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Thinking Outside the Big Box: A Vision for a Lougheed Town Centre Neighbourhood Natrasony, Shawn Feb 28, 2009

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1Thinking Outside the Big Box:aA Vision for a Lougheed Town Centre NeighbourhoodShawn M. NatrasonyMaster of Arts (Planning)School of Community and Regional PlanningUniversity of British ColumbiaFebruary 2009Thinking Outside the Big Box:A Vision for a Lougheed Town Centre NeighbourhoodbySHAWN M. NATRASONY, B.A. (Geography)Simon Fraser University, 2004A PROJECT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTSFOR THE DEGREE OFMASTER OF ARTS (PLANNING)inTHE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIESSchool of Community & Regional PlanningUBCWe accept this project as conforming to the required standard??????????????????????????????????????THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIAFebruary 2009? Shawn M. Natrasony, 2009ABSTRACT The City of Burnaby continues to accommodate a significant amount of growth within a limited land base. The City?s long range plans call for an increasing amount of new development to be directed into four existing town centres of higher density. Lougheed Town Centre Mall is one site with increasing promise for intensification within Burnaby?s Lougheed Town Centre.This Masters Project undertakes the development of design guidelines with the aim of informing the future redevelopment of a successful suburban shopping mall into a mixed-use neighbourhood. It envisions transforming Lougheed Town Centre Mall from a mono-centric retail focus into a sustainable urban form that is more vibrant and attractive. It begins with a review of key literature within three themes: transit-oriented development, placemaking, and green infra-structure. Reference cases of mixed-use shopping mall redevelopment are investigated to illustrate precedents in the North American context. An urban analysis describes the existing context of the site. The project culminates with a set of design goals with strategies that serve as a framework to assist in re-envisoning Burnaby?s Lougheed Town Centre Mall as a true neighbourhood centre that contains a vibrant mix of uses, offers a unique sense of place and improved ecologi-cal functioning.iTABLE OF CONTENTSAbstract ?????????????????????????????...?.....iTable of Contents ???????????????????????????..iiCHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION ?????????????????????.1 Research Problem ..???????????????????????.1 Research Questions ???????????????????????.5 Project Goal and Objectives ???????????????????...6 Project Scope ????????????????????????........6 Research Methodology ?????????????????????...6 Chapter Outline..??????????..........???????...???....7CHAPTER 2 - LITERATURE REVIEW ??????????????????...9 Shopping Mall Past, Present, and Emergent Trends ?????????..9 Transit-Oriented Development ??????????????????11 Placemaking ????????????????????????.......13 Green Infrastructure ??????????????????????..18 Implications for Shopping Mall Redevelopment??????????..21CHAPTER 3 - REFERENCE CASES ???????????????????..23 Santana Row; San Jose, California ????????????????..24 Belmar; Lakewood, Colorado ??????????????????..26 Bayshore Town Center; Glendale, Wisconsin ?...??????????28 Winter Park Village; Winter Park, Florida ?????????????.30 Downtown Park Forest; Park Forest, Illinois ????????????32 Mizner Park; Boca Raton, Florida ?????...??????????....34 CityCenter Englewood; Englewood, Colorado ..??????????.36 Mashpee Commons; Mashpee, Massachusetts ??????????.?38 Summary of Reference Cases ?????????.................................?.40iiTABLE OF CONTENTS continuedCHAPTER 4 - SITE CONTEXT AND URBAN ANALYSIS .......................................41 Policy Context ????????????????????????....41 Neighbourhood Orientation ??????????????????....42 Urban Analysis????????????????????????...46 Existing Land Use ?????????????????????.??.47 Impervious Surfaces and Vegetation ??????????????.?.48 Figure Ground Diagram ????????????????????...49 Transportation ????????????????????????....50 Topography and Views ????????????????????.?51 Site Opportunities ??????????????????????.?.52 Site Issues and Constraints ??????????????????.?..53 CHAPTER 5 - DESIGN GOALS AND STRATEGIES ????????????.54 Civic Heart ????????????????...???????..........55 Human Scale ????????????????????????......56 Connections ????????????????...???????........57 Green Infrastructure and Buildings ????????????????58 Compact and Mixed-Use Built Form ???????????????..59 Sense of Place ????????????????????????.....60 Piecemeal Infill Development..?????????????????....61 CHAPTER 6 - CONCLUSIONS ?????????????????????.62BIBLIOGRAPHY ?????????????????????...?.?.............64iii101Chapter 1: IntroductionChapter 1: IntroductionProblem StatementImages of suburban sprawl are familiar to most of us. Across North America sprawl-inducing develop-ment continues in the form of single-family homes on wide public rights-of-way, regional shopping malls at intersecting expressways, commercial strip development along arterials, and industrial parks and big-box centres with their large parking lots. The popular concern over suburban sprawl that ampli-fied in the 1950s continues today from academics, planners, activists, communities, and governments alike. Among the widely cited characteristics of sprawl are: leap-frog development, commercial strip development, low density housing, large expanses of single-use development, poor accessibility, and lack of functional public space (Ewing, 1997).Critics contend that sprawl tends not to pay for itself financially, creates traffic congestion, contributes heavily to air pollution, exasperates social inequity and isolation, despoils the landscape, consumes vast amounts of land, and results in the loss of agricultural lands and wilderness (Duany, 2001; Gillham, 2002). Others point to the loss of physical places that are diverse, human-scaled and sensitive to people?s needs, while being memorable with streets and public spaces that facilitate civic engagement and com-munity interaction (Jacobs 1961; Whyte, 1980; Kunstler, 1993).In policy efforts to mitigate these problems, smart growth has emerged. In Making Smart Growth Work, Porter states,?Smart growth calls for building communities that are more hospitable, productive, and fiscally and en-vironmentally responsible than most of the communities that have been developed in the last century?. [It] seeks to identify a common ground where developers, environmentalists, public officials, citizens, and others can all find acceptable ways to accommodate growth? (Porter, 2002, 1).Porter describes six key principles of smart growth:1. Compact, multi-use development;2. Open-space conservation;3. Expanded mobility;4. Enhanced livability;5. Efficient management and expansion of infrastructure; and 6. Infill, redevelopment, and adaptive reuse in built-up areas (p.1).Transit-oriented development (TOD) is one approach that has recently become a popular tool to pro-Figure 1.1: Example of the sprawling form of contempo-rary suburburban development in North America.Source: John Fielder.      Thinking Outside the Big Box2mote smart growth. There are many and somewhat varying definitions of TOD. One definition captures the essence of TOD:??moderate to higher-density development, located within an easy walk of a major transit stop, gener-ally with a mix of residential, employment and shopping opportunities designed for pedestrians with-out excluding the auto. TOD can be new construction or redevelopment of one or more buildings whose design and orientation facilitate transit use? (California Department of Transportation, 2002, 3).The desire to coordinate the planning of land use and transit infrastructure is a growing trend in North America. Many cities and regions are promoting better land use and intensification around transit sta-tions as a means of achieving many of their broader planning goals. Within Metro Vancouver there has been a concerted move towards TOD, most recently, in the cities of Vancouver (Oakridge Centre) and Surrey (Central City). To date, no single development has advanced all of the objectives of TOD men-tioned in the above definition.Lougheed Town Centre Mall: A Case for IntensificationLougheed Town Centre Mall is Burnaby?s second largest shopping mall, comprised of 180 commercial retail units within 600 000 square feet. The mall is owned by Teachers? Private Capital, the investment arm of the Ontario Teachers? Pension Plan and is managed by 20 Vic Management Incorporated. The 38 acre site is located in northeast Burnaby adjacent to the Coquitlam border. It is located at the intersection of Austin Road and Lougheed Highway, and is relatively accessible to the Trans Canada Highway, the main transportation corridor of Metro Vancouver. A number of combined factors make Lougheed Town Centre Mall an ideal site for the application of a TOD. Growth Pressure: Burnaby is a maturing, and increasingly urban city, located within the rapidly growing Metro Vancouver region. The centrality of Burnaby?s location and its services will see it attract a consid-erable share of the region?s residents and development. A significant challenge for Burnaby?s planners is accomodating future development in a manner that does not detract from Burnaby?s high-quality of life.The total population of Burnaby increased by 5.0% between 2001 and 2006 to 200 855.  Continued growth will see the population grow to an estimated 257 929 by 2016 and to 304 866 by 2026. Similar to other mu-nicipalites within Metro Vancouver, Burnaby?s population growth has occurred most significantly in the 45-64 and 75+ age groups, indicating a trend towards an aging population. In 2006, approximately half (50.8%) of Burnaby?s total population were immigrants; and among all the cities in Metro Vancouver, the City ranked second only to Richmond with 57.4% (BC Statisctics).To help achieve regional growth objectives, Metro Vancouver?s Livable Region Strategic Plan has des-ignated that inner cities such as Burnaby be part of a ?growth concentration area.? Significantly, the growth concentration area will raise Burnaby?s share of the region?s population and employment. To Figure 1.2: High rise towers at Lougheed Town Centre. Burnaby?s continued growth and development requires increasing density within a limited landbase.Source: Metro Vancouver.3Chapter 1: Introductionmeet this target, Burnaby will need to accommodate a residential capacity of 118 000 residential units ?this represents over 32 000 additional units, or a 38 percent increase from 2006 to 2026 (City of Burn-aby, 1998).  Significantly, the City does not have large areas of undeveloped land remaining that can be developed solely for ground-oriented housing, and the intent is to allocate growth in redeveloping areas. Burnaby?s future is one of continued growth and development that must be accommodated in the context of a limited land resource. Opportunity Missed: Lougheed Town Centre Mall presents a significant opportunity for a more inten-sive form of development. Burnaby acknowledges the progressive urbanization of the City, and has allocated growth in designated areas including four existing higher density town centres. Between 1991 and 2006, it is estimated that 53 percent of Burnaby?s residential units were constructed in the these town centres. However, Lougheed Town Centre, which saw concentrated growth in previous decades, accounted for the lowest number of new units contructed in the town centres at 8 percent. To reach the 2021 residential capacity figure, it is estimated that a further 50 percent of new residential units will oc-cur in these town centres (City of Burnaby, 1998).Located in Lougheed Town Centre, Lougheed Town Centre Mall continues to provide for local and regional shopping and service needs. The interior of the shopping mall has recently undergone reno-vation; however, its exterior and surrounding site is ageing. This is particularly true of the structured parking garage and the decommissioned bus transit station that visually detract from the appearance of the site. Typical of many shopping malls, it is situated within extensive surface-oriented parking facili-ties. To the north are Cameron Park and Community Centre, medium-density housing and St. Stephen?s Anglican Church. To the northeast is a new high-density residential, retail and office development.  To the southeast are auto-oriented commercial and service uses. To the west are an elementary school and playing field with high-density residential beyond. Given this important central location within Lougheed Town Centre, and a limited land resource within the City of Burnaby, surface parking does not represent the best and most efficient use of land. The site offers the potential to develop additional retail and services while attracting employment and housing.At present the development of the site is coarse-grained and lacks linkages to the adjacent neighbour-hood, surrounding parks, greenways, bikeways, streets, public outdoor spaces, amenities, and com-munity facilities. There is little emphasis on the pedestrian realm due to the interior-focused orientation of the shopping mall, the disruption of the street grid system, and the lack of buildings that shape the street environment.The underdeveloped nature of the public realm contributes little to the life and vitality of local streets. This is mainly a function of the emphasis on movement and storage of motor vehicles. Moreover, there is little investment in street furniture, trees, landscaping, pedestrian lighting and other public ameni-ties. While shopping malls have become the main gathering spaces in suburbia replacing the traditional town centre, this site does not form a true ?heart? of the neighbourhood.Figure 1.3: Vacant parcel at the southeast corner of the proj-ect site and adjacent to the SkyTrain station that offers po-tential for infill of mixed-use development.Source: Author photo.Figure 1.4: The Lougheed Town Centre SkyTrain station. The station is adjacent to a large, under-utilized site and does little to reinforce ridership on the Millenium SkyTrain Line.Source: Author photo.      Thinking Outside the Big Box4Underperformance of the Rapid Transit Line: Adjacent to the site is the Lougheed Town Centre Sta-tion, part of the region?s SkyTrain rapid transit system. The Millennium SkyTrain Line continues to receive criticism due to continued underperformance of ridership projections. It was predicted that 75 000 boardings would occur by 2006. It is now assumed that this target will not be achieved until after 2009 (Luba, 2005).At issue is the location of the station at the edge of a large under-utilized site that offers a limited range of uses. The station sits in space, above a busy arterial street, abuts a major highway, and does not integrate well into the surrounding area. The single land use of the site limits ridership and pedestrian activity while raising security concerns in the evening when the mall is not in operation. Also problematic is the lack of clear pedestrian connections from the station and associated bus loop to adjacent neighbour-hoods for residents living in relative proximity.It is anticipated that the construction of the Evergreen SkyTrain Line from Lougheed Town Centre to Coquitlam Centre to the northeast will be completed in 2014. The confluence of two major transit facili-ties with vastly improved access to and from major portions of the region suggests that the site has the potential to become a denser, mixed-use urban neighbourhood, and the deficiencies of the existing sta-tion may be addressed. Lost Profit Potential: The centrality of Lougheed Town Centre Mall at the intersection of key transporta-tion infrastructure and its proximity to fast-growing communities, sustain its role as a significant retail and service node. Shopping malls, however, continue to evolve and change based on demographics, consumer preferences and shifts in the retail industry. This site represents an unrealized market poten-tial to adapt the shopping mall and bring it in line with the changes that are taking place. Such adapta-tions are occurring in numerous jurisdictions. Lougheed Town Centre Mall invites the possibility for expansion of not only retail, but office, hotel, services, and residential uses. The site fails to capitalize on its location, and its proximity to nearby residential development, Cameron Elementary School, Cameron Park Community Centre and mass transit facilities in order to contribute to a more vibrant and diverse neighbourhood.A further trend is taking hold as suburban environments continue to evolve. While predominantly resi-dential in nature in the past, it is now recognized that most new jobs in metropolitain reagins are found in suburban areas within business parks. With a global economy that relies on skilled and creative professionals, municipalities compete for professionals who are young, and prefer vibrant urban neigh-borhoods where they can live, work, shop, and recreate (Florida, 2002). With the bulk of new growth expected to occur in the suburbs, the challenge is to reshape conventional development into the vibrant places people desire. In the report, Emerging Trends in Real Estate: 2006, the Urban Land Institute and Pricewaterhouse-Coopers ranked the areas near transit highest for development and investment, reflect-ing the appeal of infill development, as well as the public?s frustration with traffic congestion (ULI, 2005). Opportunities for redevelopment and infill in suburban areas are excellent as young professionals Figure 1.5: The large areas of surface parking at Lougheed Town Centre Mall dramatically increase impervious sur-faces and compromise the pedestrian environment.Source: Author photo.5Chapter 1: Introductionand empty-nesters continue to seek a more urban lifestyle. Increasing the intensity and mix of uses of Lougheed Town Centre Mall would create new opportunities for Burnaby?s residents to work within the community, leading to a more complete community. Moreover, infill development increases com-mercial and residential tax revenue, while rationalizing the provision of existing public infrastructure, and increases the economies of scale in the costs of providing services in the neighbourhood.Lack of Ecological Functioning: Finally, the City of Burnaby recognizes that maintaining the health of natural ecosystems is essential to the health of communities (City of Burnaby, 1998). At present the greater part of the Lougheed Town Centre Mall site is covered with asphalt parking areas. Vehicular access and storage are indeed required compenents of land development. However, parking not only compromises the pedestrian environment, but also dramatically increases impervious cover and conse-quently increases the amount of polluted stormwater runoff. This significantly impacts natural systems within urban areas.This problem is exacerbated by a common practice of setting commercial parking ratios to accommodate the highest hourly parking demand during the peak season. The application of green infrastructure techniques, in the right combination, can dramatically reduce stormwater damage and the redevelop-ment of this site can make such interventions economically practical. Moreover, these techniques can introduce plants and landscaping into the urban environments adding to the appeal and physical iden-tity of the neighbourhood.Focused on the Lougheed Town Centre Mall, this Masters project seeks to reimagine this successful shopping mall as a true neighbourhood centre that better leverages its unique place in the regional transportation system. It envisions a future for an accessible neighbourhood in which to shop, work, play and be a part of the community. In doing so, it advances Burnaby?s vision for a ?more complete community, an environmentally aware community, a community of economic opportunity, a commu-nity with increased transportation choice?? (City of Burnaby, 1998).Research QuestionsThis Masters Project re-conceptualizes contemporary shopping malls that seek profit maximization while compromising neighbourhood and ecological functioning. My experience of such urban forms, and this site in particular, prompted me to consider questions that include:How can a shopping mall become a true neighbourhood and connect to the surrounding neighbour-hood?What form and character could emerge within the site?How might a ?sense of place? be achieved in such a ?place-less? and transient site? and,      Thinking Outside the Big Box6What opportunities exist for green infrastructure in site planning and building design?Project Goal and ObjectivesThis Master?s Project is in partial fulfillment of a Master of Arts degree from the University of British Columbia?s School of Community and Regional Planning. The project goal is to demonstrate the poten-tial for recasting Lougheed Town Centre Mall as a livable and sustainable neigbourhood centre while reinforcing the neighbourhood?s sense of place.The project objectives include: (1) review the theories of transit-oriented development, placemaking, and green infrastructure and their role in achieving a more sustainable shopping mall; (2) undertake a multiple reference case analysis of mixed-use shopping mall redevelopment; (3) analyze the issues, op-portunities and constraints inherent to the site and surroundings; (4) develop a set of design goals and strategies from the literature review findings, the reference case lessons, and the urban analysis. Together, the research, analysis and design goals will provide background information and a set of ideas from which resident needs and aspirations can emerge as part of a future public process for the redevel-opment of Lougheed Town Centre Mall.  Project ScopeThis Masters Project explores the opportunities and constraints in the transformation of a suburban shopping mall into a true neighbourhood. Since the site is typical of suburban shopping malls, it may provide design solutions that are applicable in a wide range of contexts. The following constitutes the scope of this work:The management of the Lougheed Town Centre Mall site has expressed an interest in its redevelopment, and thus this project is viewed in the context of a real-world opportunity for intensification.The physical boundary of this project is limited to the Lougheed Town Centre Mall site and two immedi-ately adjacent properties. It does not include the entire 700 acre Lougheed Town Centre area, though, for purposes of the inventory and analysis, the context considered was expanded to include a wider area.Research MethodologyThis Masters Project follows an empirical and inductive approach and employs the three key themes of transit-oriented development, placemaking and green infrastructure as a theoretical foundation. Re-search of relevant theories within urban design and urban planning related to sustainable community 7Chapter 1: Introductiondesign was undertaken, and the three themes were identified as key to this particular project.Several reference cases of mixed-use shopping mall redevelopments within North America were re-viewed and evaluated. These cases are instructive in understanding the design and development of such projects, while yielding lessons for Lougheed Town Centre Mall based upon both good and bad practices.The existing policy and documents related to the site were reviewed to gain an understanding of the site and the future aspirations. The site and surrounding area was visited and experienced on a number of occasions on various days of the week and at different times of the day.  A thorough inventory and analysis of the Lougheed Town Centre Mall identified the inherent strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the site. The key concepts of the literature review, the lessons of the reference cases  and the urban analysis were synthesized to create a set of design goals specific to Lougheed Town Centre Mall.  Each of the design goals include a set of strategies to advance the goal.  Together the design goals and strategies serve as the basis for a future design development at Lougheed Town Centre Mall.Chapter OutlineChapter One introduces the project problem statement, research questions, project goals and objectives, project scope and research methodology. Chapter Two begins with an account of shopping mall development history. Literature is reviewed within the three theories of transit-oriented development, placemaking and green infrastructure.Chapter Three explores eight reference cases of mixed-use shopping mall redevelopments and the prac-tical lessons derived from them. The chapter concludes with a summary of the key findings. Chapter Four presents the urban analysis and develops an understanding of the site in terms of its context, existing conditions, and capabilities. It further establishes what existing policies apply to the site from the City of Burnaby, and Metro Vancouver. The chapter concludes with a synthesis of the site opportunities, and site isses and constraints.Chapter Five presents the design goals and strategies developed for the Lougheed Town Centre Mall.Chapter Six summarizes the findings of this project and reiterates the potential to re-imagine Lougheed Town Centre Mall as a mixed-use, urban neighbourhood.      Thinking Outside the Big Box89 Chapter 2: Literature ReviewThis literature review explores how a shopping mall redevelopment utilizing the theories of transit-oriented development, placemaking, and green infrastructure may assist in transforming a site into a more attractive, vibrant and sustainable urban form. While there are many ideas on what elements are critical to a sustainable community, this project focuses upon three sets of ideas that are deemed key in the context of this particular site. Taken together, these three complementary theories offer potential strategies for shopping mall redevelopment. The chapter begins with an overview of the history of the shopping mall ?tracing its development, and emergent trends. This forms the context from which to explore change for the Lougheed Town Centre Mall. Transit-oriented development theory suggests the design of compact urban neighbourhoods in existing residential areas reduces suburban sprawl and inefficient land use while encouraging a shift from au-tomobile dependence. It is development that combines a mix of residential, employment and shopping opportunities designed for pedestrians and transit use without excluding the automobile. The literature offers a cue for physical design and specifically considers building forms that utilize land more effi-ciently.Placemaking addresses the concept of place identity and the concept of a neighbourhood as a social centre with an emphasis on accommodating community-building activities, within public space and facilities. The intent is to craft a sense of place in a manner that allows residents to recognize the neigh-bourhood as distinct from other places with a character that is vivid, unique, or at least particular. It reasserts the function of streets as places to interact and participate in public life. Green infrastructure focuses on the layering of buildings, streets, infrastructure and parks to improve ecological functioning, to increase animal habitat, and to decrease energy costs. Streets become ecologi-cal infrastructure and assume an important function aside from transporting cars and people. The Shopping MallThe shopping mall has its origins in the settings of the ancient agora and the medieval piazza of Euro-pean cities. In the early 19th century, the Industrial Revolution witnessed the construction and develop-ment of retail arcades in European cities and the advent of department store and mass-produced struc-tures of unprecedented size such as the Crystal Palace in London (Wyman, 2001). The momentum of the Industrial Revolution also witnessed worsening urban conditions from crowding and pollution, and a Chapter 2: Literature ReviewFigure 2.1: Southdale Shopping Center, located in Edina, Minnesota, opened in 1956 and was the first totally enclosed shopping centre in North America. Source: Minneapolis Star Journal Tribune.      Thinking Outside the Big Box10desire to improve life by moving away from the city. The history of the shopping mall closely traces the history of suburban development. The 1920s brought increased automobile use, the rapid construction of highways, an exploding population, and a concomitant movement of people further from the urban core (Jackson, 1985). The earliest incarnations of the shopping mall date from the 1920s and 1930s. The most famous of these was Country Club Plaza in Kansas City, built in 1922. As an alternate town centre for a new suburban development, it was based on an urban block, with separate buildings housing both retail and services (Crawford, 2002).To meet the needs of a burgeoning population, large-scale retail previously located in the central city began follow closely behind residential expansion. The first enclosed shopping mall, Southdale Center Mall, opened in 1956 near Minneapolis, Minnesota. This new form created a focused atrium space and provided suburbanites easy access to downtown department stores, specialty stores, and services. Victor Gruen, the originator of the shopping mall, suggested that the form succeeded not only because it ad-dressed economic concerns, but also through its provision of a sense of community and its ?convergence of the dispersed suburban masses? (McMorrough, 2001, 722). Over the next two decades the enclosed mall expanded to include regional, super-regional, and mega-malls. Some shopping malls also became magnets for nodal regional development (Crawford, 2002).  Joel Garreau termed such concentration of hotels, offices and other urban forms at the periphery of core central areas as Edge Cities.In Sprawl and Public Space: Redressing the Mall, William Ivey suggests that shopping malls continue as ?a focal point in people?s lives? (Smiley, 2002, forward). However, the decades-long process of suburban expansion has brought hardship to many shopping malls. Ironically, the suburban growth that contrib-uted to the construction of numerous malls also contributed to their decline.Successive waves of development find ever-larger and more lucrative shopping malls built on cheaper, undeveloped land further towards the suburban periphery. Successful malls often renovate to maintain their market share, while others are unable to survive, and fail. The numbers of shopping malls that are architecturally, economically, and socially obsolete continue to rise substantially (Robbins, 2002). Par-tially responsible are the multiplication and diversification of mall types that include: festival market-places, specialty malls, outlet malls, and entertainment malls (Crawford, 2002). Other new retail forms, including big-box retail and power centres, are bringing further competition for traditional malls.Redevelopment PotentialObsolete shopping malls that dot the landscape are commonly known as greyfields, a term popularized by the Congress for the New Urbanism. These sites are now the focus of study and models for reuse and development beyond conventional renovation and conventional retail. At the same time, economi-cally successful shopping malls are seeking to reposition themselves in a proactive manner in an ever-changing retail marketplace. Ironically, while the shopping mall has replaced the old corner store and main street of the traditional town centre, its saviour may be the reincarnation of such traditional forms.Figure 2.2: Lifestule centres first emerged as a retail trend in the late 1990s. They are often mixed-use and combine traditional retail functions of a shopping mall with leisure amenities.Source: Stephen Gross.11Chapter 2: Literature ReviewTransit-Oriented DevelopmentTransit-Oriented Development (TOD) first emerged with the development of rail transit networks in the late 19th century and early 20th century. These networks gave rise to new forms of settlement and neighbourhood design. This earlier form of development is today being adapted to inform the design of contemporary neighbourhoods and regions.The result of a progression of ideas and models, TOD continues to evolve as a concept. It has been articu-lated as development where ?moderate and high-density housing, along with complementary public uses, jobs, retail and services, are concentrated in mixed use developments? (Calthorpe, 1993, 41). Simi-lar concepts exist that share a common perspective, design principles and set of goals. At the same time these concepts offer varying degrees of detail and emphasis: Traditional Neighbourhood Developments, Urban Villages and Compact Communities deal primarily with the structure of individual communities and neighbourhoods; while TODs, Pedestrian Pockets, and Transit Villages add the emphasis of transit integration on a regional basis. This larger view helps to order growth across a region while encourag-ing infill and redevelopment (Calthorpe, 1989).TOD theory has been greatly influenced by Leon Krier and Douglas Kelbaugh as a vision of urbanism to counter the forces of suburbanization and decentralization (Calthorpe, 1989). The concept of planning development around transit stations was first revived in the edited book The Pedestrian Pocket Book: A New Suburban Design Strategy. Pedestrian Pockets offer a suburban redevelopment strategy based upon low-rise, high-density housing, a mixed-use main street, light rail transit, and either the regional shop-ping mall or computerized back office. Each Pedestrian Pocket is meant to form part of regional network and offer a ?cluster of housing, retail space and offices within a quarter-mile walking radius of a transit system? (Calthorpe, 1989, ix). Research by Robert Cervero focused on similar TOD elements in the books Transit Metropolis and Transit Villages in the 21st Century: Best Practices in Transit-Oriented Development. Cervero explores the relation-ship between transit and metropolitan form, and stresses the relationship between urban form and the type of transit best suited to particular urban forms. Articulating the concept of the Transit Village, Cervero identifies six key elements: ? enhanced mobility and environment;? pedestrian friendliness;? alternative suburban living and working environments;? neighbourhood revitalization;? public safety; and? public celebration (Cervero, 1997, 7).Considered the founder of TOD, Calthorpe more fully explored the concept in The Next American Me-tropolis: Ecology, Community, and the American Dream. The book provided a set of goals, and a specific Figure 2.3: Aerial view of the well known TOD develop-ment Orenco Station in Portland Oregon with town centre at centre and light rail line beyond.Source: 2.4: Orenco Station?s town centre that follows the New Urbanist principles of well-connected, pedestrian friendly streets and mixed-uses.Source:      Thinking Outside the Big Box12set of principles to be applied across all levels of planning: regional, comprehensive, specific area, and zoning ordinances. Further, Calthorpe identified a set of principles regarded by some as timeless goals of urbanism. Among the principles of TOD are:? organize development to be compact and transit-supportive;? place commercial, housing, jobs, parks and civic uses within walking distance of transit;? create pedestrian-friendly street networks which directly connect local destinations;? provide for a mix of housing types, densities, and costs;? make public spaces the focus of building orientation and neighbourhood activity; and? encourage infill and redevelopment along transit corridors within existing neighbourhoods (Calt-horpe, 1989, 43). TOD has encountered criticism due to ambitious promises and limited execution that falls short of the potential benefits. Dittmar and Ohland (2004) in The New Transit Town: Best Practices in Transit-Oriented Development highlight case studies of projects that still use standard parking ratios, that lack an ap-propriate mix of uses, and others that rarely include units targeted to a mix of incomes or household sizes. The authors also assert that TOD definitions suffer from purely descriptive definitions, and seek an overlap of TOD with elements of livability ?the quality of life elements that people desire. Indexes of livability include such criteria as access to services and recreation, mobility choice, environmental quality, commute times, and health and safety. A performance based definition of TOD introduces the following goals: ? Location Efficiency;? Rich Mix of Choices;? Value Capture;? Placemaking; and? Resolution of the Tension Between Node and Place (Dittmar and Ohland, 2004, 22).TOD demonstrates a pattern that some traditional communities exhibited in the past and a pattern that many communities now strive to build. At the heart of TOD is the transit commuter, and the purpose of mixed-uses is to encourage a pedestrian environment. TOD is a concept based upon crafting and capi-talizing upon synergies between density and transit use, between mixed-uses and a vibrant neighbour-hood, and between urban form and an enhanced place.In approaching design, one must be cautious in viewing TOD as a prescribed set of uses or densities to be laid over a site. Dittmar and Ohland contend that while ?appropriate physical qualities (e.g., density, distance, and urban form) are essential to make TOD work, a focus solely on these characteristics can ob-scure the main goal of transit-oriented development, which is not to create a particular physical form but rather to create places that function differently from conventional development? (2004, 22). Although proper built form is a necessary element, that alone is not sufficient in achieving the full benefits of TOD.Figure 2.5: Main pedestrian axis of Orenco Station begins at the light rail station and terminates at Central Park, part of the heirarchy of public spaces.Source: www.planetizen.com13Chapter 2: Literature ReviewKey Findings1. Reduce auto-orientation of the site: Accommodate but minimize parking located away from the station, use structured garages that are ?wrapped? with retail, residences and services, and provide for shared parking.2. Place many destinations within walking distance: Place retail, housing, jobs, services, parks, civic uses within 400-800 meters of transit to maximize trip generation, reinforce walking, and allow trips to be combined.3. Density: Create an appropriate density transition and interface with the surrounding community of medium to high density form to foster liveliness and walkability.4. Urban form: Design an urban pattern with compact blocks, interconnected streets, buildings oriented to the street, pleasant walkways, and comfortable connections to local destinations to reinforce ease of walking and appeal for pedestrians.5. Build place, not a project: Create engaging public spaces, attractive landmarks and gateways, and con-tinuous streetfront experiences that strengthen neighbourhood activity and the sense of place.6. A place for all: Provide for a choice in housing types, densities, and costs so that people from every part of the economic spectrum, lifestyle, and life-cycle can live near transit.PlacemakingThe public realm and its important role within society has been written about extensively. Literature ex-ists on its various components from streets, sidewalks, plazas, squares, and parks to the private public realm (J. Jacobs, 1961; A. Jacobs, 1993; Appleyard, 1981; Whyte, 1980; Gehl, 2001; Cooper-Marcus, 1990; Oldenburg, 1991). The literature serves to demonstrate the public realm as places in which we carry out the patterns of our daily lives, where we socialize formally and informally with others in our commu-nity, where we encounter persons different from ourselves, where community and civic life flourishes.Trancik discusses sense of place as giving ?...physical space additional richness by incorporating unique forms and details indigenous to its setting. This response to context often includes history and the ele-ment of time and attempts to enhance the fit between new and existing conditions.... In place theory, social and cultural values, visual perceptions of users, and an individual?s control over the immediate public environment areas important as principles of lateral enclosure and linkage? (1986, 98). More sim-ply, American geographer J. B. Jackson (1984) has described sense of place as one of the ways in which we identify the peculiar characteristics of landscape and its inhabitants.      Thinking Outside the Big Box14Landscapes and Sense of PlacePlace theory and placemaking emerged from a dissatisfaction with Modernist architecture and planning and the standardization and universality it embraced. The Modernist?s rejection of any ?preconception, precedent or tradition? originating in place was later replaced with the Post-Modern view of a pluralist society and a search for variety. Architecture became a commodity whereby historical continuity and ar-chitectural context were of secondary concern and any material or product from anywhere in the world was now available (Kelbaugh). This rejection of and later selection of place has reduced regional differ-ences, created landscapes in which every place look like no place in particular resulting in placelessness (See Duany, Plater-Zyberk and Speck, 2000; Kunstler, 1993; Kunstler, 1996). As a counter-point to placelessness Kelbaugh offers Critical Regionalism as a celebration of difference that is grounded in place and culture. It elevates that which is local and unique while avoiding nostalgia and sentimentality for traditional urban forms. Instead, Critical Regionalism posits that well-designed buildings and public spaces can have a positive and measurable effect upon sense of place and commu-nity identity. Kelbaugh offers five characteristics that define Critical Regionalism: sense of place, sense of nature, sense of history, sense of craft and sense of limits.Similarly Hough (1990) in his research of regional identity considers the manner in which human and nonhuman forces have created characteristic and distinctly identifiable landscapes, and how they shape the landscape of today. It is an environmental view of design that draws its inspiration from the eco-logical and cultural lessons of the vernacular. It provides us with ways of restablishing the identity and uniqueness of places in the contemporary landscape (Hough, 1990).Regional identity is ?the collective reaction of people to the environment over time? (Hough, 1990, 180). Differences between place have arisen from vernacular responses to practical problems of everyday life. Purposeful design has resulted in increased placelessness rather than promoting sense of place. With the environmental constraints of the past removed, the creation of sense of place requires a conscious decision.Hough contends that native landscape is the primary determinant of regional identity. ?Nature sets a diverse stage for the aesthetic inherent in every landscape? (Hough, 1990, 20). Our perception of place is strongly shaped by the landscape that is product of natural forces of mountain building and continental drift; climate influenced and modified by geography and topography; the native plants and animals. Added to this is the cultural landscape that can be based on vernacular forms. The by-product of bio-physical processes and climate; the culture and history unique to the place; and the central authority whose decisions imparted an organizational structure on the landscape (Hough, 1990). Similar to natu-ral processes, the human-made landscape is transformed with time by subsequent generations. The pro-cesses that made it the way it is are visible, and thus provide important lessons for design.Figure 2.6: Placelessness has resulted from Modernist planning and architecture practices, mass communication, and new technologies wherby places become more similar to one another, and without a distinctive ?sense of place?. Increased personal mobility has further resulted in people identifying less with one place.Source: www.newurbanism.org15Chapter 2: Literature ReviewIn approaching a design solution, Hough offers the following principles as a basis for a regional design: Knowing the place, maintaining a sense of history, environmental learning and direst experience, doing as little as possible, sustainability and starting where it is easiest. The Public RealmThe terms public realm or public life refer to the social processes among urban inhabitants that occur in public places. Among the most moving experiences of urban living are those that occur in the public spaces of cities ?religious ceremonies, civic celebrations, festivals, or community events.Crowhurst Lennard and Lennard (1995) suggest that a successful and vibrant public realm, when pos-sible, should support:? People Watching: Observation of life in public serves to reassure us with the human contact we require and depend on, provides a source of entertainment and wonder, opportunities to be seen, and connect us with ?the whole of human life in all its variety.?? Meeting in Public: Arranged and chance meetings of friends, neighbours, co-workers and acquain-tances reinforces a sense of place, a sense of ownership and identification to the place.? Significant Conversation: Reinforces engagement with others and information is exchanged about each other creating the social binds among community members.? Multiple Perspectives: People are able to relate in a diversity of relationships  and display different aspects of themselves.? Visibility: Contact with the underprivileged, physically disabled, and mentally challenged increases awareness and empathy for those who are often ignored.? Level of Involvement: The opportunity to participate in public life or recede and merely experience the sights and sounds.? Enhanced Awareness: The promotion of attention to the co-presence of diverse persons also increases the awareness of the physical environment ?buildings, street pavement texture, public art.Crowhurst, Lennard and Lennard recognize that the public realm is not without unpleasantness or conflict and point to the inherent tension between ?strangeness and familiarity, activity and idleness, purposeful and purposeless behaviour? (1995, 84). The authors further suggest that coming to terms with that which is different, strange or troublesome is essential to a vibrant and creative public life. In this manner, we encounter and learn how to relate to other human beings that is the diversity of our city ?the young and old, the well-off and the poor, those of differing ethnic and religious backgrounds.       Thinking Outside the Big Box16The Private-Public RealmIn addition to the streets, plazas and parks, there is another setting where informal association can build community. Ray Oldenburg (1991) has studied the private-public realm that also supports informal pub-lic life. Existing beyond home, the ?first place,? and work, the ?second place,? the ?third place? is found at the local pubs, caf?s, coffee shops, general stores and ?hangouts? that offer opportunities for communi-ty-building. Where it emerges, it plays host to the regular, voluntary, informal and happily anticipated gatherings of individuals that is essential for the ?good life? (Oldenburg, 1991).Oldenburg points to the constricted pattern of daily life and a diminished opportunity for public re-laxation in North America. Lacking collective rituals and unplanned social gatherings places a burden upon the individual to overcome social isolation. Concurrent has been an increased expectation of the role of the spheres of home and work rise; straining them beyond capacity to meet needs of what is miss-ing. Our pleasure of the city is reduced to consumerism. Urban life fails to provide convenient and open-ended socializing without aim, or arrangement, or outside the cash nexus (Oldenburg). While cities are places of stress, so too can the means of relieving stress be built into our urban environment. The third place complements home, and is respite while, at the same time, addressing an inherent ten-sion in how we socialize as humans. While we desire connection with others, we also seek a comfortable ?distance.? In single-family home development, residents must open homes to frequent and perhaps unwanted intrusions, or forgo informal socializing. With the conception of home as a sanctuary for pri-vacy, recuperation, and rest, most choose privacy (Oldenburg, 1991).Third places add a breadth and variety that adds a richness to life as it plays host to the association of friends and acquaintances not narrowed by personal choices. It counters the inward socialization along social class and occupation which is encouraged within the spheres of family and workplace. The third place is ?where people can gather, put aside the concerns of work and home, and hang out simply for the pleasure of good company and lively conversation? (Oldenburg, 1991, back cover).Oldenburg contends that among the key characteristics of the third place that are vital to informal public life are:? Neutral ground;? Inclusive and accessible to the general public;? Conversation is the main activity;? Accessible at any time of day while accommodating unscheduled and unstructured activity in contrast to the rigid patterns of daily life; ? Attracts regular visitors while welcoming and accepting others; and? A home away from home possessing a sense of warmth and abilty to express personality and assert oneself with ease.Figure 2.7: In addition to home the ?first place? and work the ?second place,? the ?third place? is found at the local pubs, cafe, and coffee shops and offers informal socializing and community building.Source: Evan Symmons.17Chapter 2: Literature ReviewMeaning and Sense of PlaceA sense of place is more than a physical form and the activities contained within it. It offers meaning that is found in the shared experiences, values, and ideas of those who live there. Identifying and responding to the unique physical and human forms indigenous to a setting is what the Romans referred to this as the genius loci or ?guardian spirit? of a particular place. The essence of place is informed by sensory im-ages ?its sights, smells and sounds. How one perceives the identity of a region depends on whether one is a resident or a visitor; for each, there are different ways of experiencing it. The everyday experience of a place ?its markers, reference points and other symbols may be unseen or not understood by a casual visitor, and yet, solidify meaning and relevance of a place (Hough, 1990).Downing (2000) explores the  role of memory to place and the relationship between how we experience memorable places and the act of recreating them through design. Her focus is on personal memory; that is, the experiential aspect of memory relevant to specific places and events that remain with us for our lives. For Downing ?what is significant about a memorable place experience is not the actual feeling, but the ideas of feeling which present meaning to designers? who find in the experience the impulse for creating new places (2000, 11).Within the complex individuality inherent to our experience of place, Downing identifies the emergence of recurring domains, including: the secret place, the Arcadian place, the ancestral place, the shared place, the alone place, the intimate place, the gregarious place, places that stretch to meet the horizon line, and places that enclose and protect (Downing, 2000). These domains are fluid, and the multiple meanings that may be attached to memories that allows for categorization and re-categorization within one or more domains. Figure 2.8: Venice, Italy is considered among the most beautiful cities in the world due to its unique sense of place that is rooted in its geography, physical forms and history. The Romans referred to this as the genius loci or ?guardian spirit? of a particular place.Source:  Dennis David.      Thinking Outside the Big Box18Key Findings1. Make it special and authentic: Build an identity from the elements of a place?s identity that always remain ?landform, remnant native plants, old buildings, old paving stones. Resist imitation and importation and utilize vernacular as precedents for design that are then transformed to programmatic needs.2. Make it legible: Foster a sense of belonging in the design of threshold experiences and visual enclosure. Physical and psychological bounds frame places and focus the activities that support local social life. 3. Allow for engagement and access for all: Provide for public life with its human contact, entertainment, opportunities to be seen, and ability to connect with others. Offer neutral ground that is inclusive, acces-sible, accommodating of varying schedules, and conversation is the main activity.4. Mix uses and activities: Create different places for different people based upon their practical needs and various uses. Arranged and chance meetings of friends, neighbours, co-workers and acquaintances reinforces a sense of place, a sense of ownership and identification to the place.5. Create a human-scaled environment: The scale and proportions of building and public space exert a strong influence over the public realm. Design according to human proportions and human use while maximizing street level interaction.6. Connect to natural systems: Find inspiration in the diversity, symbiosis, synergy, and balance found in nature. Enhance our understanding of nature and reinforce sense of place by protecting and preserving ecosystems and natural cycles (Kelbaugh).Green InfrastructureWithin our urban environments we have created entirely new ecosystems that ignore nature and natural processes, or are in outright opposition them. This approach to city-building generally provides little direct contact with nature and an artificial sense that we are somehow apart from it. Our settlements ex-ert tremendous pressure on our ecosystems from consumption of land and resources, to the generation of pollutants and wastes. Moreover, we have lost the art of knowing and appreciating nature due to the lack of direct contact to natural areas (Gill and Bonnett, 1973).Recent years have seen a heightened awareness for the need of planning and design to work in partner-ship with nature and natural processes. Many jurisdiction now seek to re-establish the links between people and the essential natural systems that sustain them (Girling and Kellett, 2005). Describing our interdependence on Earth?s fundamental ecosystems, McHarg in Design with Nature was one of the first to suggest that planning must take into account ecological considerations. This view of the intercon-nected nature of the human and natural environment was echoed by Spirn who elaborated: ?nature 19Chapter 2: Literature Reviewis ubiquitous, a whole that embraces the city, [and] has powerful implications for how the city is built and maintained and for the health, safety, and welfare of every resident? (1984, 5). This recognition of the city as part of nature, has implications in the way we design at all scales including the region, city, neighbourhood, street and buildings. Natural SystemsOne way in which communities and neighbourhoods are understanding and protecting natural sys-tems is through the acknowledgement and appreciation of topography, landscape, ecological condi-tions, and processes. Natural systems include wetlands, shorelines, floodplains, riparian areas, forests, and habitats that provide local benefits and functions (Beatley and Manning, 1997). Communities are increasingly protecting natural and recreational lands in the form of greenways and open spaces. Urban parks represent another element in the greening of neighbourhoods providing passive and more active recreation opportunities. Designing greener cities also involves making natural systems and processes as visible as possible. While the interaction between human activities and the natural environment produces physical results that are easily visible, others go unperceived in their impacts upon the natural environment by city dwellers. Daylighting streams and creeks return surface waterways and natural drainage patterns into neighbourhoods. Further, the provision of community gardens, utilization of vacant spaces for greens-paces and the planting of new trees are additional creative ways to make urban environments green.Green InfrastructureGreen infrastructure utilizes processes and systems that are natural or mimic nature in the provision of municipal services. It may be utilized for municipal infrastructure including water, sewer, drainage, and roads. A significant component of green infrastructure is rainwater management and treatment. Whereas natural areas generate as little as 10 percent surface runoff, urban developments with impervi-ous surfaces generate as much as 80 percent runoff (Master Municipal Construction Document, 2005). Rainwater management solutions simulate natural landscapes and include reducing impermeable sur-faces and integration of green streets.A number of onsite measures to increase infiltration may be employed. Lot grading is one component with the design of flat areas for infiltration and grading for water conveyance. Bioretention swales, infil-tration pits, absorbent landscaping and vegetated buffers that use porous materials and plants to create landscaped basins that capture, hold, and filter stormwater from small paved surfaces. Porous asphalt and concrete, perforated concrete blocks, and permeable pavers are also successfully remove pollutants from stormwater prior to infiltration. Green roofs creates functioning rooftop gardens that reduce runoff Figure 2.9: ?Daylighting? creeks and streams creates the op-portunity to reintroduce natural systems into the urban en-vironments and improve ecological sustainability.Source:  City of Portland.Figure 2.10: Green roofs offer planted areas that reduce runoff, support vegetation and improve aesthetics.Source:  Vancouver Marriott Hotel.      Thinking Outside the Big Box20and support vegetation. Greywater systems are designed to dispose wastewater from sinks, bathtubs/showers, and washing machines onsite  through leaching beds or landscaping (Master Municipal Con-struction Document, 2005).Public streets have also received attention for their potential role in returning natural functions and processes to our cities. In urban areas, streets can cover up to 33 percent of the land consumed, and are an opportunity to function as more than conveyors of traffic. Known as green streets, they have the po-tential to manage and treat stormwater. A green street seeks to:? incorporate stormwater management within its right of way;? minimize runoff into streams;? make natural processes visible;? improve the aesthetics of the neighbourhood; and? use trees for rain interception, temperature mitigation, and air quality improvement (Metro).Key Findings1. Reduce Impervious Surfaces: Use shared parking facilities and structured parking where possible. Uti-lize porous asphalt or concrete, perforated concrete blocks, pavers, cobble stone with porous joints, or reinforced turf in surface parking areas where practical.2. Incorporate Natural Processes: Design urban landscapes that manage stormwater runoff and make natu-ral processes visible through infiltration, detention, and retention.3. Protect, Restore, and Interconnect Ecological Structures: Provide for greenways, open spaces and parks that connect to the city?s natural landscape and hydrology corridors.4. Maximize Tree Canopy Coverage: Protect existing stands of trees and plant large street trees with wide canopies.5. Use Public Rights of Way for Multiple Purposes: Design streets that reduce impervious surfaces, manage stormwater, maximize tree canopy cover, and contribute to public amenities.21Chapter 2: Literature ReviewImplications for Shopping Mall Redevelopment The reviewed literatures of transit-oriented development, placemaking, and green infrastructure of-fers a strong theoretical background upon which to explore the redevelopment of a shopping mall site. Suburban malls are identified by some as the places to accommodate new density and uses due to infill and redevelopment potential (Calthorpe). These infill sites are large enough to develop all or a major portion of a TOD with the surrounding neighbourhood functioning to support it. Existing on-site uses that are economically viable may serve as the starting point and form the nucleus of future redevelop-ment that introduces new uses to form an ideal mix (Calthorpe, 1989). TOD signals a return to the way many traditional neighbourhoods evolved, and its compact, urban form offers the potential to craft a vibrant and livable place.Placemaking literature suggests that meaning associated with memorable places is grounded in the physical, historical, social, and emotional connections attached to them. One of the key problems to ad-dress in the redevelopment of a shopping mall site is the homogeneity and monotony of the form, and lack of connection to local context. Hough contends that it is the native landscape is a primary determi-nant of sense of place especially in the absence of distinguishing architectural style. Our perception of place is strongly shaped by the physical landscape ?local climate and weather, topography, vegetation and colours. In every place there are elements of that place?s identity that always remain ?landform, remnant native plants, old buildings, old paving stones (Hough, 1990). Design must be approached with this in mind.Placemaking involves the creation of an environment with which people can identify. Thoughtful de-sign of public urban spaces can also engender public social life and the attachment to place it offers. For Crowhurst, Lennard and Lennard the ?[s]ocial life is always embedded in a meaningful arrangement of buildings; their function, use and significance all influence the kinds of public life possible? (1995, 1). The arranged and chance meetings of friends, neighbours, co-workers and acquaintances reinforces a sense of place, a sense of ownership and identification to that place. The redevelopment of a shopping mall site is large enough in scale to consider the opportunities and benefits of incorporating natural systems and networks. Understanding the larger context of intercon-nected open space and water networks can generate a framework for urban form and patterns at the site specific level (Girling and Kellett, 2005). Viewing urban and natural environments as part of a whole requires a thoughtful design approach that reconsiders the allocation of land as open space, the amount of land given to streets and impervious surfaces, and the integration of stormwater management pro-cesses. It requires the layering of green networks, green streets, green buildings, and green infrastruc-ture that intertwine natural systems with urban ones. Girling and Kellet suggest that the neighbourhood scale is an appropriate one. A green neighbourhood is one that ?integrates natural systems within its form and pattern? (Girling and Kellet, 2005, 20).      Thinking Outside the Big Box2223Chapter 2: Literature ReviewChapter 3: Reference Cases This chapter investigates several reference cases of shopping mall mixed-use redevelopment in North America for design precedents, real-world issues, and challenges. The majority of the reference cases investigated are examples of obsolete malls known as ?grey fields. Such sites were once successful shop-ping malls that became economically obsolete, or were unable to renovate and reposition themselves in a changing retail market. This phenomenon began in the United Stated in the 1980s and is now occuring in Canada, though is not as widespread. In early 2009, the first phase of the Don Mills redevelopment in Toronto will see the first large-scale, mixed-use shopping mall redevelopment in Canada.  Although the examples of shopping mall redevelopment are located in the United States; and, despite the climatic and cultural differences, they are instructive in the lessons they yield for Lougheed Town Centre Mall.The reference cases were chosen for their suburban context that is similar to the project site, while of-fering a diversity of possible responses particular to each location. Each case study provides a descrip-tion of the development and highlights the history, relevant site details, and key features of the project. Information regarding key land uses, gross residential density, parking, key public realm amenities, and placemaking strategies are identified. Finally, each reference case is evaluated on its successes and chal-lenges, and ends with key lessons which can be applied to the Lougheed Town Centre Mall. The chapter concludes with a summary of the reference cases in the form of key findings.       Thinking Outside the Big Box24Figure 3.1: The attractive and unique streetscapes of San-tana Row add to its sense of place.Source: Jason Tzsoris.Santana Row   Location: San Jose, CaliforniaOpening Date: 2002Developer: Federal Realty Investment TrustPROJECT DESCRIPTIONA European inspired mixed-use development combing residential, work, and shopping with parks, pla-zas and civic art.History: In 1960 the Town & Country Village was built as a sprawling one level open-air facility of stores and restaurants. Suffering from reduced patronage and sales tax revenue the mall was razed. In 1997 development began on what is the largest mixed-use project ever built in San Jose.Site Details: The 38 acre project includes 550 000 sf. of retail space, a 213-room hotel, a 22-screen movie theatre, and a six-screen theater. It offers a mixture of leased and owned residential units including: 198 lofts (1 to 3 bedroom), 138 flats (1 and 3 bedroom), 172 townhouses (1, 2, and 4 bedroom), and 21 villas (3 and 4 bedroom). The full site entitlements includes 680 000 sf. of retail and 1200 residential units. Key Features:? Residential units are constructed on three additional floors above the retail and accessed by private elevators.? Townhouse units front onto private second-story grassed courtyards.? A 1500 foot long Mediterranean inspired main street is the organizing element of the site.KEY LAND USES70 retail units, 20 restaurants and cafes, 213-room boutique hotel, 508 residential units.GROSS RESIDENTIAL DENSITY13.4 units/acre.PARKINGThe majority of parking is located in structured garages that are ?wrapped? with retail and topped with residential units. Parking is also provided in underground garages and the surface lots that presently occupy future development sites. At build-out the site will accommodate 5200 vehicles.Futher information available at:www.santanarow.com25Chapter 3: Reference CasesKEY PUBLIC REALM AMENITIES? A pedestrian friendly environment of narrow streets, wide sidewalks, and median parks.? High quality landscaping with trees, intimate seating areas, and fountains.? Abundant sidewalk cafe seating.? Two public parks, landscaped gardens and plazas with outdoor chess games.? An open air public market.PLACEMAKING STRATEGIES? Original works of art commissioned for the project?s streets and buildings.? A Mediterranean inspired architectural style.? Unique streetscaping and amenities.? Retention of historic oak and palm trees.? Ongoing arts and entertainment programming and cultural events. ? Weekly farmers? market featuring locally grown products. EVALUATIONSantana Row appears to be the dynamic pedestrian-oriented place envisioned. It offers the convenience of high density living and a lively street scene. The wide sidewalks adorned with outdoor seating for restaurants and cafes gives the main street a sense of vibrancy, and offers a place for strolling. Detractors call the development elitist and fake, viewing it as a large mall effectively disguised as a main street. The high-end retail stores and high rents and residential unit sale prices notwithstanding, it has become the favourite hangout in the city for all types of people who are drawn to it. For those who live here, it has become their neighbourhood, a place for people-watching and meeting new acquaintances on the street.KEY LESSONS? Locate residential uses where they will strongly impact street life.? Restaurants around parks are synergistic and act as gathering spaces.? Unique, high quality, and attractive streetscapes are important for a vibrant public realm.? Residential units fronting on their own second-story courtyards offer semi-private space for resi-dents.Figure 3.2: Second-story courtyards built over retail shops offer semi-public space for residents.Source: www.uli.orgFigure 3.3: A high-quality public realm with lush landscap-ing, intimate public spaces, and outdoor activities.Source: Jason Tzsoris.      Thinking Outside the Big Box26BelmarLocation: Lakewood, ColoradoOpening Date: 2004Developer: Continuum Partners LLCPROJECT DESCRIPTIONA mixed-use redevelopment with retail, office, multi-family housing, and market residential units. The 22 block area is intended to become the symbolic and functional downtown for Lakewood.History: Opening in 1966, the Villa Italia was a 1.4 million sf. enclosed regional mall that was the largest west of Chicago. Villa Italia thrived for 35 years and was viewed as the commercial and social centre of Lakewood. By the early 1990s, sales were on the decline, and occupancy was at 30 percent. In 2001 the developer purchased the mall, which was completely razed, and development started for a mixed-use downtown where one did not exist previously.Site Details: The full site entitlement of the 106 acre project include 960 000 sf. of retail space, 760 000 sf. of office space, a 250-room hotel, a grocery store and a 16-screen movie theatre. A total of 1300 residential units are present including townhouses, condominiums, live/work, and rental apartments and lofts. Key Features:? A 2.1 acre urban square, and 7 additional acres for plazas, parks, and green spaces.? National retailers are requested to use their smallest building footprint possible to maximize the number of storefronts and create a human scale.? Emphasis is placed on sustainable buildings designed to a LEED standard, and renewable energy sources such as an urban wind farm to power parking lot lighting.? A significant public art program enhances the streetscapes.KEY LAND USESAt completion, the site will include 175 retail units, 960 000 sf. of office space, and 1300 residential units.GROSS RESIDENTIAL DENSITY12.3 units/acre.PARKINGParking is provided for 9700 vehicles primarily in structured garages and some surface lots.Figure 3.4: Rendering of the central plaza that is part of the significant amount of public space within the project.Source: www.belmarcolorado.comFurther information available 3: Reference CasesKEY PUBLIC REALM AMENITIES? The streets, green spaces and public art program are designed to encourage pedestrian traffic, pro-mote community building and emphasize the importance of public spaces.? A public plaza that features restaurants for al fresco dining, a children?s interactive sensory park, and a permanent outdoor ice skating rink that doubles as a venue for concerts, films and special events.PLACEMAKING STRATEGIES? Open-air antique and artisan market and open-air farmers? market during the summer.? Public art project along sidewalks, on manhole covers and grates make previously overlooked details of the urban infrastructure visible to pedestrians.? Street names and a community park name recall Lakewood?s history.? Lilly Pad Lane creates a whimsical walkway that not only protects users but delights them with an artistic canopy of aluminum leaves and an ambient sound system.EVALUATIONBelmar employs traditional urban design principles to create a functioning downtown for this suburban community. It reconnects with its surrounding neighbourhood through the extension of a walkable street grid that previously stopped at the perimeter of the mall parking lot. The project is organized around a major public plaza, a village green and other important public spaces. The intent of the plaza?s design is to be relaxed and informal in design and a genuine expression of civic and social activities. A variety of scaled spaces promote informal everyday uses as well as programmed larger events.Belmar successfully addresses the placelessness inherent within traditional shopping malls. It incor-porates a number of features that reflect attention to the human scale and the quality and variety of experiences for the pedestrian. The building facades are articulated to enliven the streets and add visual stimulation. Brick, concrete, glass and steel are used instead of artificial stucco common to many con-temporary buildings.KEY LESSONS? Grid street networks can effectively reconnect a project with the surrounding community.? New employment opportunities diversify uses and offer potential to live and work in the neighbour-hood.? Amenities such as plazas and streetscaping are necessary for a successful project and come with significant costs.? A phased development concept allows incremental development and phased amenity provision.? New mixed-use development can be a catalyst for further redevelopment nearby.Figure 3.5: Public walkway connecting new mixed-use project with adjacent residential areas.Source: www.vmwp.comFigure 3.6: Lilypad Lane, a whimsical use of streetscaping to form a rain-shelter.Source:      Thinking Outside the Big Box28Bayshore Town CenterLocation: Glendale, WisconsinOpening Date: 2006Developer: Steiner & AssociatesPROJECT DESCRIPTIONA regional mall expansion into a lifestyle centre through partial demolition and renovation of the exist-ing buildings. The development is organized along a traditional city street with freestanding buildings that provide for additional retail units, office space, residential units, a town square, and entertainment venues.History: The Bayshore Mall was a successful regional mall built in 1954 that was without room for ex-pansion. The failure of a nearby shopping mall prompted the City of Glendale to consider the long-term future of this site. The City acquired an additional 10 acres that were subsequently sold to the developers in an effort to redevelop an ageing commercial district south of the mall. The three anchor tenants were retained while half of the mall and select properties adjacent to it were razed for redevelopment.Site Details: The 35 acre site features 1.2 million square feet including 180 000 sf. of office, 150 000 sf. of entertainment space, a possible 6-screen theatre, and a residential component of 120-unit loft apartment complex, and 81 townhouse condominiums.Key Features:? Anchor tenants remained in their existing buildings during the redevelopment.? Townhouses are built in the three stories above the retail base and provide a buffer between parking structures and a nearby single-family neighborhood.KEY LAND USESAt build out the site will have 150 retail units and 201 residential units.GROSS RESIDENTIAL DENSITY5.7 units/acre.PARKING The site provides 5000 spaces including approximately 2500 spaces in two three-story structures and one underground structure. Surface lots and on-street parking is also present.Further information available 3: Reference CasesKEY PUBLIC REALM AMENITIES? A town centre focused on a small park and community gathering place.PLACEMAKING STRATEGIES? The building form and materials used are drawn from the surrounding neighborhood context of warehouse buildings.EVALUATIONThis project shows how successful malls are being redeveloped in an effort to compete in a changing retail environment. As a lifestyle centre, Bayshore Town Center provides a mix of retail and entertain-ment, and additionally, some residential uses.Bayshore Town Center is instructive of how an existing shopping mall may continue to function while new infill development is constructed around a traditional street form. The number of residential units remains low in an effort to attract upscale retailers and shoppers. There is a perception that issues of security, garbage collection and move-in days might conflict with retail operations.KEY LESSONS? Continued mall operation is possible as redevelopment occurs within the project.? New structured parking garages create spaces for infill development.? Site redevelopment can occur that integrates well with existing single-family neighbourhoods.Figure 3.7: The Bayshore Mall before redevelopment.Source: www.steiner.comFigure 3.8: Bayshore Town Center today with new struc-tured parking garages and mixed-use infill development.Source:      Thinking Outside the Big Box30Winter Park VillageLocation: Winter Park, FloridaOpening Date: 1999Developer: Casto Lifestyle PropertiesPROJECT DESCRIPTIONA long-term, phased redevelopment of an enclosed shopping mall into a mixed-use main street develop-ment including housing and a civic space.History: In 1963 the 500 000 sf. Winter Park Mall was built to compete for customers with nearby Park Avenue, the City?s traditional Main Street. During the 1980s, the mall itself gained new competition as two new malls were constructed nearby and Park Avenue revived as a retail destination. A new owner began consolidating ground leases in 1996 and a redevelopment plan was developed in 1997.Site Details: The 32 acre site includes 350 000 sf. of upscale retail and entertainment, a 20-screen cinema, 115 000 sf. of office, and 58 leased loft apartments (1 and 2 bedroom).Key Features:? Emphasis given to create a ?public side? and a ?private side? to each building site.? Establishment of a sense of shaped public space with the interior of the site designed to function   like an urban village in the near term.? Interconnected network of pedestrian friendly ?urban streets? with sidewalks, street trees, on-street   parking, and bulb-outs.KEY LAND USES30 retail units, 12 restaurants and cafes, 58 residential units.GROSS RESIDENTIAL DENSITY1.8 units/acre.PARKING350 parking spaces available predominantly in surface lots and some on-street parking.KEY PUBLIC REALM AMENITIES? A small public square gathering place.? Streetscape elements including outdoor cafes, benches, lamps and water features.Figure 3.9: The mixed-use mainstreet that is the organizing element of the project site.Source: www.castosoutheast.comFurther information available at:www.castoinfo.com31Chapter 3: Reference CasesPLACEMAKING STRATEGIES? Design of coherent, legibly shaped public space between buildings.EVALUATIONWinter Park Village exemplifies a long term phased development of a razed shopping mall site. It fo-cused on a small area in the near term seeking to shape public spaces that generate a sense of enclosure. In the long term, development is shaped through the infill of an interconnected network of streets and blocks and will complete the desired urban fabric.Despite the success of the urban design concept, some opportunities were missed in the project. Some hold that the architectural details in the initial phase are disappointing and point to the need of archi-tecture to generate authentic and enduring places. Others point to the big-box grocery store that was constructed without reference to the rest of the development. Further, the critical relationships between the development and the arterial street that serve it were not created, and the development presents several blank facades to the surrounding neighbourhood.KEY LESSONS? Ensure that development is not solely focused internally to the site and addresses the surrounding neighbourhood.? An interconnected network of ?urban streets? can function as drive aisles in parking lots during the near term; offering a pedestrian realm, calming traffic, and shaping future infill development.? Pay particular attention to building forms and the design of unique and attractive facades.Figure 3.10.: Project aerial illustrating network of ?urban streets? that will shape future infill development.Source:      Thinking Outside the Big Box32Downtown Park Forest Location: Park Forest, IllinoisOpening Date: 1997Developer: Village of Park ForestPROJECT DESCRIPTIONA suburban mall redevelopment undertaken by a public agency who is the owner and master developer. The development functions as the Village?s downtown and includes a Village Hall, cultural centre, retail, office, leased and owned residential units, and senior housing units/assisted living. History: Originally the site was home to Chicago?s first regional shopping mall, the Park Forest Plaza. Built in 1953, the open-air mall began to suffer without arterial access or visibility and a new mall built in 1973 brought increased competition. Though the mall was sold and renovated in 1985, it continued to suffer, and was again sold in 1993. The new owner was unable to operate the centre profitably and sold it to the Village in 1995. Following a charrette and public design workshop, work began on converting it into a traditional downtown main street where none existed.Site Details: The 48 acre site is being redeveloped with 275 000 sf. of retail, 75 000 sf. of office space, a community theatre, a museum, 335 rental apartments, 65 for-sale housing units, 155 affordable senior housing units, including assisted living units.Key Features:? A new main street connects the centre to surrounding neighbourhoods.? The site functions as the downtown of the Village.? All the land aside from the public building is sold to private owners.KEY LAND USES275 000 sf. of retail, 75 000 sf. of office space, and 555 residential units.GROSS RESIDENTIAL DENSITY11.6 units/acre.PARKING n/a.KEY PUBLIC REALM AMENITIES? A village green with stage and gazebo for special events.Figure 3.11: Park Forest?s new Main Street that part of a new grid street system built upon the raised shopping mall.Source: Village of Park Forest.Further information available 3: Reference CasesPLACEMAKING STRATEGIES? The village green provides a strong identity for the downtown and a place for the community.? The Village is host to a thriving regional arts community.EVALUATIONDowntown Park Forest offers an unique example of a public agency guiding the redevelopment of a regional shopping mall. Also of note is the multiple ownership of individual parcels within the project.The Village successfully razed most of the mall while retaining some buildings ?including one for-mer department store that houses the Village Hall. Parts of the surface parking area have been sold to developers who are building dense single-family and senior housing. The current retail mix is diverse and includes mostly independent retailers, with service, office and government. The intent is to create a community that is inclusive and appeals to the wide ethnic diversity of the area.The project has not been without setbacks as retail vacancy rates have been high. To address the slow retail uptake the Village is working to reduce the amount of retail square footage while creating a pack-age of larger parcels that are economically attractive to home builders. KEY LESSONS? A strong housing mix with a combination of co-ops, rental, single family and seniors housing creates an inclusive and diverse project. ? Increasing the amount of land available for housing adds to the vibrancy of the project and absorbs excess parking.? Having a retail mix predominantly of independent and niche retailers creates the potential for a unique and vibrant project.      Thinking Outside the Big Box34Mizner Park Location: Boca Raton, FloridaOpening Date: 1998Developer: Crocker and CompanyPROJECT DESCRIPTIONA mixed-use development  surrounding a linear park offering a mix of commercial, office, residential and cultural uses.History: The City began to redevelop the site of the former Boca Raton Mall in 1987. The mall had strug-gled as development moved to the periphery of the city and redevelopment was pursued as a catalyst to revitalize the area.Site Details: The 28 acre site includes 236 000 sf. of retail space, 262 000 sf. of office space, 272 rental units, and cultural facilities .Key Features:? Two-thirds of the site is devoted to public areas.? Project is organized along a linear civic plaza.? True mixed-use project as no single-use, stand alone buildings are planned.? Cultural facilities include the Boca Raton Museum, amphitheatre/concert green, and concert hall. KEY LAND USES54 retail units, 7 restaurants, 262 000 sf. office space, and 272 residential units.GROSS RESIDENTIAL DENSITY9.7 units/acre.PARKING2500 public parking spaces accommodated in four parking garages and including 492 on-street spaces.KEY PUBLIC REALM AMENITIES? Central civic plaza with band shell and amphitheater, broad arcade walkways, and the park-like  Plaza Real, which is dotted with gazebos, benches, and fountains and serves as a community gathering place.? Boca Raton Museum of Art.Figure 3.12: Plaza Real is the linear civic plaza that func-tions as the   gathering place.Source: Allison RealFurther infornation available 3: Reference CasesPLACEMAKING STRATEGIES? Highly articulated 1920s style architecture reflects the style and tradition common to the area.? Grand parkway plaza known as Plaza Real with extensive landscaping .? 24-hour activity stimulated by streetfront retail with residential above bordering a central public  park.EVALUATIONThe project has received significant praise as an excellent example of mixed-use planning and design. It illustrates that mixed-uses can work together and in retrospect it was felt more apartment units should have been built, as the market showed a strong interest in the units. The project also serves as an exemplar for the impact of placemaking. The use of the Palm Beach Style is a strong and highly appropriate for the context. Its influence is witnessed in the continuous arcades lining the streets, the incremental massing of the buildings, and the stucco walls in shades of pink. Plaza Real has become the City?s major gathering place and is dotted with gazebos, benches and fountains. The linear space creates a visually uninterrupted ambiance that visitors compare to the charm of a Euro-pean city. Streets along the central space are designed with pavers and plaza details with over-the-curb parking. This combines the needed circulation elements with open space amenities while contributing to pedestrian access. Within Mizner Park the plazas, amphitheatre, and museum distinguish the development as a civic space. Significantly, it helps shape the public view of the development as an important public place rather than solely a private commercial development.KEY LESSONS? Incorporate public and civic amenities in addition to retail.? Mixed-uses within buildings can function and residential above retail is desireable to residents.? Use local architectural elements and materials to integrate the site with its neighbourhood.Figure 3.13: Example of the local Palm Beach architectural style that creates a distinctive sense of place within the Mizner Park project.Source: Carry Cooper.      Thinking Outside the Big Box36CityCenter EnglewoodLocation: Englewood, ColoradoOpening Date: 2002Developer: Miller Weingarten Realty, LLCPROJECT DESCRIPTIONA mixed-use development of retail, residential, civic and entertainment uses adjacent to a regional light rail station.History: In 1968, Cinderella City Shopping mall opened as an auto-oriented shopping mall. As one of the largest malls of its time, it offered 275 retail units and 7000 parking spaces. Regional growth and the development of large regional malls greatly impacted the mall and its operations. The City embarked upon developing plans for reinvigorating the commercial area and was interested in an alternative to the big-box retail centre originally proposed. The extension of the RTD Light Rail Line directly adjacent to Cinderella City, the site became a perfect candidate for a transit-oriented community centre.Site Details: The 55 acre site contains 330 000 sf. retail, 150 000 sf. office space, 438 residential units, a new city hall, library, Museum of Outdoor Arts, and a cinema.Key Features:? Direct connection to Englewood Station and the regional light rail system.? The amount of parking required normally for such a project was reduced.? A civic centre is housed within a recycled department store building. KEY LAND USESUpon build-out: 330 000 sf. retail, 150 000 sf. office space, and 438 residential units.GROSS RESIDENTIAL DENSITY:8.0 units/acre.PARKINGPredominantly in the form of surface and structured lots with on-street spaces available.KEY PUBLIC REALM AMENITIES? Outdoor performing arts stage, a fountain, and a public sculpture collection.? Two acre public plaza.? Linear park.Figure 3.14: The linear park provides a central open space and contains a significant outdoor sculpture collection.Source: Calthope and Associates.Further information available 3: Reference CasesPLACEMAKING STRATEGIES: ? Retention of significant building at community?s request respects the site history.? A civic plaza serves as a threshold into the neighbourhood.? Museum of Outdoor Art is commonly known as ?a museum without walls? and enhances public space by displaying art objects.? Pedestrian friendly street design, and diversity of uses create a sense of a true community. EVALUATIONCityCenter Englewood is creating a vibrant, new community focused on its civic centre with its City Hall, Library, Courts, and cultural amenities. Such features are the cornerstone of a community. With its pedestrian-friendly streetscape and ample public art, the sense of place of the development is enhanced.Notable is the treatment of parking CityCenter Englewood which was reduced by 500 spaces from normal allocations for such a site. Transit riders, city workers, and retail and restaurant patrons share a parking structure next to the light rail station. Shared parking among the various uses permits a reduc-tion the overall need for paving and cost for structured parking. Less positive is the amount of space devoted to surface parking. While the parking has been positioned away from the internal retail streets, much of it abuts perimeter streets. Also, the big box store turns its back to the neighbourhood and some of the smaller retail units do not adequately relate to the perimeter street. These shortcoming might be addressed through infill of the new street system of the site that con-nects to the surrounding street network. KEY LESSONS? Site parking needs can be rebalanced through a system of sharing according to mix of uses. ? Big-box retailers should integrate storefronts architecturally with the rest of site.? Public art significantly enhances sense of place.? Civic and cultural amenities are strong anchors for site redevelopment. Figure 3.16: City offices are located in a converted retail building and provide a new focus for the community.Source: Calthope and Associates.Figure 3.15: Wide sidewalks, landscaping, street trees, and human-scaled buildings create an inviting pedestrian envi-ronment within the project.Source: Calthope and Associates.      Thinking Outside the Big Box38Mashpee Commons   Location: Mashpee, MassachusettsOpening Date: 1988Developer: Cornish and AssociatesPROJECT DESCRIPTIONA strip mall transformed into a traditional New England town centre that includes mixed-uses, mixed-incomes, and pedestrian friendly streets. It is the center of a new 294 acre town of six surrounding mixed-use neighbourhoods.History: In 1962, the New Bury Shopping Center was an 82 000 sf. suburban strip mall. In 1979, town planners, observing the uncontrolled growth in neighbouring towns, and noting the lack of a traditional downtown, decided to create a town centre. The existing mall was retained and new building placed around it, and further mixed-use development pursued on the large parcels surrounding the strip mall. Site Details: The 25 acre site contains 247 000 sf. of retail, 109 000 sf. of offices, 13 rental apartments, 3 live/work lofts, and 24 townhomes. The civic amenities include a church, post office, fire station, police office, hotel, museum, library, and medical office building.Key Features:? The complete renovation of the strip mall including new facades, sidewalks and street trees.? A character-defining New England village design. ? A concentration of civic amenities.? National, regional, and local retail units are present in similar ratios.KEY LAND USES90 retail units, 10 restaurants and cafes, 40 residential units.GROSS RESIDENTIAL DENSITY1.3 units/acre.PARKINGThe local development regulations prohibit parking garages in Cape Cod and the site provides 1021 spaces in surface lots.Figure 3.17: The attractive and highly recognizeable Cape Cod Vernacular style used for the Mashpee project.Source: www.dpz.comFurther information available Number =8633&Project_Name=Mashpee+Commons39Chapter 3: Reference CasesKEY PUBLIC REALM AMENITIES? A number of public green spaces.? A central public square.PLACEMAKING STRATEGIES? A diversity of housing styles that conform to the local Cape Cod vernacular.? A diverse retail mix with unique local merchants in addition to national retailers.? Civic services are provided to build community and define the space as a traditional neighbourhood.? The inclusion of a variety of housing sizes and types creates a diverse community. EVALUATIONThough the redevelopment of the Mashpee Commons site is predominantly a commercial core, the proj-ect is of note because of the strong sense of place inherent to the site and the mixed-use, mixed-income nature of the surrounding neighbourhoods. The residential neighbourhoods offer housing for diverse incomes and age levels, including starter, senior, and luxury homes. This range of sizes and housing types cultivates a diverse community with a variety of incomes. The project creates a strong sense of place that is embodied in the regional architecture that enriches the experience of visitors and contributes to the character. This is complemented by the community concerts that attract people to the area and provide opportunities for individual involvement and contribute to the integration of the project into the community. This has been a major factor in the success of Mashpee Commons, and many residents have a sense that it is the centre of the community.Reflecting on the project, the developers would revisit the idea of adding second floor apartments to the single-story retail units. In addition, more could have been accomplished in efforts to hide the surround-ing surface parking lots from the view of pedestrians. KEY LESSONS? The integration of community and civic uses enriches a project.? A strong proportion of regional and local retail can support the local economy and provide a unique regional influence and character for the site.? Regional architectural styles provide a strong reference to guide redevelopment.? Anticipate a refinement of ideas and design as a project matures.? Affordable and market-rate housing can co-exist throughout a site.? An incremental development approach permits a site be tailored to demand while providing a framework for growth.Figure 3.19: Mashpee Commons today as a highly walk-able, and pedestrian-friendly environment.Source: www.dpz.comFigure 3.18:  Mashpee Commons Circa 1960.   Source:      Thinking Outside the Big Box40Summary of Reference CasesMany of the preceding reference cases are examples of greyfield sites ?economically unviable shopping malls, where the entire site was razed to make way for redevelopment. Others, such as Bayshore Town Center, Downtown Park Forest and Mashpee Commons, are examples of shopping malls selectively razed and new buildings placed in the parcels surrounding the shopping mall. Each reference case yielded lessons to be applied to Lougheed Town Centre Mall.Many of the developments used traditional urban design principles to create vibrant, mixed-use and pedestrian oriented neighbourhoods. They reconnect with their surrounding community through ex-tensions of a walkable street grid. Freestanding buildings are built to shape and enclose space. Devel-opments are often organized around a major public plaza, a village green, and other important public spaces. All of the developments pursued a compact building form containing a mix of uses. Housing above retail was common, although the residential density is much less aggressive than would be ex-pected at the Lougheed Town Centre Mall site. Placemaking was an important aspect of all the developments. Unique, high-quality, and attractive streetscapes emerged as key in the creation of a vibrant public realm. Mizner Park, used the local ver-nacular of the Palm Beach Style; Belmar incorporated brick, concrete, glass and steel instead of stucco to address placelessness. Many of the developments incorporated public and civic amenities to create  a sense of public space versus a strictly commercial-oriented development.Bayshore Town Center, Downtown Park Forest and Mashpee Commons emerged as the most instruc-tive reference cases. In each development, a portion of the mall was razed for redevelopment while new infill development was constructed around it. This revealed the potential for an existing shopping mall to function during a long term phased redevelopment into a mixed-use neighbourhood.The lack of green infrastructure evidenced in the reference cases shows the need for a greater awareness for the value of incorporating such systems within shopping centre redevelopment designs.Overall Key Lessons:? Continue mall operation during redevelopment to maintain local and regional retail and services.? Externalize the mall and connect to the surroundings to create a human scale-scaled environment.? Reconnect the site with the surrounding community through grid street networks.? Mix uses within the buildings and the site to provide many destinations within walking distance.? Utilize regional architectural styles to build character and guide redevelopment.? Integrate community and civic uses establishing the site as an important public place.? Create unique and high quality public spaces to provide an identifiable neighbourhood character.? Green the streets and buildings to reduce the negative ecological impacts of development.? Design for incremental development within a long-term vision to ensure cohesive and coordinated site redevelopment.41Chapter 4: Context and Urban AnalysisChapter 4: Context and Urban AnalysisThis chapter provides contextual information for the Lougheed Town Centre Mall site and presents the urban analysis. It begins with a review of relevant policy documents at the regional, municipal, and neighbourhood level. An orientation to the project site and neighbourhood follows. The chapter ends with a summary of the site?s opportunities, issues and contraints.Site ContextRelevant Policy DocumentsLivable Region Strategic PlanAdopted in 1996, the Metro Vancouver Livable Region Strategic Plan identified eight regional town cen-tres around the metropolitan core of the City of Vancouver. In addition, several smaller municipal town centres (including Lougheed Town Centre) are designated as part of this network. These strategically located town centres are intended to be semi-urban centres that provide a mix of residential housing, commercial, shopping, entertainment and community services, and are a focus for road and transit con-nections to the wider region. The concentration of mixed uses dispersed throughout the region brings the benefits of urban cen-tres closer to where people live. The higher density of these centres utilizes land more efficiently and streamlines the movement of both goods and people in the region. With the creation of safe, attractive streetscapes and public spaces, people will walk and cycle within the centres more frequently. Burnaby Official PlanIn 1998, the Burnaby Official Community Plan was adopted by City Council. The plan responds to the need for orderly growth within the region. One strategic direction is toward more complete communities that are compact and contain all daily needs of residents within their boundaries. This concept builds upon the development of a network of mixed use centres that include four town centres, and 13 urban villages. Each town centre is located within a respective quadrant of the City, with Metrotown serving the City as a whole. The town centres are the organizing framework of the OCP and are designated as a transit focal point in the transportation plan. These centres, ?combined with proposed transportation improvements including LRT, the urban trail system, new residential and employment opportunities, the expansion of urban villages and neighbourhood service centres, and the continued provision of required facilities and services in the City?s neighbourhoods, will all contribute to the more complete community concept? (City of Burnaby, 1998). Figure 4.1: Location of Cameron and Lyndhurst neigh-bourhoods within Burnaby.Figure 4.2: Project site location within Cameron and Lynd-hurst neighbourhoods.LyndhurstCameron      Thinking Outside the Big Box42Lougheed Town Centre PlanThe Lougheed Town Centre Plan (1997) is a set of proposals and recommendations resulting from a citizen-based advisory committee for the Lougheed Town Centre area. It is a broad guide for future develop-ment and improvements and offers opportunity for ongoing community input and refinement as devel-opment occurs. The vision for the Lougheed Town Centre area is primarily focused on the area around the Lougheed Town Centre Mall. The plan envisions a transformation from the ?existing suburban car-oriented shopping centre with surrounding residential and commercial uses to a more pedestrian and transit-oriented centre having a fuller and better integrated range of uses leading to a more complete and self-sufficient community for the Lougheed Town Centre? (City of Burnaby, 1997).Neighbourhood OrientationLougheed Town Centre Mall is located in northeastern Burnaby. The site is within the neighbourhood of Cameron, and the neighbourhood of Lyndhurst borders to the north. Lougheed Town Centre is the com-munity and social centre of these two neighbourhoods, and a more accurate description of the project site surroundings must include both neighbourhoods (Figure 4.2).Cameron/Lyndhurst is bordered by the Burnaby Mountain Conservation Area and Gaglardi Way to the north and northwest, Government Street to the southwest, the Trans Canada Highway to the southeast, and North Road to the east. Similar to many post WW II suburban neighbourhoods, Cameron/Lynd-hurst displays typical building forms and an almost strict separation of uses. It is a stable and diverse neighbourhood of families, empty-nesters, and singles. The western portion of Cameron/Lyndhurst is an area of medium-density housing in the form of townhouse complexes. The northeast is comprised wholly of single-family detached housing. In the southeast, is a high-density residential precinct, a me-dium-density residential area of apartments and townhouses, and a mixed-use commercial area.Cameron/Lyndhurst both display strong similarities and contrasts in comparison to the City of Burnaby as a whole (Figure 4.5). The neighbourhood exhibits a similar age distribution as Burnaby with the 35-64 age cohort representing the largest group. However, Cameron/Lyndhurst exhibits a smaller household structure with 2.3 persons per household versus 3.0 for Burnaby. The residents of Cameron/Lyndhurst are more likely to be Canadian born than the rest of Burnaby at 54 percent and 49 percent respectively. Median household income of $50 045 is lower than the City median of $61 369.Home ownership rates in Cameron/Lyndhurst are slightly lower than the Burnaby overall at 57 percent and 61 percent respectively. Residents shows a greater propensity for rental housing at 43 percent versus 39 percent in Burnaby. This is consistent with the fact that the dominant housing form is apartments which comprise of 73 percent of the housing stock versus 46 percent in Burnaby. Significantly, detached housing in Cameron/Lyndhurst represents a mere 6 percent of all dwellings. This contrasts sharply with Burnaby?s detached housing rate of 45 percent, and indicates the prevalence of high-density and Figure 4.3: Example of high-density residential dwellings at Lougheed Town Centre.Source: Author photo.Figure 4.4: Mature street trees on Bartlett Court.Source: Author photo.43Chapter 4: Context and Urban Analysismedium-density dwellings in the study area. Higher densities and proximity to a rapid transit and a bus transit node result in a neighbourhood with a relatively higher rate of transit use. While 28 percent of Cameron/Lyndhurst residents use public tran-sit as a primary means of transport to work, only 25 percent of Burnaby residents do the same. The use of automobiles as a primary means of transport to work is also lower at 65 percent versus 69 percent in Burnaby.Cameron/LyndhurstBurnabyPopulation 12,925 200,855AGE GROUPSUnder 19 19% 21%20-34 25% 22%35-64 44% 43%65 plus 12% 14%HOUSEHOLDSPersons/ household 2.3 3.0DWELLINGSRented 43% 39%Owned 57% 61%Detached Houses 6% 45%Apartments 73% 46%INCOME (2005)Median Income $50,045 $61,369POPULATION CHARACTERISTICSTop 5 Places of BirthHong Kong 15% China 21%China 15% Hong Kong 11%S. Korea 14% Phillippines 6%Philippines 6% India 5%India 4% Italy 3%Canadian Born 54% 49%Foreign Born 46% 51%WORK TRAVEL MODE Private Automobile 65% 69%Public Transit 28% 25%Walk 5% 5%Bike 2% 1%Community Statistics: 2006Figure 4.5Source: Census Canada and City of Burnaby      Thinking Outside the Big Box44Project SiteThe project site is bounded by Cameron Street to the north, North Road to the east, Lougheed Highway to the south, and Bartlett Court to the west. It includes Lougheed Town Centre Mall -a successful two-level indoor shopping mall of 598 311 square feet and 180 stores and services. The major tenants include The Bay, Wal-Mart, Canada Safeway, London Drugs, and Sport Chek. The mall is owned by the Teach-ers? Private Capital, the investment arm of the Ontario Teachers? Pension Plan, and managed by 20 VIC Management. Opened in 1969, Lougheed Town Centre Mall recently completed a $25 million redevelop-ment and renovation. While holding its position of strength in the market place, the City has received an expression of interest to redevelop the site more intensively in the future. Included within the project site is an adjacent three storey retail building to the northwest, and a vacant parcel to the southwest adjacent to the Lougheed Town Centre SkyTrain station (Figure 4.8). Figure 4.6: Lougheed Town Centre Mall images.Source: Author photos.Figure 4.7: Lougheed Town Centre area with Lougheed Town Centre SkyTrain Station at centre left and Lougheed Town Centre Mall at centre right.Source: City of Burnaby.45Chapter 4: Context and Urban AnalysisFigure 4.8: Lougheed Town Centre Mall site.Source: City of Burnaby.Figure 4.9: Lougheed Town Centre Mall location in the City of Burnaby.Source: City of Burnaby.      Thinking Outside the Big Box46Urban AnalysisThis urban analysis investigates the opportunities, and issues of the project site. The study area includes the immediate surroundings within a 400-metre walking radius with the aim of understanding how the adjacent urban environment may inform the future redevelopment of the site. The urban analysis is comprised of the following categories of analysis:? Generalized Land Use;? Impervious Surfaces and Vegetation;? Figure Ground Study;? Transportation;? Topography and Drainage;? Site Opportunities; and? Site Issues and Constraints.47Chapter 4: Context and Urban AnalysisGeneralized Land UseThe following describes the land uses at the street level for the site and surrounding area within a 400-metre ?walkshed.? The site is primarily a mix of local and regional retail. A high proportion of the area is surface parking, and the site also includes one vacant parcel. In contrast, the adjacent parcels exhibit a highly variable land use pattern.To the southeast, auto-oriented commercial and service uses dominate at the intersection of North Road and Austin Road. The buildings are one to two stories in height, and are set-back from the street for surface parking provision. Access to SkyTrain is adjacent to the site to the southwest.At the western edge of the site are an elementary school and playing field. This is a high-density residential precinct with a number of residential towers of up to 25 stories and garden-style apart-ments. The buildings are separated by ample green space and mature vegetation. To the northwest is Cameron Park. It offers a pub-lic park, community centre, library, and seniors? centre. To the northeast, redevelopment is occurring with high-density residential, retail and office space. Beyond are commercial and medium-density res-idential uses, and a church.Beyond the 400-metre ?walkshed? are single-fam-ily residential uses to the north and east; medium-density residential uses to the west; and medium-density residential followed by commercial uses to the south.      Thinking Outside the Big Box48Impervious SurfacesImpervious areas are areas where rainfall is un-able to enter the ground due to various barriers. Such barriers include streets, building footprints, and surface parking. Permeable areas are surfac-es where rainfall is able to penetrate the ground, and include lawns, gardens, and open spaces.Approximately 95 percent of the project site is covered by impervious surfaces. The result is that very little rainfall is able to enter the groundwa-ter system, and instead, is collected and conveyed from the site via the underground stormwater system. This has implications for streams and riv-er in terms of erosion and water quality. Rainfall is only able to infiltrate into the lawns and land-scaped boulevards of the surrounding residential areas and the nearby parks and open spaces.Vegetation is limited on the project site to a small number of trees in planted medians within park-ing areas. Within the residential areas mature landscaping is abundant. However, the regular placement of street trees is minimal and confined mainly to Cameron Street and Bartlett Court.49Chapter 4: Context and Urban AnalysisFigure GroundA figure ground plan illustrates the relationship between building footprints and open space. It reveals the pattern of arrangement and the size of the buildings within open space. It also provides an indication of street block pattern ?whether small and frequent, or large and infrequent.The figure ground plan shows a strong eastern street edge that is representative of a traditional gridded urban pattern. Along the east side of North Road, the newer mixed-use and medium density buildings provide a consistent streetwall. Clearly visible to the east and north of the study area is the finer-grained pattern of the single-fam-ily residential areas.The remainder of the study area reveals a coarse-grained pattern of development of large land par-cels and large buildings. Lougheed Town Cen-tre Mall is sited within a vast parcel containing surface parking, and bounded by wide arterial streets. The high-rise residential area to the west is typi-cal of modernist design and planning that has re-sulted in an abundance of residual unused spaces and lack of street enclosure. Traditional forms of development have built human-scaled environ-ments that define space rather than sit in space.      Thinking Outside the Big Box50Transportation Transportation and access to Lougheed Town Centre Mall is excellent with easy access to the Trans Canada Highway, Lougheed Highway, ma-jor arterial streets, and public transit services.The site is adjacent to two arterial streets (North Road and Austin Road) and a collector street (Cameron Street). There are six separate vehicle access points into the site ?two each at the north, south, and east. There is no vehicle access from the west. During the am rush, traffic is heaviest southbound on North Road, and westbound on Austin Road. During the pm rush, the flows are reversed.  There is minimal pedestrian traffic along Cam-eron Street, North Road, and Austin Road. Sig-nificant pedestrian access is evident from the high-density residential precincts to the west and southwest as residents visit the site to shop, work, or access public transit. The highest pedestrian flows are from the southwest corner at the Sky-Train station entrance adjacent to the site, as well as across Austin Road from the second station en-trance and the bus transfer station. Access to public transit is excellent with a connec-tion to the region?s SkyTrain rapid transit system, and bus transportation including eleven local and one express service.Marked bike lanes are provided along Lougheed Highway. There is an urban trail terminating at the southwest corner of the site that restarts to the north of the site at Morrey Court. This incomplete link to the southeast also functions as part of the greenway corridor.51Chapter 4: Context and Urban AnalysisTopography and DrainageThe site exhibits an elevation change of 33 meters across the site from the northeast to southwest. The highest point of the site is 75 meters above sea level at the top of a 10 meter vegetated bluff at North Road. The vacant parcel at Lougheed Highway is the lowest point at approximately 42 meters. The large parcel forming the bulk of the site changes in elevation from approximately 60 me-ters at the base of the bluff to an elevation of 45 meters. This is a total elevation change of 15 me-ters.The site offers significant views to Burnaby Moun-tain to the north from ground level, and views to Cariboo Hill and the slopes of the Fraser River to the south at the second-story level. The surround-ing building cast no major shadows on the site.  Contours indicate that the natural drainage pat-tern of the study area would occur from the northeast to southwest of the site. Beneath the site is Lost Creek, a tributary of the Brunette River that is located in a culvert from Cameron Street until it emerges south of the Lougheed Highway.The natural hydrology of the site has largely been replaced by artificial systems. Rainfall is inter-cepted by parking lots, streets, buildings, and other impervious surfaces before being collected by the stormwater system and transported into the surrounding water systems. 5 Meter Contour LinesPath of Natural Drainage9080757065605585504045      Thinking Outside the Big Box52Site Opportunities1. Infill surface parking areas with mixed-use de-velopment to utilize land more efficently and cre-ate a complete neighbourhood.2. Extend the perimeter street network into the site to increase neighbourhood connectivity.3. Locate higher-denisty development near Sky-Train including the proposed Cameron station to maximize trip generation and reinforce walking.4. Create a human-scaled street edge at the site perimeter to improve the public realm.5. ?Day-light? the culverted stream located under the surface parking areas to re-introduce nature into the site and improve ecological functioning.6. Emphasize the Lougheed Town Centre Sky-Train station as the gateway into the neighbour-hood.7. Complete the missing link in the urban trail network to connect Cameron Park with Keswick Park.8. Use the street trees located on Bartlett Court as cue to ?green? the site.53Chapter 4: Context and Urban AnalysisSite Issues and Constraints1. Lack of neighbourhood character or identity.2. Buildings do not enclose the street environ-ment or create human-scaled spaces.3. Neighbourhood lacks a focal point or gathering place.4. Inefficient land use adjacent to rapid transit fa-cilities for surface parking.5. Underdeveloped public realm is without street trees, and pedestrian-scaled amenities and light-ing.6. The disrupted street grid results in poor con-nectivity to adjacent areas.7. Impervious surfaces dominate the site and in-crease the ecological impacts of development.8. Shopping mall operation must be maintained for major tenants during redevelopment.      Thinking Outside the Big Box54Chapter 5: Design Goals and StrategiesThis chapter recommends design goals and strategies for transforming Lougheed Town Centre Mall from a suburban shopping mall into a mixed-use neighbourhood centre with a unique sense of place and improved ecological functioning. The following design goals were developed from a synthesis of the key findings from the literature review, the lessons derived from the reference cases, and the analysis of the opportunities and constraints of the site. The design goals represent an approach to address a significant opportunity or constraint inherent to Lougheed Town Centre Mall project site.  Each of the goals includes strategies that aim to achieve the goal through a site-specific design intervention. Together, the design goals and strategies serve as a framework to inform a future design development process for Lougheed Town Centre Mall within a larger process that includes community input and comment in consultation with the City of Burnaby, design professionals and the property owners.Design GoalsCivic HeartHuman-Scaled EnvironmentConnectionsGreen Infrastructure and BuildingsCompact and Mixed-Use Built FormSense of PlacePiecemeal Infill Development55Chapter 5: Design Goals and StrategiesCivic HeartA vibrant neighbourhood requires a cen-tral ?heart.?  Defining a public space within Lougheed Town Centre such as a significant intersection, a square, or a plaza, and defining it as an identifiable gathering place will create a focal point of neighbourhood life.  As an urban space it will function as the ?outdoor living room? of the neighbourhood and allow residents, commuters, visitors and work-ers to gather, interact, socialize and relax. StrategiesFacilitate Activity?Design a multifunctional programmed area that changes with the seasons and with the events held in the space.  An overhead structural frame could contain an interactive foun-tain with falling water, for example, to be used in the sum-mer.  On other occasions the frame could support a fabric canopy shading or sheltering from the rain for a market or other event and provide for year-round use.?Provide for areas along the edge of the plaza for more infor-mal and passive activities, including outdoor seating.?Overhead weather protection should be provided at wait-ing points and along major pedestrian routes with canopies, awnings, shelters and glazed terraces.?Provide strong connections from the plaza to popular with-in Lougheed Town Centre area.Attract a Diversity of Users?Provide diversity in ground level uses, with an emphasis on cafes, restaurants and services that serve the needs of commuters, workers, visitors and residents to encourage day and evening activity.?Consider the needs of people with varied abilities by mini-mizing ramp grades, incorporating handrails, considering surface materials and access for the elderly and disabled.Create an Interesting and Unique Place? Frame views out of the plaza to Burnaby Mountain and landmark buildings in order to visually link the plaza with the rest of the neighbourhood and city beyond.? Use public art to enhance the public plaza and to contrib-ute to the character of the plaza.? Incorporate landscape features including rain water plant-ers, rain gardens and bio-swales to add interest and improve the aesthetics of the public realm.PrecedentsFigure 6.2: A public plaza should provide for  a range of uses and accommodate the needs of all us-ers.  Passive areas within the plaza provide a place for relaxing and informal activities. The needs of people with varied abilities are considered with the provision of ramps and guardrails.Source: www.pps.orgFigure 6.3: A new urban plaza may feature a cen-trally located flexible structure that provides for a variety of uses and events dependent upon the time of the year. Farmers? markets, concerts, fes-tivals and celebrations are all possible in a multi-functional space.Source: www.pps.orgSynergistic Goals ? Human-Scaled Environment? Connections? Natural and Green Infrastructure? Compact and Mixed Use Form? Sense of Place and Identity? Piecemeal Infill DevelopmentGoals in bold are strongly linked to Civic Heart.Figure 6.1: Potential plaza adjacent to Lougheed Town Centre SkyTrain station.  It functions as a gateway into the neighbourhood and a focus of civic life for residents, commuters and visitors.*      Thinking Outside the Big Box56Human-Scaled EnvironmentHuman scale is the relationship of buildings, open space enclosure and streetscape ele-ments to the human body.  Lougheed Town Centre Mall suffers from a lack of buildings that act to enclose and shape the street en-vironment and an underdeveloped public realm.  This goal seeks to create a comfort-able and engaging pedestrian experience for those who live, work and visit the area. Synergistic Goals ? Civic Heart? Connections? Natural and Green Infrastructure? Compact and Mixed Use Form? Sense of Place and Identity? Piecemeal Infill DevelopmentGoals in bold are strongly linked to Human-Scaled Environment.StrategiesStreets? Orient buildings to the street edge to create an active and vibrant public realm? Use trees, landscaping, separated sidewalks and on-street parking to protect people from vehicle traffic.? Incorporate amenities including weather protection such as of awnings, building projections and colonnades, light-ing, wayfinding signage, public art and seating at a scale that creates intimacy, variety and a physical interaction between people and the built environment.? Provide on-street parking where possible. Building Form?Utilize a variety of building forms including street wall buildings of 3 to 8 stories and high-rise towers with podiums as a mediating device between the height of the building and the scale of the street.  ? Articulate building facades with details including bay win-dows, cornices and belt courses to add interest.? Encourage small, regularly-spaced commercial units at ground level, and large format stores on the second level.? Promote active uses at ground level and orient shops, services and residential entrances to the street to animate streets.Block Development?Encourage pedestrian mid-block linkages in all develop-ments to supplement public spaces and to enhance pedes-trian connectivity.?Maximize the use of underground parking and structured parking to eliminate large surface parking lots while acco-modating convenient on-street parking. PrecedentsFigure 6.5: Street wall buildings that define the public realm and moderate the impact of towers at the street level.  Highly articulated facades break up the massing of the building and add visual interest.Source: Author photo.Figure 6.4: Section illustrating building and streetscape scaled to the human form. Public ame-nities such as cafe seating and benches are provid-ed at curb bulges.Figure 6.6: Mid-block pedestrian link reduce large development blocks to a human scale and can add pedestrian-scaled space and amenities including public art, benches and lighting.Source: City of Seattle.57Chapter 5: Design Goals and StrategiesConnectionsLougheed Town Centre Mall contains sev-eral surface parking areas that offer the op-portunity for connection with the adjacent neighbourhoods.  Establishing a connected network of public streets for cars, non-mo-torized transportation and new pedestrian linkages across the site will create a coher-ent and interconnected system.  A clear and functional hierarchy of public streets will strengthen the overall street network and support new incremental development on the site.StrategiesBuild Upon the Existing Street Structure? In the short term, to maintain the continued operation of the mall, re-establish the ring road as a public street and uti-lize the existing system of street entrances to the outer por-tion of ring road with the local street system.?In the long term, as redevelopment of the site is pursued, extend the new public street network into the centre of the ring road to provide for an interconnected street system across the site.Connect Urban Trails? Develop a north-south Urban Trail along Bartlet Court to connect the existing segment along Cameron Street and the proposed one to the south of the site by SkyTrain.Provide Pedestrian Connections? Establish mid-block pedestrian connections to reinforce connectivity between the SkyTrain Station and key destina-tions within the site and surrounding areas across North Road and Bartlett Court.? Utilize Crime Prevention through Environmental Design principles in the treatment of all public environments with particular attention to the connections to the SkyTrain sta-tion.  For example, pedestrian connections are have clear sightlines, be designed without nooks or alcoves, provide adequate directional signage and be well light at night. Ac-tive uses at grade are encouraged at transit stations to ani-mate and provide a sense of security at all times of day.Accommodate Cyclists? Create safe bicycle routes in the design of new streets through the site and connect to the adjacent neighbourhood.? Provide end of trip facilities in association with key desti-nation points and as part of new development.PrecedentsFigure 6.7: Potential urban structure of retained internal street network (solid black); new streets (dashed black); new pedestrian paths (blue); and urban trail link (green).Figure 6.8: Urban trails and pedestrian connections improve connectivity to destinations within a de-velopment and the wider neighbourhood.Source: Author photo.Figure 6.9: CPTED principles including clear sight-lines and visibilty are key in the design of pedestri-an connections. End of trip facilites at destination points accomadate cyclists.Source: TransLink.Synergistic Goals? Civic Heart? Human-Scaled Environment? Natural and Green Infrastructure? Compact and Mixed Use Form? Sense of Place and Identity? Piecemeal Infill DevelopmentGoals in bold are strongly linked to Connections.      Thinking Outside the Big Box58Green Infrastructure & BuildingsPreserving, revitalizing and reconnecting to natural systems offers the potential to raise knowledge of and appreciation for ecological functions in the city. Mimicking natural systems through green infrastruc-ture and green building technology can reduce ecological impacts of development and the energy requirements of new de-velopment.  Celebrating natural systems such as creeks and greenways at Lougheed Town Centre Mall can also serve as public amenities in the neighbourhood.Synergistic Goals ? Civic Heart? Human-Scaled Environment? Connections? Compact and Mixed Use Form? Sense of Place and Identity? Piecemeal Infill DevelopmentGoals in bold are strongly linked to Green Infra-stucture & Buildings.StrategiesConnect Ecological Systems? Provide for an open space connection across the site that connects to the City?s Cameron Park and Keswick Park.? Daylight Lost Creek in order to return it to a more natural state and integrate nature back into the site. ?  Manage stormwater runoff and make natural processes visible through infiltration, detention, and retention along Lost Creek where possible.Green Infrastructure? Create a green street network featuring trees and boule-vards with infiltration and detention measures.? Maximize the tree canopy coverage by protect existing stands of trees and plant trees with wide canopies.? Minimize impervious surfaces by utilizing porous asphalt or concrete, perforated concrete blocks, pavers, cobble stone with porous joints, or reinforced turf in all development where practical.? Provide additional open space with parks, courtyards and smaller open spaces to increase vegetation in the area and contribute to public amenities.Green Buildings? Ensure that green building requirements are part of the redevelopment process that include water conservation and efficiency, energy and atmospheric impacts, use of resource efficient materials and waste reduction.? Integrate green roofs, water infiltration and detention, and greywater recycling in all development, to reduce the storm water load on current infrastructure.PrecedentsFigure 6.11: Example of rainwater planter integrated into the street boulevard to improve ecological functioning of a street.Source: City of Seattle.Figure 6.12: Green roof within developments manage stormwater runoff and make natural processes visible and improve building aesthetics.Source: City of Seattle.Figure 6.13: Additional open space increases site permeability and adds to public amenities.Source: City of Seattle.Figure 6.10: Lost Creek location. Dashed line indicates potential to daylight the creek and return it to a more natural state as part of redevelopment. Solid line indicates creek located in open channel.59Chapter 5: Design Goals and StrategiesCompact and Mixed-Use FormRevelopment of Lougheed Town Centre Mall into an urban, mixed-use site pres-ents an opportunity for integration into the urban fabric and to achieve the City?s town centre objectives.  A mix of residen-tial, office and services can generate tran-sit trips throughout the day. It provides opportunities for people to live closer to their jobs, for workers to run errands, and for transit riders to access convenient ser-vices. Residents and visitors can continue a variety of activities in off-peak times.Synergistic Goals ? Civic Heart? Human Scale? Connections? Natural and Green Infrastructure? Sense of Place and Identity? Piecemeal Infill DevelopmentGoals in bold are strongly linked to Compact and Mixed-Use Form.StrategiesMix Uses? Encourage a diversity of housing including ground orient-ed row houses and town houses in addition to high-rise and mid-rise to promote resident diversity.? Incorporate a range of mixed-use development including local-serving retail and large scale retail and increase the quality and accessibility of neighbourhood services and fa-cilities. ?Utilize a building typology that accommodates a change of use over time with minimal alteration to the existing build-ing footprint and the building systems.Density Concentration and Transition? Concentrate highest densities and mixed-uses closest to the Lougheed Town Centre and the proposed Cameron Street SkyTrain stations, with a third node at the intersection of North Road and Austin Road. Taper the intensity of devel-opment from the nodes, and create an appropriate transition and interface with the adjacent neighbourhood.? Cluster and locate towers to reduce view loss, utilize new views, and minimize shadowing on public spaces. Parking? Maximize the use of underground parking and structured parking that is ?wrapped? with active uses.? Provide for on-street parking in the design of streets.? Utilize shared parking so that facilities are used at dif-ferent times by different users.  Capitalize on proximity to rapid transit and reduce the total number of parking spaces needed.PrecedentsFigure 6.15: Example of mixed use development accommodating a wider range of uses and contributing to higher density.  Residential units are located in towers above a podium base of office and retail at street level.Source: Dan Burden.Figure 6.14: Locate density nodes at SkyTrain sta-tions, and at North Road and Austin Road. Taper the intensity of development from the nodes.Figure 6.16: Large format retail and parking located in podium of mixed use development. Residential parking is located above big box store and big box parking is below grade.  Residential units are located in towers above.Source: Author photo.      Thinking Outside the Big Box60Sense of PlaceThe redevelopment of Lougheed Town Centre Mall must provide for a strong sense of place through a recognizable and visible character.  This goal envisions a neighbourhood that is vibrant, creates a sense of attachment and is a place people are proud to call home.  The recognition and celebration of the local natural, social and historic context will provide the basis for developing a unique and identifiable character. Synergistic Goals ? Civic Heart? Human-Scaled Environment? Connections? Natural and Green Infrastructure? Compact and Mixed Use Form? Piecemeal Infill DevelopmentGoals in bold are strongly linked to Sense of Place.StrategiesGreen Legacy? Redevelopment should continue the green legacy estab-lished by the UniverCity development at Burnaby Moun-tain.  Lost Creek which traverses the site in a culvert should be uncovered to restore and celebrate the natural history of the area.  ? Educational elements about the creek, its location, and its functions should be encouraged to act as a unifying theme across the site and connect to adjacent areas.Build Neighbourhood Character? Ensure a consistent architectural appearance such as a con-temporary Pacific Northwest character with the use of wood, glass, concrete and stone.  Use local materials such as cedar trees and ?salt and pepper? granite.? Strengthen the green legacy theme through the design of artwork, street furniture, lighting banners, signs etc.? The regular placement of maple trees on Bartlett Court could be used as a signature tree on the site.? Include civic art in the design of all built elements such as manhole covers, paving, railings to create uniqueness.Develop Community? An urban plaza adjacent to SkyTrain provides for commu-nity events, farmers? markets, festivals and hanging out. ? Establish a World Rivers Day event for Lost Creek to en-courage local participation.Celebrate the Neighbourhood? Consider integrating entry features and signage at key points into the site particularly to the established residential areas to the west and east and eventually to the south.PrecedentsFigure 6.18: Examples of contemporary Pacific Northwest architecure that maximize the use of wood, glass, concrete and stone.Source: Author photos.Figure 6.17: Establishing a green legacy theme to celebrate the natural history of the area could act to unify the area and create a recognizable and unique sense of place for Lougheed Town Centre.Source: City of Seattle.61Chapter 5: Design Goals and StrategiesStrategiesLongterm Vision  ? Develop a long-term vision for the complete redevelop-ment of Lougheed Town Centre into a lively mixed-use neighborhood.? Establish an interconnected street network with smaller development parcels in the existing parking areas between the ring road and the streets at the site periphery.  Accom-modate for the future extension of the new street network into the centre of the site as portions of the mall are razed and development progresses.Continued Mall Operation? Develop along the perimeter of the site initially and relo-cate mall anchor tenants in mixed-use developments.? Ensure development is phased in a logical manner that maintains access for existing businesses during construction. Phase Redevelopment? Configure new internal streets that create a logical frame-work for future incremental development.? Ensure that development occurs in a cohesive, complemen-tary and coordinated manner with the provision of neigh-bourhood amenities and infrastructure.? Accommodate a broad range permitted land uses to be ready for redevelopment opportunities as they arise.?Thoughtfully sited buildings on a property to accommo-date future intensification. ?Each new phase of development is a complete addition that adds to the whole of the development while anticipating the further enhancement of the whole through future develop-ment.PrecedentssPiecemeal Infill DevelopementInfill development presents an opportunity to transform Lougheed Town Centre from a shopping mall into an inviting neigh-bourhood over the long term.  However, at present, it remains a successful shopping mall and the operators intend for the mall to remain open as redevelopment occurs. It is anticipated that redevelopment will oc-cur over time through a series of construc-tion phases.Figure 6.19: Green shaded areas denote initial phases of development on new parcels in exist-ing parking areas after street network expansion. Future phases are pursued once the mall is razed. Existing road network (solid black); new roads (dashed black); new pedestrian paths (dotted).  Figure 6.20: Phased infill develop-ment of surface parking areas to re-connect a mall to the surrounding neighbourhood.Source: Calthorpe Associates.Synergistic Goals? Civic Heart? Human-Scaled Environment? Connections? Natural and Green Infrastructure? Compact and Mixed Use Form? Sense of Place and IdentityGoals in bold are strongly linked to Piecemeal Infill Development.      Thinking Outside the Big Box62Chapter 6: ConclusionsThis Masters Project focuses on Lougheed Town Centre Mall with the aim of envisioning its future as a true neighbourhood centre that better leverages its impor-tant role within the City of Burnaby and its significant location within Metro Vancouver. It seeks to advance Burnaby?s vision for a ?more complete community, an environmentally aware community, a community of economic opportunity, and a community with increased transportation choice?? (City of Burnaby, 1998).First, this project reviewed the complementary theories of transit-oriented development (TOD), placemaking, and green infrastructure and their role in creating a sustainable mixed-use neighbourhood.  Suburban malls, with their potential for infill and redevelopment, are ideal sites for the development of TOD. An add-ed benefit is that the existing on-site uses of a successful shopping mall may serve as the starting point of future redevelopment.  Placemaking literature suggests that among the key issues to address in the redevelopment of a shopping mall site is the homogeneity and monotony of the form, and the lack of connection to the local context. Some contend that, in order to address this placeless architectural style, redevelopment should endeavour to incorporate the native landscape and historical elements in the design. The redevelopment of Lougheed Town Centre Mall is of a scale large enough to consider and incorporate natural systems and green infrastructure, with the aim to improve the ecological functioning.A multiple reference case analysis of mixed-use shopping mall redevelopment was undertaken to illustrate precedents in a North American context. Each refer-ence case was evaluated on its successes and challenges, and the results summarized as a set of key lessons for the redevelopment of Lougheed Town Centre Mall. The chapter concluded with a summary of the lessons:? Continue mall operation during redevelopment to maintain local and regional retail and services.? Externalize the mall and connect to the surroundings to create a human scale-scaled environment.? Reconnect the site with the surrounding community through grid street networks.? Mix uses within the buildings and the site to provide many destinations within walking distance.? Utilize regional architectural styles to build character and guide redevelopment.? Integrate community and civic uses establishing the site as an important public place.? Create unique and high quality public spaces to provide an identifiable neighbourhood character.? Green the streets and buildings to reduce the negative ecological impacts of development.? Design for incremental development within a long-term vision to ensure cohesive and coordinated site redevelopment.Through an inventory, analysis and research of the site and surroundings, the physical and social opportunities and contraints for the project were developed. The chapter concluded with a summary of the opportunities and constraints for the redevelopment of Lougheed Town Centre Mall:Site Opportunities? Infill surface parking areas with mixed-use development to utilize land more efficently and create a complete neighbourhood.? Extend the perimeter street network into the site to increase neighbourhood connectivity.? Locate higher-denisty development near SkyTrain, including the proposed Cameron station, to maximize trip generation and reinforce walking.? Create a human-scaled street edge at the site perimeter to improve the public realm.? ?Day-light? Lost Creek, the stream located in a culvert under the surface parking areas, to re-introduce nature into the site and improve ecological functioning.? Emphasize the Lougheed Town Centre SkyTrain station as the gateway into the neighbourhood.? Complete the missing link in the urban trail network to connect Cameron Park with Keswick Park.? Use the street trees located on Bartlett Court as cue to ?green? the site.63Chapter 6: ConclusionsSite Issues and Constraints? Lack of neighbourhood character or identity.? Buildings do not enclose the street environment or create human-scaled spaces.? Neighbourhood lacks a focal point or gathering place.? Inefficient land use adjacent to rapid transit facilities for surface parking.? Underdeveloped public realm is without street trees, and pedestrian-scaled amenities and lighting.? The disrupted street grid results in poor connectivity to adjacent areas.? Impervious surfaces dominate the site and increase the ecological impacts of development.? Shopping mall operation must be maintained for major tenants during redevelopment.The project concludes with a set of design goals developed from the key concepts of the literature review, the lessons of the reference cases and the findings of the urban analysis. The design goals represent an approach to address a significant opportunity or constraint inherent to Lougheed Town Centre Mall site. Each of the design goals includes a set of strategies to advance that goal through a specific site intervention. The design goals developed are:? Civic Heart? Human-Scaled Environment? Connections? Green Infrastructure and Buildings? Compact and Mixed-Use Built Form? Sense of Place? Incremental Infill DevelopmentThis Masters Project envisions the redevelopment of a successful suburban shopping mall from its inherently unsustainable form and mono-centric retail focus into a mixed-use, walkable and vibrant neighbourhood. It is clear that through this process of research and analysis that the site offers significant potential for redevelopment that is sustainable and enhances the livability of the adjacent neighbourhood and Lougheed Town Centre as a whole.The design goals and strategies developed serve as a framework for design development of Lougheed Town Centre Mall into a mixed-use neighbourhood cen-tre. Importantly, they may spark stakeholder interest in redevelopment while providing a set of ideas from which resident needs and aspirations can emerge and dialogue can begin.  Public involvement is important at all stages of urban planning and design. As such, significant public engagement is encouraged as part of a redevelopment process for Lougheed Town Centre Mall and should involve all concered stakeholders including residents, business owners, property owners, area workers, community groups, and design professionals.  Together, all have a role in re-envisoning Lougheed Town Centre Mall as a vibrant mixed-use neighbourhood, with a unique sense of place and with improved ecological functioning.      Thinking Outside the Big Box64BibliographyAppleyard, Donald. (1981). Livable Streets. Los Angeles: University of California Press.Beatley, Timothy and Kristy Manning. (1997). The Ecology of Place: Planning for Environment, Economy, and Community. Washington, D.C.: Island Press.California Department of Transportation. (2002). Statewide Transit-Oriented Development Study -Factors for Success in California.Calthorpe, Peter. (1989). ?Pedestrian Pockets: New Strategies for Suburban Growth,? in D. 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