decisions in the SUB arecontrolled by the UBC administration, for example thepaper towels in the washrooms are a UBC responsibility.Consultation Draft ? January 11, 2008 11Action PlanActions Completed:This is an ongoing AMS priority, and many actions have been taken in previous years, includinginstituting post-consumer composting in the SUB basement.A 1st stage materials stewardship SEEDS project was completed in 2007 related to litter andrecycling in SUB public spaces.A waste audit was done by a UBC student in 1998.Proposed Actions:A second stage materials stewardship (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle) SEEDS project has beensubmitted.An updated waste audit is needed (a project description has been completed).A sustainability checklist for SUB renovations has been proposed to ensure materials footprint isminimized during renovations.Set priorities for coming year by October 31, 2008 & report annually on activities and progress.Consultation Draft ? January 11, 2008 12Target Description & Action Plan:Reduce UBC Food Ecological Footprint (Food &Beverage ? Interactive)Target:Work with UBC Food Services and others in the UBC community (e.g. UBC Food SystemProject1) to encourage a significant reduction in the average per-serving EF of food sold atUBC. (General Target)Target Description & Assessment TableEstimated Footprint Reduction Very LargeProbability of Success Moderate ? depends on cooperation from UBC FoodServices and othersCost to AMS - $ Low to ModerateCost to AMS - Labour (includesvolunteer labour)Unknown, depends on actions chosenRisks or Disadvantages Few, the AMS is already well established in this areaand AMS members generally support the UBC Farm.Benefits or Savings for AMS - $ orotherEnhanced reputation as a leader in sustainability.Closer working relationship with UBC Farm and otherfood security/sustainability projects at UBCBenefits or Savings for AMSmembers - $ or otherHealthier food, educational opportunities.Social and Environmental JusticeImplicationsGenerally positive as long as this does not result inany significant price increases for AMS members.Potential for large contracts for local producers.Who is responsible for takingaction?To be determined / developed by impacts committeeTimeline Form partnership with Andrew Parr (winter 2008) anddetermine timeline from there.Other Comments This would be a continuation of AMS efforts via theUBC Food Systems Project, not a new initiative.                                                          1 The UBC Food Systems Project is a partnership between the AMS food and beverage department, UBCfood services, the faculty of Land and Food Systems and the Sustainability office to target local foodprocurement.Consultation Draft ? January 11, 2008 13Action PlanActions Completed:This is an ongoing focus for the AMS; numerous projects have been completed over a period ofyears.A proposal for an Agricultural Sciences 450 project focused on reducing the food footprint atUBC been prepared and accepted. Research will likely start in January 2008.Proposed Actions:Actively support and work with AGSCI 450 professor and students on research project. (M. Stein& N. Toogood)Determine next steps, based on AGSCI 450 research, by October 31, 2008.Report annually on activities and progress.Consultation Draft ? January 11, 2008 14Target Description & Action Plan:Reduce SOV Trips 33% by 2020 (Transportation ?Interactive)Target:Work actively with AMS members and other members of the campus community toimprove transit service, cycling facilities and on/near campus student housing, with thetarget of reducing the number of single occupant vehicle trips to campus by 33% below2007 levels by 2020. (In support of the province?s commitment to reduce GHG emissions by33% by 2020). (Quantitative Target)Target Description & Assessment TableEstimated Footprint Reduction Very LargeProbability of Success Moderate ? depends on cooperation from numerousparties. However, TransLink and the Provincialgovernment have both acknowledged the need to morethan double transit ridership to meet the 33% by 2020commitment.Cost to AMS - $ TBD ? depends on actions chosenCost to AMS - Labour (includesvolunteer labour)TDBRisks or Disadvantages This is an ambitious target with a significant chance of notmeeting the target on time.Benefits or Savings for AMS - $ orotherU-Pass and transit service improvements are stronglysupported by AMS members.Benefits or Savings for AMSmembers - $ or otherTransit service improvements would be a very significantbenefit for members - large $ and time savings.Social and Environmental JusticeImplicationsVery positive. Lower income AMS members and peoplein general use transit more, and transit is necessary toaccess education.Who is responsible for takingaction?TBD ? External Commission might take lead role withsupport from the AMS Sustainability Coordinator.Timeline The 33% by 2020 goal is taken from the provincialcommitment to reduce GHGs by the same amount andUBC will likely adopt targets based on the samecommitment.Other CommentsConsultation Draft ? January 11, 2008 15Action PlanActions Completed:This is an ongoing focus for the AMS; the U-Pass program has greatly reduced SOV trips andGHG emissions from commuting to UBC.The AMS has also supported cycling initiatives such as the AMS Bike Kitchen and has activelycampaigned for more on-campus student housing.The AMS has been active in lobbying for better transit service as a way to reduce GHGemissions, including some work to support community college students' campaign for U-Pass andbetter transit service.A multiple accounts evaluation of rapid transit options for the Broadway corridor has been doneby Eric Doherty, which could be re-worked into a discussion paper.Proposed Actions:Enhanced transit lobbying campaign, which could include mobilizing AMS members.Track transportation-related GHG emissions in co-operation with UBC Trek or others. (Note thatUBC Trek supervised SEEDS project was completed on this, but UBC Trek has not yet been ableto make the computer program function.)Set priorities for coming year by October 31, 2008 & report annually on activities and progress.Consultation Draft ? January 11, 2008 16Target Description & Action Plan:Coordinate Campus Development Activities withthe AMS Environmental Sustainability Policy.(Campus Development & Policies ? Interactive)Target:Establish a clear structure to co-ordinate the AMS?s involvement in campus developmentwith the AMS Environmental Sustainability Policy. This should include a clear reportingrelationship between the Impacts and Campus Development Committees (or a re-vampingof the committee structure to accomplish the same). (General Target)Target Description & Assessment TableEstimated Footprint Reduction No direct impact ? But could be large due to bettercoordination and effectivenessProbability of Success HighCost to AMS - $ N/ACost to AMS - Labour (includesvolunteer labour)Low ? Could result in net savingsRisks or Disadvantages Does this overlap with process of re-vamping theAMS committee structure?Benefits or Savings for AMS - $ orotherBetter coordination would result in more effectiveaction and likely time savingsBenefits or Savings for AMSmembers - $ or otherLikely improved campus development over time.Social and Environmental JusticeImplicationsImproved access to the campus developmentprocess would likely benefit students in terms ofvoicing concerns with on campus housing andstudent spaceWho is responsible for takingaction?TBD, but campus development issues are part of theVP Academic profile.Timeline TBDOther CommentsConsultation Draft ? January 11, 2008 17Action PlanActions Completed:This is an ongoing focus for the AMS's campus development efforts.Proposed Actions:Set priorities for coming year by October 31, 2008 & report annually on activities and progress.Consultation Draft ? January 11, 2008 18Target Description & Action Plan:UBC as an Ecological Learning Space(Curriculum & Learning Spaces ? Interactive)Target:Work with interested faculty, the UBC Sustainability Office, and others to develop moreproblem-based learning curriculum aimed at reducing our ecological footprint and to makeUBC into a more effective ecological learning space. (General Target)Target Description & Assessment TableEstimated Footprint Reduction Very Large (but indirect)Probability of Success Moderate - HighCost to AMS - $ LowCost to AMS - Labour (includesvolunteer labour)Moderate ? Could result in net savingsRisks or Disadvantages Need to ensure projects are carefully selected toavoid spending staff time on less useful projects.Benefits or Savings for AMS - $ orotherLow-cost sustainability research.Benefits or Savings for AMSmembers - $ or otherImproved relevance and quality of educationalexperience, practical job-related experience.Social and Environmental JusticeImplicationsCurriculum could result in projects that significantlyimprove the campus? social and ecological function.Who is responsible for takingaction?TBD, however Academic Quality is part of the VPAcademic Portfolio. Partnerships with SEEDS andinterested professors will be the key to a successfulinitiative.Timeline TBDOther Comments This would be an expansion of the AMS?s role, ratherthan a completely new initiative.Consultation Draft ? January 11, 2008 19Action PlanActions Completed:This is an ongoing focus for the AMS; and the AMS has been actively working with SEEDS andprograms such as Agricultural Sciences to combine applied research with ecological learningopportunities.Proposed Actions:Expand number of SEEDS and similar research and outreach projects.Investigate ways to integrate ecological learning into campus spaces (For example, displayingenergy consumption and GHG emission data on campus buildings)Work with interested students and faculty to support & promote ecological learning in all UBCfaculties.Set priorities for coming year by October 31, 2008 & report annually on activities and progress.Consultation Draft ? January 11, 2008 20Target Description & Action Plan:SUB as an Ecological Learning Space(Curriculum & Learning Spaces ? Interactive)Target: Work to make the SUB a leading ecological learning space on the UBC campus(General Target)Target Description & Assessment TableEstimated Footprint Reduction Large (but indirect)Probability of Success HighCost to AMS - $ TBDCost to AMS - Labour (includesvolunteer labour)TBDRisks or Disadvantages Projects must be engaging and visible to members.Benefits or Savings for AMS - $ orotherOpportunity to showcase role as a leader insustainability. Increased awareness of resourceconsumption and potential solutions.Benefits or Savings for AMSmembers - $ or otherLearning outside the classroom may sparkenthusiasm or engagement in the campuscommunity.Social and Environmental JusticeImplicationsProviding information in a non-traditional mannercould improve the quality of the educationalexperience at UBC.Who is responsible for takingaction?Impacts, SUB renew.Timeline TBDOther Comments This initiative could be as simple as displayingconsumption data in the sub or could extend tosupporting initiatives like a garden for OurCommunity Eats.Consultation Draft ? January 11, 2008 21Action PlanActions Completed:This is an ongoing focus for the AMS; and the AMS has been actively working with SEEDS andprograms such as Agricultural Sciences to combine applied research with ecological learningopportunities.The Student Environment Center, Sprouts, and the Bike Hub all contribute to ecological learningin the SUB.A SEEDS project to track and display SUB energy usage is scheduled to start in January 2008.Proposed Actions:Integrate into SUB Renew / energy upgrades process.Track and Display Utility Use in SUB (Electricity, Steam, Petroleum Gas, and Water).Lug-a-Mug projectSUB Materials Stewardship projectSUB Waste AuditMaximize learning potential of other sustainability projects through displays in SUB, specialevents, or other means.Set priorities for coming year by October 31, 2008 & report annually on activities and progress.1Appendix BProducing the Annual AMS Lighter Footprint Strategy Progress ReportConsultation Draft ? January 15, 2008As required by the AMS Environmental Sustainability Policy, the Lighter Footprint Strategy (LFS) isdesigned to ensure that the AMS?s environmental sustainability efforts are effective, and to avoidmisdirecting our energies to actions that make little difference. The decision-making rationale is discussedin section 4.0 of the Strategy.The purposes of the policy include:?  To establish the Impacts Committee as the body responsible for overseeing the Sustainability Strategyand presenting an annual progress report, including new or updated targets, to Council by October 30of each year.?  To set a manageable number of goals and timelines (in consultation with staff and other interestedparties), and assign responsibilities to pertinent persons and departments for achieving them.?  To establish procedures for monitoring and reporting on progress. Procedures for updating andadjusting targets will also be part of the Strategy.1The annual report is intended to provide continuity and accountability without being overly timeconsuming to produce. The basic steps are:?  Review each target and action plan from the previous year, and report on the actions completed fromthe action plan and progress made (Moving completed actions from proposed to completed). Also noteany actions taken that were not anticipated in the action plan. Quantitative data should be includedwhere appropriate.?  For significant projects that fall under more than one target category it may be best to produce a projectreport and refer to the key conclusions of the report in the relevant action plans.?  Considering the research done and experience gained in the previous year, review the targets andaction plans and update as appropriate. When information becomes available, consideration should begiven to converting general targets to quantitative targets. New targets and actions should only beadded with careful consideration to the resources available and the policy?s direction to keep targets toa manageable number (considering that every target needs to be reported on every year). Forwardrevised or new targets for approval by the Executive and Council.?  Produce a brief summary of the year?s activities including significant successes, failures and changesin direction.?  Review the potential LFS projects list and update as necessary (delete projects that have beencompleted and add new potential projects that have been identified). This may be a good time to makefirm decisions on what projects the AMS should proceed with, but project decisions can be made atany time.?  Update the AMS Environmental Sustainability webpage with the annual report and any relevantdocuments, and check that all links are still current.Don?t get bogged down in endless detail, the report just needs to provide the essential information nextyear?s Impacts Committee members will need. And remember - if it?s not fun, it?s not sustainable!                                                          1 http://www.amsubc.ca/index.php/student_government/subpage/category/ams_operations_policies/#sustainability2The following is a hypothetical report on one LFS target from 2006-20072:AMS Lighter Footprint Strategy ? Annual Report October 1, 2006 ? October 1, 2007Target: Establish a system of regular reporting of SUB energy consumption, and investigate potentialmeasures to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. (General Target)Actions in Action Plan:1)  Request past data and regular reports on energy consumption (steam, electricity and petroleum gas) forthe SUB from the UBC Sustainability Office.The Sustainability Office energy manager did not have a system of reporting for SUB energy consumptionin place, and a steam meter had only been recently installed. By going directly to the meter reader we wereable to produce the mullet-year electricity consumption trend shown below. However, only a partial year ofsteam data was available and we do not have any petroleum gas data yet.The UBC Sustainability Office energy manager has agreed to participate in a SEEDS project to create anautomated energy consumption utility, this SEEDS project will be prepared with the hope that it will bedone in the winter 2008 term.Electricity consumption has been reduced by over 1 million kWh/year, over 22%, since 2001SUB Annual Electricity Consumption KWh/year01000000200000030000004000000500000060000002000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006Year - (2005 Data Estimated) kWh2)  Request that the UBC Sustainability Office provide any existing energy efficiency reports on the SUB,and conduct further studies if needed.The UBC Sustainability Office provided the very limited material they had, but was not in a position toconduct further research. Therefore, the AMS hired a consultant to do an initial energy audit of the SUB.This report identifies a large number of potential measures including:?  Energy Upgrades: Cooling systems?  Energy Upgrades: Solar Hot Water Heating?  Energy Upgrades: upgrade Air Handling Units?  Energy Upgrades: Loading Dock Heating Systems?  Energy Upgrades: Turn out the lights policy, energy efficient light bulbs?  Energy Upgrades: Vending machine energy misers                                                          2 This is before the first year of the strategy so no actual targets or action plan exists.3These measure range from low-cost measures with very short pay back times to extremely expensivemeasures that would best be done in concert with significant building renovations. The full report isavailable at:http://www.amsubc.ca/index.php/student_government/subpage/category/ams_lighter_footprint_strategy/SUB_energy_assesment.pdfActions Not in Action PlanThis year the SUB became a near-term candidate building for the UBC Renew program, and the AMSstarted investigating the possibility of major renovations under this program. Seehttp://www.amsubc.ca/index.php/ams/subpage/category/subrenewal_history_background/SummaryThe AMS now has an initial study of potential energy efficiency upgrades and can start to act on these.Getting energy consumption data proved to be more difficult than expected, but there is a good possibilitythat an automated system will be in place within the coming year.This was a year of major change, as the possibility of major energy efficiency upgrades to the SUB becamea feasible possibility in the near term. The Provincial Governments new commitment to reduce greenhousegas emissions by 33% by 2020 also adds to the possibilities to get funding for major upgrades.Given these developments, the proposed target and action plan for 2007 ? 2008 has been updated to thatbelow:Target Description & Action Plan:Reduce SUB Energy Use and GHGs 33% by 2020 (Building Energy ? Interactive)Target: Work with UBC Land and Building Services (Sustainability Office) to reduce SUB energyconsumption and greenhouse gas emissions by at least 33% by 2020. (Quantitative Target)Target Description & Assessment TableEstimated Footprint Reduction LargeProbability of Success Moderate ? depends on cooperation from UBC Administration, likelyan AMS referendum to raise fees, and perhaps grants fromgovernment agencies.Cost to AMS - $ HighCost to AMS - Labour (includes volunteerlabour)High, but much has already been committed to SUB Renew process.Risks or Disadvantages This is an ambitious target with a significant chance of not meetingthe target if SUB Renew renovations do not proceedBenefits or Savings for AMS - $ or other Large - SUB renovations could provide a much more pleasant andproductive work space; greatly enhanced reputation for AMS as asustainability leader, and significant cost savings over time.Benefits or Savings for AMS members - $or otherSUB renovations could provide a much more pleasant space for AMSmembers.4Social and Environmental JusticeImplicationsIf fees are raised to cover costs, there are some negative implicationsfor low-income AMS members. However, there may be net savingsover time if the AMS ends up paying for energy used in AMSfacilities.Who is responsible for taking action? TBD ? Impacts, Renovations and SUB Renew committees all haveroles to play.Timeline Referendum for SUB renew in Winter 2008 will influence the timelinefor AMS energy projectsOther Comments The 33% by 2020 goal is taken from the provincial commitment toreduce GHGs by the same amount and UBC will likely adopt targetsbased on the same commitment. Some provincial funding has alreadybeen announced to upgrade public buildings to help meet thiscommitment.Action PlanActions Completed:The AMS commissioned an energy audit of the SUB in 2007, which is available on the AMS website.The AMS has put the SUB forward as a candidate for the UBC Renew program.A SEEDS proposal to create an automated energy consumption monitoring and display system for the SUBhas been submitted.Proposed Actions:Monitor and display SUB energy consumptionA number of possible short and longer term actions are outlined in the SUB energy audit, ranging formsmall items such as improving the efficiency of vending machines to major items such as investigatingconverting to a heat pump to heat the SUB:?  Energy Upgrades: Cooling systems?  Energy Upgrades: Solar Hot Water Heating?  Energy Upgrades: upgrade Air Handling Units?  Energy Upgrades: Loading Dock Heating Systems?  Energy Upgrades: Turn out the lights policy, energy efficient light bulbs?  Energy Upgrades: Vending machine energy misersImprovements to the loading dock area are being investigated as short-term measures to reduce energyusage, improve indoor air quality, and reduce cold drafts in the lower level of the SUB.Undertake a major energy efficiency upgrade as part of the SUB Renew process. A sustainability charretteis scheduled for January 2007.Investigate ground-source heat pump heating through a district hot water heating system.Set priorities for coming year by October 31, 2008 & report annually on activities and progress.

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