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To What Extent Do Municipalities in Metro Vancouver Support A Jobs-Housing Balance? An Evaluation of… Koh, Jane Apr 30, 2012

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TO WHAT EXTENT DO MUNICIPALITIES IN METRO VANCOUVER SUPPORT A JOBS-HOUSING BALANCE? AN EVALUATION OF OFFICIAL COMMUNITY PLANS IN METRO VANCOUVER Jane	
  KohUBC	
  School	
  of	
  Community	
  and	
  Regional	
  Planning 2 TO WHAT EXTENT DO MUNICIPALITIES IN METRO VANCOUVER SUPPORT A JOBS-HOUSING BALANCE? AN EVALUATION OF OFFICIAL COMMUNITY PLANS IN METRO VANCOUVER by JANE KOH B.A., The University of British Columbia, 2008 A PROJECT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS (PLANNING) in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES School of Community and Regional Planning We accept this project as conforming to the required standard ...................................................... ..................................................... ..................................................... THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April 2012 © Jane Koh, 2012 3 4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSI	
  would	
  (irst	
  like	
  to	
  thank	
  the	
  professors,	
  staff	
  and	
  students	
  of	
  SCARP	
  for	
  making	
  my	
  time	
  in	
  the	
  school	
  such	
  an	
  incredible	
  experience.	
  Special	
  thanks	
  goes	
  out	
  to	
  my	
  supervisor	
  Dr.	
  Mark	
  Stevens	
  for	
  his	
  patience	
  and	
  support	
  in	
  the	
  development	
  of	
  this	
  project.	
  Thank	
  you	
  to	
  Dr.	
  Penny	
  Gurstein	
  as	
  well	
  for	
  her	
  feedback	
  in	
  the	
  editing	
  process. I	
  would	
  also	
  like	
  to	
  acknowledge	
  the	
  generous	
  (inancial	
  contributions	
  of	
  the	
  Social	
  Sciences	
  and	
  Humanities	
  Research	
  Council	
  of	
  Canada	
  (SSHRC)	
  and	
  the	
  School	
  of	
  Community	
  and	
  Regional	
  Planning. Finally,	
  a	
  big	
  thank	
  you	
  to	
  my	
  family	
  and	
  friends	
  for	
  their	
  support.	
  In	
  particular,	
  I	
  would	
  like	
  to	
  express	
  my	
  deepest	
  gratitude	
  to	
  my	
  parents	
  and	
  to	
  Jason,	
  for	
  their	
  unwavering	
  love	
  and	
  encouragement. 5 6 EXECUTIVE SUMMARYThe	
  general	
  objective	
  of	
  a	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  is	
  to	
  match	
  the	
  number	
  of	
  employment	
  opportunities	
  with	
  the	
  number	
  of	
  housing	
  opportunities	
  as	
  part	
  of	
  a	
  complete	
  community	
  that	
  allows	
  residents	
  to	
  live	
  close	
  to	
  where	
  they	
  work.	
  In	
  a	
  rapidly	
  growing	
  region,	
  this	
  balance	
  is	
  essential	
  in	
  maintaining	
  a	
  sustainable,	
  livable	
  region.	
  Metro	
  Vancouver	
  acknowledges	
  this,	
  encouraging	
  a	
  balance	
  of	
  jobs	
  and	
  housing	
  through	
  its	
  Regional	
  Growth	
  Strategy	
  goals.	
  This	
  research	
  seeks	
  to	
  assess	
  the	
  extent	
  to	
  which	
  the	
  21	
  municipalities	
  in	
  the	
  region	
  support	
  such	
  a	
  balance	
  through	
  a	
  plan	
  quality	
  evaluation	
  of	
  their	
  Of(icial	
  Community	
  Plans.	
  The	
  (indings	
  show	
  that	
  while	
  some	
  municipalities	
  do	
  not	
  seek	
  such	
  a	
  balance,	
  the	
  majority	
  of	
  municipalities	
  do	
  support	
  a	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance,	
  though	
  to	
  varying	
  degrees.	
  This	
  study	
  provides	
  planning	
  implications	
  and	
  best	
  practice	
  examples	
  with	
  the	
  aim	
  to	
  improve	
  on	
  the	
  balance	
  of	
  jobs	
  and	
  housing	
  in	
  the	
  region. 7 8 TABLE OF CONTENTS ........................................................................Introduction: A Growing Region 13 .....................................................................................A Jobs-Housing Balance 15What	
  is	
  a	
  Jobs-­‐Housing	
  Balance?	
   15What	
  is	
  a	
  Good	
  Jobs-­‐Housing	
  Balance/Ratio?	
   17How	
  to	
  Implement	
  a	
  Jobs-­‐Housing	
  Balance?	
   18 ..................................................................................Context: Metro Vancouver 19The	
  Regional	
  Growth	
  Strategy	
   19Metro	
  Vancouver’s	
  Measure	
   21Next	
  Steps	
  -­‐	
  Of(icial	
  Community	
  Plan	
  Audit	
   22The	
  Of(icial	
  Community	
  Plan	
   23 .....................................................................................................Methodology 24Plan	
  Selection	
   24Protocol	
  Development	
   25Expectations	
   26Plan	
  Evaluation	
   27 ........................................................................................Analysis and Findings 29Jobs-­‐Housing	
  Balance	
  Plan	
  Scores	
   29Analysis	
  by	
  Category	
   30Trends	
  and	
  Observations	
   49 .........................................................................................Planning Implications 50 ...........................................................................Future Research Opportunities 52 .........................................................................................................Conclusion 53 ..........................................................................................................References 54 ........................................................................................................Appendices 58Appendix	
  A:	
  Protocol	
  Codes	
  and	
  De(initions	
   58Appendix	
  B:	
  Master	
  Score	
  Card	
   64 9 10 List of Tables and Figures Table 1: Similarities between the 1996 and 2011 Regional Growth Strategy Goals...... 21 Table 2: Fifteen Fastest Growing Census Metropolitan Areas....................................... 25 Table 3: Official Community Plan Total Scores.............................................................. 29 Table 4: Average Plan Score by Municipal Designation................................................. 30 Table 5: Analysis Results by Category........................................................................... 31 Figure 1: Map of Greater Vancouverʼs Growth Concentration Area............................... 26 Figure 2: Fact Base Score Card.................................................................................... 32 Figure 3: Fact Base Best Practice Example - Corporation of Delta............................... 34 Figure 4: Specific Items Score Card.............................................................................. 36 Figure 5: Specific Items Best Practice Example 1 - City of Port Moody......................... 37 Figure 6: Specific Items Best Practice Example 2 - City of Surrey................................. 39 Figure 7: Goal Items Score Card................................................................................... 40 Figure 8: Goals Best Practice Example - City of Richmond......................................... 41 Figure 9: Policy Items Score Card................................................................................. 42 Figure 10: Policies Best Practice Example - City of Port Moody.................................... 43 Figure 11: Implementation Items Score Card................................................................. 45 Figure 12: Implementation Best Practice Example 1 - District of North Vancouver....... 46 Figure 13: Implementation Best Practice Example 2 - District of North Vancouver....... 48 Figure 14: Implementation Best Practice Example 3 - City of White Rock.................... 48 11 12 Introduction: A Growing RegionResults	
  from	
  Canada’s	
  2011	
  Census	
  show	
  that	
  the	
  Metro	
  Vancouver	
  region	
  is	
  growing	
  rapidly,	
  outpacing	
  both	
  the	
  provincial	
  and	
  national	
  averages.	
  The	
  metropolitan	
  Vancouver	
  region	
  has	
  grown	
  by	
  9.3%	
  since	
  the	
  last	
  census	
  in	
  2006.	
  By	
  comparison,	
  the	
  national	
  growth	
  rate	
  was	
  5.9%	
  while	
  British	
  Columbia	
  as	
  a	
  whole	
  grew	
  by	
  7.0%.	
  When	
  the	
  Greater	
  Vancouver	
  Regional	
  District1	
  was	
  (irst	
  established	
  in	
  1967,	
  the	
  region’s	
  population	
  was	
  950,000.	
  Today,	
  Metro	
  Vancouver	
  is	
  home	
  to	
  2.3	
  million,	
  with	
  over	
  1	
  million	
  more	
  people	
  and	
  600,000	
  new	
  jobs	
  expected	
  to	
  come	
  over	
  the	
  next	
  30	
  years.	
  In	
  order	
  to	
  remain	
  a	
  healthy	
  and	
  livable	
  region,	
  how	
  Metro	
  Vancouver	
  is	
  planned	
  and	
  developed	
  is	
  of	
  utmost	
  importance.	
  As	
  the	
  region	
  grows,	
  proper	
  planning	
  ensures	
  that	
  housing	
  and	
  jobs	
  are	
  accommodated	
  in	
  a	
  way	
  that	
  is	
  conscious	
  of	
  its	
  impacts	
  on	
  the	
  region’s	
  land	
  use,	
  transportation	
  system	
  and	
  natural	
  environment. Over	
  the	
  years,	
  patterns	
  of	
  growth	
  have	
  shifted	
  away	
  from	
  the	
  traditionally	
  job-­‐rich	
  central	
  areas	
  of	
  the	
  region	
  with	
  workers	
  commuting	
  from	
  housing-­‐rich	
  suburban	
  municipalities,	
  to	
  employment	
  growth	
  in	
  suburban	
  business	
  parks	
  and	
  areas	
  outside	
  regional	
  town	
  centres	
  with	
  workers	
  commuting	
  from	
  all	
  over	
  the	
  region.	
  According	
  to	
  a	
  2001	
  Greater	
  Vancouver	
  Regional	
  District	
  report,	
  between	
  1990	
  and	
  2000,	
  50%	
  of	
  new	
  of(ice	
  jobs	
  were	
  in	
  of(ice	
  parks	
  in	
  the	
  outer	
  municipalities,	
  while	
  only	
  7%	
  have	
  located	
  in	
  the	
  regional	
  town	
  centres.	
  Young	
  suburban	
  municipalities	
  in	
  the	
  South-­‐of-­‐Fraser	
  and	
  Tri-­‐Cities	
  areas	
  have	
  seen	
  the	
  fastest	
  growth:	
  Surrey,	
  Langley	
  and	
  White	
  Rock	
  together	
  added	
  more	
  than	
  85,000	
  residents	
  and	
  accounted	
  for	
  almost	
  44%	
  of	
  Metro	
  Vancouver’s	
  gain	
  in	
  population	
  in	
  the	
  last	
  5	
  years;	
  they	
  have	
  a	
  current	
  combined	
  population	
  of	
  616,848.	
  Similarly,	
  Coquitlam,	
  Port	
  Coquitlam	
  and	
  Port	
  Moody	
  accounted	
  for	
  10.8%	
  of	
  regional	
  growth	
  in	
  the	
  last	
  5	
  years,	
  almost	
  double	
  the	
  previous	
  period’s	
  growth	
  rate	
  of	
  5.6%;	
  they	
  now	
  have	
  218,509	
  residents,	
  21,284	
  more	
  than	
  in	
  2006.	
  This	
  is	
  in	
  contrast	
  with	
  older,	
  more	
  central	
  municipalities	
  such	
  as	
  Vancouver,	
  Burnaby	
  and	
  New	
  Westminster	
  which	
  together	
  made	
  up	
  only	
  28%	
  of	
  Metro	
  Vancouver’s	
  population	
  gain	
  between	
  2006	
  and	
  2011,	
  down	
  from	
  37%	
  between	
  2001-­‐2006	
  (Nagel	
  2011). 13 1	
  Now	
  rebranded	
  as	
  Metro	
  Vancouver These	
  changing	
  patterns	
  have	
  in	
  turn	
  affected	
  our	
  regional	
  transportation	
  system.	
  Like	
  most	
  major	
  metropolitan	
  regions,	
  Vancouver	
  faces	
  regional	
  congestion	
  issues,	
  particularly	
  during	
  rush	
  hour.	
  In	
  2004,	
  the	
  Ministry	
  of	
  Transportation	
  and	
  Infrastructure	
  and	
  TransLink	
  completed	
  a	
  travel	
  survey	
  of	
  Metro	
  Vancouver	
  residents.	
  One	
  of	
  the	
  key	
  trends	
  identi(ied	
  was	
  the	
  increased	
  job	
  growth	
  outside	
  town	
  centres,	
  which	
  has	
  resulted	
  in	
  a	
  greater	
  need	
  for	
  travel	
  between	
  municipalities	
  as	
  more	
  and	
  more	
  people	
  commute	
  to	
  areas	
  outside	
  of	
  downtown	
  Vancouver.	
  Nearly	
  50%	
  of	
  new	
  of(ice	
  jobs	
  are	
  located	
  outside	
  Vancouver’s	
  downtown	
  core	
  and	
  regional	
  town	
  centres	
  and	
  therefore	
  not	
  easily	
  accessible	
  by	
  transit.	
  Many	
  drive	
  to	
  work,	
  leaving	
  the	
  Highway	
  1/Port	
  Mann	
  corridor	
  congested	
  13	
  hours	
  a	
  day	
  (Gateway	
  Program	
  2011).	
  Congestion	
  results	
  from	
  basic	
  lifestyle	
  choices	
  about	
  where	
  we	
  chose	
  to	
  live	
  and	
  the	
  way	
  we	
  design	
  our	
  communities	
  and	
  transportation	
  systems	
  (Frank	
  2005).	
  A	
  spatial	
  mismatch	
  of	
  jobs	
  and	
  housing	
  can	
  lead	
  to	
  congestion,	
  increased	
  obesity,	
  air	
  pollution	
  and	
  respiratory	
  dysfunction,	
  increased	
  energy	
  consumption	
  and	
  climate	
  change.	
   What	
  is	
  local	
  government’s	
  role	
  in	
  this?	
  Politicians	
  and	
  planners	
  can	
  help	
  alleviate	
  the	
  congestion	
  situation	
  in	
  the	
  region	
  and	
  promote	
  complete	
  communities	
  by	
  establishing	
  policies	
  that	
  promote	
  a	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance.	
  The	
  idea	
  of	
  a	
  “jobs-­‐housing	
  balance”	
  is	
  an	
  important	
  part	
  of	
  the	
  concept	
  of	
  a	
  complete,	
  livable	
  community	
  and	
  has	
  been	
  studied	
  by	
  numerous	
  researchers.	
  The	
  regional	
  district	
  of	
  Metro	
  Vancouver	
  has	
  long	
  supported	
  this	
  idea	
  of	
  a	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  as	
  part	
  of	
  its	
  regional	
  planning	
  program	
  (LRSP	
  1996).	
   This	
  research	
  project	
  seeks	
  to	
  uncover	
  if	
  the	
  planning	
  policies	
  of	
  municipalities	
  in	
  the	
  region	
  are	
  aligned	
  with	
  Metro	
  Vancouver’s	
  goal	
  of	
  a	
  spatial	
  land	
  pattern	
  that	
  provides	
  opportunities	
  for	
  people	
  to	
  live	
  close	
  to	
  where	
  they	
  work.	
  Through	
  a	
  plan	
  quality	
  evaluation	
  of	
  Of(icial	
  Community	
  Plans	
  (OCPs)	
  in	
  the	
  region,	
  this	
  paper	
  seeks	
  to	
  answer	
  the	
  question:	
   To	
  what	
  extent	
  do	
  OCPs	
  in	
  Metro	
  Vancouver	
  support	
  a	
  jobs-­housing	
  balance? 14 What is a Complete Community? A Complete Community should be a great place to live, work, shop, and play. This means local access to options for food, transportation, housing, recreation, education, retail, and employment. www.completecommunities.ca A Jobs-Housing Balance What	
  is	
  a	
  Jobs-­Housing	
  Balance?The	
  general	
  objective	
  of	
  a	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  policy	
  is	
  to	
  match	
  the	
  number	
  of	
  employment	
  opportunities	
  with	
  the	
  number	
  of	
  housing	
  opportunities	
  in	
  a	
  given	
  area.	
  This	
  contributes	
  to	
  the	
  greater	
  concept	
  of	
  a	
  “balanced”	
  or	
  “complete”	
  community	
  –	
  one	
  that	
  is	
  self-­‐contained,	
  self-­‐reliant,	
  within	
  which	
  people	
  live,	
  work,	
  shop	
  and	
  recreate	
  without	
  having	
  to	
  travel	
  great	
  distances.	
  Research	
  on	
  the	
  concept	
  of	
  a	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  is	
  not	
  new;	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  has	
  its	
  roots	
  in	
  the	
  urban	
  planning	
  tradition	
  of	
  matching	
  workplace	
  and	
  homeplace	
  that	
  reaches	
  as	
  far	
  back	
  as	
  Ebenezer	
  Howard’s	
  1902	
  concept	
  of	
  garden	
  cities	
  (Levine	
  1998). This	
  concept	
  continues	
  to	
  be	
  supported	
  by	
  well-­‐respected	
  organizations	
  such	
  as	
  the	
  American	
  Planning	
  Association	
  and	
  the	
  Urban	
  Land	
  Institute.	
  In	
  his	
  1996	
  book	
  “Best	
  Development	
  Practices”	
  that	
  was	
  prepared	
  for	
  the	
  Florida	
  Department	
  of	
  Community	
  Affairs	
  and	
  published	
  by	
  the	
  American	
  Planning	
  Association	
  in	
  cooperation	
  with	
  the	
  Urban	
  Land	
  Institute,	
  Reid	
  Ewing	
  lists	
  “Contribute	
  to	
  the	
  area’s	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance”	
  as	
  one	
  of	
  the	
  Best	
  Land	
  Use	
  Practices.	
  He	
  states	
  that	
  new	
  communities	
  often	
  market	
  themselves	
  as	
  places	
  where	
  people	
  can	
  both	
  live	
  and	
  work	
  –	
  “a	
  good	
  selling	
  point	
  and	
  a	
  worthy	
  goal”	
  (Ewing	
  1996,	
  19).	
  In	
  2003,	
  the	
  American	
  Planning	
  Association	
  published	
  a	
  Planning	
  Advisory	
  Service	
  Report	
  entitled	
  “Jobs-­‐Housing	
  Balance”	
  written	
  by	
  Jerry	
  Weitz.	
  It	
  in,	
  Weitz	
  makes	
  a	
  case	
  for	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  and	
  provides	
  a	
  guide	
  that	
  jurisdictions	
  can	
  use	
  to	
  implement	
  balancing	
  policies.	
   In	
  arguing	
  for	
  the	
  need	
  to	
  balance	
  jobs	
  and	
  housing,	
  Weitz	
  (2003)	
  cites	
  trends	
  in	
  the	
  United	
  States	
  that	
  show	
  that	
  people	
  are	
  driving	
  longer	
  distances,	
  particularly	
  to	
  work,	
  as	
  land-­‐use	
  patterns	
  in	
  the	
  past	
  few	
  decades	
  have	
  increased	
  travel	
  distances	
  by	
  separating	
  homes,	
  jobs	
  and	
  other	
  destinations.	
  A	
  better	
  planned,	
  mixed-­‐use	
  community	
  that	
  has	
  a	
  balance	
  of	
  jobs	
  and	
  housing	
  can	
  help	
  reduce	
  travel	
  distances	
  and	
  thus,	
  can	
  limit	
  the	
  increase	
  in	
  trip	
  lengths	
  (Urban	
  Land	
  Institute	
  1999).	
  The	
  reduction	
  of	
  Vehicle	
  Miles	
  Travelled	
  (VMT)	
  and	
  traf(ic	
  related	
  impacts	
  have	
  generally	
  garnered	
  the	
  most	
  interest	
  in	
   15 terms	
  of	
  both	
  research	
  and	
  objective	
  of	
  implementing	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balancing	
  policies.	
  Most	
  notable	
  is	
  Robert	
  Cervero’s	
  seminal	
  article	
  “Jobs-­‐Housing	
  Balance	
  and	
  Regional	
  Mobility”	
  (1989)	
  where	
  his	
  examination	
  of	
  data	
  from	
  40	
  major	
  suburban	
  U.S.	
  employment	
  centres	
  showed	
  that	
  suburban	
  workplaces	
  with	
  severe	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  imbalances	
  result	
  in	
  less	
  walking/cycling	
  by	
  residents	
  and	
  more	
  traf(ic	
  congestion.	
  He	
  argues	
  that	
  having	
  jobs	
  and	
  housing	
  geographically	
  close	
  together	
  can	
  reduce	
  congestion	
  as	
  commute	
  trips	
  are	
  shortened	
  (Cervero	
  1989).	
  With	
  shortened	
  trip	
  lengths,	
  VMT	
  are	
  reduced	
  as	
  well	
  (Ewing	
  1996).	
  For	
  example,	
  the	
  case	
  of	
  increased	
  housing	
  in	
  Toronto’s	
  central	
  downtown	
  resulted	
  in	
  a	
  reduction	
  of	
  peak-­‐hour	
  commute	
  trips	
  into	
  the	
  area	
  due	
  to	
  the	
  increase	
  of	
  population	
  where	
  many	
  jobs	
  were	
  located	
  (Nowlan	
  and	
  Stewart	
  1991).	
  Similarly,	
  the	
  Southern	
  California	
  Association	
  of	
  Government’s	
  (SCAG)	
  strategy	
  for	
  redistributing	
  “9	
  percent	
  of	
  the	
  region’s	
  forecast	
  employment	
  growth	
  to	
  the	
  year	
  2010	
  from	
  job-­‐rich	
  to	
  job-­‐poor	
  areas,	
  and	
  5	
  percent	
  of	
  the	
  forecast	
  housing	
  growth	
  from	
  housing-­‐rich	
  to	
  housing-­‐poor	
  areas…	
  was	
  estimated	
  to	
  reduce	
  regional	
  vehicle	
  miles	
  travelled	
  (VMT)	
  by	
  33.4	
  million	
  miles	
  (8.5	
  percent)…”	
  (Armstrong	
  and	
  Sears,	
  2001,	
  19).	
  A	
  corresponding	
  bene(it	
  of	
  the	
  reduction	
  of	
  congestion	
  and	
  VMT	
  is	
  lowered	
  tailpipe	
  emissions,	
  and	
  resultantly,	
  better	
  air	
  quality	
  (Armstrong	
  and	
  Sears	
  2001).	
   Jobs-­‐housing	
  balancing	
  also	
  has	
  social	
  bene(its	
  such	
  as	
  reduced	
  travel	
  time	
  for	
  commuters	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  lower	
  personal	
  transportation	
  costs.	
  For	
  instance,	
  by	
  dispersing	
  employment	
  among	
  residential	
  areas	
  in	
  a	
  metropolitan	
  area	
  instead	
  of	
  concentrating	
  jobs	
  in	
  a	
  central	
  location	
  surrounded	
  by	
  residential	
  areas,	
  workers	
  have	
  the	
  option	
  of	
  living	
  close	
  to	
  where	
  they	
  work,	
  thereby	
  reducing	
  commuting	
  time	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  costs	
  (Altshuler	
  and	
  Gomez-­‐Ibanez	
  1993).	
  Better	
  planned,	
  mixed	
  communities	
  also	
  provide	
  additional	
  bene(its	
  like	
  the	
  reduced	
  cost	
  of	
  public	
  infrastructure	
  such	
  as	
  new	
  road	
  construction,	
  or	
  the	
  maintenance	
  and	
  improvement	
  of	
  heavily	
  used	
  commuter	
  routes	
  (Weitz	
  2003).	
  There	
  are	
  also	
  intangible	
  social	
  bene(its	
  of	
  balancing	
  jobs	
  and	
  housing	
  such	
  as	
  the	
  reduction	
  of	
  class	
  segregation	
  and	
  the	
  creation	
  of	
  interesting,	
  pedestrian-­‐oriented	
  places	
  (Cervero	
  1989;	
  1991).	
  Further,	
  the	
  reduction	
  of	
  the	
  stress	
  of	
  commuting	
  can	
  contribute	
  to	
  higher	
  productivity	
  and	
  greater	
  family	
  stability	
  and	
  cohesion,	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  provide	
  for	
  more	
  diverse	
  urban	
  settings	
  that	
  exhibit	
  cultural	
  richness	
  (Armstrong	
  and	
  Sears	
  2001). 16 What	
  is	
  a	
  Good	
  Jobs-­Housing	
  Balance/Ratio?Simply	
  stated,	
  a	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  is	
  roughly	
  an	
  equal	
  number	
  of	
  jobs	
  and	
  housing	
  units	
  in	
  a	
  jurisdiction.	
  The	
  concept	
  is	
  commonly	
  expressed	
  in	
  its	
  most	
  basic	
  measure	
  –	
  a	
  ratio	
  of	
  the	
  number	
  of	
  jobs	
  to	
  the	
  number	
  of	
  housing	
  units	
  in	
  an	
  area.	
  The	
  jobs-­‐to-­‐housing-­‐unit	
  ratio	
  is	
  most	
  often	
  used	
  due	
  to	
  the	
  ease	
  of	
  acquiring	
  such	
  data.	
  However,	
  caution	
  must	
  be	
  used	
  as	
  it	
  might	
  misrepresent	
  the	
  actual	
  number	
  of	
  workers	
  in	
  a	
  community.	
  For	
  example,	
  a	
  housing	
  unit	
  or	
  household	
  may	
  contain	
  more	
  than	
  one	
  worker,	
  or	
  no	
  workers.	
  Other	
  measures	
  might	
  include	
  the	
  following:	
   • Jobs-­‐to-­‐occupied-­‐housing-­‐units	
  ratio • Jobs-­‐to-­‐households	
  ratio • Percentage	
  of	
  workers	
  who	
  reside	
  locally • Employment-­‐to-­‐population	
  ratio • Jobs-­‐to-­‐resident	
  workers	
  (labour	
  force)	
  ratioIf	
  the	
  data	
  is	
  available,	
  the	
  number	
  of	
  jobs	
  to	
  resident	
  workers	
  –	
  the	
  actual	
  labour	
  force	
  –	
  is	
  the	
  best	
  measure	
  to	
  use	
  (Weitz	
  2003). Ratios	
  are	
  often	
  expressed	
  as	
  a	
  range,	
  with	
  different	
  scholars	
  recommending	
  different	
  ranges	
  to	
  signify	
  balance.	
  For	
  jobs-­‐to-­‐housing-­‐units,	
  Ewing	
  (1996)	
  calls	
  for	
  a	
  range	
  of	
  1.3:1	
  to	
  1.7:1	
  and	
  Cervero	
  (1991)	
  for	
  1.4:1	
  to	
  1.6:1.	
  For	
  a	
  jobs	
  to	
  labour	
  force	
  ratio,	
  a	
  target	
  standard	
  of	
  1:1,	
  with	
  a	
  target	
  range	
  of	
  0.8:1	
  to	
  1.25:1	
  is	
  desired	
  (Cervero	
  1996,	
  Weitz	
  2003).	
  Despite	
  the	
  recommendations,	
  Cervero	
  (1996)	
  argues	
  against	
  any	
  universal	
  standard	
  for	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  and	
  rather,	
  policies	
  for	
  regional	
  growth	
  management	
  that	
  are	
  appropriate	
  for	
  a	
  community	
  should	
  be	
  applied.	
  In	
  addition,	
  this	
  concept	
  should	
  go	
  beyond	
  mere	
  numerical	
  equality	
  and	
  should	
  ideally	
  be	
  a	
  matching	
  of	
  the	
  jobs	
  available	
  in	
  the	
  community	
  with	
  the	
  labour	
  force	
  skills,	
  along	
  with	
  housing	
  that	
  is	
  appropriate	
  to	
  the	
  workers	
  who	
  wish	
  to	
  live	
  in	
  the	
  area	
  (Cervero	
  1989,	
  Weitz	
  2003).	
  Therefore,	
  it	
  is	
  critical	
  to	
  consider	
  the	
  qualitative	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  the	
  quantitative	
  aspects	
  of	
  achieving	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance.	
  Lastly,	
  it	
  must	
  be	
  noted	
  that	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  ratios	
  only	
  indicate	
  the	
  potential	
  for	
  greater	
  balance.	
  These	
  recommendations	
  should	
  merely	
  be	
  used	
  as	
  guides;	
  targets	
  or	
  ranges	
  should	
  be	
  based	
  on	
  local	
  context,	
  availability	
  of	
  accurate	
  data,	
  and	
  local	
  policy	
  objectives.	
   17 How	
  to	
  Implement	
  a	
  Jobs-­Housing	
  Balance?Jerry	
  Weitz	
  (2003)	
  provides	
  some	
  recommended	
  steps	
  for	
  applying	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  in	
  a	
  locality:Step	
  1:	
  Determine	
  the	
  appropriate	
  unit	
  of	
  geography	
  for	
  the	
  study	
  and	
  application	
  of	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  policies.Step	
  2:	
  Determine	
  what	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  measurement	
  will	
  be	
  used,	
  according	
  to	
  the	
  available	
  or	
  obtainable	
  data.Step	
  3:	
  Collect	
  data	
  on	
  the	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  measure	
  you	
  select	
  for	
  the	
  study	
  area	
  or	
  areas.	
  Calculate	
  the	
  overall	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  ratio	
  (or	
  whichever	
  measure	
  you	
  choose)	
  for	
  the	
  area	
  and	
  analyze	
  the	
  results	
  of	
  the	
  calculation.Step	
  4:	
  Make	
  a	
  value	
  judgment	
  –	
  select	
  a	
  standard	
  and	
  recommend/seek	
  approval	
  of	
  a	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  standard.Step	
  5:	
  Audit	
  your	
  locality’s	
  comprehensive	
  plan	
  to	
  determine	
  the	
  extent	
  to	
  which	
  it	
  promotes	
  your	
  new	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  goal.Step	
  6:	
  Amend	
  your	
  comprehensive	
  plan	
  to	
  include	
  the	
  analysis	
  of	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  and	
  to	
  include	
  policy	
  statement	
  appropriate	
  to	
  your	
  locality.Step	
  7:	
  Prepare	
  and	
  adopt	
  regulations	
  that	
  implement	
  local	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  policies.This	
  research	
  paper	
  uses	
  Weitz’s	
  steps	
  as	
  a	
  guide,	
  summarizing	
  steps	
  1	
  to	
  4	
  which	
  have	
  already	
  been	
  completed	
  by	
  Metro	
  Vancouver,	
  and	
  focusing	
  on	
  Step	
  5	
  by	
  way	
  of	
  a	
  Plan	
  Quality	
  Evaluation	
  to	
  answer	
  the	
  question:	
  To	
  what	
  extent	
  do	
  OCPS	
  in	
  Metro	
  Vancouver	
  support	
  a	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance? 18 Context: Metro Vancouver The	
  Regional	
  Growth	
  StrategyLike	
  many	
  other	
  jurisdictions,	
  Metro	
  Vancouver	
  subscribes	
  to	
  the	
  notion	
  that	
  a	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  is	
  desirable,	
  for	
  many	
  of	
  the	
  reasons	
  stated	
  in	
  the	
  above	
  section,	
  and	
  encourages	
  these	
  policies	
  amongst	
  its	
  member	
  municipalities.	
  Metro	
  Vancouver	
  is	
  the	
  regional	
  federation	
  of	
  21	
  municipalities	
  that	
  make	
  up	
  the	
  Lower	
  Mainland	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia.	
  Provincial	
  legislation	
  in	
  British	
  Columbia	
  requires	
  regional	
  districts	
  to	
  generate	
  20-­‐year	
  plans,	
  called	
  “Regional	
  Growth	
  Strategies”	
  (RGS).	
  The	
  growth	
  strategies	
  legislation	
  is	
  contained	
  in	
  Part	
  25	
  of	
  the	
  Local	
  Government	
  Act	
  and	
  provides	
  a	
  framework	
  for	
  coordinated	
  planning	
  and	
  action	
  for	
  local	
  governments	
  in	
  British	
  Columbia.	
  Regional	
  Growth	
  Strategies	
  are	
  primarily	
  long-­‐range	
  land	
  use	
  plans	
  meant	
  to	
  provide	
  effective	
  management	
  of	
  a	
  region’s	
  growth.	
  They	
  provide	
  a	
  regional	
  vision	
  that	
  commits	
  its	
  municipalities	
  to	
  a	
  course	
  of	
  action	
  to	
  meet	
  common	
  social,	
  economic	
  and	
  environmental	
  objectives.	
   This	
  idea	
  of	
  jobs	
  and	
  labour	
  force	
  balance	
  has	
  been	
  central	
  to	
  regional	
  planning	
  in	
  Greater	
  Vancouver	
  since	
  the	
  1960s	
  (LRSP,	
  1996).	
  “Working	
  toward	
  a	
  jobs/labour	
  force	
  balance	
  means	
  promoting	
  spatial	
  patterns	
  of	
  land	
  use	
  activity	
  which	
  provide	
  jobs	
  that	
  are	
  accessible	
  to	
  where	
  workers	
  live	
  and	
  provide	
  housing	
  close	
  to	
  where	
  jobs	
  are	
  located”	
  (Metro	
  Vancouver	
  2004).	
  These	
  spatial	
  patterns	
  of	
  land	
  use	
  have	
  a	
  strong	
  in(luence	
  on	
  other	
  important	
  elements	
  that	
  make	
  up	
  regional	
  livability	
  such	
  as	
  transportation	
  demand,	
  complete	
  communities	
  and	
  compact	
  region.  When	
  this	
  project	
  was	
  being	
  developed,	
  Metro	
  Vancouver	
  was	
  undergoing	
  the	
  process	
  of	
  drafting	
  a	
  new	
  Regional	
  Growth	
  Strategy	
  entitled	
  Metro	
  Vancouver	
  2040	
  –	
   Shaping	
  Our	
  Future.	
  Hence,	
  both	
  the	
  1996	
  Livable	
  Region	
  Strategic	
  Plan	
  (LRSP),	
  which	
  was	
  current	
  at	
  the	
  time	
  of	
  the	
  initial	
  literature	
  review	
  for	
  of	
  this	
  project,	
  and	
  Metro	
  Vancouver	
   2040,	
  which	
  was	
  adopted	
  July	
  29th	
  2011,	
  were	
  reviewed.	
  It	
  was	
  deemed	
  important	
  to	
  study	
  both	
  RGSs	
  as	
  while	
  Metro	
  Vancouver	
  2040	
  is	
  the	
  current	
  plan	
  at	
  the	
  time	
  of	
  writing,	
  it	
  lacks	
  the	
  supplemental	
  reports	
  that	
  the	
  LRSP	
  has,	
  such	
  as	
  the	
  annual	
  report	
  evaluating	
  the	
   19 progress	
  made	
  in	
  achieving	
  RGS	
  objectives.	
  Additionally,	
  none	
  of	
  the	
  OCPs	
  in	
  Metro	
  Vancouver,	
  at	
  the	
  time	
  of	
  data	
  collection,	
  contained	
  Regional	
  Context	
  Statements	
  (RCS)	
  that	
  re(lected	
  the	
  new	
  RGS.	
  RCSs	
  generally	
  take	
  the	
  form	
  of	
  a	
  chapter	
  in	
  a	
  municipality’s	
  OCP	
  and	
  identify	
  how	
  the	
  OCP	
  works	
  towards	
  achieving	
  the	
  goals	
  and	
  strategies	
  set	
  out	
  in	
  the	
  RGS.	
  After	
  the	
  adoption	
  of	
  the	
  RGS	
  in	
  July	
  2011,	
  municipalities	
  have	
  a	
  two	
  year	
  period	
  in	
  which	
  to	
  prepare	
  a	
  RCS,	
  which	
  is	
  submitted	
  to	
  the	
  Metro	
  Vancouver	
  Board	
  for	
  consideration	
  and	
  acceptance.	
   The	
  LRSP	
  and	
  Metro	
  Vancouver	
  2040  Metro	
  Vancouver	
  2040	
  builds	
  on	
  the	
  goals	
  and	
  policies	
  set	
  out	
  in	
  the	
  LRSP	
  (see	
  Table	
  1),	
  and	
  the	
  two	
  plans	
  are	
  consistent	
  in	
  the	
  objective	
  of	
  a	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  in	
  the	
  region.	
  The	
  1996	
  Livable	
  Region	
  Strategic	
  Plan’s	
  approach	
  to	
  growth	
  management	
  rests	
  on	
  four	
  fundamental	
  strategies:	
  (1)	
  Protect	
  the	
  Green	
  Zone,	
  (2)	
  Build	
  Complete	
  Communities,	
  (3)	
  Achieve	
  a	
  Compact	
  Metropolitan	
  Region,	
  and	
  (4)	
  Increase	
  Transportation	
  Choice.	
  These	
  strategies	
  are	
  clearly	
  inter-­‐related	
  and	
  have	
  to	
  be	
  achieved	
  in	
  tandem.	
  While	
  recognizing	
  the	
  inter-­‐dependency	
  of	
  these	
  goals,	
  this	
  research	
  focuses	
  on	
  the	
  strategy	
  of	
  building	
  complete	
  communities,	
  which	
  the	
  concept	
  of	
  a	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  supports	
  most	
  directly. There	
  are	
  three	
  central	
  concepts	
  underlying	
  the	
  Build	
  Complete	
  Communities	
  objective: (1) expanding	
  housing	
  choice (2) promoting	
  a	
  better	
  balance	
  in	
  jobs	
  and	
  labour	
  force (3) building	
  a	
  network	
  of	
  centresAgain,	
  these	
  concepts	
  are	
  all	
  inter-­‐connected	
  and	
  serve	
  not	
  only	
  to	
  advance	
  the	
  Build	
  Complete	
  Communities	
  objective	
  but	
  also	
  the	
  Achieve	
  a	
  Compact	
  Metropolitan	
  Region	
  and	
  Increase	
  Transportation	
  Choice	
  strategies	
  of	
  the	
  LRSP.	
  The	
  LRSP	
  contains	
  the	
  following	
  policies	
  (GVRD	
  2004): The	
  GVRD	
  Board	
  will	
  seek	
  through	
  partnerships	
  on	
  complete	
  communities:	
  a	
  diversity	
   of	
  housing	
  types,	
  tenures	
  and	
  costs	
  in	
  each	
  part	
  of	
  the	
  region	
  in	
  balance	
  with	
  job	
   distribution.And	
  more	
  speci(ic	
  to	
  a	
  jobs/labour	
  force	
  balance: 20 The	
  GVRD	
  Board	
  will	
  seek	
  through	
  partnerships	
  on	
  complete	
  communities:	
  a	
  better	
   balance	
  in	
  jobs	
  and	
  labour	
  force	
  location	
  throughout	
  the	
  region. Table 1: Similarities between the 1996 and 2011 Regional Growth Strategy Goals 1996: The Livable Region Strategic Plan 2011: Metro Vancouver 2040 - Shaping Our Future 1. Protect the Green Zone 1. Create a Compact Urban Area 2. Build Complete Communities 2. Support a Sustainable Economy 3. Achieve a Compact Metropolitan Region 3. Protect the Environment and Respond to Climate Change Impacts 4. Increase Transportation Choice 4. Develop Complete Communities 5. Support Sustainable Transportation Choices Metro	
  Vancouver	
  2040	
  differs	
  only	
  slightly	
  from	
  the	
  LRSP,	
  with	
  an	
  additional	
  goal	
  focusing	
  on	
  a	
  sustainable	
  economy.	
  Its	
  (ive	
  fundamental	
  objectives	
  are:	
  (1)	
  Create	
  a	
  Compact	
  Urban	
  Area,	
  (2)	
  Support	
  a	
  Sustainable	
  Economy,	
  (3)	
  Protect	
  the	
  Environment	
  and	
  Respond	
  to	
  Climate	
  Change	
  Impacts,	
  (4)	
  Develop	
  Complete	
  Communities,	
  and	
  (5)	
  Support	
  Sustainable	
  Transportation	
  Choices.	
  These	
  goals	
  are	
  again,	
  inter-­‐related	
  and	
  have	
  to	
  be	
  achieved	
  in	
  tandem	
  and	
  the	
  strategy	
  to	
  balance	
  jobs	
  and	
  housing	
  is	
  contained	
  not	
  only	
  in	
  the	
  Develop	
  Complete	
  Communities	
  goal	
  as	
  in	
  the	
  LRSP,	
  but	
  also	
  in	
  the	
  new	
  Support	
  a	
  Sustainable	
  Economy	
  goal,	
  which	
  seeks	
  to	
  “promote	
  land	
  development	
  patterns	
  that	
  support	
  a	
  diverse	
  regional	
  economy	
  and	
  employment	
  close	
  to	
  where	
  people	
  live”	
  (Strategy	
  2.1,	
  Metro	
  Vancouver	
  2040).	
   Metro	
  Vancouver’s	
  MeasureMetro	
  Vancouver	
  has	
  chosen	
  the	
  measure	
  of	
  Jobs-­‐to-­‐Labour	
  Force,	
  an	
  optimal	
  measure	
  as	
  noted	
  earlier	
  in	
  the	
  text,	
  with	
  academics	
  recommending	
  a	
  target	
  standard	
  of	
  1:1,	
  and	
  a	
  target	
  range	
  of	
  0.8:1	
  to	
  1.25:1	
  (Cervero	
  1996,	
  Weitz	
  2003).	
  As	
  noted,	
  the	
  literature	
  warns	
  that	
  these	
  are	
  merely	
  guidelines	
  and	
  the	
  best	
  standard	
  is	
  based	
  on	
  local	
  research	
  and	
  objectives.	
  Heeding	
  this	
  advice,	
  Metro	
  Vancouver	
  has	
  established	
  targets	
  based	
  on	
  background	
  studies	
  for	
  the	
  RGS,	
  grouping	
  municipalities	
  into	
  subregions	
  and	
  recognizing	
  differences	
  between	
  inner	
  and	
  outer	
  municipalities.	
  In	
  addition,	
  Metro	
  Vancouver	
  developed	
  indicators	
  such	
  as	
  proportion	
  of	
  labour	
  force	
  working	
  in	
  home	
   21 subregion,	
  travel	
  patterns,	
  and	
  housing	
  construction	
  in	
  town	
  centres,	
  to	
  monitor	
  the	
  region’s	
  jobs/labour	
  force	
  balance.	
  These	
  statistical	
  analyses	
  provide	
  a	
  good	
  foundation	
  of	
  knowledge	
  upon	
  which	
  this	
  study	
  can	
  be	
  carried	
  out. Next	
  Steps	
  -­	
  OfMicial	
  Community	
  Plan	
  AuditSteps	
  1	
  to	
  4	
  of	
  Weitz’s	
  recommended	
  steps	
  to	
  achieve	
  a	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  in	
  Metro	
  Vancouver	
  have	
  been	
  completed:	
  The	
  unit	
  of	
  geography,	
  municipalities	
  that	
  make	
  up	
  the	
  Metro	
  Vancouver	
  region,	
  has	
  been	
  determined	
  by	
  the	
  scope	
  of	
  this	
  study	
  (Step	
  1).	
  The	
  measure	
  of	
  jobs-­‐to-­‐labour	
  force	
  has	
  been	
  established,	
  and	
  the	
  corresponding	
  data,	
  calculations	
  and	
  analysis	
  have	
  been	
  performed	
  by	
  the	
  regional	
  district	
  (Steps	
  2	
  and	
  3).	
  A	
  value	
  judgment	
  has	
  been	
  made	
  by	
  way	
  of	
  explicit	
  objectives	
  and	
  policies	
  stated	
  by	
  Metro	
  Vancouver	
  and	
  approved	
  by	
  member	
  municipalities	
  (Step	
  4).	
  Metro	
  Vancouver’s	
  examination	
  of	
  the	
  statistics	
  of	
  population,	
  labour	
  force	
  and	
  jobs	
  growth	
  show	
  the	
  effect	
  of	
  a	
  combination	
  of	
  policies,	
  regulations	
  and	
  trends.	
  This	
  research	
  project	
  aims	
  to	
  look	
  at	
  another	
  side	
  of	
  balancing	
  jobs	
  and	
  housing	
  –	
  the	
  municipal	
  policies	
  that	
  enable,	
  or	
  hinder	
  them.	
  Step	
  5	
  is	
  to	
  audit	
  local	
  comprehensive	
  plans	
  to	
  determine	
  the	
  extent	
  to	
  which	
  they	
  promote	
  the	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  goal.	
  Weitz	
  recommends	
  that	
  “the	
  comprehensive	
  plan	
  should	
  serve	
  as	
  the	
  ‘home’	
  for	
  any	
  adopted	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  policy”	
  (2003,	
  24)	
  and	
  thus	
  a	
  comprehensive	
  plan	
  audit	
  is	
  an	
  important	
  step	
  in	
  this	
  process	
  as	
  it	
  is	
  in	
  the	
  comprehensive	
  plan	
  that	
  a	
  community	
  adopts	
  future	
  land-­‐use	
  plans	
  which	
  establish	
  the	
  vision	
  for	
  future	
  growth	
  and	
  development.	
   Comprehensive	
  plans	
  of	
  municipalities	
  in	
  British	
  Columbia	
  are	
  known	
  as	
  Of(icial	
  Community	
  Plans	
  (OCPs).	
  This	
  study	
  uses	
  OCPs	
  to	
  assess	
  the	
  extent	
  to	
  which	
  municipal	
  policies	
  encourage	
  a	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance,	
  as	
  prescribed	
  by	
  the	
  region.	
  The	
  legislative	
  power	
  over	
  land	
  use	
  belongs	
  to	
  municipalities	
  and	
  thus	
  it	
  is	
  OCPs,	
  not	
  the	
  Regional	
  Plan,	
  that	
  dictate	
  patterns	
  of	
  land	
  use	
  activity	
  within	
  municipal	
  boundaries.	
  Regional	
  goals	
  are	
  integrated	
  into	
  municipal	
  planning	
  through	
  Regional	
  Context	
  Statements	
  (RCS),	
  which	
  form	
  a	
  portion	
  of	
  a	
  municipality’s	
  OCP.	
  RCSs	
  are	
  prepared	
  by	
  the	
  municipality	
  and	
  referred	
  to	
  the	
  regional	
  district	
  for	
  acceptance;	
  they	
  set	
  out	
  the	
  relationship	
  between	
  the	
  RGS	
  and	
  the	
  OCP. 22 The	
  OfMicial	
  Community	
  PlanThe	
  OCP	
  is	
  a	
  municipality’s	
  long-­‐term	
  vision	
  for	
  the	
  future.	
  It	
  is	
  a	
  general	
  statement	
  of	
  objectives	
  and	
  policies	
  to	
  guide	
  land	
  use,	
  servicing	
  and	
  the	
  form	
  and	
  character	
  of	
  future	
  development.	
  Implementation	
  of	
  the	
  OCP	
  occurs	
  through	
  zoning,	
  development	
  permit	
  guidelines,	
  subdivision	
  requirements	
  and	
  other	
  instruments	
  that	
  are	
  more	
  detailed	
  tools	
  for	
  managing	
  and	
  controlling	
  development	
  in	
  the	
  community. As	
  part	
  of	
  the	
  development	
  of	
  an	
  OCP,	
  a	
  municipality	
  is	
  required	
  to	
  consult	
  with	
  affected	
  parties	
  (Local	
  Government	
  Act	
  Section	
  879).	
  This	
  generally	
  includes	
  a	
  public	
  engagement	
  process	
  where	
  the	
  community	
  provides	
  input	
  on	
  its	
  values	
  and	
  views	
  about	
  the	
  future.	
  The	
  municipality’s	
  current	
  situation,	
  regional	
  trends	
  and	
  legislative	
  requirements	
  are	
  also	
  included	
  in	
  the	
  OCP.	
  It	
  is	
  then	
  adopted	
  as	
  a	
  bylaw	
  by	
  a	
  municipal	
  Council	
  and	
  has	
  legal	
  status	
  which	
  requires	
  that	
  all	
  development	
  and	
  use	
  of	
  land	
  be	
  consistent	
  with	
  the	
  policies	
  of	
  the	
  plan.	
  The	
  OCP	
  states	
  what	
  a	
  municipal	
  Council	
  intends	
  to	
  permit	
  in	
  the	
  way	
  of	
  physical	
  development	
  in	
  the	
  years	
  ahead,	
  allowing	
  property	
  owners	
  and	
  developers	
  a	
  degree	
  of	
  certainty	
  to	
  make	
  informed	
  decisions	
  and	
  anticipate	
  changes.	
  However,	
  the	
  OCP	
  only	
  indicates	
  desired	
  direction.	
  Section	
  884	
  of	
  the	
  Local	
  Government	
  Act	
  states	
  that	
  an	
  OCP	
  “does	
  not	
  commit	
  or	
  authorize	
  a	
  municipality,	
  regional	
  district	
  or	
  improvement	
  district	
  to	
  proceed	
  with	
  any	
  project	
  that	
  is	
  speci(ied	
  in	
  the	
  plan”	
  but	
  it	
  does	
  require	
  that	
  “all	
  bylaws	
  enacted	
  or	
  works	
  undertaken…must	
  be	
  consistent	
  with	
  the…plan.”	
  Thus,	
  no	
  development	
  may	
  occur	
  unless	
  it	
  is	
  consistent	
  with	
  the	
  OCP	
  and	
  other	
  instruments	
  such	
  as	
  zoning	
  and	
  subdivision	
  control	
  bylaws. An	
  OCP	
  uses	
  a	
  combination	
  of	
  goals,	
  objectives,	
  policies,	
  maps	
  and	
  development	
  guidelines	
  to	
  set	
  directions	
  and	
  shape	
  the	
  community	
  according	
  to	
  its	
  vision.	
  It	
  is	
  a	
  high-­‐level	
  policy	
  framework	
  meant	
  as	
  a	
  blueprint	
  or	
  “umbrella	
  document”	
  to	
  guide	
  Council	
  decisions,	
  regulations	
  and	
  programs.	
  It	
  addresses	
  broader,	
  city-­‐wide	
  community	
  issues,	
  while	
  Planning	
  Area	
  and	
  Sub-­‐Area	
  Plans	
  take	
  care	
  of	
  more	
  local,	
  detailed	
  issues.	
  The	
  OCP	
  is	
  implemented	
  through	
  a	
  number	
  of	
  City	
  regulations	
  and	
  programs	
  such	
  as	
  the	
  annual	
  budget,	
  the	
  Capital	
  Works	
  budget,	
  the	
  Zoning	
  Bylaw,	
  the	
  Subdivision	
  Control	
  Bylaw,	
  the	
  Development	
  Cost	
  Charges	
  Bylaw,	
  and	
  the	
  Building	
  Bylaw.	
   23 MethodologyA	
  content	
  analysis	
  methodology	
  was	
  used	
  to	
  assess	
  OCPs	
  in	
  Metro	
  Vancouver.	
  This	
  approach,	
  known	
  as	
  Plan	
  Quality	
  Evaluation,	
  has	
  been	
  applied	
  to	
  the	
  analysis	
  of	
  a	
  variety	
  of	
  elements	
  within	
  plans,	
  from	
  sustainable	
  development	
  (Berke	
  and	
  Conroy,	
  2000)	
  and	
  smart	
  growth	
  (Edwards	
  and	
  Haines,	
  2007),	
  to	
  natural	
  disaster	
  mitigation	
  (Nelson	
  and	
  French,	
  2002)	
  and	
  ecosystem	
  management	
  (Brody,	
  2003).	
  Currently,	
  no	
  research	
  pertaining	
  to	
  plan	
  quality	
  in	
  Canada	
  has	
  been	
  published.	
  This	
  research	
  is	
  intended	
  to	
  build	
  upon	
  an	
  evaluation	
  of	
  OCPs	
  in	
  Southern	
  British	
  Columbia	
  that	
  is	
  currently	
  underway	
  (Stevens,	
  under	
  review).	
  Further,	
  this	
  research	
  seeks	
  to	
  contribute	
  to	
  the	
  objective	
  of	
  a	
  balance	
  of	
  jobs	
  and	
  housing	
  in	
  Metro	
  Vancouver,	
  a	
  key	
  goal	
  of	
  the	
  region.	
  It	
  is	
  desired	
  that	
  this	
  analysis	
  of	
  existing	
  policies	
  provides	
  a	
  foundation	
  for	
  further	
  work	
  on	
  the	
  issue.	
   Plan	
  SelectionAs	
  the	
  Metro	
  Vancouver	
  region	
  is	
  the	
  scope	
  of	
  this	
  study,	
  all	
  21	
  Of(icial	
  Community	
  Plans	
  of	
  the	
  municipalities	
  that	
  make	
  up	
  Metro	
  Vancouver	
  were	
  selected.	
  Though	
  the	
  currently	
  adopted,	
  and	
  thus	
  most	
  recent,	
  plans	
  were	
  used,	
  the	
  ages	
  of	
  the	
  plans	
  still	
  varied	
  by	
  thirteen	
  years,	
  ranging	
  from	
  1998	
  to	
  2011.	
  All	
  the	
  plans	
  were	
  downloaded	
  in	
  their	
  entirety	
  from	
  each	
  municipality’s	
  website.	
  They	
  are	
  the	
  same	
  copies	
  used	
  in	
  Stevens’	
  current	
  evaluation	
  of	
  40	
  OCPs	
  in	
  Southern	
  British	
  Columbia	
  (under	
  review). The	
  Metro	
  Vancouver	
  regional	
  district	
  was	
  chosen	
  for	
  this	
  study	
  for	
  two	
  reasons.	
  Firstly,	
  the	
  size	
  of	
  this	
  region	
  and	
  the	
  rate	
  of	
  its	
  growth	
  make	
  it	
  important	
  for	
  planners	
  to	
  pay	
  attention	
  to	
  providing	
  opportunities	
  for	
  people	
  to	
  live	
  close	
  to	
  where	
  they	
  work.	
  According	
  to	
  the	
  2011	
  census,	
  Vancouver	
  is	
  the	
  6th	
  fastest	
  growing	
  metropolitan	
  area,	
  seeing	
  a	
  9.3%	
  increase	
  in	
  population	
  over	
  the	
  last	
  5	
  years	
  (see	
  Table	
  2).	
  Out	
  of	
  the	
  top	
  6	
  fastest	
  growing	
  metropolitan	
  areas,	
  Vancouver	
  is	
  the	
  largest	
  census	
  metropolitan	
  area	
  with	
  a	
  population	
  of	
  2.3	
  million.	
  Faced	
  with	
  the	
  rapid	
  development	
  of	
  both	
  residential	
  and	
  employment	
  opportunities,	
  it	
  is	
  crucial	
  that	
  land	
  use	
  decisions	
  give	
  consideration	
  to	
  a	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  to	
  prevent	
  increased	
  congestion	
  and	
  long	
  commutes	
  across	
  the	
  region.	
  Secondly,	
  Metro	
  Vancouver	
  was	
  selected	
  because	
  its	
  Regional	
  Growth	
  Strategy	
  encourages	
  a	
   24 jobs-­‐housing	
  balance,	
  as	
  opposed	
  to	
  a	
  region	
  that	
  might	
  want	
  to	
  grow	
  in	
  a	
  manner	
  that	
  segregates	
  jobs	
  and	
  housing.	
  Therefore,	
  it	
  is	
  useful	
  to	
  see	
  the	
  extent	
  to	
  which	
  municipal	
  plans	
  aligned	
  with	
  this	
  regional	
  goal.	
   Protocol	
  DevelopmentThe	
  protocol	
  for	
  this	
  Plan	
  Quality	
  Evaluation	
  was	
  based	
  primarily	
  on	
  recommended	
  elements	
  for	
  a	
  comprehensive	
  plan	
  audit	
  from	
  Jerry	
  Weitz’s	
  “Jobs-­‐Housing	
  Balance”	
  (2003).	
  The	
  items	
  were	
  divided	
  into	
  (ive	
  categories: 1. Fact	
  Base 2. Speci(ic	
  Jobs-­‐Housing	
  Balance 3. Goals 4. Policies 5. ImplementationThis	
  categorization	
  was	
  borrowed	
  from	
  the	
  convention	
  established	
  by	
  published	
  Plan	
  Quality	
  Evaluations	
  (Berke	
  and	
  Godschalk	
  2006)	
  and	
  adapted	
  for	
  this	
  topic.	
  Each	
  category	
  is	
  explained	
  and	
  elaborated	
  on	
  in	
  a	
  later	
  section. Each	
  plan	
  was	
  rated	
  to	
  the	
  extent	
  to	
  which	
  it	
  included	
  the	
  protocol’s	
  items;	
  the	
  items	
  are	
  elements	
  that	
  a	
  plan	
  promoting	
  a	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  should	
  have.	
  Items	
  were	
  given	
  a	
  point	
  for	
  being	
  mentioned,	
  regardless	
  of	
  the	
  strength	
  of	
  the	
  statement.	
  The	
  approach	
  of	
  awarding	
  an	
  additional	
  point	
  if	
  the	
  item	
  was	
  expressed	
  more	
  comprehensively	
  was	
  tried	
   25 Table 2: Fifteen Fastest Growting Census Metropolitan Areas Census Metropolitan Area Population Percentage Increase from 2006-2011 Calgary, A.B. 1,214,839 12.6% Edmonton, A.B. 1,159,869 12.1% Saskatoon, S.K. 260,600 11.4% Kelowna, B.C. 179,839 10.8% Moncton, N.B. 138,644 9.7% Vancouver, B.C. 2,313,328 9.3% Source: National Post, February 8 2012 during	
  the	
  pre-­‐testing	
  stage	
  but	
  discarded	
  due	
  to	
  the	
  inconsistent	
  results	
  that	
  method	
  produced.	
  This	
  approach	
  of	
  awarding	
  a	
  plan	
  0	
  or	
  1	
  or	
  2	
  points	
  depending	
  if	
  an	
  item	
  was	
  “not	
  present”,	
  “narrow”	
  or	
  “comprehensive”	
  has	
  been	
  found	
  in	
  published	
  plan	
  quality	
  evaluations	
  (Eg.	
  Edwards	
  and	
  Haines	
  2007),	
  but	
  the	
  researchers	
  coding	
  this	
  study	
  found	
  it	
  dif(icult	
  to	
  gauge	
  due	
  to	
  vague	
  word	
  usage	
  and	
  differing	
  interpretations.	
  Instead,	
  a	
  binary	
  approach	
  was	
  chosen	
  –	
  as	
  long	
  as	
  there	
  was	
  mention	
  of	
  the	
  item,	
  the	
  plan	
  was	
  awarded	
  1	
  point,	
  if	
  an	
  item	
  was	
  not	
  mentioned,	
  the	
  plan	
  received	
  0	
  points. ExpectationsThere	
  are	
  political	
  concerns	
  and	
  public	
  acceptance	
  issues	
  surrounding	
  a	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance.	
  Fundamental	
  to	
  the	
  concept	
  of	
  a	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  is	
  that	
  such	
  a	
  balance	
  provides	
  opportunities	
  for	
  people	
  to	
  live	
  and	
  work	
  in	
  the	
  same	
  community.	
  It	
  cannot	
  be	
  assumed	
  that	
  everyone	
  wants	
  to	
  live	
  close	
  to	
  their	
  workplace,	
  nor	
  can	
  planners	
  or	
  governments	
  force	
  residents	
  to	
  live	
  and	
  work	
  in	
  the	
  same	
  community.	
  Therefore,	
  it	
  should	
  be	
  accepted	
  that	
  not	
  all	
  municipalities	
  in	
  Metro	
  Vancouver	
  embrace	
  a	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  as	
  a	
  local	
  objective.	
  These	
  municipalities	
  are	
  likely	
  to	
  be	
  smaller,	
  semi-­‐rural	
  communities	
  outside	
  of	
  the	
  region’s	
  Growth	
  Concentration	
  Area	
  (see	
  Figure	
  1).	
  Therefore,	
  it	
  is	
  predicted	
  that	
  population	
  size	
  will	
  affect	
  the	
  extent	
  to	
  which	
  municipalities	
  support	
  a	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance.	
  Compared	
  to	
  smaller	
  communities,	
  larger	
  communities	
  have	
  more	
  housing	
  and	
  employment	
  opportunities	
  and	
  thus	
  should	
  be	
  more	
  concerned	
  with	
  how	
  land	
  use	
  is	
  planned.	
  Further,	
   26 Figure 1: Map of Greater Vancouver's Growth Concentration Area (Source: LRSP 1996) as	
  mentioned	
  above,	
  having	
  a	
  balance	
  of	
  both	
  jobs	
  and	
  housing	
  is	
  a	
  choice	
  municipalities	
  make	
  and	
  some	
  small	
  communities	
  might	
  not	
  wish	
  to	
  do	
  so. Part	
  2	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia’s	
  Local	
  Government	
  Act	
  sets	
  out	
  the	
  classi(ication	
  scheme	
  that	
  gives	
  each	
  new	
  municipality	
  a	
  designation:	
  municipalities	
  with	
  a	
  population	
  less	
  than	
  2,500,	
  are	
  given	
  the	
  designation	
  Village;	
  between	
  2,500	
  and	
  5,000	
  a	
  Town;	
  greater	
  than	
  5,000	
  a	
  City.	
  If	
  the	
  new	
  municipality	
  has	
  an	
  area	
  greater	
  than	
  800	
  hectares	
  and	
  an	
  average	
  population	
  density	
  of	
  less	
  than	
  5	
  persons	
  per	
  hectare,	
  it	
  is	
  designated	
  a	
  District	
  municipality.	
  Therefore,	
  it	
  is	
  expected	
  that	
  Cities,	
  being	
  the	
  most	
  populated	
  and	
  most	
  dense,	
  will	
  score	
  the	
  highest,	
  followed	
  by	
  Districts,	
  and	
  then	
  Villages.	
  Towns	
  are	
  not	
  included	
  in	
  this	
  prediction	
  as	
  there	
  are	
  no	
  Towns	
  in	
  this	
  set	
  of	
  municipalities. Plan	
  EvaluationThe	
  plan	
  evaluation	
  process	
  involved	
  two	
  researchers	
  coding	
  each	
  plan	
  independently	
  based	
  on	
  the	
  established	
  protocol.	
  Prior	
  to	
  coding	
  the	
  Metro	
  Vancouver	
  plans,	
  a	
  pretest	
  was	
  conducted	
  to	
  ensure	
  familiarity	
  of	
  the	
  protocol	
  and	
  consistency	
  between	
  researchers.	
  OCPs	
  that	
  were	
  not	
  part	
  of	
  the	
  set	
  of	
  Metro	
  Vancouver	
  plans	
  were	
  selected.	
  The	
  researchers	
  then	
  independently	
  applied	
  the	
  protocol	
  to	
  the	
  plans	
  and	
  compared	
  the	
  results	
  after	
  each	
  plan.	
  Differences	
  in	
  interpretation	
  and	
  understanding	
  of	
  concepts	
  were	
  resolved,	
  and	
  the	
  protocol	
  was	
  revised	
  until	
  there	
  was	
  a	
  consistent	
  understanding	
  of	
  language	
  and	
  concepts.	
  This	
  pre-­‐test	
  was	
  repeated	
  with	
  three	
  OCPs	
  –	
  Nanaimo,	
  Victoria	
  and	
  Chilliwack.	
  	
  The	
  percent	
  agreement	
  scores	
  achieved	
  were,	
  respectively,	
  77.1%,	
  81.4%	
  and	
  88.6%.	
  Percent	
  agreement	
  scores	
  measure	
  the	
  degree	
  of	
  similarity	
  between	
  each	
  researcher’s	
  score;	
  the	
  measure	
  is	
  equal	
  to	
  the	
  number	
  of	
  coder	
  agreement	
  for	
  items	
  divided	
  by	
  the	
  total	
  number	
  of	
  items.	
  According	
  to	
  the	
  literature,	
  a	
  percentage	
  agreement	
  above	
  80%	
  is	
  generally	
  considered	
  acceptable	
  (Miles	
  and	
  Huberman	
  1984).	
  During	
  the	
  pre-­‐test	
  period,	
  some	
  items	
  were	
  found	
  to	
  be	
  confusing	
  or	
  redundant;	
  some	
  items	
  were	
  removed,	
  reducing	
  the	
  number	
  of	
  items	
  to	
  57	
  from	
  the	
  original	
  61.	
  With	
  each	
  pre-­‐test	
  round,	
  items	
  were	
  better	
  de(ined	
  between	
  researchers	
  to	
  ensure	
  consistent	
  interpretation. 27 During	
  the	
  coding	
  process,	
  the	
  researchers	
  met	
  regularly	
  to	
  discuss	
  items	
  where	
  scoring	
  was	
  inconsistent.	
  In	
  some	
  cases,	
  one	
  researcher	
  had	
  simply	
  misread	
  the	
  plan	
  and	
  the	
  score	
  was	
  corrected.	
  In	
  other	
  cases	
  where	
  there	
  was	
  disagreement,	
  reasons	
  for	
  each	
  researcher’s	
  coding	
  were	
  discussed	
  and	
  the	
  more	
  accurate	
  code	
  was	
  agreed	
  upon.	
  The	
  scores	
  of	
  each	
  plan	
  were	
  tabulated	
  at	
  the	
  end	
  of	
  the	
  plan	
  evaluation	
  process.	
  Each	
  plan	
  had	
  a	
  total	
  score	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  a	
  score	
  for	
  each	
  category	
  (fact	
  base,	
  speci(ic,	
  goals,	
  policies,	
  implementation).	
  According	
  to	
  the	
  literature,	
  it	
  is	
  best	
  practice	
  to	
  analyze	
  plans	
  based	
  on	
  these	
  categories	
  as	
  opposed	
  to	
  using	
  a	
  total	
  score.	
  This	
  is	
  because	
  to	
  use	
  a	
  total	
  score	
  would	
  imply	
  that	
  each	
  category	
  is	
  weighted	
  at	
  an	
  equal	
  value.	
  Instead,	
  categories	
  might	
  not	
  be	
  valued	
  the	
  same	
  and	
  therefore	
  cannot	
  be	
  grouped	
  as	
  one. 28 Analysis and Findings Jobs-­Housing	
  Balance	
  Plan	
  ScoresUsing	
  the	
  developed	
  plan	
  evaluation	
  protocol,	
  content	
  analysis	
  was	
  conducted	
  on	
  each	
  OCP	
  to	
  examine	
  the	
  extent	
  to	
  which	
  it	
  encourages	
  a	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance.	
  The	
  protocol	
  is	
  made	
  up	
  of	
  a	
  series	
  of	
  indicators	
  or	
  items	
  that	
  should	
  exist	
  in	
  a	
  plan	
  that	
  seeks	
  to	
  encourage	
  a	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance.	
  Table	
  3	
  shows	
  the	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  score	
  for	
  each	
  community’s	
  plan.	
  The	
  highest	
  score	
  a	
  community	
  could	
  receive	
  is	
  57	
  or	
  100%.	
  A	
  plan	
  receiving	
  all	
  57	
  points	
  would	
  be	
  what	
  this	
  protocol	
  would	
  deem	
  a	
  “perfect	
  plan”	
  in	
  that	
  it	
  best	
  encourages	
  a	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  in	
  a	
  community.	
  Overall,	
  plans	
  had	
  a	
  weighted	
  mean	
  score	
  of	
  53%.	
  Between	
  the	
  lowest	
  and	
  top	
  scoring	
  plans,	
  there	
  is	
  quite	
  a	
  range,	
  with	
  the	
  lowest	
  scoring	
  plan,	
  Anmore,	
  at	
  19.3%	
  and	
  highest,	
  New	
  Westminster,	
  at	
  77.2%. Size	
  of	
  municipality 	
   As	
  expected,	
  the	
  plans	
  that	
  scored	
  the	
  lowest	
  (under	
  20%)	
  were	
  all	
  the	
  Villages	
  –	
  Anmore,	
  Belcarra,	
  Lions	
  Bay	
  and	
  Bowen	
  Island2	
  (see	
  Table	
  3).	
  These	
  Village	
  municipalities	
   29 2	
  Though	
  technically	
  designated	
  “Island	
  Municipality”,	
  Bowen	
  Island	
  a	
  population	
  les	
  than	
  2,500	
  –	
  the	
  criteria	
  by	
  which	
  Villages	
  are	
  designated. Table 3: Official Community Plan Total Scores Municipality Total Score Designation Anmore 19.3% Village Lions Bay 28.1% Village Bowen Island 31.6% Island Municipality Belcarra 36.8% Village Langley Township 42.1% Township (District) Pitt Meadows 50.9% City Coquitlam 52.6% City Delta 54.4% Corporation (District) District of North Vancouver 54.4% District Langley City 56.1% City City of North Vancouver 57.9% City Maple Ridge 59.6% District Port Coquitlam 59.6% City Vancouver 61.4% City West Vancouver 63.2% District Richmond 64.9% City White Rock 66.7% City Burnaby 68.4% City Surrey 75.4% City Port Moody 75.4% City New Westminster 77.2% City lie	
  outside	
  of	
  the	
  Growth	
  Concentration	
  Area,	
  and	
  have	
  small	
  populations	
  that	
  might	
  desire	
  to	
  be	
  bedroom	
  communities	
  that	
  maintain	
  semi-­‐rural	
  lifestyles	
  and	
  thus	
  generally	
  do	
  not	
  desire	
  to	
  have	
  a	
  balance	
  of	
  jobs	
  and	
  housing	
  (see	
  Figure	
  1).	
  Table	
  4	
  shows	
  the	
  average	
  score	
  of	
  each	
  municipal	
  designation.	
  On	
  average,	
  Villages	
  scored	
  the	
  lowest	
  at	
  28.9%,	
  followed	
  by	
  Districts,	
  which	
  have	
  larger	
  populations,	
  at	
  54.7%.	
  Cities,	
  their	
  denser	
  counterpart,	
  scored	
  the	
  highest	
  overall	
  at	
  63.9%.	
  This	
  is	
  consistent	
  with	
  Edwards	
  and	
  Haines’	
  2007	
  comprehensive	
  plan	
  evaluation	
  of	
  smart	
  growth	
  principles	
  where	
  it	
  was	
  found	
  that	
  how	
  well	
  plans	
  scored	
  correlated	
  to	
  its	
  municipal	
  designation;	
  in	
  that	
  case,	
  Cities	
  and	
  Villages	
  had	
  a	
  higher	
  average	
  score	
  than	
  Towns.	
   The	
  size	
  of	
  a	
  municipality	
  as	
  an	
  indicator	
  of	
  whether	
  or	
  not	
  a	
  municipality	
  will	
  have	
  an	
  OCP	
  that	
  promotes	
  a	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  is	
  based	
  on	
  the	
  assumption	
  that	
  larger	
  cities	
  tend	
  to	
  cater	
  to	
  both	
  employment	
  and	
  housing	
  opportunities,	
  and	
  thus	
  will	
  have	
  more	
  explicit	
  data,	
  goals	
  and	
  policies	
  trying	
  to	
  achieve	
  such	
  a	
  balance.	
  However,	
  this	
  study	
  shows	
  that	
  this	
  indicator	
  is	
  inconsistent	
  and	
  unreliable	
  on	
  its	
  own	
  as	
  Table	
  3	
  demonstrates	
  that	
  some	
  Districts	
  scored	
  higher	
  than	
  some	
  Cities.	
  Therefore,	
  though	
  it	
  can	
  generally	
  be	
  assumed	
  that	
  	
  Cities	
  score	
  better	
  than	
  Districts,	
  and	
  Districts	
  score	
  better	
  than	
  Villages,	
  there	
  might	
  be	
  other	
  factors3	
  that	
  might	
  contribute	
  to	
  exceptions.	
   Analysis	
  by	
  CategoryA	
  comprehensive	
  plan	
  should	
  incorporate	
  any	
  written	
  analyses	
  of	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  ratios,	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  policies,	
  and	
  the	
  data	
  that	
  support	
  them.	
  These	
  goals	
  and	
  policies	
  selected	
  should	
  be	
  explicit	
  and	
  located	
  in	
  relevant	
  places	
  of	
  the	
  comprehensive	
  plan:	
  the	
   30 3	
  In	
  this	
  study,	
  municipal	
  designations	
  were	
  used	
  as	
  a	
  proxy	
  for	
  size	
  of	
  the	
  municipality.	
  One	
  of	
  the	
  limitations	
  of	
  this	
  method	
  is	
  that	
  it	
  does	
  not	
  necessarily	
  reOlect	
  a	
  municipality’s	
  population	
  size	
  at	
  the	
  time	
  of	
  the	
  adoption	
  of	
  the	
  OCP.	
  Municipal	
  designations	
  are	
  given	
  at	
  the	
  time	
  of	
  municipal	
  incorporation	
  and	
  a	
  municipality’s	
  population	
  might	
  have	
  changed	
  drastically	
  since	
  then.	
  Further,	
  Districts	
  might	
  in	
  fact	
  have	
  larger	
  populations	
  than	
  some	
  Cities,	
  but	
  have	
  received	
  designations	
  as	
  Districts	
  because	
  they	
  are	
  larger	
  in	
  terms	
  of	
  land	
  mass	
  and	
  thus	
  less	
  dense. Table 4: Average Plan Score by Municipal Designation Municipal Designation Average Score Village 28.9% District 54.7% City 63.9% housing,	
  economic	
  development,	
  and	
  land-­‐use	
  elements.	
  (Weitz	
  2003).	
  The	
  plan	
  evaluation	
  protocol	
  used	
  in	
  this	
  study	
  was	
  developed	
  with	
  this	
  in	
  mind	
  and	
  this	
  section	
  elaborates	
  on	
  the	
  items	
  that	
  make	
  up	
  the	
  protocol	
  and	
  provides	
  an	
  analysis	
  of	
  how	
  the	
  plans	
  did. The	
  results	
  in	
  Table	
  5	
  show	
  that	
  Fact	
  Base	
  was	
  the	
  best	
  scoring	
  category,	
  with	
  plans	
  scoring	
  60.7%	
  on	
  average.	
  This	
  is	
  not	
  surprising	
  as	
  facts	
  and	
  data	
  related	
  to	
  a	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  such	
  as	
  a	
  count,	
  composition,	
  projection	
  and	
  location	
  of	
  jobs	
  and	
  housing	
  are	
  basic	
  elements	
  of	
  comprehensive	
  plans	
  and	
  are	
  relatively	
  easy	
  to	
  collect.	
  Even	
  small	
  municipalities	
  without	
  resources	
  to	
  do	
  their	
  own	
  studies	
  can	
  borrow	
  from	
  census	
  data	
  or	
  other	
  levels	
  of	
  government.	
  Further,	
  the	
  Metro	
  Vancouver	
  region	
  does	
  extensive	
  data	
  collection	
  and	
  projections	
  that	
  are	
  shared	
  with	
  municipalities.	
   Implementation	
  scored	
  the	
  lowest	
  amongst	
  the	
  categories,	
  decreasing	
  the	
  probability	
  that	
  well	
  intended	
  goals	
  and	
  policies	
  will	
  become	
  reality.	
  On	
  one	
  hand,	
  this	
  might	
  imply	
  that	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  goals	
  are	
  merely	
  lip	
  service,	
  written	
  without	
  any	
  plan	
  or	
  intent	
  of	
  action.	
  On	
  the	
  other	
  hand,	
  the	
  omission	
  of	
  speci(ic	
  implementation	
  actions	
  might	
  be	
  well	
  intended	
  –	
  to	
  enable	
  the	
  Of(icial	
  Community	
  Plan	
  to	
  remain	
  a	
  high	
  level	
  visionary	
  document	
  that	
  can	
  gain	
  consensus	
  for	
  adoption	
  easily,	
  while	
  leaving	
  more	
  detailed	
  implementation	
  actions	
  for	
  area	
  plans	
  and	
  zoning	
  regulations.	
   31 Table 5: Analysis Results by Category Category Min Max Mean Fact Base 25.0% 85.0% 60.7% Specific 10.0% 100.0% 53.2% Goals 0.0% 100.0% 53.6% Policies 23.1% 76.9% 52.4% Implementation 11.1% 77.8% 49.2% Fact	
  BaseIt	
  is	
  crucial	
  for	
  local	
  governments	
  to	
  be	
  aware	
  of	
  existing	
  conditions	
  in	
  their	
  municipality	
  before	
  considering	
  any	
  policy	
  changes	
  in	
  support	
  of	
  a	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance.	
  Prior	
  to	
  any	
  analysis	
  or	
  decisions,	
  data	
  on	
  existing	
  employment	
  and	
  housing	
  in	
  the	
  municipality	
  should	
  be	
  collected.	
  Local	
  planners	
  should	
  be	
  armed	
  with	
  this	
  information	
  in	
  order	
  to	
  make	
  informed	
  decisions	
  and	
  answer	
  questions	
  from	
  decision-­‐makers	
  or	
  the	
  public	
  in	
  regards	
  to	
  the	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balancing.	
  Additionally,	
  it	
  may	
  be	
  found	
  that	
  there	
  is	
  insuf(icient	
  data	
  to	
  make	
  an	
  educated	
  decision	
  and	
  additional	
  data	
  need	
  to	
  be	
  collected. Data	
  relating	
  to	
  jobs	
  and	
  housing	
  that	
  make	
  up	
  a	
  fact	
  base	
  are	
  fairly	
  easily	
  obtained	
  through	
  sources	
  such	
  as	
  the	
  census	
  or	
  other	
  public	
  agencies.	
  Further,	
  items	
  such	
  as	
  a	
  land	
  use	
  map	
  are	
  required	
  by	
  the	
  British	
  Columbia	
  Local	
  Government	
  Act	
  to	
  be	
  part	
  of	
  an	
  OCP.	
  Not	
  surprisingly,	
  this	
  category	
  scored	
  the	
  highest	
  in	
  the	
  analysis	
  with	
  the	
  average	
  plan	
   32 Min score of an OCP Max score of an OCP Mean score of 21 OCPs 25.0% 85.0% 60.7% Fact Base Items Score Card Item - Current Data Frequency (/21) Population Present Size 17 Population Present Composition 11 Households Present Count 14 Housing Types Present Count 16 Jobs Present Count 10 Jobs Present Composition 6 Residents Work Within Municipality Census Data 5 Item - Projects Frequency (/21) Population Future Size 20 Population Future Composition 5 Households Future Count 20 Housing Types Future Count 10 Jobs Future Count 14 Jobs Future Composition 3 Item - Analyzed Data Frequency (/21) Housing Land Supply 18 Economic Dev Land Supply 15 Residents Work Within Municipality Analysis 7 Item - Spatial Data Frequency (/21) Location of Population/ Household Growth 20 Location of Jobs Growth 16 Map - Land Use 17 Map - Urban Villages/Town Centres 11 Figure 2: Fact Base Items Score Card scoring	
  60.7%	
  This	
  is	
  positive	
  as	
  having	
  the	
  facts	
  and	
  information	
  provides	
  a	
  good	
  foundation	
  upon	
  which	
  local	
  governments	
  can	
  make	
  policy	
  decisions. As	
  Weitz	
  comments,	
  “an	
  updated	
  comprehensive	
  plan	
  with	
  existing	
  and	
  projected	
  population,	
  housing,	
  and	
  employment	
  data	
  is	
  absolutely	
  essential	
  to	
  the	
  implementation	
  of	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  policies”	
  (2003,	
  23).	
  The	
  literature	
  recommends	
  that	
  protocol	
  items	
  not	
  only	
  include	
  current	
  and	
  future	
  housing	
  and	
  employment	
  data,	
  but	
  also	
  look	
  beyond	
  total	
  numbers	
  to	
  de(ine	
  composition,	
  such	
  as	
  housing	
  types,	
  population	
  and	
  job	
  composition.	
  This	
  is	
  important	
  because	
  a	
  community	
  with	
  80%	
  of	
  its	
  population	
  in	
  the	
  labour	
  force	
  will	
  have	
  very	
  different	
  needs	
  from	
  a	
  community	
  with	
  80%	
  of	
  seniors	
  and	
  children.	
  Likewise,	
  different	
  household	
  compositions	
  require	
  different	
  housing	
  types	
  –	
  a	
  single	
  working	
  adult	
  might	
  prefer	
  a	
  studio	
  apartment	
  while	
  a	
  family	
  of	
  5	
  might	
  prefer	
  a	
  single	
  family	
  home	
  with	
  a	
  yard.	
  It	
  is	
  interesting	
  to	
  note	
  that	
  there	
  were	
  3	
  items	
  that	
  20	
  OCPs	
  included:	
   • Households	
  Future	
  –	
  The	
  projected	
  number	
  of	
  households	
  or	
  housing	
  stock	
  (number	
  of	
  houses)	
  in	
  the	
  future.	
   • Population	
  Future	
  Size	
  -­‐	
  Population	
  size,	
  projection	
  into	
  the	
  future	
  (any	
  year	
  into	
  the	
  future). • Location	
  of	
  Population/Household	
  Growth	
  –	
  A	
  spatial	
  acknowledgement	
  of	
  where	
  the	
  majority	
  of	
  residential	
  growth	
  will	
  be	
  concentrated	
  (what	
  areas/neighbourhoods).	
  This	
  can	
  be	
  in	
  the	
  form	
  of	
  a	
  statement	
  or	
  map.	
   This	
  is	
  a	
  positive	
  (inding	
  as	
  it	
  shows	
  that	
  nearly	
  all	
  municipalities	
  are	
  making	
  sure	
  to	
  consider	
  future	
  population	
  and	
  household	
  growth	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  where	
  such	
  growth	
  will	
  be	
  located.	
  Notably,	
  data	
  on	
  future	
  jobs	
  did	
  not	
  show	
  up	
  as	
  frequently;	
  this	
  information	
  is	
  generally	
  less	
  accessible	
  than	
  population	
  data.	
  In	
  fact,	
  the	
  item	
  with	
  the	
  lowest	
  frequency	
  was	
  “Jobs	
  Future	
  Composition”,	
  present	
  in	
  only	
  3	
  out	
  of	
  the	
  21	
  OCPs.	
  While	
  it	
  seems	
  more	
  dif(icult	
  to	
  forecast	
  jobs	
  than	
  housing/population,	
  it	
  appears	
  even	
  more	
  complex	
  to	
  predict	
  future	
  compositions.	
  “Population	
  Future	
  Composition”	
  was	
  only	
  found	
  in	
  5	
  plans	
  out	
  of	
  21,	
  the	
  second	
  lowest	
  frequency.	
   33 34 Figure 3: Fact Base Best Practice Example - Corporation of Delta CORPORATION	
  OF	
  DELTA Fact	
  Base	
  –	
  Best	
  Practice	
  ExampleSome	
  examples	
  of	
  best	
  practice	
  elements	
  found	
  in	
  Delta’s	
  OCP	
  that	
  contributed	
  to	
  its	
  high	
  score	
  in	
  the	
  fact	
  base	
  category	
  are: A	
  graph	
  accompanying	
  text	
  that	
  shows	
  Delta’s	
  historical	
  population	
  growth	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  projected	
  growth.	
  A	
  side	
  text	
  box	
  breaks	
  down	
  the	
  current	
  population	
  according	
  to	
  sub-­‐areas. Projected	
  age	
  structure,	
  accompanied	
  by	
  an	
  in-­‐text	
  discussion	
  of	
  future	
  implications	
  such	
  as	
  an	
  aging	
  population	
  and	
  shrinking	
  household	
  sizes.	
   A	
  graph	
  shows	
  projected	
  employment	
  growth	
  to	
  2031,	
  with	
  accompanying	
  text	
  providing	
  some	
  explanation	
  to	
  the	
  predicted	
  trend. This chart shows estimates of employment growth in Delta to the year 2031. Improvements in the transportation system could lead to more jobs in the transportation and warehousing sectors. The continued development of Delta’s industrial areas could lead to additional high tech and manufacturing jobs. This employment growth is likely to occur in existing industrial and commercial areas as policies in this OCP support directing growth and development to existing areas. A	
  chart	
  showing	
  the	
  composition	
  of	
  jobs	
  in	
  Delta. Recognizing	
  where	
  development	
  is	
  located	
  in	
  a	
  community	
  and	
  where	
  future	
  growth	
  should	
  be	
  located	
  is	
  another	
  important	
  element	
  that	
  can	
  be	
  captured	
  through	
  a	
  future	
  land	
  use	
  plan	
  or	
  map.	
  Plans	
  gained	
  points	
  for	
  including	
  a	
  future	
  land	
  use	
  map	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  a	
  map	
  identifying	
  Urban	
  Villages	
  or	
  Town	
  Centres.	
  The	
  plans	
  were	
  also	
  rewarded	
  for	
  identifying	
  the	
  location	
  of	
  population/household	
  growth	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  the	
  location	
  of	
  jobs	
  growth. 35 The future land-use plan establishes a community’s vision that translates needs for new jobs and new housing units into a recommended pattern, mix, and intensity of land uses. Future land-use plans tell citizens, developers, and local decision makers the approximate locations in the community where houses should be built and employment centres should be established. These plans, therefore, should be closely linked to the need for future development as determined by projections of population and employment growth. Weitz 2003, p.23 SpeciEicThis	
  category	
  consists	
  of	
  data	
  and	
  goal	
  items	
  that	
  are	
  very	
  speci(ic	
  to	
  and	
  directly	
  address	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balancing.	
  There	
  was	
  a	
  fairly	
  wide	
  spread	
  amongst	
  the	
  plans	
  in	
  this	
  category,	
  with	
  the	
  lowest	
  scoring	
  OCP	
  at	
  10%	
  and	
  the	
  highest	
  scoring	
  OCP	
  at	
  100%;	
  the	
  average	
  plan	
  scored	
  55%.	
  It	
  was	
  somewhat	
  expected	
  that	
  the	
  smaller,	
  more	
  rural	
  plans	
  would	
  not	
  score	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  larger	
  cities	
  within	
  Metro	
  Vancouver’s	
  Growth	
  Concentration	
  Area	
  (refer	
  to	
  Figure	
  1)	
  where	
  both	
  housing	
  and	
  employment	
  growth	
  are	
  encouraged	
  by	
  the	
  region.	
   The	
  protocol	
  looked	
  to	
  see	
  whether	
  OCPs	
  provided	
  dedicated	
  sections	
  or	
  at	
  least	
  a	
  paragraph	
  discussing	
  the	
  general	
  issue	
  of	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balancing;	
  only	
  9	
  out	
  of	
  21	
  OCPs	
  did	
  so.	
  This	
  item	
  does	
  not	
  capture	
  a	
  municipality’s	
  situation,	
  intentions	
  or	
  goals,	
  but	
  merely	
  gives	
  it	
  a	
  point	
  for	
  mentioning	
  the	
  topic.	
  Out	
  of	
  the	
  21	
  OCPs,	
  7	
  provided	
  the	
  municipality’s	
  current	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance.	
  In	
  order	
  to	
  gain	
  a	
  point	
  for	
  this	
  item,	
  the	
  plan	
  must	
  explicitly	
  compare	
  the	
  current	
  number	
  of	
  jobs	
  to	
  the	
  number	
  of	
  houses.	
  Six	
  out	
  of	
  these	
  7	
  did	
  so	
  using	
   36 Min score of an OCP Max score of an OCP Mean score of 21 OCPs 10.0% 100.0% 55.0% Specific Items Score Card Item - General Frequency (/21) Section or Paragraph Dedicated to Jobs-Housing Balance Issues 9 Current Jobs-Housing Balance 7 Defined Target or Ratio 6 Defined Target or Ratio Based on Analysis 5 Quantitative Analysis of Jobs- Housing Balance 6 Item - Regional Factors Frequency (/21) Regional Growth Strategy Goal 18 Town Centres 15 Relate Jobs-Housing Balance and Transportation 15 Coordination Between Municipalities/Agencies 5 Item - Qualitative Factors Frequency (/21) Qualitative Factors of Housing 19 Qualitative Factors of Jobs 12 Figure 4: Specific Items Score Card 37 CITY	
  OF	
  PORT	
  MOODY SpeciMic	
  Items	
  -­	
  Best	
  Practice	
  ExampleSome	
  examples	
  of	
  best	
  practice	
  elements	
  found	
  in	
  Port	
  Moody’s	
  OCP	
  that	
  contributed	
  to	
  its	
  high	
  score	
  in	
  the	
  speci(ic	
  items	
  category	
  are: The jobs to housing balance is intended to promote urban growth that maintains a sustainable local tax base, provides an adequate range of shops and services in each area and allows people to live close to work or work close to home. Closely linked to this balance is the provision of a sufficient number of employment opportunities to match the resident labour force. Based on the 2006 Census, Port Moody had a jobs to employed residents ratio of 0.42. This ratio has consistently decreased from 0.44 in 2001 and 0.55 in 1991. Although in absolute terms, the number of jobs in Port Moody increased by 28% since 2001, this figure is overshadowed by the significant population growth in the city during this same period. ...Seventy-four percent of employed residents left Port Moody to travel to jobs in other municipalities, predominantly in Vancouver, Burnaby and Coquitlam. While the number of residents living and working in Port Moody is growing, the commuting pattern of the majority of employed residents continues to have a significant impact on the consumption of fossil fuels, greenhouse gas emissions, air quality, traffic congestion and reduces employees’ quality of life. ✓	
  Port	
  Moody’s	
  OCP	
  dedicated	
  a	
  whole	
  section	
  to	
  discuss	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance; ✓	
  States	
  the	
  curent	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance; ✓	
  Provides	
  historic	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  and	
  discusses	
  changes	
  and	
  trends; ✓	
  Discusses	
  the	
  impacts	
  of	
  a	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  inbalance	
  on	
  commuting	
  patterns,	
  and	
  on	
  the	
  effects	
  of	
  congestion. The Inlet Centre area in Port Moody is identified in the LRSP as a Municipal Town Centre. The City of Port Moody will continue to work towards greater consistency between its OCP and the Complete Community policies of the LRSP by: • Exploring the use of variety of measures to encourage the maintenance and development of affordable housing in the City including density bonussing, inclusive zoning, streamlining the approval process, rental replacement program, pre-zoning for supportive housing and treatment facilities and consideration of innovative housing forms such as small-house/small lot development, cluster housing, laneway housing and garden suites ✓	
  Recognition	
  of	
  a	
  regionally	
  designated	
  Town	
  Centre. ✓	
  Not	
  only	
  complying	
  with	
  the	
  RGS	
  goal,	
  but	
  also	
  stating	
  means	
  by	
  which	
  greater	
  consistency	
  will	
  be	
  achieved	
  between	
  the	
  OCP	
  and	
  the	
  RGS. Figure 5: Specific Items Best Practice Example 1 - City of Port Moody a	
  table	
  comparing	
  the	
  two	
  numbers	
  (coded	
  under	
  “Quantitative	
  Analysis	
  of	
  Jobs-­‐Housing	
  Balance”).	
  Six	
  OCPs	
  had	
  a	
  projected	
  goal	
  of	
  a	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance,	
  providing	
  a	
  de(ined	
  target	
  and/or	
  ratio.	
  It	
  is	
  interesting	
  to	
  note	
  that	
  the	
  6	
  OCPs	
  with	
  projected	
  targets	
  were	
  not	
  necessarily	
  the	
  same	
  as	
  the	
  7	
  OCPs	
  that	
  provided	
  current	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  data;	
  only	
  5	
  OCPs	
  had	
  both	
  pieces	
  of	
  information	
  and	
  there	
  was	
  one	
  case	
  of	
  an	
  OCP	
  that	
  stated	
  a	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  target	
  without	
  analysis	
  of	
  its	
  current	
  situation.	
  This	
  implication	
  that	
  an	
  OCP	
  chose	
  a	
  balancing	
  target	
  without	
  analysis	
  of	
  the	
  current	
  situation	
  is	
  not	
  encouraged	
  as	
  the	
  literature	
  recommends	
  that	
  targets	
  be	
  based	
  on	
  an	
  assessment	
  of	
  local	
  conditions.	
  Similarly,	
  it	
  is	
  disappointing	
  that	
  only	
  5	
  OCPs	
  provided	
  a	
  discussion	
  of	
  how	
  they	
  came	
  to	
  their	
  de(ined	
  target/ratio	
  (coded	
  under	
  “De(ined	
  Target	
  or	
  Ratio	
  based	
  on	
  Analysis”),	
  again	
  not	
  linking	
  their	
  target	
  to	
  an	
  analysis	
  of	
  local	
  factors.	
   The	
  literature	
  recommends	
  that	
  a	
  good	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  is	
  one	
  that	
  goes	
  beyond	
  basic	
  quantitative	
  evaluation	
  to	
  consider	
  more	
  re(ined	
  qualitative	
  aspects	
  in	
  order	
  to	
  better	
  address	
  the	
  needs	
  of	
  a	
  community.	
  Thus,	
  this	
  protocol	
  rewards	
  plans	
  that	
  address	
  qualitative	
  factors	
  of	
  both	
  jobs	
  and	
  housing.	
  Both	
  qualitative	
  factors	
  of	
  jobs	
  and	
  of	
  housing	
  were	
  frequently	
  discussed,	
  with	
  qualitative	
  factors	
  of	
  jobs	
  being	
  mentioned	
  in	
  12	
  plans	
  and	
  that	
  of	
  housing	
  in	
  19	
  plans.	
  This	
  high	
  frequency	
  is	
  not	
  surprising	
  as	
  housing	
  affordability	
  is	
  one	
  of	
  the	
  biggest	
  issues	
  in	
  the	
  region. Regional	
  elements	
  are	
  also	
  considered	
  in	
  this	
  category	
  as	
  “the	
  issue	
  of	
  balancing	
  jobs	
  and	
  housing	
  manifests	
  itself	
  most	
  often	
  in	
  a	
  regional	
  context”	
  (Weitz	
  2003,	
  14).	
  To	
  its	
  credit,	
  the	
  LRSP	
  speci(ically	
  addresses	
  the	
  jobs-­‐labour	
  force	
  balance	
  (one	
  type	
  of	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  measure)	
  through	
  its	
  own	
  goals.	
  This	
  protocol	
  rewards	
  plans	
  that	
  explicitly	
  support	
  the	
  regional	
  goal;	
  18	
  out	
  of	
  21	
  plans	
  did	
  so.	
  Referencing	
  coordination	
  with	
  other	
  agencies	
  or	
  municipalities	
  to	
  encourage	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balancing,	
  identifying	
  town	
  centres	
  in	
  their	
  municipality,	
  and	
  discussing	
  the	
  link	
  between	
  a	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  and	
  transportation	
  or	
  mobility	
  issues	
  all	
  gained	
  OCPs	
  points	
  as	
  well.	
   38 39 CITY	
  OF	
  SURREY SpeciMic	
  Items	
  -­	
  Best	
  Practice	
  ExampleSome	
  examples	
  of	
  best	
  practice	
  elements	
  found	
  in	
  Surrey’s	
  OCP	
  that	
  contributed	
  to	
  its	
  high	
  score	
  in	
  the	
  speci(ic	
  items	
  category	
  are: Employment. While Surrey’s job growth has been steady over the past 10 years, population growth has exceeded employment growth. The 1996 Census estimated that about 87,000 jobs were located in Surrey. With a population of 304,000 and a labour force of 159,000, Surrey had about 5.5 jobs for every 10 residents in the labour force. Figure A-2 shows that Surrey’s employment to resident labour force ratio ranked 6th among the 7 largest GVRD cities. An	
  analysis	
  of	
  the	
  labour	
  force	
  to	
  jobs	
  ratio,	
  and	
  a	
  comparison	
  with	
  neighbouring	
  cities. Surrey’s	
  OCP	
  states	
  that	
  one	
  of	
  its	
  primary	
  objectives	
  is	
  to	
  achieve	
  a	
  jobs	
  to	
  labour	
  force	
  ratio	
  of	
  1:1.	
  It	
  then	
  provides	
  detailed	
  analysis	
  in	
  the	
  form	
  of	
  an	
  economic	
  growth	
  scenario.	
  The	
  table	
  below	
  shows	
  the	
  current	
  projected	
  trend	
  will	
  result	
  in	
  a	
  jobs	
  to	
  labour	
  force	
  ratio	
  of	
  only	
  0.69	
  by	
  the	
  year	
  2021.	
  The	
  OCP	
  objectives	
  strive	
  to	
  increase	
  the	
  number	
  of	
  jobs;	
  achieving	
  the	
  OCP	
  growth	
  objectives	
  would	
  result	
  in	
  a	
  jobs	
  to	
  labour	
  force	
  ratio	
  of	
  0.95	
  by	
  year	
  2021. Figure 6: Specific Items Best Practice Example 2 - City of Surrey Goals 	
   A	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  is	
  a	
  choice	
  that	
  a	
  community	
  makes.	
  It	
  is	
  not	
  appropriate	
  for	
  all	
  communities	
  as	
  there	
  are	
  some	
  that	
  choose	
  a	
  rural/semi-­‐rural	
  lifestyle	
  or	
  want	
  to	
  remain	
  bedroom	
  communities.	
  The	
  wide	
  spread	
  of	
  scores	
  from	
  0%	
  to	
  100%	
  is	
  indicative	
  that	
  the	
  goal	
  of	
  a	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  is	
  a	
  choice	
  communities	
  make,	
  with	
  some	
  embracing	
  or	
  rejecting	
  such	
  goals	
  entirely.	
  Villages	
  and	
  more	
  rural	
  communities	
  scored	
  the	
  lowest,	
  while	
  cities	
  within	
  the	
  Growth	
  Concentration	
  Area	
  scored	
  the	
  highest.	
   	
   This	
  category	
  is	
  signi(icant	
  as	
  for	
  communities	
  that	
  choose	
  to	
  have	
  a	
  balance	
  of	
  jobs	
  and	
  housing,	
  it	
  is	
  important	
  for	
  their	
  comprehensive	
  plans	
  to	
  state	
  clear,	
  de(ined	
  goals	
  (Weitz	
  2003).	
  While	
  no	
  municipality’s	
  OCP	
  explicitly	
  stated	
  that	
  it	
  does	
  not	
  want	
  a	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance,	
  there	
  were	
  4	
  plans	
  (Anmore,	
  Belcarra,	
  Delta	
  and	
  Lions	
  Bay)	
  where	
  none	
  of	
  the	
  goals	
  in	
  this	
  protocol	
  were	
  found,	
  thus	
  receiving	
  a	
  0%	
  score	
  for	
  this	
  category.	
  The	
  general	
  goal	
  of	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  is	
  a	
  crucial	
  indicator	
  whose	
  presence	
  re(lects	
  a	
  municipality’s	
  choice	
  to	
  seek	
  out	
  a	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance;	
  15	
  out	
  of	
  21	
  plans	
  indicated	
  a	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  as	
  an	
  objective	
  in	
  their	
  OCP.	
  It	
  is	
  also	
  important	
  to	
  ensure	
  that	
  there	
  is	
  consistency	
  within	
  the	
  plan,	
  therefore	
  goals	
  to	
  support	
  a	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  should	
  also	
  be	
  found	
  in	
  both	
  the	
  employment	
  and	
  housing	
  sections	
  of	
  the	
  plan	
  as	
  recommended	
  by	
  the	
  literature.	
  It	
  is	
  notable	
  that	
  a	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  goal	
  was	
  more	
  often	
  found	
  in	
  Economic	
  Development	
  sections	
  of	
  plans	
  than	
  in	
  the	
  housing/residential	
  section.	
   40 Min score of an OCP Max score of an OCP Mean score of 21 OCPs 0.0% 100.0% 50.0% Goal Items Score Card Item - General Frequency (/21) General Goal of Jobs-Housing Balance 15 Goal to Reduce Use of Private Vehicles 9 Item - Section Consistency Frequency (/21) Section - Economic Development 11 Section - Housing/Residential Development 9 Figure 7: Goal Items Score Card   Another	
  goal	
  in	
  this	
  protocol	
  is	
  that	
  of	
  the	
  reduction	
  of	
  the	
  usage	
  of	
  private	
  vehicles.	
  This	
  item	
  takes	
  into	
  account	
  the	
  commute	
  between	
  work	
  and	
  home,	
  rewarding	
  a	
  plan	
  for	
  having	
  a	
  goal	
  of	
  concentrating	
  residential	
  and	
  employment	
  opportunities	
  in	
  order	
  to	
  reduce	
  usage	
  of	
  private	
  automobiles	
  and	
  to	
  facilitate	
  the	
  provision	
  of	
  public	
  transit	
  in	
  support	
  of	
  a	
  complete	
  community. 41 CITY	
  OF	
  RICHMOND Goals	
  -­	
  Best	
  Practice	
  ExampleSome	
  examples	
  of	
  best	
  practice	
  elements	
  found	
  in	
  Richmond’s	
  OCP	
  that	
  contributed	
  to	
  its	
  high	
  score	
  in	
  the	
  goals	
  category	
  are: Recognizing Richmond’s rural heritage, “garden city” tradition, and strong economic growth. To achieve BALANCE between: • Urban and rural uses; • Development and the natural environment; • Jobs and housing, especially entry-level housing In	
  the	
  Goals	
  section,	
  the	
  OCP	
  explicitly	
  lists	
  a	
  balance	
  of	
  jobs	
  and	
  housing	
  as	
  a	
  goal,	
  and	
  included	
  results	
  of	
  a	
  survey	
  that	
  shows	
  residents’	
  support	
  for	
  the	
  goal. The	
  Regional	
  Context	
  Statement	
  section	
  highlights	
  the	
  goal	
  of	
  balancing	
  jobs	
  and	
  housing	
  as	
  part	
  of	
  the	
  “Building	
  Complete	
  Communities”	
  objective	
  of	
  the	
  LRSP.	
  It	
  references	
  both	
  the	
  economy	
  and	
  housing	
  sections,	
  where	
  speci(ic	
  goals	
  and	
  policies	
  are	
  listed	
  in	
  more	
  detail. The OCP supports the "Building Complete Communities" policies described in the Livable Regional Strategic Plan. The OCP (see 2.4 Commercial, and City Centre Area Plan) identifies and promotes key strategies for facilitating the achievement of complete communities, by working to balance the City's role as an economic centre through the creation and reinforcement of strong neighbourhoods; the development of a broad range of housing to meet the needs of a sizable and diverse resident population; and fostering locally based employment and jobs (see 2.0 Jobs & Business, and 3.0 Neighbourhoods & Housing). Figure 8: Goals Best Practice Example - City of Richmond PoliciesPolicies	
  set	
  out	
  speci(ic	
  directions	
  that	
  municipalities	
  desire.	
  Policies	
  in	
  this	
  protocol	
  were	
  developed	
  based	
  on	
  recommendations	
  from	
  the	
  literature	
  (Weitz	
  2003;	
  Cervero	
  1989,	
  1996).	
  The	
  goal	
  of	
  these	
  policies	
  is	
  to	
  ensure	
  individuals	
  have	
  suf(icient	
  housing	
  that	
  is	
  suitable	
  to	
  their	
  household/lifestyle	
  close	
  to	
  jobs	
  that	
  are	
  appropriate	
  to	
  their	
  skill	
  levels.	
  The	
  encouragement	
  of	
  mixed	
  land	
  uses	
  was	
  commonly	
  found	
  in	
  19	
  out	
  of	
  21	
  plans	
  –	
  a	
  positive	
  sign	
  as	
  “mixed-­‐use	
  development	
  may	
  be	
  the	
  most	
  promising	
  option	
  today	
  for	
  providing	
  this	
  choice	
  [of	
  allowing	
  individuals	
  to	
  live	
  close	
  to	
  where	
  they	
  work]”	
  (Weitz	
  2003,	
  13).	
  Other	
  policies	
  that	
  allow	
  home	
  occupation,	
  found	
  in	
  19	
  plans,	
  and	
  live/work	
  units,	
  in	
  5	
  plans,	
  strongly	
  promote	
  a	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  as	
  an	
  individual	
  is	
  able	
  to	
  live	
  and	
  work	
  in	
  the	
  same	
  space	
  –	
  the	
  ultimate	
  balance	
  of	
  jobs	
  and	
  housing!	
   Policies	
  guiding	
  development	
  can	
  also	
  promote	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance:	
  Planned	
  Unit	
  Developments	
  (PUD)	
  are	
  a	
  type	
  of	
  Master	
  Planned	
  Development	
  that	
  allow	
  mixtures	
  of	
  housing	
  types	
  with	
  supportive	
  neighbourhood	
  commercial	
  use.	
  PUD	
  regulations	
  might	
  specify	
  that	
  a	
  certain	
  percentage	
  of	
  housing	
  units	
  be	
  live/work,	
  or	
  that	
  a	
  minimum	
   42 Min score of an OCP Max score of an OCP Mean score of 21 OCPs 23.1% 76.9% 50.0% Policy Items Score Card Item - Policies Frequency (/21) Accessory/Secondary/Infill Housing 19 Home Occupation 19 Mixed Land Use 19 Reduce Private Vehicle Use 16 Commercial Centres 14 Incentives 12 Inclusionary Zoning 7 Live/Work Units 5 Planning Unit Developments 1 Linkage Programs 0 Item - Section Consistency Frequency (/21) Section - Economic Development 17 Section - Housing/Residential Development 13 Item - Strength Frequency (/21) Policies Action-Oriented/ Mandatory 1 Figure 9: Policy Items Score Card percentage	
  of	
  developed	
  land	
  be	
  designated	
  to	
  commercial,	
  civic	
  or	
  of(ice	
  space.	
  Inclusionary	
  zoning	
  works	
  the	
  same	
  way,	
  requiring	
  developers	
  to	
  include	
  affordable	
  housing	
  in	
  market-­‐rate	
  housing	
  developments.	
  Incentive	
  programs	
  such	
  as	
  density	
  bonusing,	
  reduced	
  fees,	
  reduced	
  fees	
  or	
  expedited	
  processing	
  times	
  can	
  be	
  implemented	
  to	
  encourage	
  developers	
  to	
  provide	
  types	
  of	
  developments	
  needed	
  to	
  balance	
  jobs	
  or	
  housing	
   43 CITY	
  OF	
  PORT	
  MOODY Policies	
  -­	
  Best	
  Practice	
  ExampleSome	
  examples	
  of	
  best	
  practice	
  elements	
  found	
  in	
  Port	
  Moody’s	
  OCP	
  that	
  contributed	
  to	
  its	
  high	
  score	
  in	
  the	
  policies	
  category	
  are: Figure 10: Policies Best Practice Example - City of Port Moody • Expanding the City’s economic base to move toward a balance between the resident labour force and jobs and accommodate the diverse needs and skills of the community • Attracting new businesses that contribute to the local economy and provide local employment opportunities • Creating opportunities for residents to live and work in the same community by encouraging high density mixed use developments within Inlet Centre • Encouraging live/work and work/live units as part of multi- family and mixed use development as a means of creating local jobs and small business opportunities and reducing commuter traffic • Encouraging a variety of housing types, forms and tenures to meet the changing needs of a diverse population of varying ages, income levels, accessibility and lifestyles • Encouraging the establishment of locally oriented commercial activities that serve the daily shopping needs of residents, as well as, specialty retail businesses • Encouraging home based businesses provided there are no adverse impacts on residential neighbourhoods • Promoting improved public transit connections, bicycle and pedestrian linkages and other alternatives to the automobile 	
   ✓General	
  policies	
  regarding	
  economic	
  development	
  as	
  pertaining	
  to	
  a	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance ✓Mixed	
  Land	
  Use ✓	
  Live/Work	
  Units 	
   ✓	
  Accessory/Secondary/In(ill	
  housing ✓	
  Commercial	
  Centres ✓	
  Home	
  Occupation ✓	
  Reduce	
  Private	
  Vehicles (e.g.	
  affordable	
  housing,	
  commercial	
  space).	
  Linkage	
  programs	
  encourage	
  or	
  require	
  major	
  employers	
  to	
  secure	
  or	
  provide	
  housing	
  for	
  a	
  portion	
  of	
  any	
  new	
  workforce	
  created	
  by	
  those	
  employers.	
     It	
  was	
  not	
  surprising	
  to	
  see	
  that	
  policies	
  encouraging	
  accessory	
  housing	
  were	
  found	
  in	
  19	
  of	
  the	
  plans.	
  In(ill	
  housing	
  provides	
  affordable	
  options	
  close	
  to	
  jobs;	
  this	
  is	
  particularly	
  signi(icant	
  in	
  the	
  Metro	
  Vancouver	
  region	
  where	
  housing	
  affordability	
  is	
  one	
  of	
  the	
  most	
  pressing	
  issues.	
  Not	
  found	
  in	
  any	
  of	
  the	
  OCPs	
  was	
  mention	
  of	
  linkage	
  programs,	
  perhaps	
  not	
  feasible	
  in	
  this	
  region	
  where	
  there	
  are	
  no	
  major	
  employers	
  with	
  substantial	
  campuses	
  unlike	
  in	
  areas	
  such	
  as	
  San	
  Francisco,	
  Berkeley	
  and	
  Boston	
  where	
  such	
  programs	
  are	
  popular	
  (Weitz	
  2003).	
  Planned	
  Unit	
  Developments	
  were	
  also	
  not	
  found	
  in	
  the	
  majority	
  of	
  OCPs.	
  This	
  is	
  perhaps	
  because	
  such	
  regulations	
  might	
  be	
  too	
  detailed	
  for	
  a	
  high-­‐level	
  plan	
  such	
  as	
  an	
  OCP,	
  and	
  may	
  be	
  found	
  in	
  area	
  plans	
  or	
  zoning	
  regulations.	
   An	
  extra	
  point	
  was	
  awarded	
  to	
  OCPs	
  whose	
  actions	
  were	
  action-­‐oriented	
  or	
  mandatory.	
  The	
  de(inition	
  for	
  “action-­‐oriented/mandatory”	
  was	
  obtained	
  from	
  Edwards	
  and	
  Haines’	
  evaluation	
  of	
  smart	
  growth	
  (2007).	
  Only	
  one	
  OCP,	
  Maple	
  Ridge,	
  gained	
  a	
  point	
  for	
  having	
  policies	
  that	
  are	
  action-­‐oriented/mandatory	
  as	
  it	
  used	
  “will”	
  in	
  majority	
  of	
  its	
  policy	
  statements.	
  The	
  majority	
  of	
  the	
  OCPs	
  used	
  passive	
  language	
  such	
  as	
  “encourage”,	
  “promote”	
  and	
  “should”.	
  This	
  is	
  consistent	
  with	
  Edwards	
  and	
  Haines’	
  (2007)	
  (inding	
  that	
  policy	
  statements	
  are	
  often	
  passive	
  rather	
  than	
  action-­‐oriented.	
  “The	
  inclusion	
  of	
  broad	
  goal	
  statements	
  accompanied	
  by	
  weak	
  or	
  nonexistent	
  policies	
  suggests	
  that	
  communities	
  may	
  simply	
  be	
  paying	
  lip	
  service	
  to	
  smart	
  growth	
  because	
  the	
  law	
  requires	
  them	
  to	
  do	
  so”	
  (Edwards	
  and	
  Haines	
  2007,	
  61).	
   Lastly,	
  mirroring	
  the	
  Goals	
  category,	
  “Section	
  –	
  Economic	
  Development”	
  and	
  “Section	
  –	
  Housing”	
  indicate	
  if	
  an	
  OCP	
  has	
  any	
  policy	
  that	
  promote	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  within	
  each	
  section	
  of	
  the	
  OCP.	
  This	
  ensures	
  that	
  policies	
  are	
  in	
  both	
  employment	
  and	
  housing	
  sections	
  of	
  the	
  plan,	
  and	
  also	
  serves	
  to	
  capture	
  any	
  policies	
  that	
  might	
  not	
  be	
  in	
  the	
  established	
  list.	
  Consistent	
  with	
  the	
  Goals	
  category,	
  more	
  OCPs	
  have	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  policies	
  in	
  their	
  Economic	
  Development	
  section	
  (17)	
  compared	
  to	
  their	
  Housing	
  section	
  (13). 44 ImplementationThese	
  items	
  support	
  a	
  plan’s	
  implementation	
  of	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  policies.	
  Items	
  such	
  as	
  “Other	
  Plans”	
  and	
  “Supporting	
  Studies”	
  look	
  for	
  other	
  documents	
  that	
  reinforce	
  the	
  policies	
  laid	
  out	
  in	
  the	
  OCP.	
  “Other	
  Plans”	
  was	
  found	
  in	
  17	
  OCPs,	
  usually	
  referencing	
  the	
  municipality’s	
  Economic	
  Development,	
  Housing	
  or	
  speci(ic	
  neighbourhood	
  plans.	
  “Supporting	
  Studies”	
  were	
  the	
  next	
  most	
  common	
  with	
  16	
  OCPs	
  citing	
  supplemental	
  research	
  such	
  as	
  housing	
  studies.	
  “Cross-­‐Referencing”	
  awards	
  an	
  OCP	
  for	
  explicitly	
  referencing	
  another	
  section	
  of	
  the	
  OCP	
  within	
  itself.	
  For	
  example,	
  while	
  discussing	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  issues	
  in	
  the	
  housing	
  section,	
  a	
  plan	
  might	
  say	
  “refer	
  to	
  Economic	
  Development	
  section”. The	
  literature	
  recommends	
  a	
  public	
  engagement	
  process	
  to	
  decide	
  which	
  policies	
  are	
  best	
  for	
  a	
  municipality.	
  Communities	
  have	
  competing	
  objectives	
  and	
  “efforts	
  to	
  set	
  goals,	
  build	
  consensus,	
  and	
  decide	
  on	
  policy	
  are	
  best	
  achieved	
  through	
  the	
  public	
  participation	
  process	
  of	
  a	
  comprehensive	
  planning	
  exercise”	
  (Weitz	
  2003,	
  23).	
  Only	
  15	
  of	
  the	
  21	
  OCPs	
  mentioned	
  their	
  public	
  engagement	
  process,	
  even	
  though	
  such	
  a	
  process	
  is	
  a	
   45 Min score of an OCP Max score of an OCP Mean score of 21 OCPs 11.1% 77.8% 49.2% Implementation Items Score Card Item - Supporting Documentation Frequency (/21) Other Plans 17 Supporting Studies 16 Cross-Referencing 9 Item - Public Process Frequency (/21) General Public Process 15 Jobs-Housing Balance Specific Public Process 9 Item - Other Frequency (/21) Financial Considerations 0 Updated Within Last 5 Years 7 Item - Implementation Actions Frequency (/21) General Implementation Program 16 Specific Jobs-Housing Balance Implementation Actions 4 Figure 11: Implementation Items Score Card 46 DISTRICT	
  OF	
  NORTH	
  VANCOUVER Implementation	
  -­	
  Best	
  Practice	
  ExampleSome	
  examples	
  of	
  best	
  practice	
  elements	
  found	
  in	
  the	
  District	
  of	
  North	
  Vancouver’s	
  OCP	
  that	
  contributed	
  to	
  its	
  high	
  score	
  in	
  the	
  implementation	
  category	
  are: The	
  OCP	
  included	
  a	
  section	
  outlining	
  the	
  general	
  public	
  process,	
  including	
  this	
  (igure	
  summarizing	
  the	
  process	
  in	
  a	
  visually	
  appealing	
  way. Key Issues to Address in Planning for the Future Initial plan development began with an inventory of existing conditions in the District and an analysis of the challenges facing us. Over the course of the public engagement process, certain issues and trends emerged. Policy statements contained in this Plan are designed to address those issues and their implications by proactively managing change in a way that enables us to preserve and enhance what is loved most about the District. Some of the key issues that this plan seeks to address are outlined below. The	
  OCP	
  outlined	
  the	
  speci(ic	
  issues	
  that	
  were	
  discussed	
  during	
  the	
  public	
  process.	
  These	
  issues	
  are	
  speci(ically	
  pertaining	
  to	
  the	
  issue	
  of	
  a	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance. Figure 12: Implementation Best Practice Example 1 - District of North Vancouver legal	
  requirement	
  for	
  the	
  adoption	
  of	
  an	
  OCP.	
  Out	
  of	
  the	
  (ifteen,	
  9	
  OCPs	
  speci(ically	
  referenced	
  issues	
  relating	
  to	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance;	
  for	
  example,	
  a	
  plan	
  was	
  awarded	
  a	
  point	
  for	
  mentioning	
  that	
  the	
  creation	
  of	
  local	
  employment	
  opportunities	
  appropriate	
  to	
  the	
  community	
  was	
  discussed	
  as	
  part	
  of	
  the	
  public	
  process.	
  Having	
  an	
  implementation	
  plan	
  in	
  a	
  municipality’s	
  OCP	
  increases	
  the	
  likelihood	
  that	
  implementation	
  will	
  actually	
  occur.	
  Sixteen	
  OCPs	
  included	
  a	
  general	
  program	
  or	
  timeline	
  for	
  implementation	
  and	
  only	
  4	
  of	
  those	
  contained	
  speci(ic	
  actions	
  needed	
  to	
  implement	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  policies. Financial	
  considerations	
  acknowledge	
  the	
  staff	
  or	
  resources	
  needed	
  to	
  achieve	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  goals	
  and	
  policies.	
  This	
  aids	
  implementation	
  as	
  it	
  shows	
  careful	
  consideration	
  has	
  been	
  taken	
  in	
  regards	
  to	
  the	
  resources	
  required	
  for	
  action	
  to	
  occur.	
  This	
  item	
  was	
  not	
  found	
  in	
  any	
  of	
  the	
  OCPs,	
  leading	
  to	
  the	
  possible	
  explanation	
  that	
  these	
  policies	
  are	
  merely	
  high-­‐level	
  visionary	
  desires	
  of	
  a	
  community	
  that	
  may	
  or	
  may	
  not	
  get	
  implemented.	
  A	
  municipality	
  is	
  not	
  legally	
  obliged	
  to	
  ful(ill	
  everything	
  set	
  forth	
  in	
  an	
  OCP,	
  but	
  cannot	
  act	
  in	
  a	
  way	
  that	
  contradicts	
  it.	
  Omission	
  of	
  more	
  concrete	
  implementation	
  actions	
  and	
  the	
  allocation	
  of	
  resources	
  to	
  make	
  them	
  happen	
  allows	
  decision-­‐makers	
  to	
  take	
  action	
  at	
  a	
  later	
  time,	
  or	
  not	
  at	
  all.	
  Lastly,	
  the	
  protocol	
  awards	
  a	
  point	
  to	
  OCPs	
  that	
  have	
  been	
  updated	
  in	
  the	
  last	
  (ive	
  years.	
  It	
  is	
  important	
  for	
  plans	
  to	
  get	
  updated	
  in	
  a	
  timely	
  manner	
  in	
  order	
  to	
  re(lect	
  the	
  community’s	
  current	
  situation	
  and	
  vision	
  for	
  its	
  future. 47 48 Figure 13: Implementation Best Practice Example 2 - District of North Vancouver Figure 14: Implementation Best Practice Example 3 - City of White Rock White	
  Rock’s	
  OCP	
  included	
  an	
  implementation	
  section	
  that	
  highlighted	
  speci(ic	
  implementation	
  actions	
  pertaining	
  to	
  a	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  strategy.	
  It	
  includes	
  explicit	
  reference	
  to	
  policies	
  mentioned	
  in	
  the	
  plan,	
  key	
  action	
  items,	
  a	
  time	
  frame,	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  assigns	
  responsibility	
  for	
  implementation	
  (in	
  this	
  case,	
  to	
  the	
  Development	
  Services	
  department) CITY	
  OF	
  WHITE	
  ROCK Implementation	
  -­	
  Best	
  Practice	
  ExampleAn	
  example	
  of	
  best	
  practice	
  elements	
  found	
  in	
  the	
  City	
  of	
  White	
  Rock’s	
  OCP	
  that	
  contributed	
  to	
  its	
  high	
  score	
  in	
  the	
  implementation	
  category: The	
  District	
  of	
  North	
  Vancouver’s	
  OCP	
  included	
  an	
  implementation	
  section	
  that	
  highlighted	
  speci(ic	
  implementation	
  actions	
  pertaining	
  to	
  a	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  strategy.	
  It	
  included	
  a	
  current	
  baseline,	
  future	
  target,	
  and	
  community	
  indicators	
  that	
  can	
  be	
  used	
  to	
  monitor	
  progress. Trends	
  and	
  ObservationsThis	
  research	
  shows	
  that	
  OCPs	
  in	
  Metro	
  Vancouver	
  bene(it	
  from	
  strong	
  fact	
  bases,	
  which	
  in	
  turn	
  support	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  research,	
  analysis	
  and	
  policy-­‐making.	
  The	
  fact	
  that	
  the	
  Local	
  Government	
  Act	
  legally	
  requires	
  some	
  of	
  this	
  content	
  might	
  explain	
  the	
  high	
  frequency	
  of	
  these	
  protocol	
  items.	
  The	
  Speci(ic	
  items	
  category,	
  consisting	
  of	
  both	
  data	
  and	
  goals,	
  the	
  Goals	
  category	
  and	
  Policies	
  category	
  demonstrated	
  varying	
  results	
  amongst	
  the	
  plans.	
  Ways	
  they	
  can	
  be	
  strengthened	
  are	
  discussed	
  in	
  the	
  Planning	
  Implications	
  section	
  below.	
  Plans	
  that	
  scored	
  well	
  in	
  these	
  categories	
  are	
  commendable,	
  as	
  stating	
  goals	
  and	
  policies	
  in	
  an	
  OCP	
  set	
  out	
  a	
  policy	
  framework	
  for	
  a	
  municipality’s	
  development.	
  It	
  means	
  that	
  Council’s	
  actions	
  cannot	
  contradict	
  what	
  is	
  written	
  in	
  the	
  OCP	
  and	
  thus	
  sets	
  a	
  direction	
  for	
  a	
  municipality	
  towards	
  a	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance.	
   That	
  the	
  Implementation	
  category	
  scored	
  the	
  lowest	
  is	
  interesting	
  and	
  opens	
  up	
  ideas	
  for	
  future	
  research.	
  Do	
  the	
  low	
  scores	
  imply	
  that	
  the	
  goals	
  and	
  policies	
  outlined	
  in	
  the	
  OCP	
  are	
  merely	
  lip-­‐service	
  without	
  real	
  intent	
  for	
  action?	
  Or	
  are	
  implementation	
  items	
  intentionally	
  omitted	
  or	
  left	
  vague	
  so	
  as	
  to	
  ease	
  the	
  OCP	
  adoption	
  process?	
  An	
  understanding	
  of	
  such	
  political	
  complexity	
  cannot	
  be	
  derived	
  from	
  a	
  mere	
  analysis	
  of	
  plan	
  texts.	
  Though	
  the	
  OCP	
  does	
  not	
  commit	
  a	
  municipal	
  Council	
  to	
  action,	
  detailed	
  implementation	
  timelines	
  and	
  action	
  plans	
  within	
  the	
  OCP	
  might	
  open	
  a	
  Council	
  to	
  criticism	
  should	
  it	
  fail	
  to	
  follow	
  through. Jobs-­housing	
  balance	
  is	
  a	
  choiceIt	
  must	
  be	
  reiterated	
  that	
  a	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  is	
  a	
  choice	
  municipalities	
  make	
  based	
  on	
  community	
  values,	
  goals	
  and	
  politics.	
  It	
  can	
  be	
  assumed	
  that	
  the	
  6	
  municipalities	
  (Anmore,	
  Belcarra,	
  Bowen	
  Island,	
  Delta,	
  Lions	
  Bay	
  and	
  West	
  Vancouver)	
  that	
  do	
  not	
  explicitly	
  state	
  an	
  overall	
  goal	
  of	
  a	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  have	
  chosen	
  not	
  to	
  do	
  so	
  within	
  their	
  municipal	
  borders,	
  but	
  still	
  support	
  it	
  as	
  a	
  regional	
  goal	
  based	
  on	
  the	
  fact	
  that	
  they	
  have	
  approved	
  of	
  the	
  Regional	
  Growth	
  Strategy’s	
  goals.	
   49 Planning Implications The	
  Planning	
  PracticeThis	
  study	
  provides	
  an	
  overview	
  of	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balancing,	
  highlights	
  its	
  bene(its,	
  and	
  provides	
  steps	
  on	
  how	
  to	
  implement	
  this	
  balance	
  as	
  an	
  objective.	
  By	
  using	
  Metro	
  Vancouver	
  as	
  a	
  case	
  study	
  of	
  what	
  can	
  be	
  done	
  to	
  improve	
  balance,	
  this	
  study	
  not	
  only	
  provides	
  an	
  assessment	
  of	
  OCPs	
  within	
  Metro	
  Vancouver,	
  but	
  also	
  acts	
  as	
  a	
  model	
  upon	
  which	
  similar	
  plan	
  quality	
  evaluations	
  can	
  be	
  performed.	
  The	
  protocol	
  developed	
  in	
  this	
  research	
  (Appendix	
  A)	
  can	
  be	
  adapted	
  for	
  use	
  in	
  any	
  other	
  jurisdiction	
  wishing	
  to	
  improve	
  their	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance.	
  The	
  development	
  of	
  this	
  protocol	
  also	
  contributes	
  to	
  the	
  (ield	
  of	
  plan	
  quality	
  evaluations	
  by	
  building	
  on	
  and	
  adopting	
  best	
  practices	
  from	
  published	
  evaluations. MunicipalitiesThis	
  research	
  was	
  conducted	
  not	
  to	
  critique	
  municipalities	
  in	
  Metro	
  Vancouver	
  for	
  failing	
  to	
  encourage	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balancing,	
  but	
  to	
  serve	
  as	
  an	
  assessment	
  of	
  the	
  current	
  situation	
  and	
  suggest	
  ways	
  for	
  improvement.	
  The	
  wide	
  range	
  of	
  scores,	
  with	
  the	
  lowest	
  overall	
  score	
  being	
  19%	
  and	
  the	
  highest	
  being	
  77%,	
  show	
  that	
  many	
  OCPs	
  have	
  room	
  for	
  improvement.	
  For	
  municipalities	
  that	
  want	
  to	
  improve	
  on	
  their	
  protocol	
  scores	
  and	
  better	
  encourage	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balancing	
  in	
  their	
  community,	
  the	
  protocol	
  developed	
  in	
  this	
  study	
  could	
  serve	
  as	
  a	
  guide	
  or	
  checklist	
  during	
  the	
  OCP	
  development	
  process.	
  A	
  municipality	
  can	
  use	
  the	
  master	
  score	
  card	
  (Appendix	
  B)	
  to	
  look	
  for	
  examples	
  of	
  other	
  municipalities	
  who	
  have	
  gained	
  points	
  in	
  the	
  elements	
  or	
  categories	
  it	
  is	
  seeking	
  to	
  improve.	
  The	
  best	
  practice	
  examples	
  for	
  each	
  category	
  also	
  serve	
  as	
  a	
  model	
  that	
  can	
  be	
  adapted	
  to	
  each	
  municipality’s	
  situation	
  (see	
  Figures	
  3,	
  5,	
  6,	
  8,	
  10,	
  12). Region	
  and	
  ProvinceThe	
  regional	
  district	
  or	
  provincial	
  government	
  can	
  use	
  the	
  guide	
  or	
  checklist	
  based	
  on	
  this	
  study’s	
  protocol	
  to	
  mandate	
  elements	
  it	
  feels	
  are	
  a	
  priority	
  in	
  the	
  region.	
  Research	
  shows	
  that	
  requirements	
  mandated	
  by	
  senior	
  government	
  play	
  a	
  big	
  role	
  in	
  what	
  plans	
  contain	
  (Berke	
  and	
  Conroy	
  2000,	
  Edwards	
  and	
  Haines	
  2007).	
  The	
  requirement	
  for	
  an	
  OCP	
   50 to	
  include	
  a	
  Regional	
  Context	
  Statement	
  (RCS)	
  that	
  outlines	
  how	
  a	
  municipality	
  conforms	
  with	
  the	
  Regional	
  Growth	
  Strategy	
  (RGS)	
  is	
  a	
  signi(icant	
  tool	
  that	
  could	
  be	
  supplemented	
  with	
  more	
  speci(ic	
  mandated	
  elements.	
  As	
  a	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  is	
  a	
  goal	
  in	
  the	
  RGS,	
  municipalities	
  are	
  obligated	
  to	
  comment	
  on	
  how	
  their	
  OCP	
  relates	
  to	
  the	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  goal;	
  this	
  encourages	
  municipalities	
  to	
  give	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balancing	
  goals	
  and	
  policies	
  consideration	
  where	
  they	
  might	
  have	
  otherwise	
  overlooked	
  the	
  issue.	
  However,	
  this	
  study	
  shows	
  that	
  OCPs	
  in	
  Metro	
  Vancouver	
  address	
  a	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  to	
  varying	
  degrees.	
  A	
  provincial	
  mandate	
  to	
  address	
  the	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  can	
  strengthen	
  the	
  extent	
  to	
  which	
  OCPs	
  support	
  such	
  a	
  balance.	
  For	
  example,	
  the	
  province	
  can	
  require	
  all	
  OCPs	
  to	
  include	
  an	
  assessment	
  of	
  a	
  municipality’s	
  current	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  and	
  a	
  target	
  jobs/housing	
  ratio. 51 Future Research OpportunitiesThere	
  are	
  two	
  main	
  limitations	
  of	
  this	
  study	
  of	
  OCPs	
  that	
  future	
  research	
  can	
  supplement	
  and	
  rectify.	
  Firstly,	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  is	
  a	
  regional	
  issue	
  and	
  thus	
  an	
  analysis	
  of	
  plans	
  and	
  policies	
  at	
  a	
  municipal	
  scale	
  does	
  not	
  allow	
  a	
  more	
  holistic	
  view	
  of	
  the	
  issue	
  as	
  a	
  regional	
  scale	
  would	
  have.	
  For	
  instance,	
  this	
  study	
  would	
  not	
  re(lect	
  the	
  fact	
  that	
  even	
  though	
  a	
  municipality	
  does	
  not	
  have	
  a	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance,	
  its	
  sub-­‐region	
  might	
  be	
  balanced.	
  Nor	
  does	
  this	
  study	
  take	
  into	
  account,	
  for	
  example,	
  a	
  job-­‐rich	
  community	
  might	
  be	
  adjacent	
  to	
  a	
  housing-­‐rich	
  community.	
  However,	
  in	
  British	
  Columbia,	
  land	
  use	
  policy	
  decisions	
  are	
  within	
  the	
  jurisdiction	
  of	
  municipalities,	
  and	
  therefore	
  the	
  documents	
  that	
  contain	
  these	
  land	
  use	
  policies,	
  Of(icial	
  Community	
  Plans,	
  were	
  reviewed.	
  Future	
  research	
  might	
  add	
  a	
  regional	
  scope	
  of	
  analysis	
  on	
  to	
  this	
  study	
  in	
  order	
  to	
  provide	
  a	
  more	
  complete	
  look	
  of	
  the	
  regional	
  picture. Secondly,	
  how	
  well	
  the	
  plans	
  scored	
  according	
  to	
  the	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  protocol	
  might	
  not	
  accurately	
  re(lect	
  what	
  is	
  happening	
  on	
  the	
  ground.	
  As	
  well	
  meaning	
  as	
  plans	
  are,	
  there	
  are	
  many	
  other	
  factors	
  that	
  could	
  affect	
  a	
  municipality’s	
  development	
  and	
  its	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance.	
  OCPs	
  are	
  merely	
  the	
  guiding	
  policy	
  framework	
  and	
  do	
  not	
  necessarily	
  invoke	
  action.	
  Future	
  research	
  could	
  take	
  a	
  closer	
  look	
  at	
  a	
  municipality’s	
  other	
  planning	
  documents,	
  such	
  as	
  area	
  plans	
  and	
  zoning	
  regulations,	
  to	
  see	
  the	
  extent	
  to	
  which	
  a	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  is	
  encouraged.	
  Additionally,	
  developments	
  in	
  a	
  community	
  could	
  happen	
  independent	
  of	
  an	
  OCP’s	
  intentions	
  through	
  lobbying	
  or	
  support	
  from	
  both	
  local	
  and	
  external	
  champions,	
  so	
  long	
  as	
  they	
  do	
  not	
  contradict	
  the	
  current	
  OCP4.	
  Funding	
  and/or	
  political	
  in(luence	
  from	
  other	
  agencies	
  such	
  as	
  TransLink	
  or	
  senior	
  government	
  might	
  affect	
  housing	
  or	
  employment	
  opportunities	
  thereby	
  affecting	
  their	
  balance.	
  Future	
  research	
  could	
  investigate	
  the	
  correlation	
  between	
  the	
  results	
  of	
  this	
  analysis	
  with	
  data	
  and	
  statistics	
  that	
  show	
  what	
  is	
  actually	
  happening.	
  Another	
  option	
  is	
  to	
  do	
  a	
  follow-­‐up	
  with	
  community	
  representatives,	
  such	
  as	
  in	
  Edwards	
  and	
  Haines’	
  2007	
  study	
  evaluation	
  of	
  smart	
  growth,	
  where	
  they	
  conducted	
  phone	
  surveys	
  to	
  better	
  understand	
  why	
  communities	
  are	
  embracing	
  some	
  smart	
  growth	
  goals	
  and	
  policies	
  more	
  so	
  than	
  others.	
   52 4	
  Bearing	
  in	
  mind	
  that	
  with	
  the	
  support	
  of	
  the	
  community,	
  OCPs	
  can	
  be	
  amended	
  to	
  reOlect	
  changing	
  values	
  and	
  desires. ConclusionThis	
  study	
  asks	
  the	
  research	
  question:	
  To	
  what	
  extent	
  do	
  OCPs	
  in	
  Metro	
  Vancouver	
  support	
  a	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance?	
  The	
  results	
  of	
  the	
  analysis	
  show	
  that	
  the	
  results	
  vary	
  greatly.	
  At	
  one	
  end	
  of	
  the	
  spectrum,	
  there	
  the	
  6	
  municipalities	
  whose	
  OCPs	
  do	
  not	
  state	
  the	
  goal	
  of	
  a	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  at	
  all.	
  The	
  other	
  15	
  municipalities	
  have	
  chosen	
  to	
  embrace	
  a	
  goal	
  of	
  a	
  balance	
  of	
  jobs	
  and	
  housing,	
  but	
  do	
  so	
  to	
  varying	
  degrees	
  and	
  success	
  in	
  their	
  OCPs.	
   What	
  is	
  important	
  to	
  remember	
  is	
  that	
  though	
  there	
  are	
  many	
  bene(its	
  to	
  having	
  people	
  live	
  near	
  where	
  they	
  work,	
  it	
  is	
  not	
  something	
  that	
  can	
  be	
  mandated	
  or	
  forced	
  on	
  to	
  residents	
  of	
  a	
  region.	
  It	
  is	
  instead	
  the	
  opportunity	
  to	
  live	
  close	
  to	
  where	
  one	
  works	
  that	
  is	
  the	
  fundamental	
  notion	
  of	
  a	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance.	
  Even	
  in	
  Metro	
  Vancouver	
  where	
  municipalities	
  have	
  agreed	
  and	
  adopted	
  the	
  regional	
  goal	
  of	
  a	
  job	
  to	
  labour	
  force	
  balance,	
  individual	
  municipalities	
  still	
  hold	
  the	
  political	
  power	
  to	
  make	
  their	
  own	
  land	
  use	
  decisions,	
  which	
  might	
  not	
  include	
  a	
  balance	
  within	
  their	
  municipal	
  borders.	
  This	
  study	
  has	
  shed	
  light	
  on	
  where	
  municipalities	
  stand	
  on	
  the	
  issue	
  as	
  shown	
  through	
  their	
  OCPs.	
  Though	
  more	
  research	
  will	
  have	
  to	
  build	
  on	
  this	
  study	
  in	
  order	
  to	
  further	
  the	
  goal	
  of	
  a	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance,	
  for	
  now,	
  the	
  OCPs	
  have	
  shown	
  that	
  municipalities	
  that	
  choose	
  to	
  do	
  so	
  are	
  on	
  their	
  way	
  towards	
  achieving	
  	
  a	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  within	
  Metro	
  Vancouver. 53 ReferencesAltshuler,	
  Alan	
  A.,	
  and	
  Jose	
  A.	
  Gomez-­‐Ibanez	
  (1993).	
  Regulation	
  for	
  Revenue:	
  The	
  Political	
   Economy	
  of	
  Land	
  Use	
  Exactions.	
  Washington,	
  D.C.:	
  Brookings	
  Institution.Armstrong,	
  Michael,	
  and	
  Brett	
  Sears	
  (2001).	
  “The	
  New	
  Economy	
  and	
  Jobs/Housing	
  Balance	
  in	
  Southern	
  California.”	
  Southern	
  California	
  Association	
  of	
  Governments.	
  http://www.scag.ca.gov/Housing/pdfs/introduction.pdf.Ben(ield,	
  Kaid	
  (2011).	
  “The	
  Importance	
  of	
  Regional	
  Planning	
  that	
  Matters.”	
  Switchboard:	
   Natural	
  Resources	
  Defense	
  Council	
  Staff	
  Blog.	
  Retrieved	
  March	
  10	
  2012	
  from	
  http://switchboard.nrdc.org/blogs/kben(ield/the_importance_of_regional_pla.htmlBerke,	
  Phillip,	
  and	
  Maria	
  Manta	
  Conroy	
  (2000).	
  “Are	
  We	
  Planning	
  For	
  Sustainable	
  Development?	
  An	
  Evaluation	
  of	
  30	
  Comprehensive	
  Plans.”	
  Journal	
  of	
  the	
  American	
   Planning	
  Association	
  66,	
  no.	
  1:	
  21-­‐33.Berke,	
  Phillip,	
  David	
  R.	
  Godschalk	
  and	
  Edward	
  John	
  Kaiser	
  (2006).	
  Urban	
  Land	
  Use	
   Planning.	
  Urbana,	
  I.L.	
  University	
  of	
  Illinois	
  Press.	
  	
  5th	
  edition.British	
  Columbia	
  (1996).	
  Local	
  Government	
  Act:	
  Chapter	
  323.	
  Retrieved	
  February	
  1	
  2012	
  from	
  http://www.bclaws.ca/EPLibraries/bclaws_new/document/ID/freeside/96323_00-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐	
  (2011).	
  A	
  Guide	
  to	
  B.C.’s	
  Economy.	
  Retrieved	
  February	
  10	
  from	
  http://www.guidetobceconomy.org/bcs_economy/mainland_southwest.htm-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐	
  (2011)	
  B.C.	
  Economic	
  Indicators.	
  Retrieved	
  February	
  10	
  from	
  http://www.gov.bc.ca/keyinitiatives/economic_indicators.htmlBritish	
  Columbia	
  Ministry	
  of	
  Community	
  Services	
  (2006).	
  “Regional	
  Growth	
  Strategies:	
  An	
  Explanatory	
  Guide.”	
  http://www.cscd.gov.bc.ca/lgd/intergov_relations/library/RGS_Explanatory_Guide_2005.pdf.	
  British	
  Columbia	
  Ministry	
  of	
  Transportation	
  and	
  TransLink	
  (2004).	
  “Greater	
  Vancouver	
  Trip	
  Diary	
  Summary”	
  Greater	
  Vancouver	
  Transportation	
  Authority,	
  Strategic	
  Planning	
  and	
  Policy	
  DepartmentBookout,	
  Lloyd	
  W.	
  (1990).	
  “Jobs	
  and	
  Housing:	
  The	
  Search	
  For	
  Balance.”	
  Urban	
  Land	
  49,	
  no.	
  10:	
  5-­‐9. 54 CBC	
  News	
  (2012).	
  “B.C.	
  Population	
  Outpaces	
  National	
  Growth	
  Rate.”	
  CBC	
  News	
  British	
   Columbia,	
  February	
  8	
  2012.	
  Retrieved	
  Feb	
  10	
  2012	
  from	
  http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-­‐columbia/story/2012/02/08/bc-­‐census-­‐growth.htmlCervero,	
  Robert	
  (1989).	
  “Jobs-­‐Housing	
  Balancing	
  and	
  Regional	
  Mobility.”	
  Journal	
  of	
  the	
   American	
  Planning	
  Association	
  55,	
  no.	
  2:	
  139-­‐150.-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐	
  (1991).	
  “Jobs-­‐Housing	
  Balance	
  as	
  Public	
  Policy.”	
  Urban	
  Land	
  50,	
  no.	
  10:	
  10-­‐14.-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐	
  (1996).	
  “Jobs-­‐Housing	
  Balance	
  Revisited:	
  Trends	
  and	
  Impacts	
  in	
  the	
  San	
  Francisco	
  Bay	
  Area.”	
  Journal	
  of	
  the	
  American	
  Planning	
  Association	
  62,	
  no.	
  4:	
  492-­‐511.Clarke,	
  Paul	
  (1991).	
  “Developments:	
  Balance	
  Jobs	
  and	
  Housing	
  in	
  the	
  San	
  Fernando	
  Valley.”	
   Urban	
  Land	
  50,	
  no.	
  2:26.CTV	
  News	
  (2012).	
  “Port	
  Moody	
  leads	
  the	
  way	
  in	
  suburban	
  population	
  boom.”	
  CTV	
  News	
   British	
  Columbia,	
  February	
  8	
  2012.	
  Retrieved	
  March	
  1	
  2012	
  from	
  http://www.ctvbc.ctv.ca/servlet/an/local/CTVNews/20120208/bc_vancouver_suburbs_population_boom_120208/20120208/?hub=BritishColumbiaHomeEdwards,	
  Mary	
  M.,	
  and	
  Anna	
  Haines	
  (2007).	
  “Evaluating	
  Smart	
  Growth:	
  Implications	
  for	
  Small	
  Communities.”	
  Journal	
  of	
  Planning	
  Education	
  and	
  Research	
  27,	
  no.	
  1:	
  49-­‐64.Ewing,	
  Reid	
  (1996).	
  Best	
  Development	
  Practices:	
  Doing	
  the	
  Right	
  Thing	
  and	
  Making	
  Money	
   at	
  the	
  Same	
  Time.	
  Chicago:	
  Planners	
  Press.Frank,	
  Lawrence	
  (2005).	
  “We	
  all	
  pay	
  for	
  congestion.”	
  The	
  Georgia	
  Straight,	
  November	
  17	
   2005.	
  Retrieved	
  February	
  3	
  2012	
  from	
  http://www.straight.com/article/we-­‐all-­‐pay-­‐for-­‐congestionGateway	
  Program,	
  British	
  Columbia	
  (2011).	
  “Gateway	
  Program:	
  Why	
  Now?”	
  Retrieved	
  January	
  3	
  2012	
  from	
  http://www.th.gov.bc.ca/gateway/program/why_now.htmGiuliano,	
  Genevieve	
  (1991).	
  “Is	
  Jobs-­‐Housing	
  Balance	
  a	
  Transportation	
  Issue?”	
   Transportation	
  Research	
  Record,	
  no.	
  1305:	
  305-­‐12.Greater	
  Vancouver	
  Regional	
  District	
  (1996).	
  “Livable	
  Region	
  Strategic	
  Plan.”	
  Regional	
  Development	
  Policy	
  and	
  Planning	
  Department.	
  http://www.metrovancouver.org/about/publications/Publications/LRSP.pdf.	
   55 -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐	
  (2001).	
  “The	
  GVRD	
  Of(ice	
  Market:	
  Supply,	
  Demand	
  and	
  Spatial	
  Distribution”	
  Regional	
  Development	
  Policy	
  and	
  Planning	
  Department-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐	
  (2004).	
  “2003	
  Annual	
  Report:	
  Livable	
  Region	
  Strategic	
  Plan.”	
  Regional	
  Development	
  Policy	
  and	
  Planning	
  Department.	
  http://www.metrovancouver.org/about/publications/Publications/LRSP-­‐2003Report.pdf.	
  Hamilton,	
  Edward	
  K.,	
  Francine	
  F.	
  Rbainovitz,	
  John	
  H.	
  Alschuler,	
  Jr.,	
  and	
  Paul	
  J.	
  Silvern	
  (1991).	
  “Applying	
  the	
  Jobs/Housing	
  Balance	
  Concept.”	
  Urban	
  Land	
  50,	
  no.	
  10:	
  15-­‐18.Kennedy,	
  Mark	
  (2012).	
  “Census:	
  B.C.	
  cities	
  Burnaby,	
  Richmond,	
  Surrey	
  outpacing	
  Vancouver	
  growth.”	
  The	
  Vancouver	
  Sun,	
  February	
  8	
  2012.	
  Retrieved	
  March	
  2	
  2012	
  from	
  http://www.vancouversun.com/technology/Census+cities+Burnaby+Richmond+Surrey+outpacing+Vancouver+growth/6119737/story.htmlLevine,	
  Jonathan	
  (1998).	
  “Rethinking	
  Accessibility	
  and	
  Jobs-­‐Housing	
  Balance.”	
  Journal	
  of	
  the	
   American	
  Planning	
  Association	
  64,	
  no.	
  2:	
  133-­‐149.Nagel,	
  Jeff	
  (2012).	
  “Surrey,	
  Port	
  Moody	
  fastest	
  Metro	
  Vancouver	
  growers	
  in	
  new	
  census.”	
   AgassizHarrisonObserver.com.	
  Retrieved	
  February	
  1	
  2012	
  from	
  http://www.agassizharrisonobserver.com/news/138932329.htmlNowlan,	
  David	
  M.,	
  and	
  Greg	
  Stewart	
  (1991).	
  “Downtown	
  Population	
  Growth	
  and	
  Commuting	
  Trips:	
  Recent	
  Experience	
  in	
  Toronto.”	
  Journal	
  of	
  the	
  American	
  Planning	
  Association	
  57,	
  no.	
  2:	
  165-­‐182.Press,	
  Jordan	
  (2012).	
  “Canada	
  Census	
  2011:	
  The	
  cities	
  leading	
  Canada’s	
  population	
  boom”	
   The	
  National	
  Post	
  February	
  8	
  2012.	
  Retrieved	
  February	
  10	
  2012	
  from	
  http://news.nationalpost.com/2012/02/08/canada-­‐census-­‐2011-­‐see-­‐which-­‐cities-­‐and-­‐towns-­‐have-­‐grown-­‐the-­‐most/Stevens,	
  M.	
  R.	
  (Under	
  review).	
  “Evaluating	
  the	
  Quality	
  of	
  Of(icial	
  Community	
  Plans	
  in	
  Southern	
  British	
  Columbia.”	
  Journal	
  of	
  the	
  American	
  Planning	
  Association.Urban	
  Land	
  Institute.	
  1999.	
  Smart	
  Growth:	
  Myth	
  and	
  Fact.	
  Washington,	
  D.C.:	
  Urban	
  Land	
  Institute.Vancouver	
  Economic	
  Commission	
  (2011).	
  “Economic	
  Pro(ile.”	
  Retrieved	
  February	
  5	
  2012	
  from	
  http://www.vancouvereconomic.com/page/economic-­‐pro(ile 56 Weitz,	
  Jerry	
  (2003).	
  Jobs-­Housing	
  Balance.	
  Planning	
  Advisory	
  Service	
  Report	
  No.	
  516.	
  Chicago:	
  American	
  Planning	
  Association.Weitz,	
  Jerry,	
  and	
  Leora	
  Susan	
  Waldner	
  (2002).	
  Smart	
  Growth	
  Audits.	
  Planning	
  Advisory	
  Service	
  Report	
  No.	
  512.	
  Chicago:	
  American	
  Planning	
  Association. 57 Appendices Appendix	
  A:	
  Protocol	
  Codes	
  and	
  DeMinitions FACT	
  BASE1.1D	
  -­‐	
  Households	
  FutureProjected	
  number	
  of	
  households	
  in	
  the	
  future.	
  Or	
  housing	
  stock	
  (number	
  of	
  houses)1.1D	
  -­‐	
  Households	
  PresentNumber	
  of	
  households	
  or	
  housing	
  stock	
  (number	
  of	
  houses)1.1D	
  -­‐	
  Housing	
  Land	
  SupplyIs	
  there	
  enough	
  land	
  to	
  accommodate	
  future	
  housing	
  demand?	
  Can	
  be	
  qualitative	
  and/or	
  quantitative.1.1D	
  -­‐	
  Housing	
  Types	
  FutureProjected	
  future	
  composition	
  of	
  types	
  of	
  housing	
  (eg.	
  apartments,	
  single	
  family,	
  etc)Does	
  not	
  need	
  to	
  have	
  a	
  certain	
  number	
  of	
  categories.	
  For	
  example,	
  if	
  a	
  municipality	
  only	
  has	
  single	
  family	
  houses	
  and	
  says	
  that	
  all/100%	
  of	
  housing	
  is	
  single	
  family	
  that	
  is	
  okay.Can	
  be	
  percentage	
  or	
  raw	
  numbers1.1D	
  -­‐	
  Housing	
  Types	
  PresentComposition	
  of	
  types	
  of	
  housing	
  (eg.	
  apartments,	
  single	
  family,	
  etc)Does	
  not	
  need	
  to	
  have	
  a	
  certain	
  number	
  of	
  categories.	
  For	
  example,	
  if	
  a	
  municipality	
  only	
  has	
  single	
  family	
  houses	
  and	
  says	
  that	
  all/100%	
  of	
  housing	
  is	
  single	
  family	
  that	
  is	
  okay.Can	
  be	
  percentage	
  or	
  raw	
  numbers1.1D	
  -­‐	
  Location	
  of	
  Pop/Household	
  GrowthWhere	
  is	
  the	
  majority	
  of	
  residential	
  growth	
  concentrated	
  (areas/neighbourhood).Probably	
  should	
  be	
  a	
  statement,	
  accompanying	
  map	
  would	
  work	
  too.Just	
  want	
  to	
  see	
  if	
  there	
  is	
  a	
  spatial	
  acknowledge	
  of	
  where	
  growth	
  is	
  going	
  to	
  goOkay	
  if	
  it's	
  a	
  policy1.1D	
  -­‐	
  Pop	
  Future	
  CompositionFuture	
  projection	
  of	
  population.	
  Broken	
  down	
  by	
  different	
  age	
  categories1.1D	
  -­‐	
  Pop	
  Future	
  SizePopulation	
  size,	
  projection	
  into	
  the	
  future.	
  Any	
  year	
  into	
  the	
  future1.1D	
  -­‐	
  Pop	
  Present	
  CompositionWhat	
  is	
  the	
  composition	
  of	
  the	
  current	
  population	
  in	
  terms	
  of	
  age?Broken	
  down	
  by	
  different	
  age	
  categories1.1D	
  -­‐	
  Pop	
  Present	
  SizeWhat	
  is	
  the	
  present	
  size	
  of	
  the	
  population? 58 1.2D	
  -­‐	
  Jobs	
  FutureProjected	
  number	
  of	
  jobs	
  in	
  the	
  future1.2D	
  -­‐	
  Jobs	
  Future	
  CompositionFuture	
  projection	
  of	
  jobs,	
  broken	
  down	
  to	
  show	
  labour	
  forceMeasures	
  of	
  employment	
  by	
  occupation	
  or	
  industry.	
  Numbers	
  or	
  percentage1.2D	
  -­‐	
  Jobs	
  PresentHow	
  many	
  jobs	
  are	
  there?1.2D	
  -­‐	
  Jobs	
  Present	
  CompositionJobs,	
  broken	
  down	
  to	
  show	
  labour	
  forceMeasures	
  of	
  employment	
  by	
  occupation	
  or	
  industry.	
  Numbers	
  or	
  percentage1.3D	
  -­‐	
  Economic	
  Development	
  Land	
  SupplyIs	
  there	
  enough	
  land	
  to	
  accommodate	
  jobs?	
  Can	
  be	
  qualitative	
  and/or	
  quantitative.This	
  can	
  refer	
  to	
  Commercial,	
  Industrial,	
  etc.	
  land.	
  Basically	
  land	
  zoned	
  for	
  people	
  to	
  work	
  in.1.3D	
  -­‐	
  Location	
  of	
  Jobs	
  GrowthWhere	
  is	
  the	
  majority	
  of	
  employment	
  growth	
  concentrated	
  (areas/neighbourhood)?Probably	
  should	
  be	
  a	
  statement,	
  accompanying	
  map	
  would	
  work	
  too.Just	
  want	
  to	
  see	
  if	
  there	
  is	
  a	
  spatial	
  acknowledge	
  of	
  where	
  growth	
  is	
  going	
  to	
  goOkay	
  if	
  it's	
  a	
  policy1.3D	
  -­‐	
  Residents	
  Work	
  Within	
  MunicipalityNumber/percentage	
  of	
  residents	
  that	
  had	
  their	
  regular	
  place	
  of	
  employment	
  withing	
  the	
  municipality.	
  (This	
  information	
  is	
  collected	
  by	
  the	
  census)I	
  want	
  to	
  see	
  if	
  the	
  OCP	
  USES	
  or	
  DISCUSSES	
  this	
  information.	
  Not	
  simply	
  put	
  it	
  in	
  a	
  table	
  on	
  the	
  side.This	
  can	
  be	
  coded	
  in	
  addition	
  to	
  the	
  next	
  code	
  if	
  the	
  OCP	
  sources	
  the	
  census	
  data	
  AND	
  USES	
  the	
  information	
  in	
  their	
  own	
  analysis/discussion1.3D	
  -­‐	
  Residents	
  Work	
  Within	
  Municipality	
  Census	
  DataNumber/percentage	
  of	
  residents	
  that	
  had	
  their	
  regular	
  place	
  of	
  employment	
  withing	
  the	
  municipality.	
  (This	
  information	
  is	
  collected	
  by	
  the	
  census)I	
  want	
  to	
  see	
  if	
  the	
  OCP	
  INCLUDES	
  THE	
  CENSUS	
  DATA.This	
  can	
  be	
  coded	
  in	
  addition	
  to	
  the	
  previous	
  code	
  if	
  they	
  source	
  the	
  census.Code	
  only	
  this	
  item	
  if	
  the	
  census	
  data	
  is	
  only	
  included	
  but	
  not	
  used	
  further.1.4D	
  -­‐	
  Map	
  -­‐	
  Land	
  Use	
  MapDoes	
  this	
  plan	
  have	
  a	
  land	
  use	
  map?1.4D	
  -­‐	
  Map	
  -­‐	
  Urban	
  Villages/Town	
  CentresMap	
  that	
  denotes	
  areas	
  that	
  are	
  designated	
  for	
  both	
  housing	
  and	
  employment	
  growth.Eg.	
  Nodes,	
  Urban	
  Villages,	
  Town	
  Centres 59 SPECIFICS2.1S	
  -­‐	
  Current	
  Jobs-­‐Housing	
  BalanceWhat	
  is	
  the	
  current	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance?	
  Must	
  be	
  some	
  mention	
  of	
  balance	
  or	
  imbalance/Must	
  compare	
  number	
  of	
  jobs	
  to	
  houses.	
  Not	
  just	
  how	
  many	
  jobs	
  and	
  how	
  many	
  houses	
  without	
  relating	
  the	
  two.2.1S	
  -­‐	
  De(ined	
  Target/RatioIs	
  there	
  a	
  de(ined	
  target	
  and/or	
  ratio	
  of	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance?	
  Show	
  if	
  they	
  thought	
  about	
  what	
  they	
  want	
  to	
  achieve.2.1S	
  -­‐	
  De(ined	
  Target/Ratio	
  Based	
  on	
  AnalysisTo	
  show	
  that	
  their	
  de(ined	
  target/ratio	
  is	
  based	
  on	
  an	
  analysis	
  of	
  local	
  factors.	
  Generally	
  some	
  discussion/indication	
  that	
  they	
  came	
  up	
  with	
  the	
  target/ratio	
  based	
  on	
  their	
  population/employment	
  data.2.1S	
  -­‐	
  Qualitative	
  Factors	
  of	
  HousingDoes	
  the	
  plan	
  consider	
  qualitative	
  balancing	
  factors	
  eg.	
  type	
  of	
  housing,	
  price,	
  location,	
  etc.	
  to	
  meet	
  the	
  needs	
  of	
  the	
  community.	
  (Can	
  just	
  be	
  mention	
  of	
  one,	
  eg.	
  housing	
  affordability	
  and	
  type.	
  Does	
  not	
  need	
  to	
  be	
  all	
  the	
  factors)Trying	
  to	
  make	
  the	
  link.	
  For	
  example,	
  if	
  a	
  community	
  needs	
  more	
  housing,	
  OCP	
  talks	
  about	
  what	
  kind	
  of	
  housing	
  needed.2.1S	
  -­‐	
  Qualitative	
  Factors	
  of	
  JobsDoes	
  the	
  plan	
  consider	
  qualitative	
  balancing	
  factors	
  eg.	
  type	
  of	
  job,	
  location,	
  etc.	
  to	
  meet	
  the	
  needs	
  of	
  the	
  community.	
  (Can	
  just	
  be	
  mention	
  of	
  one.	
  Does	
  not	
  need	
  to	
  be	
  all	
  the	
  factors)Trying	
  to	
  make	
  the	
  link.	
  For	
  example,	
  if	
  a	
  community	
  needs	
  more	
  jobs,	
  OCP	
  talks	
  about	
  what	
  kind	
  of	
  jobs	
  needed.	
  So	
  if	
  for	
  example	
  the	
  community	
  is	
  mostly	
  uneducated,	
  low	
  skill	
  workers,	
  developing	
  a	
  bio-­‐tech	
  zone	
  or	
  something	
  that	
  requires	
  high	
  skill	
  work	
  force	
  would	
  not	
  be	
  very	
  appropriate.2.1S	
  -­‐	
  Quantitative	
  Analysis	
  of	
  JHBGenerally,	
  a	
  table	
  showing	
  numbers	
  of	
  each.	
  Must	
  show	
  analysis	
  of	
  the	
  two/compare	
  the	
  two.2.1S	
  -­‐	
  SectionIs	
  there	
  a	
  section	
  that	
  speci(ically	
  addresses	
  job-­‐housing	
  balance?	
  Does	
  not	
  have	
  to	
  have	
  its	
  own	
  section	
  title,	
  but	
  has	
  to	
  be	
  more	
  than	
  a	
  passing	
  reference.	
  Ideally	
  at	
  least	
  a	
  paragraph	
  dedicated	
  to	
  talking	
  about	
  the	
  issue	
  a	
  bit. 60 2.1S	
  -­‐	
  TransportationLink	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  to	
  transportation	
  (should	
  probably	
  be	
  in	
  the	
  Issues/Preamble.	
  If	
  goal	
  or	
  policy,	
  see	
  if	
  Goal	
  or	
  Policy	
  -­‐	
  Reduce	
  Private	
  Vehicle	
  is	
  more	
  appropriate.	
  For	
  example	
  talking	
  about	
  how	
  better	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  will	
  alleviate	
  traf(ic	
  congestion.	
  Or	
  mention	
  of	
  resident	
  labour	
  force	
  commuting	
  to	
  work	
  -­‐	
  whether	
  or	
  not	
  commuting	
  is	
  an	
  issue.	
  Does	
  not	
  have	
  to	
  be	
  quantitatively	
  detailed.I	
  am	
  just	
  trying	
  to	
  see	
  if	
  they	
  acknowledge	
  that	
  a	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  imbalance	
  results	
  in	
  longer	
  commuting	
  times,	
  and	
  commuting	
  is	
  a	
  problem	
  in	
  this	
  region.2.2S	
  -­‐	
  CoordinationLook	
  for	
  reference	
  for	
  coordination	
  with	
  other	
  agencies/municipalities(in	
  the	
  acknowledgement	
  that	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  is	
  a	
  regional	
  issue)2.2S	
  -­‐	
  RGS	
  GoalDoes	
  the	
  municipality	
  SUPPORT	
  the	
  region's	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  goal?Not	
  enough	
  to	
  mention	
  the	
  goal	
  but	
  not	
  support	
  it	
  (this	
  will	
  probably	
  be	
  found	
  in	
  the	
  Regional	
  Context	
  Statement)2.2S	
  -­‐	
  Town	
  CentresAcknowledge	
  a	
  RGS	
  designated	
  town	
  centre	
  (match	
  against	
  the	
  list	
  of	
  designated	
  Town	
  Centres) GOALS3.1G	
  -­‐	
  General	
  Goal	
  of	
  Jobs-­‐Housing	
  BalanceIs	
  there	
  an	
  overall	
  goal	
  of	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  in	
  the	
  vision/growth	
  management	
  sections?	
  Eg.	
  Goal	
  of	
  complete	
  communities3.2G	
  -­‐	
  Section	
  -­‐	
  Economic	
  DevelopmentIs	
  the	
  goal	
  of	
  a	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  in	
  this	
  section?	
  (Intent	
  is	
  to	
  see	
  the	
  integration	
  of	
  policies	
  in	
  different	
  sections)Must	
  be	
  explicit	
  -­‐	
  refer	
  to	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balancing3.2G	
  -­‐	
  Section	
  -­‐	
  Housing/ResidentialIs	
  the	
  goal	
  of	
  a	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  in	
  this	
  section?	
  (Intent	
  is	
  to	
  see	
  the	
  integration	
  of	
  policies	
  in	
  different	
  sections)Must	
  be	
  explicit	
  -­‐	
  refer	
  to	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balancing3.3G	
  -­‐	
  Reduce	
  Private	
  VehicleGoal	
  of	
  concentrating	
  residential	
  employment/commercial	
  development	
  to	
  reduce	
  usage	
  of	
  private	
  automobiles	
  or	
  to	
  facilitate	
  provision	
  of	
  public	
  transit	
  (in	
  support	
  of	
  a	
  complete	
  community)Put	
  jobs	
  and	
  housing	
  closer	
  together	
  so	
  people	
  don't	
  have	
  to	
  drive.4.1P	
  -­‐	
  Section	
  -­‐	
  Economic	
  DevelopmentAre	
  policies	
  to	
  support	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  in	
  this	
  section?Doesn't	
  need	
  to	
  be	
  explicit.	
  Eg.	
  Live-­‐work	
  studios	
  in	
  commercial	
  policy	
  section 61 4.1P	
  -­‐	
  Section	
  –	
  HousingAre	
  policies	
  to	
  support	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  in	
  this	
  section?	
  Doesn't	
  need	
  to	
  be	
  explicit4.2P	
  -­‐	
  Accessory/Secondary/In(ill	
  housingPolicies	
  to	
  encourage	
  accessory/secondary/in(ill	
  housing4.2P	
  -­‐	
  Commercial	
  CentresPolicies	
  that	
  provide	
  for	
  neighbourhood	
  commercial	
  centres	
  or	
  establishment	
  of	
  employment	
  areas	
  in	
  appropriate	
  locations	
  to	
  meet	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  policies	
  (eg.	
  corner	
  store	
  or	
  neighbourhood	
  commercial	
  zone	
  at	
  the	
  edge	
  of	
  the	
  neighbourhood)4.2P	
  -­‐	
  Home	
  occupationPolicies	
  that	
  encourage	
  home	
  based	
  businesses/working	
  from	
  home4.2P	
  -­‐	
  IncentivesDensity	
  bonus,	
  reduced	
  fees,	
  streamlined	
  permit	
  process,	
  expedited	
  processing	
  times,	
  development	
  impact	
  fee	
  waivers.	
  Incentive	
  for	
  a	
  mixed	
  use	
  development4.2P	
  -­‐	
  Inclusionary	
  ZoningEg.	
  require/encourage	
  developers	
  to	
  include	
  affordable	
  housing	
  in	
  market-­‐rate	
  housing	
  developments.	
  Eg.	
  Housing	
  Agreements4.2P	
  -­‐	
  Linkage	
  ProgramsEncourage	
  major	
  employers	
  to	
  secure	
  or	
  provide	
  housing	
  for	
  a	
  portion	
  of	
  any	
  new	
  workforce	
  created	
  by	
  those	
  employers4.2P	
  -­‐	
  Live/Work	
  UnitsPolicies	
  to	
  encourage	
  live/work	
  units4.2P	
  -­‐	
  Mixed	
  land	
  usePolicy	
  that	
  promotes	
  mixed	
  land	
  use4.2P	
  -­‐	
  Planning	
  Unit	
  Developments	
  (PUDs)Eg.	
  PUD	
  regulations	
  might	
  specify	
  that	
  10%	
  of	
  housing	
  units	
  are	
  to	
  be	
  live/work	
  units,	
  or	
  the	
  minimum	
  percentage	
  of	
  developed	
  land	
  devoted	
  to	
  civic,	
  of(ice	
  and	
  neighbourhood	
  commercial	
  space	
  be	
  from	
  10-­‐25%	
  of	
  the	
  total	
  site	
  area4.2P	
  -­‐	
  Reduce	
  Private	
  VehiclePolicies	
  to	
  encourage	
  concentrating	
  residential	
  and	
  employment/commercial	
  to	
  reduce	
  usage	
  of	
  private	
  automobiles	
  or	
  to	
  facilitate	
  provision	
  of	
  public	
  transit	
  (in	
  support	
  of	
  a	
  complete	
  community)4.3P	
  -­‐	
  Polices	
  Action-­‐Oriented/MandatoryAction-­‐oriented	
  language	
  used	
  in	
  policies	
  eg.	
  adopt,	
  develop,	
  will(versus	
  passive	
  language:	
  encourage,	
  promote,	
  should) 62 OPPORTUNITIES	
  FOR	
  IMPLEMENTATION5.1O	
  -­‐	
  Cross-­‐ReferencingIs	
  there	
  cross-­‐referencing	
  of	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  policies	
  (must	
  be	
  explicit.	
  Usually	
  between	
  Land	
  Use,	
  Housing	
  and	
  Economy	
  sections)5.1O	
  -­‐	
  Other	
  PlansIs	
  there	
  a	
  reference	
  to	
  other	
  plans	
  addressing	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  in	
  more	
  detail	
  Eg.	
  economic	
  development	
  or	
  housing	
  plan	
  (when	
  in	
  doubt,	
  of	
  if	
  general	
  reference,	
  code	
  anyways.	
  I	
  might	
  see	
  how	
  often	
  there	
  is	
  more	
  detail	
  in	
  secondary	
  plans)5.1O	
  -­‐	
  Public	
  Process	
  GeneralWas	
  there	
  a	
  public	
  process	
  where	
  the	
  plan	
  was	
  adopted?(Legal	
  Framework)5.1O	
  -­‐	
  Public	
  Process	
  Speci(icIs	
  there	
  speci(ic	
  reference	
  to	
  issues	
  relating	
  to	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  highlighted	
  in	
  the	
  public	
  process?Eg.	
  Creation	
  of	
  local	
  employment	
  opportunitiesWanting	
  a	
  certain	
  type	
  of	
  job	
  that	
  is	
  appropriate	
  to	
  the	
  community(Legal	
  Framework)5.1O	
  -­‐	
  Supporting	
  StudiesStudies	
  that	
  support	
  goals/policies	
  in	
  the	
  plan.For	
  example,	
  housing	
  projections	
  studies.Code	
  if	
  mentions	
  supporting	
  study	
  OR	
  if	
  it	
  is	
  in	
  the	
  appendixFuture	
  studies	
  or	
  intent	
  to	
  do	
  studies	
  counts5.2O	
  -­‐	
  Financial	
  ConsiderationsAcknowledgement	
  of	
  the	
  staff/resources	
  needed	
  to	
  achieve	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  policies5.2O	
  -­‐	
  Implementation	
  ActionsIdenti(ication	
  of	
  speci(ic	
  actions	
  needed	
  to	
  implement	
  a	
  jobs-­‐housing	
  balance	
  policy5.2O	
  -­‐	
  Implementation	
  Program	
  GeneralIs	
  there	
  a	
  program/timeline	
  for	
  implementation	
  (General)5.2O	
  -­‐	
  UpdatedHas	
  the	
  plan	
  been	
  updated	
  in	
  the	
  last	
  5	
  years 63 Appendix	
  B:	
  Master	
  Score	
  Card 64 65

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