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False Creek Flats: An Urban Design Framework for a Connected Complete Neighbourhood Chan, Patrick Foong 2011

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False Creek Flats: An Urban Design Framework for a Connected Complete Neighbourhood By Patrick Foong Chan Professional Project School of Community and Regional Planning University of British Columbia Summer 2011False Creek Flats: An Urban Design Framewor k By Patrick Foong Chan  False Creek Flats: An Urban Design Framework for a Connected Complete Neighbourhood by Patrick Foong Chan BFA, University of Victoria MDes(Arch), University of New South Wales PhD(Arch), Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology A PROJECT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS (PLANNING) in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES School of Community and Regional Planning We accept this project as conforming to the required standard ...................................................... (Maged Senbel) ..................................................... (Scot Hein) THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 2011 © Patrick Foong Chan, 2011 Acknowledgments: Maged Senbel - Thank you for guiding me through the process, teaching me how to read the city, and believing in my work. Scot Hein - Thank you for showing me how to think and do as an urban designer, and those desk-crits lessons you would show us that change how we think about space. Neal LaMontagne - Thank you for giving me the opportunity to experience what it is to work as a planner and designer, and most of all being a friend who gives great advice. Irena Hoti - Thank you most of all for believing in me and being patient with me while I pursue worlds in my funny mind. And thank you for believing in me for the rest of my life.Table of COntents >> > Table of Contents Part 1 1. Introduction 1.1 Project Description•	 1.2 Key Rationales for Undertaking this Project•	 1.3 Research methods•	 1.4 Deliverables•	 2. Background 2.1 Site Conditions•	  2.1.1 Current Natural Conditions  2.1.2 Urban Structure Development 2.2 Social Conditions•	  2.2.1 Site History and Heritage  2.2.2 Demographics and Culture 2.3 Current Land Use•	  2.3.1 Negotiating Industrial Lands with Other Uses  2.3.2 Negotiating Rail Uses 2.4 Community Contexts•	  2.4.1 Adjacent Neighbourhoods’ Visions  2.4.2 Community Consultation 3. Limits and Opportunities 3.1 Urban Form•	  3.1.1 Limits regarding Urban Form  3.1.2 Opporunities regarding Urban Form 3.2 Connections•	  3.1.1 Limits regarding Connections  3.1.2 Opporunities regarding Connections 3.3 Industrial Uses•	  3.3.1 Limits regarding Industrial Uses  3.3.2 Opporunities regarding Industrial Uses 3.4 Energy•	  3.4.1 Limits regarding Energy  3.4.2 Opporunities regarding Energy 3.5 Environmental Wellness•	  3.5.1 Limits regarding Environmental Wellness  3.5.2 Opporunities regarding Environmental Wellness 3.6 Community Engagement•	  3.6.1 Limits regarding Community Engagement  3.1.2 Opporunities regarding Community Engagement Part 2 4. Proposed Urban Design Framework 4.1 Principles and Strategies•	  4.1.1 Connect  4.1.2 Accommodate  4.1.3 Respect  4.1.4 Restore 4.2 Typologies and Patterns•	  4.2.1 Overcome Barriers  4.2.2 Ensure Continuity  4.2.3 Shorten Blocks and Frontages  4.2.4 Blur Private-Public Edges  4.2.5 Mix Typologies, Mix Uses  4.2.6 Include Residential 	 4.2.7	Encourage	Infill  4.2.8 Densify Arterials  4.2.9 Preserve Heritage  4.2.10 Denote Heritage Gateways  4.2.11 Complement Existing Neighbourhoods  4.2.12 Link Heritage Necklace  4.2.13 Produce Resilient Sources  4.2.14 Mitigate Hazards  4.2.15 Integrate Land Uses to Reduce Waste  4.2.16 Organise around Green Infrastructure 4.3 System Diagrams•	  4.3.1 Sub Areas and Key Centres  4.3.2 Land Use  4.3.3 Movement  4.3.4 Public Amenities  4.3.5 Green Infrastructure 4.4 Masterplan •	 4.5 Focused Study Areas•	  4.5.1 Station Street Mixed Use Quarters  4.5.2 Double-Fronted Blocks at Terminal Avenue Part 3 5. Public Participation Checklist 5.1 Establishing a Working Group•	 5.2 Facilitating Co-Design•	 6. Conclusion 6.1 Summary•	 6.2 Next Steps•	1. Introduction >> > 1. Introduction 1.2. Key Rationales for Undertaking this Project 1.3. Research Methods 1.4. Deliverables 1.1. Project Description This chapter describes the project, the principles it adopts the rationales for undertaking this work, the research methods employed and the deliverables to give readers a sense of its scope. Taking on this project initially came from observing how The Flats is currently a ‘dead zone’ for walking despite being just 1km in breadth and 1.5km in length. The area’s lack of diverse programming and connections due to the rail-yards make it uneasy to traverse. The Flats was not ‘complete’ because it was not well integrated into the surrounding urban fabric physically and programmatically. It is hard for people and businesses to go in to enliven the area. Three related rationales for engaging The Flats follow this question of ‘What can make The Flats complete?’ Opportunity to create a ‘connector’ neighbourhood•	 : Given its location, The Flats can become a nexus between different neighbourhoods of different socio- economic demographics. A connector neighbourhood ties the adjacent neighbourhoods’ boundaries by means of reconsidering the edge condition, the functions of the corridors and public realms, typology of buildings, morphological character of blocks, and programming within buildings. Increasing connectivity aligns well with the Greenest City Action Plan’s aim to create walkable neighbourhoods.1 Stitching The Flats together with adjacent neighbourhoods makes The Flats complete by being with its wider context. Reduce development pressure in adjacent areas•	 : By increasing the housing, as well as lands for high- tech/creative	industries	and	offices	in	The	Flats	we	 can possibly reduce some development pressure to radically transform adjacent neighbourhoods like Chinatown, Strathcona and Mount Pleasant. Increasing development and thus employment opportunities in The Flats is in line with The Greenest City Action Plan to secure jobs near where workers live. By providing jobs, The Flats completes its adjacent neighbourhoods, and vice versa Opportunity for participatory and co-design strategies•	 : Given The Flats’ current vacant condition, it does not have many of its own residents and communities. But, as it develops and becomes better connected to adjacent neighbourhoods, residents and communities from these neighbourhoods may become interested to participate and co-design The Flats’ identity and physical form. Hence, engaging with The Flats is an opportunity to reach out to these neighbourhoods. It is an opportunity for both planners and residents to, collectively, understand, the histories, relations, sensibilities and socio-economic and cultural forces constituting The Flats. Given the project’s short time span (3 months over summer 2011), literature review, personal observations and scheduled meetings with city planners connected to The Flats’ current planning program provide the bulk of the information for decision making about the urban design framework being proposed here: Literature review•	 : Factoring time constraints, information	that	influence	urban	design	decisions	is	 sourced largely from existing City policy documents and reports, and planning and design literature rather than	first-hand	engagements	with	community	groups.	 Personal observations•	 : Design decisions made are also	be	partly	influenced	by	personal	observations	and	 interpretations of site conditions. Scheduled meetings with city planners•	 : These scheduled meetings with Scot Hein (senior urban designer) and Karis Hiebert (lead planner for The Flats) are to chart progress and viability of the project’s various proposals The project is presented in three parts: First, a •	 summary of The Flats’ context – its natural, socio-cultural and economic character, as well as its past and current planning initiatives. A key component of this first	part	is	to	review	the	surrounding	neighbourhoods’	 community visions to get a sense of how these neighbourhoods	aim	to	develop,	and	find	ways	to	make	 The	Flats’	future	development	complementary.	This	first	 part will conclude by identifying some limits facing The Flats, and make preliminary recommendations on how to turn these limits into opportunities. The opportunities form the basis for the design principles and strategies in part 2. This part constitutes chapters 1 to 3. Second, this being my project’s key contribution, is •	 an urban design framework that comprises design principles, strategies, typologies and patterns, system diagrams as well as focused studies on 2 areas. This part constitute chapter 4. Third, recognising The Flats’ future development will •	 impact adjacent neighbourhoods, a checklist catered to ensure that future public participation processes can adequately involve locals in the formation of The Flats’ identity and physical character, particularly through co-design. This part constitute chapter 5 and chapter 6 which forms the conclusion. The False Creek Flats (hereafter ‘The Flats’) is currently	identified	by	the	City	of	Vancouver	as	 having an opportunity to further develop high-tech and	creative	businesses,	offices	and	residences,	 while retaining affordable industrial lands for warehouses, light manufacturing, wholesalers, food production/distribution and green city-serving uses like recycling depots, composting centres and waste- to-energy operations. Betters connections to and within The Flats can help achieve these desired uses. This project responds to the abovementioned positioning of The Flats. Besides providing affordable industrial lands, it also examines how residential developments,	commercial	retail	spaces	and	offices	 can be included to make The Flats a more complete neighbourhood. Four main principles characterise my approach: CONNECT it to adjacent neighbourhoods and the wider city context; ACCOMMODATE a diversity of uses; RESPECT its histories, heritage, character and form, and neighbours; and RESTORE ecological functions and well-being. To articulate these principles, my project presents an urban design framework that includes urban typologies and patterns future planning initiatives may reference. The framework will also include strategies to stitch The Flats with adjacent neighbourhoods, thus making it not only complete by itself, but complete by being with its wider context. The Flats completes other neighbourhoods, and other neighbourhoods complete it. (1) City of Vancouver, Vancouver 2020: A Bright Green Future2. Background 2.1.1 Current Natural Conditions 2.1.2. Urban Structure Development This chapter outlines basic contexts and issues facing The Flats. This is done by summarising the planning directions for the area, its changing socio- economic demography, cultural histories, natural ecology and neighbourhood visions. The	Flats	is	a	land	infill	over	the	eastern	part	of	 False Creek which until the early 20th century was a tidal salt basin that extended east to Clark Drive. The primary reasons for this land reclamation was to provide land for the growth of the Great Northern Railway train tracks and station, and also to provide industrial lands for Vancouver’s growing job demands in the 19th and 20th centuries. Adjacent neighbourhoods such as Strathcona, Chinatown, Commercial Drive and Mount Pleasant were also experiencing growth. While currently there is not much immediate perceived	threat	of	flooding	and	other	forms	of	 disasters striking, studies have shown that the area is	flood-prone.	In	fact,	much	of	the	land	south	of	 Terminal	Avenue	is	susceptible	to	flooding.	(Fig.	1)	 Additionally, current hazard studies suggest, as areas become more densely populated, they also become more exposed to hazards. Increasing a localised population density can heighten the probability of even small-scale disasters affecting larger number of people.2 Future planning for The Flats should consider the resiliency of not just the physical structures, but also the socio-economic welfare of its residents, especially if future residents are lower income groups.3 Due to The Flats’ physical form, 3 kinds of natural hazards	can	be	identified: Ponding & Flooding•	 : Even though its current location is more than 300m from False Creek, according to CoV’s 2007 Flood	Proofing	Policies, due to the large upstream area tributaries to The Flats, winter storm surges, and major rainfall events, the soil can be over waterlogged which lead to ponding.  This impacts soil stability and thus limits underground parking construction and even building heights. The Flood	Proofing	report	also	notes	that	the	3.0m	flood	 construction levels (FCL) previously recommended for The Flats is 0.5m lower than the FCL recommended The 308 acres (125 hectares) Flats is bound by Prior Street to the north, Great Northern Way to the south, Main Street to the west and Clark Drive to the east. (Fig. 3) Low development intensity is characteristic there, with one-third of its land dedicated to rail usage and almost two-thirds dedicated to industrial uses ranging from warehouses, to autoshops, to some small pockets	of	offices	and	high-tech/creative	businesses.	 Average lot sizes range from around 200’ x 150’ around Industrial Avenue and Malkin Avenue, to 550’ x 250’ along Terminal Avenue, to 750’ x 900’ at the northwest and southeast corners where St. Paul’s hospital and the police training centre respectively intend to relocate to. Big-box shops and the Emily Carr University, UBC, SFU and BCIT joint education institution at Great Northern Way are there too. As of 2006 The Flats accounts for about 20% of Vancouver’s industrial lands with approximately 5800 jobs within its boundaries.7 Its central location makes it a freight-receiving and goods distribution centre as well as a passenger rail depot. Most rail tracks run east- west, thus there are very little north-south connections, except at Main Street and Glen Drive which are 1.5km apart. Many planning initiatives have noted connections problems leading to inaccessibility plays a factor in The Flats’ current low development intensity. Responding to issues of connections and low development intensity, in the past 15 years CoV has produced various plans, reports and district schedules pertaining to more intense development and better transport strategies, especially for the rail tracks. This is a short summary of some planning initiatives: 1995: Industrial Lands Strategy•	  was created to support retention of city-serving industrial, transportation and service lands. 1996: The False Creek Flats Preliminary Concept Plan•	  explored retaining The Flats’ industrial character while providing space for high-tech industries and live-work housing. It also suggests some mixed-use areas, for example, along Main Street as a link between The Flats and False Creek to the west. 1997: I-2 Light Industrial Zoning District Schedule•	  was created to better meet the needs of contemporary industry while improving the compatibility of The Flats to nearby residential areas by preventing large scale, high-impact industrial use. 1999: CD-1(402) District Schedule•	  was created for the development of a high-tech campus on the 26 acres Finning site on Great Northern Way, so as to tie in with the overall high-tech developments envisioned for The Flats. (2) Denis Mileti, Disasters by Design: A Reassessment of Natural Hazards in the United States, Washington, D.C.: Joseph Henry Press, 1999, pp.119-120. (3) http://www.straight.com/article-347233/vancouver/ vision-transforming-false-creek-flats (Accessed: March 27th 2011) (4) http://vancouver.ca/ctyclerk/cclerk/20070417/docu- ments/p3.pdf (Accessed: March 27th 2011) (5) BTAWorks (6) http://gsc.nrcan.gc.ca/urbgeo/geomapvan/ geomap8_e.php (Accessed March 25th 2011) (7) City of Vancouver, Metro Core Jobs & Economy Land Use Plans 2. Background >> > Site Cond ition s to lands on the western side of False Creek. Any new construction should have a FCL of above 3.5m or higher to reduce property and human-life damages.4 Sea-level rise•	 : Some recent study suggests that if no actions are taken to further mitigate the impacts of rising sea-levels, with a 5m to 7m rise, The Flats will be submerged. (Fig. 2) The same study also notes the absence of a dyke system around False Creek and puts future residents in those areas at even greater risk.5 Earthquakes and Liquefaction•	 : Like much of the region, The Flats is exposed to earthquake related hazards	like	liquefaction.	As	a	tidal	flat,	the	different	 layers of sediment have varying degrees of stability. This difference can cause lateral sliding, and due to gravity the capping layer can slide towards lower points in The Flats such as the west side. Buildings, road networks, railways and infrastructure are thus vulnerable to damage.6 This can have a cascading effect on socio-economic and ecological systems, and the area’s businesses and industries. Fig.1: Much of the area south of Terminal Avenue, and  nearly 50% of the area north of Terminal Avenue are prone to flooding. Fig.2: The blue indicates a 7m rise which causes downtown and Stanley Park could become islands. The Flats will be completely submerged.2.1.2. Urban Structure Development (con’t) 2.2.1. Site History and Heritage 1999: I-3 High-Tech Industrial Zoning District Schedule •	 was created to permit high-tech and creative industries involved	in	significant	amount	of	research	and	 development activities. The I-3 outrightly limits its usage to high-tech industries such as software manufacturing. A FSR of 3.0 is allowed for manufacturing, transportation, wholesales, utility and storage uses, while a FSR of 1.0 is allowable for other uses. The building height is capped at 18.3m (61’). 2001: Urban Structure Policy Report •	 was created to provide a more detailed interpretation of possible urban structure frameworks. This includes looking at how The Flats can be developed in 3 phases to slowly reduce rail usage and incorporate more diverse programs and green spaces. (Fig. 4) 2005: False Creek Flats Work Program•	  was started to give a better understanding of different stakeholders’ views, concerns, issues and wishes. Key components of	this	work	program	were	an	explicit	identification	of	 heritage sites, a proposal for The Flats to be a district energy precinct and more detailed studies of movement in and around the area while retaining industrial uses. 2005: Administrative Report on Strategic Rail Overview•	  and Detailed Operation Study was prepared by engineering services to note rail movement’s importance to Vancouver. The report recognises the rail lines are significant	barriers	to	better	connections	at	The	Flat	and	 proposes 4 schemes to deal with this. The schemes are to	keep	the	existing	rail	footprint,	to	reconfigure	the	rail	 footprint, to increase rail footprint and to decrease rail footprint. 2006:•	  Planning for The Flats took a hiatus due to reassignment of staff to other planning initiatives and programs. 2009: Rezoning Policy for “High Tech” sites in the False •	 Creek Flats was drafted to re-examine high-tech zoning, particularly with the I-3 zone. It reported that since I-3 was created, there has not been a huge market demand for these high-tech spaces. It also report a broader range of non-residential, job space be adopted. The	recommendation	is	to	consider	more	flexible	use	 of	space	to	include	offices,	albeit	a	different	form	of	 development from that of downtown. 2011•	 : Planning for The Flats restarted in May 2011. Growth in rail and sea transportation contributed to The Flats’ major transformation. Historical milestones included: 1800s:•	  The Flats was a tidal basin extending to Clark Drive. 1885•	 :	Canadian	Pacific	Railway’s	western	terminus	 moved from Port Moody to Coal Harbour and English Bay leading to rail yards construction at The Flats 1913•	 : The Great Northern Way rail way was extended through The Flats to service Vancouver’s growing industry and population. It was this development particularly that spurred the major land reclamation. 1917•	 : Reclamation reached to today’s Main Street. 1920•	 s:	The	Flats’	rail	presence	is	firmly	established,	and	 plans	were	underway	to	landfill	the	remaining	portions	 of east False Creek. 1960•	 s: Surrounding neighbourhoods began to see dramatic residential, retail and commercial growth to support the growing population and economic demands. 1980s & 1990s•	 : CoV began to formalise new policies to better understand The Flats’ industrial potential. Various heritage buildings and sites came from these developments over the past 150 years: CN Railway Station•	  designed by RB Pratt and Ross in 1919 is a Class ‘A’ neo-classical building that serves as a civic landmark, and continues to function as the passenger rail/bus depot. (Fig. 5) 750 Terminal Avenue•	  designed by Eric Arthur in 1937 is a Class ‘A’ Industrial-Moderne building, currently used as a piano retail business. 242 Terminal Avenue•	  built in 1937 is a Class ‘B’ Industrial-Moderne building, currently used as a mini storage. 250 Terminal Avenue •	 built in 1924 is a city-owned Class ‘B’ Industrial-Moderne building next to 242 Terminal Avenue that is currently vacant. Thornton Park•	  built around 1923 is named after Henry Thornton, general manager of CN Rail who contributed greatly to the park’s upkeep. 2. Background >> > Social Cond ition s Figure.3: The False Creek Flats is bounded by Prior Street to the north, Great Northern Way to the south, Main Street to the west and Clark Drive to the east. Figure.4: Culmination of the 3 phases of development with the elimination of the CN rail-yard and the BNSF rail-yard. Some of the bigger lots are subdivided to allow more pedestrian and vehicular movement through The Flats. Prior St. Clark D r. Main St . Great Northern Way2.2.2. Demographics and Culture While The Flats itself is not heavily populated its surrounding neighbourhoods are. According to 2006’s census, The Flats and immediately adjacent areas are composed of 46% visible minorities, and more than half of those are Chinese.8 And, about 67% of the population are aged 20 to 59, with more than half of this population being 20 to 39 years old.9 Besides a high visible minority population and nearly half of the population being under 40 years old, The Flats and its surrounding neighbourhoods – namely east Vancouver communities – is also home to a vibrant arts and culture scene. For example, the Eastside Culture Crawl is a celebrated event in which artist studios are opened to the public. (Fig. 6) Tertiary art institutions such as The Vancouver Film School and Emily Carr University have both moved into Chinatown and The Flats respectively. The area is also home to several galleries like the Firehall Arts Centre, Gallery Gachet, Artspeak Gallery, Interurban Gallery, the Vancouver Access Artist Run Centre, The VIVO Media Centre, The Western Front and The Elliot Louis Gallery. Since 2005 CoV is developing plans such as the Downtown Eastside Strategic Arts and Culture Framework and Investment Plan to celebrate and finance	the	eastside’s	unique	history	and	diversity	 through public-focused arts and artistic institutions. While government support is the chief funding there lays the possibility for new developments to fund some of these initiatives by means of CACs (in exchange for bonus density). 2. Background >> > Social Cond ition s Figure 5: Pacific Central Train Station currently services the CN Rail, VIA Rail as well as several cross-continental bus-lines. Figure 6: The annual Eastside Culture Crawl features open studios the public can visit. (8) http://www12.statcan.ca/census-recensement/2006/ dp-pd/prof/92-597/P3.cfm?Lang=E&CTCODE=5283& CATYPE=CMA (Accessed March 27th 2011) (9) http://www12.statcan.ca/census-recensement/2006/ dp-pd/prof/92-597/P3.cfm?Lang=E&CTCODE=5292& CATYPE=CMA (Accessed: March 27th, 2011)2.3.1. Negotiating Industrial Lands with Other Uses 2.3.2. NegotiatingRail Uses Retaining The Flats as primarily industrial as been identified	by	CoV	as	necessary	due	to	its	affordable	 land cost and rent within inner-city limits. While retaining industrial lands is a priority, CoV and businesses have expressed interests to increase more office,	retail,	live-work,	and	residential	opportunities.	 The I-2 (primarily for city-serving industries like food distribution places on Malkin Avenue, the recycling depot	on	Industrial	Avenue	and	the	firemen	and	police	 facilities) and I-3 zones (primarily for high-tech and creative industries) were created to help retain The Flats as primarily industrial, albeit toward a renewed understanding of “industrial”. Despite intentions for I-2 and I-3 to increase high- tech and light industries, and currently there being about 3 million sq ft of job spaces permitted under I-2 and I-3 zoning, the uptake has been slow. There remains a large number of vacant or low-intensity lots there. According to a 2009’s Rezoning Policy for “High Tech” sites in the False Creek Flats the uptake is slow due to wider global slowing down of high-tech and creative industries when the internet bubble burst in	the	late	90s.	As	a	result,	it	has	been	difficult	for	 further developments at The Flats to proceed due to an inability	to	secure	sufficient	high-tech	tenants	to	meet	 the I-3 zoning requirements. Aside from high-tech industries	issues,	demands	for	general	office	uses	in	 The Flats and housing needs in the Vancouver region have increased in recent years. 2009’s Rezoning Policy for “High Tech” sites in the False Creek Flats suggests several ‘solutions’ to bring more non-residential activities to The Flats: Site-specific	rezoning•	 	to	increase	flexibility	in	the	type	of	 job space permitted in I-3 zones. Broaden the usage in I-2 and I-3 zones •	 to include restaurants	and	more	general	office	uses.	The	original	 intention	to	limit	restaurants	and	office	uses	there	is	 to	reduce	vehicular	and	customer	traffic	in	the	area.	 But given The Flats’ proximity to existing and proposed transit	routes,	offices	and	restaurants	may	thrive.	 Retain city-serving uses•	  to keep The Flats’ role as a hub which can provide services that other neighbourhoods cannot provide due to other real estate demands. Strong support exists for retaining rail and even allowing growth for rail service, both freight and passenger. This is partly due to the Burrard Inlet shipping terminals getting busier. In fact, according to 2008’s False Creek Flat Rail Corridor Strategy Report, the number of containers going through Vancouver can go from around 3 million in 2010 to about 5 million by 2020. To deal with this increase, freight trains have been getting longer to carry more containers and as a result rail yards lengths grow correspondingly. With regards to passenger rail, the report estimates an increase from the current 26 passenger trains per week to 70 per week in 20 years. Currently, there are 4 rail yards at The Flats that support freight and passenger operations: CN Main Yard•	 	is	a	support	yard	for	container	traffic	from	 the south shore shipping terminals. BNSF Yard•	  generally supports the barge operations at Burrard Inlet. Glen Yard•	  is used primarily for staging grain and container cars. VIA Yard•	  is used for passenger arrival and departures. Despite the importance of the rail yards in supporting Vancouver’s growth, there have been discussions to slowly reduce the rail footprint in The Flats. This is in	light	of	the	rail	yards	creating	significant	barriers	 for much needed linkages around and through The Flats. In 2005’s Administrative Report on Strategic Rail Overview and Detailed Operation Study, the following assumptions on the respective rail yards are considered reasonable: CN Main Yard will remain the same or increase rail •	 footprint. BNSF Yard will remain the same or be eliminated.•	 Glen Yard will remain the same or increase rail footprint.•	 VIA Yard will increase rail footprint.•	 3 rail footprint scenarios arise from the above assumptions of the 4 rail yards (Fig. 8): Reconfigured	footprint•	  assumes the BNSF railyard is no longer in service and the equivalent amount of tracks are	reconfigured	to	the	CN’s	Main	Yard	and/or	Glen	Yard. Increased footprint •	 accommodates a larger footprint than today’s, with a larger CN Yard and/or Glen yard. Reduced footprint•	  assumes the BNSF railyard is no longer	in	service	and	that	enough	rail	efficiencies	 With regards to residential usage, the I-3 zone as well as the Great Northern Way site does permit some small degree of housing and promotes walkability: I-3 housing allowances •	 include dwelling for caretakers or watchmen considered to be essential to a business’ operation. Residential units integral to an artist studio is also allowed. Great Northern Way housing allowances •	 include 180000 sq	ft	of	floorspace	permitted	for	live-work	situations.	 Walkability •	 is actually encouraged by I-3’s current streetscape strategies which calls for a neighbourhood accessible by foot and cycling, as opposed to previous zoning requirements which were automobile centric. Design strategies such as continuous sidewalks already caters to a neighbourhood suitable for greater residential density. (Fig. 7) However, two issues arise with regards to including residential and live-work in The Flats: Land cost:•	  Future developments must not be weighted so much toward residential and retail that land cost and rent rise and drive out other uses such as light industrial. Rail	versus	residential	conflict:•	  While CoV is not opposed to including residential and live-work uses, potential conflict	can	arise	when	residential	and	live-work	are	 sited too close to rail. In summary the question pertains to how to best support industrial lands by keeping the cost reasonable while including other uses. 2. Background >> > Cur rent Land Us e are gained in the CN Main yard, Glen Yard, Waterfront or Grandview yards to accommodate freight rail growth. Rail footprint changes should also reconsider how blocks and lots can be adequately subdivided	to	foster	more	office,	retail	and	 residential uses to move in by. However, displacing rail yards totally and relocating them to Surrey or Coquitlam are not feasible due to two main reasons: Relation between rail and industrial lands will •	 suffer if rail yards are relocated. The Flats’ affordable industrial lands for warehouses provide space for goods from the rails to be stored prior to re-distribution. Rail and industrial lands form a synergistic land use pattern. Rail is a sustainable transport choice•	 . If freight and passenger rail yards are relocated that can translate to more use of fossil-fuel vehicles to transport goods from Surrey or Coquitlam into Vancouver proper. Also, the passenger rails can one day accommodate people coming to heart of Vancouver from surrounding municipalities such Langley, Abbotsford, and even Chilliwack using trains. Figure 7: Cross-section and photograph showing possible streetscape treatment at I-3 zones. Much of the streetscape treatment is not too different from ones recommended for residential zones.2. Background >> > Cur rent Land Us e Figure 8: Existing rail footprint (TL); Reconfigured rail footprint (BL); Increased rail footprint (TR); Reduced rail footprint (BR)2.4.1. Adjacent Neighbourhoods’ Visions Without its own community vision, summarising some aspects of the adjacent neighbourhoods’ community plans and visions can help planners better understand how The Flats can be planned and designed should it be better connected to its surrounding urban fabric. Doing so, allows one to get a sense of what The Flats’ growth potential, form and character, density and public realm treatment can be like. Knowing the larger context, one may better plan and design the Flats as a ‘connector’ and ‘extension’ of these neighbourhoods. The Flats sits amongst key neighbourhoods like (Fig. 9): Mount Pleasant to the south•	 Grandview Woodlands to the east•	 Strathcona to the immediate north•	 Southeast False Creek to the west•	 Summary of neighbourhood visions: Mount Pleasant have yet a community vision but since 2010 it has a draft community plan. Key characteristics and visions for urban form include: Topography•	  is seen by City staff and community members as integral to creating ‘Hilltown’. Urban design wise	this	entails	finding	ways	to	smooth	the	transition	of	 taller buildings and high-street feel around the key node at Broadway/Main Street to the lower-rise residential fabric along Great Northern Way. (Fig. 10) Low to mid-rise massing•	  is preferred to respect the human-scale quality of the area. Although taller buildings are possible at select sites. 2. Background >> > Communi ty Context s Figure 10: Mount Pleasant’s Hilltown character. How will future developments at The Flats complement this morphological pattern? Incorporating heritage buildings into new projects•	  to preserve heritage and to promote architectural innovation. (Fig.11) Diversity in housing and population to ensure liveability •	 for all types and sizes of families and households. This entails a wide range of affordable housing to include rentals, co-ops, supported housing and artist live- work spaces. At the same time to provide services and facilities to these families and households. Non-market housing should be distributed evenly rather than ghettoised. Public	benefits	with	large	site	developments•	  should be pursued. This can come in the form of contributions to heritage retention, improved pedestrian environment, cycling routes, rights-of-way and social housing. Large developments	should	fit	with	the	area’s	look	and	feel. Distributing green spaces •	 around the area. Green spaces are not only parks but vertical gardens, linear parks, pocket parks, laneway green treatments, semi-private courtyard and rooftops gardens. Food growing should also be considered. (Fig.12) Infill	strategies	•	 should be pursued to increase density before choosing high-rise forms. This can be done through laneway housing, redeveloping open carparks and other vacant areas within existing sites. (Fig.13) Laneway development •	 should be considered by activating the lanes with commercial activities such as artist studios and cafes. Greening the lanes is another strategy. Walking is a priority•	  when it comes to the overall design and planning of the area’s movement routes. Focus on a creative community•	  is a high priority, especially considering the area’s artistic culture such as the Eastside Culture Crawl amongst other events. Figure 11: Heritage building on Main Street Figure 12: Mount Pleasant’s green space are not limited to parks but distributed in all forms such as the rain-gardens shown here. Figure 13: Laneway-oriented infill housing can be explored in The Flats’ future development. The Flats Figure 9: The Flats is situated in the middle of several established neighbourhoods which character will affect the future developments at The Flats. Strathcona Mt. Pleasant Southeast- False Creek Grandview- Woodlands2.4.1. Adjacent Neighbourhoods’ Visions (Con’t) Grandview Woodlands have yeta community vision document. CoV is working on developing one. Grandview Woodlands is a very large area, and the areas closest to The Flats are mostly characterised by RT-3, RT-4 an RT-5 zones. Although a ring of RM-4 zone is at the edge between The Flats and Grandview- Woodlands. Key characteristics and visions for these RT zones: Primarily one-family or two-family dwelling•	  is permitted. Some provisions for seniors’ supportive housing are also permitted. Non-residential uses•	  may include small clubhouse, neighbourhood house, park, library (if near a community centre), child care facility, church, bed and breakfast as well as farmers’ markets and grocery stores (if nearby parking is provided). Commercial zoning exists along some key arterials such as Commercial Drive. (Fig.14) Strathcona have yet a community vision document; however, the Strathcona Revitalisation Committee drafted its own visioning document, Strathcona: A Clear Vision for Our Community. Key characteristics and visions include: Preserve industrial land uses •	 to retain affordability for light industry such as bodyshops and other services. However, there is also the initiative to slowly include more green and clean industries that can better co-exist with housing in these areas. Retain RT-3 zones•	  to keep the fabric of those areas relatively low intensity. This zoning is also to retain heritage stock and single family home fabric. Reinforce the presence of the artistic community •	 by re-appropriating some buildings for the use by arts 2. Background >> > Communi ty Context s Figure 17: Strathcona Community Garden incorporates disused concrete blocks to create the garden scape. community to manufacture, exhibit and sell products of creative imagination. (Fig.15) Respect heritage stock•	  in the area. By updating and including more buildings in the heritage registry, especially buildings around east Hastings. (Fig. 16) Nurture existing large non-market housing•	  developments such as housing complexes like MacLean park, Raymur Place and Mau Dan Gardens. The aim is to keep existing residents in the area. Build more market housing•	  to help support local retail businesses and bring a healthy social presence to the public realm. However, all new housing developments, especially ones along arterials, should consider a sizable proportion of non-market housing. Additionally, large housing developments should contribute to the public amenities of the community by providing green spaces, child and senior care facilities and recreational spaces, as these are short in Strathcona. Revitalise East Hastings as a shopping street•	 . To do so an increase of housing and people will be needed. There needs to be a requirement for retail at grade to revitalise street life. This also increases local jobs. Green living •	 characterised by community gardens, farmers’ markets and renewable energy are encouraged for new developments. (Fig. 17) Connected greenways and bikeways •	 are essential in creating a complete community where people can easily bike or walk to work. Appropriate	densification	•	 will increase the population while	respecting	the	local	urban	fabric.	Densification	 is	identified	by	the	committee	as	crucial	to	dilute	the	 proportions of persons on drugs or who are mentally ill.	Appropriate	densification	will	improve	the	norm	for	 street behaviour, improve conditions for industry and retail, reduce crime and make it easier for people to break the cycles of addiction and poverty. Southeast False Creek has	an	official	development	plan	 prepared to facilitate the planning and design of the Olympic Village. Of all the neighbourhoods surrounding The Flats it has the densest form of development. Key characteristics and visions for the area’s urban form include: Connection to water•	  is important to bring nature into the urban space. (Fig.18) Create distinct neighbourhoods•	 , each derived from a particular historic pattern of the adjacent neighbourhoods. The eastern most part of SEFC is to take on rail-yard identity which ties well with programs at The Flats. Connect open spaces •	 to make walking and cycling easier. Connected open spaces at SEFC can be connected up to The Flats to create a wider walking/ cycling network. (Fig.19) Street hierarchy •	 established through paving patterns and different street width provides convenient and clear access for pedestrians while discouraging thoroughfare vehicular	traffic.	 Integrated transit •	 is crucial to tie SEFC to other parts of the cities for the purpose of jobs, extra-curricular activities and school.Figure 14: RT zones in Grandview Woodlands are often immediately next to commercial C-2 and C-3 zones. Figure 16: Residential heritage buildings in Strathcona. Figure 15: Chapel Arts on Dun Levy is a repurposed building now used as a gallery, performance space and artists’ studios. Figure 18: Connection to the waterfront is key Figure 17: Strathcona Community Garden incorporates disused concrete blocks to create the garden scape. Figure 20: Community services are within close proximity of each other to help form a heart.2.4.1. Adjacent Neighbourhoods’ Visions (Con’t) 2.4.2. Community Comsultation 2. Background >> > Communi ty Context s Figure 21: Development is encouraged to create varied lot sizes via parcellisation so as to produce a varied urban morphology. Cluster community services•	  around open spaces that are accessible to all. (Fig.20) Private-public integration •	 will be achieved through ground plane design and overall building form so that private and public open spaces may be immediately adjacent to each other to create a bigger sense of open spaces. Basin morphology •	 where taller building masses are sited near 2nd Avenue and slopes down toward the Creek. Incremental development •	 is achieved by varying the parcel sizes to allow for different forms of development to occur. This is represented by a mix of building types from the low-rise townhouse to 10-storeys terrace apartments. (Fig. 21) Demonstrated sustainability •	 is achieved by incorporating storm-water managements, urban agriculture and mixed use buildings on the site. During 2005’s False Creek Flats work program a two-phase set of meetings were held with the neighbourhoods around The Flats. Phase 1 was a scoping stage and Phase 2 was a visioning stage. Representatives from local resident associations, community centres, BIAs, NGOs and First Nations groups were recruited to envision what The Flats can be. The meetings were designed to meet the following objectives: Provide ‘The Story’ of The Flats •	 in terms of current state, in process and possible future plans Explore participants’ issues, concerns and ideas •	 regarding current and future planning. Obtain recommendations •	 for information exchange, consultation and participation in the ongoing planning process. The following recommendations regarding urban form resulted from the meetings: Retain and strengthen I-2 and I-3 zones •	 to ensure land cost affordability and employment in The Flats and its surrounds Redefine	‘industrial’	to	include	more	usage.•	  One of the suggestions was to add usage such as restaurants during off-hours to draw visitors to The Flats. Access, Greenways and pathways are necessary•	  if The Flats is going to be more actively engaged as a high-tech/creative zone and possibly for some level of residential uses. Greenways can be used to link open green spaces together. Create a pedestrian-oriented zone •	 around Main and Terminal by introducing more business opportunities and better public realm treatment. Better transit linkages and connections•	  to bring future residents and workers to and from The Flats. Support natural systems •	 by daylighting streams, establishing wildlife spaces, installing green roofs and geothermal energy systems as well as using the former tidal	flats	as	a	key	design	focus.	 Protect heritage buildings •	 in area as a reminder of the Flats’ history.3. Limits and Opportunities >> > Urban For m 3. Limits and Opportunities 3.1.1 Limits Regarding Urban Form 3.1.2 Opportunities Regarding Urban Form Reflecting on issues addressed in chapter 2, this chapter points to some of the limits facing The Flats. But, also highlights how these limits can become opportunities that this project can develop in terms of an urban design framework in chapter 4. This chapter explores issues with urban form, connections, industrial uses, energy issues, environmental impact and community consultation issues. Stated urban design directions• : The various plans, such as 2001’s urban structure plan and the various rail corridor strategies, have laid out possible land uses, rail strategies and subdivisions. But, they have yet to explicitly focus on suitable building typologies and wider urban morphologies. While the current I-3 district schedule provides some architectural precedents, there is no urban design framework to more succinctly bring The Flats’ physical identity into focus. There are also no directions as to how The Flats can tie in with itself and surrounding neighbourhoods through urban form. There are, for example, no directions about how each possible sub- area’s character would look like. Significant recent investments• : There are large lots in the area that have been developed in the last 15 years. These lots include the city-owned national yard, the fire training facility, the Evans yard, the police depot as well as major private developments like Home Depot, F/X Wholesalers, Gift Exchange and a pharmaceutical building. Change on these sites may be slow. Connect to adjacent neighbourhoods by ‘stitching’ • edges: Both Southeast False Creek’s ODP and Mount Pleasant’s draft community plan call for a transition in urban form and height. In the case of SEFC the strategy is to come down in height as it approaches the creek, and for Mount Pleasant the strategy is to come down in height as it approaches Great Northern Way. Likewise, in areas of Strathcona and Grandview- Woodlands that front onto The Flats there is an expressed desire to retain the RT zone character. The typologies and morphologies at The Flats, especially at its edges, can take the opportunity to respond to these surrounding strategies by having similar fine grain blocks and buildings, mirroring the building forms and character, and/or having complementary programming. Rather than treatment edges as clear boundaries, edges can become the zone where neighbourhoods meet. (Fig.22) Create distinct sub-areas: • Both the SEFC ODP and Mount Pleasant’s community plan suggest treating their respective neighbourhoods as a series of connected but distinct precincts. Distinct precincts may begin inform how The Flats’ urban design guidelines may be drafted as it moves from west to east. The potential distinct precincts in The Flats can each have different but mutually complementary building typologies to mark its respective dominant land-use and precinct character. (Fig. 23) A series of centres• : The Flats’ adjacent neighbourhoods all have a distinguished centre where one knows one has arrived at that particular neighbourhood. Centres in the form of plazas and parks are also places where formal or informal face-to-face communication may occur and ideas about community and self begin.10 Like SEFC and Mount Pleasant, The Flats’ potential centre is one where most of the amenities and services are sited. However, unlike SEFC which has one centre, The Flats being around 5 times bigger may have to have a key centre with smaller centres for each of its potential precincts or sub-areas. The connection between the primary and secondary centres should be legible that one can move between centres without confusion. (Fig.24) Diversify building types within a development• : While The Flats is chiefly going to be industrial, the building typologies can vary especially since high-tech and creative industry businesses do not necessarily need industrial size floorplates to operate. For blocks and lots with depths more than 250’ (61m) and substantial frontage, finer grain buildings for commercial retail use, offices and creative businesses can front onto the street while blockier buildings more suited for light industry (i.e. storages, distributors, bodyshops, wholesalers, etc) can be at the back where loading bays can be accessed via lanes. Essentially, this Figure 23: How are the different future uses at The Flats that can help define different sub-areas? How will developments along Terminal Avenue differ from ones along Industrial Avenue? Figure 24: Where will the future centres for each sub-area be? What kind of form will these centres take? How will they be linked up? (10)  Hester, Randolph, Design for Ecological Democ- racy, Cambridge, MA & London, UK: MIT Press, 2006, pp.23-32. Figure 22: How will The Flats’ edge transition from and respond to Mount Pleasant ‘Hilltown’ character? 3. Limits and Opportunities >> > Connections would take on a double-fronted block form, which encourages different architectural treatment due to the differences in use and massing requirements.11 (Fig.25) North-south connections• : Currently, the rail yards are significant barriers to better north-south connections. Proposals have been made to remove or at least reduce the number of rail tracks. However, given the re-emergence of rail as a sustainable means of goods and passenger movement, complete removal may not be a viable option. East-west connections• : East-west connections are poor to due to the lack of diverse programming along Terminal Avenue and Great Northern Way which are over 1km. Visual monotony makes walking less pleasant. The dimension of buildings and the setting of these buildings influences how one perceives time.12  Psychological barrier• : The 350m distance from 2nd Avenue to Terminal Avenue has a lack of diverse programming and higher development intensity which projects The Flats as a ‘blank space’ where nothing is happening. This may form a psychological barrier keeping people from entering. Similar observations can be made for Clark Drive and Terminal Avenue. More bike lanes:•  With cycling on the rise more bike trails and lanes can be added to the existing on immediately north of the CN Rail yard to increase east-west connections. Designated bike lanes on Industrial Avenue (which will cut through to Great Northern Way) and Terminal Avenue will also improve connectivity. These bike lanes can intersect with the landscaped pedestrian and bike bridges. (Fig. 29) Reconfigured rail footprint: • One of the strategies proposed is be reconfigure the rail tracks bringing the bulk of the lines at BNSF immediately south of Industrial Avenue to the Glen Yards. With the BNSF tracks gone, the VIA passenger and the CN tracks are the only two rail yards left. The reduced number of rail yards cutting across frees up the blocks between Industrial Avenue and Great Northern Way campus for development. More robust development here can intensify Industrial Avenue’s streetscape and bring more people into The Flats. With the BNSF rail yard relocated, there 3.1.2. Opportunities Regarding Urban Form (Con’t) 3.2.1. Limits Regarding Connections 3.2.2. Opportunities Regarding Connections Blend private-public open spaces• : In areas where there are courtyards within a lot, design solutions can be sought to make that courtyard accessible to the public. (Fig.26) Infill strategies to intensify land usage• : Infill strategies can be adopted to existing underdeveloped sites where underutilised car-parks, for example, can be repurposed for the construction of secondary buildings housing small boutique offices, housing and/ or live-work studios. (Fig. 27) is the potential to link the eastern end of Industrial Avenue to Great Northern Way thus increase east-west connections. Landscaped pedestrian and bike bridges: • To increase north-south connections by foot and bicycle, landscaped pedestrian and bike bridges straddling across the rail yards can be considered. Given the potential width and thus weight of landscaped bridge they are more likely to go across the VIA rail yard which are around 150’ to 180’ (46m to 55m)  in span, the eastern edge of the CN rail yard at Cottrell Street and/or Glen Drive at Evans Avenue. Most of the CN rail yard is more than 250’ (76m). (Fig. 28) More robust east-west arterials: • More diverse programming at grade and within the individual lots on Terminal Avenue for example could add visual dynamism that can make that 1km walk more pleasant. Terminal can be The Flats’ commercial spine. The west side of Terminal can feature unique architectural designs that speak of The Flats’ industrial history, its commitment as a green neighbourhood and signal a west-side entry to The Flats. (Fig. 30) 2009’s Rezoning Policy for “High Tech” sites in the False Creek Flats also suggests that restaurants and retail along Terminal can also make night-time walking and cycling safer. Likewise Industrial Avenue can also be intensified. More robust north-south arterials:•  Good connectivity at The Flats is not just cutting through its middle. The ‘blank space’ at Main St. between 2nd Avenue and Terminal Avenue can be more intensely developed. This translates to more mixed use that includes housing and commercial- retail opportunities to tie into the fabric of SEFC and Mount Pleasant. Developing this area also signals a west entry-point to The Flats. (11) Lewis, Sally, Front to Back: A Design Agenda for Urban Housing, Oxford, UK: Elsevier Architectural Press, 2005, p.56. (12)   Bosselmann, Peter, “Images in Motion” in Urban Design Reader (Eds. M. Carmona & S. Tiesdell), Ox- ford, UK: Elsevier Architectural Press, 2007, p.285. Figure 27: The vast areas of parking space at The Flats can be developed as infills in the future when car usage to and from The Flats have decreased due to, partly, better public transport to the area. Figure 28: A Landscaped pedestrian and bicycle bridge similar to this one Laurel Street and West 6th Avenue can span across some of the rail-yard to allow more north-south connections. Figure 30: Terminal Avenue can afford to have greater density and diversity of programs to strengthen its identity as the area’s central spine. More iconic building design at the corner of Main and Terminal can signal a west-end entry point. Figure 29: Can a dedicated bike lane that cuts through to Great Northern Way and/or East 5th Avenue be installed along Industrial Avenue? Additionally, what kinds of more intense programming can go along Industrial Avenue to make a bike-trip more enjoyable? Figure 26: A blurred private-public space that combines a public courtyard with the patios of residential units produces an open space that seems larger than its part. The effect of a larger open space can be further enhanced if the courtyard can also serve as a right-of-way.  Figure 25: Buildings within larger lots can take on differently massing and architectural articulations to provide visual diversity. Fine grain buildings can take the street-side while blockier buildings suited for industrial use can be at the rear. A landscaped laneway and/or courtyard can separate the two uses.3.2.2. Opportunities Regarding Connections (con’t) 3.3.1. Limits Regarding Industrial Uses 3.3.2. Opportunities Regarding Industrial Uses East-side entry-point: • While the Clark Drive side of The Flats should be kept more or less I-2 and suited for warehouses and storages, the public realm treatment could be bettered to demarcate an east entry-point to The Flats. For example, the currently empty lot at Glen and Evan can be better designed as a park to signal to people that they have entered The Flats. Future redevelopments at the blocks at the off-ramp of Terminal Avenue and Cottrell Street can hold more height and have less setback from the front property line and more grade-level retail such as cafes and shops to mark entry into The Flats. One enters a Terminal Avenue that can service not just industrial uses but provide a human-scale experience.13 (Fig. 31) Connecting green networks:•  Both SEFC and Mount Pleasant have directions to connect their green streets, parks and open spaces into a green network. Future development at The Flats should explore how its own green network can extend from SEFC and Mount Pleasant’s. Skytrain and tram stations• : There are opportunities to bring a skytrain station to the eastern side of The Flats to service the to-be intensified commercial Terminal Avenue. The skytrain station at the eastern end can be a landmark signalling one’s entry into The Flats from the east. And if the station is next to the off-ramp of Terminal Avenue, then the station can be elevated with one of the entries from the off-ramp itself. This is to allow pedestrians who use Terminal Avenue to board the train with greater ease, and to create an uniquedly designed station. A tram station at the Great Northern Way campus is also possible to serve not just Flats’ residents but also Mount Pleasant residents. (Fig. 32) Slow uptake for I-2 and I-3• : The I-2 and I-3 zones were created to better meet the needs of contemporary light and high-tech industries respectively. Unfortunately, the uptake did not grow as anticipated. There have been suggestions by both businesses and CoV to redefine these zones to allow for more market and non-market housing, besides the currently allowed artist live-work spaces, to be developed in these zones. However, the issue of rising land cost due to residential development can drive industries out. Moreover, residential uses may conflict with rail usage. ‘Industrial’ as a defining character• : There is the opportunity to explore how The Flats’ industrial character in both look and program can become an identity. For example, the city-owned industrial lots on the Station Street and Industrial Avenue can host programs like localised composting services, shops that build and sell rainwater tanks, green fashion houses, etc to showcase a new approach to ‘industrial’. The buildings can be designed to speak of The Flats’ industrial heritage. (Fig. 34) Utilise existing residential allowances• : Besides artist live-work studios, the current I-2 and I-3 zoning allow some degree of residential floorspace for caretakers to live on work premise. Initiatives can be taken to design an arts village at The Flats. The Great Northern Way campus (zoned CD-1) also allows up to 180,000 sq-ft of Figure 32: A tram line and stations along Great Northern Way can serve future residents of The Flats as well as Mount Pleasant residents. 3. Limits and Opportunities >> > Industrial Uses Figure 33: The heritage buildings along Main Street can be tied together to showcase the history of this part of the city. Special paving can be used to mark this path that connects at least 3 to 4 neighbourhoods with The Flats in the middle. Figure 34: Instead of treating industrial buildings as derelict objects, they can be repurposed to house other programs.with The Flats in the middle. Figure 35: Close proximity of industrial and residential is possible if ‘industrial’ is cleaner, greener. To moderate the industrial land prices going up, instead of mixing uses on one lot, a lot (especially a larger one) can be subdivided with some smaller portions rezoned as CD-1 and becoming residential. Figure 31: While the east-end of The Flats can stay relatively industrial in character, greater density and better building design at the east-end of Terminal Avenue can signal a clearer entry into The Flats. Heritage Necklace: • Mount Pleasant and Strathcona have both expressed desires to retain heritage buildings. This can be an opportunity for The Flats to use its own heritage stock (such as the CN Railway Station) to join Mount Pleasant to Chinatown and Strathcona by creating a north-south ‘heritage necklace’. (Fig. 33) live-work space currently. The 180,000 sq-ft live-work space at the GNW campus can include student housing, and services and commercial retail businesses needed to support student populations. Redefine I-3• : 2009’s Rezoning Policy for “High Tech” sites in the False Creek Flats expressed interest to redefine I-3’s allowable uses. An increased amount of office and other job and retail spaces besides high-tech is proposed to enliven the area. These new office and retail spaces can be sited more toward the Main Street side so as to allow the Glen Drive side to retain a more I-2 character. Redefine ‘mixed use’• : There is also an opportunity to rethink the definition of ‘mixed use’. Typically, mixed use is conceived as vertical mixed use with commercial- retail at grade and residential above. There is the opportunity to think how mixed use can be achieved through site planning. For example, a lot with sufficient depth (250’+) and frontage (300’+) may have more commercial retail (mini-marts, clinics and post-offices) and residential programming on its street- edge, and more I-3 type program with offices and high-tech/ creative businesses in the lane- edge. The two ‘halves’ can be separated by a shared courtyard which with adequate vegetation coverage can provide residents with visual and auditory screening. This lot division will be more toward the west-half of The Flats to allow the east half to retain a more I-2 character. Such close proximity between new/light industrial and residential already exists in Vancouver’s IC-1 and IC-2 zones at the Burrard Slopes. There residential uses (as small CD-1 zones) are often above, across from or right next to uses like autoshops, software design firms and catering businesses. The Flats can pursue a similar strategy to create spots of CD-1 for residential uses. (Fig. 35) ‘Green loops’ between industries• : New developments can explore opportunities to work with existing businesses at The Flats to create a ‘green loop’ between the new and existing businesses. For example, a green loop can emerge if the future park at Thornton and (13) Ibid.3.3.2. Opportunities Regarding Industrial Uses (con’t) 3.4.1. Limits Regarding Energy 3.5.1. Limits Regarding Environmental Welness 3.5.1. Opportunities Regarding Environmental Wellness 3.4.2. Opportunities Regarding Energy 3. Limits and Opportunities >> > Ener gy; En vir onmental W el lness (14) Morris, Pierce, “In the Pipeline: District Energy and Green Building”, in Environmental Building News, 2007, Vol.16, No.3. (15) Lewis, Sally, Front to Back: A Design Agenda for Urban Housing, Oxford, UK: Elsevier Architectural Press, 2005, p.64 Malkin is allowed to become an urban agricultural site which produce can be distributed at the food distribution places along Malkin. A localised composting business can be sited nearby to turn the waste from the food distributors into product. Likewise, part of the recycled materials from the recycling depot on Industrial Avenue can become the raw materials for artists who might live and work in the future live-work studios along Industrial Avenue and at Great Northern Way campus. (Fig. 36) Low Energy Production• : Currently, the light-industrial and rail-related activities within The Flats, though not necessarily energy-intensive, only consume energy without the ability to produce their own energy. Generally, a minimum of 50 to 60 dwelling units per hectare is needed to make district energy economically feasible.14 High Vehicle Kilometres Travelled• : Given the few housing choices and numbers in The Flats, workers usually have to travel in. Very often that trip into The Flats can be by car as there not many transit routes that go through The Flats. If these car-trips are factored in, the embodied energy consumption of The Flats can be even higher. Poor soil quality• : The Flats being reclaimed lands needs soil remediation for new developments. Engineers have also reported that because of the existing soil conditions, higher building forms and underground carparks may not be structurally and environmentally suitable. The inability to build taller may lower the allowable FSR. Poor potential for urban agriculture:•  The substandard soil quality may make it hard for urban agriculture to take place. Ponding and flooding• : The Flats is prone to ponding and flooding because it is currently below flood construction levels. Soil Remediation• : Developing The Flats, both residential and industrial, can actually improve the air and soil quality. New developments can be impetuses to remediate the soil, create better drainage/filtration that can prevent flooding, erosion and toxic run-off. To combat flooding and ponding, bioswales and even day- lit streams can be designed to allow better drainage and even be used to organised public realm treatment. Environment-responsive architecture• : The inability to construct higher building forms can be an opportunity for developers and architects to invent creative solutions to increase The Flats’ population (needed for district energy, etc) while respecting the urban morphology of surrounding neighbourhoods. For example, above-grade parking can be under an eco-deck that provides green amenities to nearby residents and workers. (15) (Fig. 40) Off-ground urban agriculture• : With regards to urban agriculture, if growing edible vegetation is not possible at the ground level, then plots could be placed on building roofs and terraces, and through hydroponics systems, that are nonetheless accessible to the public. (Fig. 41) District Energy Precinct• : 2005’s working program for The Flats suggested that it along with adjacent neighbourhoods can become an energy precinct. However, for The Flats to do that, it needs to have at least 50 dwelling units per hectare. At 125 hectares, at least 6250 dwelling units must be designed for the area. It is possible to site most of these residential units on the west side of The Flats and supply energy to the east side of The Flats (and adjacent neighbourhoods) which may have much lower dwelling units or the waste output needed for district energy. The areas fronting onto Malkin Avenue, Prior Street and 2nd Avenue can be developed into residential zones to generate enough waste for district energy while most areas along Terminal Avenue can stay industrial. (Fig. 37) Solar Energy• : Given that many of the industrial buildings have larger roof-plates, placing solar panels on them should help with The Flats producing its own energy. Solar panels can also be placed amidst roof gardens to soften the panels’ hard-edge appearance, especially if roof-tops are to become areas for gathering and local food production. (Fig. 38) Biomass energy• : Being well-served by rail, it is possible for The Flats to develop a biomass processing centre where, for example, mulch and wastes from the lumber mills near rail systems can be brought in and processed to produce energy. This is a reason for why some degree of rail service must remain at The Flats. (Fig. 39) Reduced VKT• : By providing housing choices at The Flats, there can be less car-trips needed to The Flats, thereby reducing overall energy consumption. Figure 36: A green loop that explores how the waste of one business can become the construction materials for another can influence how land-use and building design is approached. Figure 39: The waste food produces from some of the food distribution centres at The Flats as well as unused mulch and lumber from regional mills can be brought in by rail to be transformed into biomass energy, hence giving The Flats a greater degree of self-reliance in terms of energy production. Figure 40: The Flats being prone to flooding should have above-grade car-parks. These car-parks, however, can under a landscaped eco-deck that offers open spaces to residents and workers, remediates air quality, reduces run-offs as well as visually screens the car-park itself. Figure 38: Solar panels can also be placed amidst roof gardens to soften the panels’ hard-edge appearance, especially if roof-tops are to become areas for gathering and local food production. Figure 37: The Flats along with adjacent neighbourhoods can become an energy precinct characterised by district energy systems, solar power amongst other systems. 2. Background >> > Communit y Engagement Figure 41: Urban agricultural spaces can serve as both food production sites and community gathering places. Figure 43: In co-design, the user (the future resident and worker of The Flats) will participate in identity and meaning making Figure 42: Should the BNSF rail yard be relocated to the Glen Yard site, the BNSF rail yard can become a greenway that features miniaturised wetlands, pedestrian walkways and bike paths. As a wetland, it can help absorb run-offs and remediate the water and soil quality in the area. Connection-wise it offers an east-west passage. 3.5.1. Opportunities Regarding Environmental Wellness 3.6.1. Limits on Community Engagement 3.6.2. Opportunities on Community Engagement Greenways• : Disused rail yards (like the BNSF yards which has been suggested to be relocated to the Glen yards) can become greenways. Greenways, having a greater degree of pervious surfacing, can help control run-offs from the adjacent areas. Bioswales and even miniaturised wetlands can feature prominently in these greenways. (Fig. 43) Green-roofs• : New developments can take the opportunity to use green roofs so as to help reduce run- offs, remediate air quality and to reduce the amount of artificial roof insulation needed.16 Lack of community feedback on urban form and design• : The community group meetings and stakeholders’ workshops held by The City in mid 2005 have articulated several important ideas for what The Flats can be in terms of being better connected to surrounding neighbourhoods and being affordable to new residents. However, due to the hiatus placed on The Flats’ planning, these workshops never produced any directions in terms of an urban design framework that discussed the desired form and character of The Flats. At the same time, there is the acknowledgment of the monetary and time expenses for enhanced engagement. Public participation through co-design• : The community consultation done so far is good. But there is still an opportunity here to further explore how citizens can be more actively involved in the physical planning and design of The Flats. Particularly, efforts can be made to utilise co-design methods to get citizens more directly involved in urban form making. (Fig. 43) Engaging growing visible minority• : Given The Flats and its surrounds has nearly 46% minority, there is an opportunity to explore how co-design methods can be tailored to work with visible minorities. Partnerships with education institutes• : The high monetary and financial cost of enhanced public participation such as co-design charrettes and working groups may be minimised if The City can partner with education institutions like Emily Carr (which is moving into The Finning site) and UBC to run some of these co-design events. (16)  http://www.roofgreening.ca/living_roofs.php (Ac- cessed: March 10th, 2010) False Creek Flats: An Urban Design Framework for a Connected Complete Neighbourhood By Patrick Foong Chan Professional Project School of Community and Regional Planning University of British Columbia Summer 2011False Creek Flats: An Urban Design Framewor k By Patrick Foong Chan  False Creek Flats: An Urban Design Framework for a Connected Complete Neighbourhood by Patrick Foong Chan BFA, University of Victoria MDes(Arch), University of New South Wales PhD(Arch), Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology A PROJECT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS (PLANNING) in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES School of Community and Regional Planning We accept this project as conforming to the required standard ...................................................... (Maged Senbel) ..................................................... (Scot Hein) THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 2011 © Patrick Foong Chan, 2011 Acknowledgments: Maged Senbel - Thank you for guiding me through the process, teaching me how to read the city, and believing in my work. Scot Hein - Thank you for showing me how to think and do as an urban designer, and those desk-crits lessons you would show us that change how we think about space. Neal LaMontagne - Thank you for giving me the opportunity to experience what it is to work as a planner and designer, and most of all being a friend who gives great advice. Irena Hoti - Thank you most of all for believing in me and being patient with me while I pursue worlds in my funny mind. And thank you for believing in me for the rest of my life.Table of COntents >> > Table of Contents Part 1 1. Introduction 1.1 Project Description•	 1.2 Key Rationales for Undertaking this Project•	 1.3 Research methods•	 1.4 Deliverables•	 2. Background 2.1 Site Conditions•	  2.1.1 Current Natural Conditions  2.1.2 Urban Structure Development 2.2 Social Conditions•	  2.2.1 Site History and Heritage  2.2.2 Demographics and Culture 2.3 Current Land Use•	  2.3.1 Negotiating Industrial Lands with Other Uses  2.3.2 Negotiating Rail Uses 2.4 Community Contexts•	  2.4.1 Adjacent Neighbourhoods’ Visions  2.4.2 Community Consultation 3. Limits and Opportunities 3.1 Urban Form•	  3.1.1 Limits regarding Urban Form  3.1.2 Opporunities regarding Urban Form 3.2 Connections•	  3.1.1 Limits regarding Connections  3.1.2 Opporunities regarding Connections 3.3 Industrial Uses•	  3.3.1 Limits regarding Industrial Uses  3.3.2 Opporunities regarding Industrial Uses 3.4 Energy•	  3.4.1 Limits regarding Energy  3.4.2 Opporunities regarding Energy 3.5 Environmental Wellness•	  3.5.1 Limits regarding Environmental Wellness  3.5.2 Opporunities regarding Environmental Wellness 3.6 Community Engagement•	  3.6.1 Limits regarding Community Engagement  3.1.2 Opporunities regarding Community Engagement Part 2 4. Proposed Urban Design Framework 4.1 Principles and Strategies•	  4.1.1 Connect  4.1.2 Accommodate  4.1.3 Respect  4.1.4 Restore 4.2 Typologies and Patterns•	  4.2.1 Overcome Barriers  4.2.2 Ensure Continuity  4.2.3 Shorten Blocks and Frontages  4.2.4 Blur Private-Public Edges  4.2.5 Mix Typologies, Mix Uses  4.2.6 Include Residential 	 4.2.7	Encourage	Infill  4.2.8 Densify Arterials  4.2.9 Preserve Heritage  4.2.10 Denote Heritage Gateways  4.2.11 Complement Existing Neighbourhoods  4.2.12 Link Heritage Necklace  4.2.13 Produce Resilient Sources  4.2.14 Mitigate Hazards  4.2.15 Integrate Land Uses to Reduce Waste  4.2.16 Organise around Green Infrastructure 4.3 System Diagrams•	  4.3.1 Sub Areas and Key Centres  4.3.2 Land Use  4.3.3 Movement  4.3.4 Public Amenities  4.3.5 Green Infrastructure 4.4 Masterplan •	 4.5 Focused Study Areas•	  4.5.1 Station Street Mixed Use Quarters  4.5.2 Double-Fronted Blocks at Terminal Avenue Part 3 5. Public Participation Checklist 5.1 Establishing a Working Group•	 5.2 Facilitating Co-Design•	 6. Conclusion 6.1 Summary•	 6.2 Next Steps•	1. Introduction >> > 1. Introduction 1.2. Key Rationales for Undertaking this Project 1.3. Research Methods 1.4. Deliverables 1.1. Project Description This chapter describes the project, the principles it adopts the rationales for undertaking this work, the research methods employed and the deliverables to give readers a sense of its scope. Taking on this project initially came from observing how The Flats is currently a ‘dead zone’ for walking despite being just 1km in breadth and 1.5km in length. The area’s lack of diverse programming and connections due to the rail-yards make it uneasy to traverse. The Flats was not ‘complete’ because it was not well integrated into the surrounding urban fabric physically and programmatically. It is hard for people and businesses to go in to enliven the area. Three related rationales for engaging The Flats follow this question of ‘What can make The Flats complete?’ Opportunity to create a ‘connector’ neighbourhood•	 : Given its location, The Flats can become a nexus between different neighbourhoods of different socio- economic demographics. A connector neighbourhood ties the adjacent neighbourhoods’ boundaries by means of reconsidering the edge condition, the functions of the corridors and public realms, typology of buildings, morphological character of blocks, and programming within buildings. Increasing connectivity aligns well with the Greenest City Action Plan’s aim to create walkable neighbourhoods.1 Stitching The Flats together with adjacent neighbourhoods makes The Flats complete by being with its wider context. Reduce development pressure in adjacent areas•	 : By increasing the housing, as well as lands for high- tech/creative	industries	and	offices	in	The	Flats	we	 can possibly reduce some development pressure to radically transform adjacent neighbourhoods like Chinatown, Strathcona and Mount Pleasant. Increasing development and thus employment opportunities in The Flats is in line with The Greenest City Action Plan to secure jobs near where workers live. By providing jobs, The Flats completes its adjacent neighbourhoods, and vice versa Opportunity for participatory and co-design strategies•	 : Given The Flats’ current vacant condition, it does not have many of its own residents and communities. But, as it develops and becomes better connected to adjacent neighbourhoods, residents and communities from these neighbourhoods may become interested to participate and co-design The Flats’ identity and physical form. Hence, engaging with The Flats is an opportunity to reach out to these neighbourhoods. It is an opportunity for both planners and residents to, collectively, understand, the histories, relations, sensibilities and socio-economic and cultural forces constituting The Flats. Given the project’s short time span (3 months over summer 2011), literature review, personal observations and scheduled meetings with city planners connected to The Flats’ current planning program provide the bulk of the information for decision making about the urban design framework being proposed here: Literature review•	 : Factoring time constraints, information	that	influence	urban	design	decisions	is	 sourced largely from existing City policy documents and reports, and planning and design literature rather than	first-hand	engagements	with	community	groups.	 Personal observations•	 : Design decisions made are also	be	partly	influenced	by	personal	observations	and	 interpretations of site conditions. Scheduled meetings with city planners•	 : These scheduled meetings with Scot Hein (senior urban designer) and Karis Hiebert (lead planner for The Flats) are to chart progress and viability of the project’s various proposals The project is presented in three parts: First, a •	 summary of The Flats’ context – its natural, socio-cultural and economic character, as well as its past and current planning initiatives. A key component of this first	part	is	to	review	the	surrounding	neighbourhoods’	 community visions to get a sense of how these neighbourhoods	aim	to	develop,	and	find	ways	to	make	 The	Flats’	future	development	complementary.	This	first	 part will conclude by identifying some limits facing The Flats, and make preliminary recommendations on how to turn these limits into opportunities. The opportunities form the basis for the design principles and strategies in part 2. This part constitutes chapters 1 to 3. Second, this being my project’s key contribution, is •	 an urban design framework that comprises design principles, strategies, typologies and patterns, system diagrams as well as focused studies on 2 areas. This part constitute chapter 4. Third, recognising The Flats’ future development will •	 impact adjacent neighbourhoods, a checklist catered to ensure that future public participation processes can adequately involve locals in the formation of The Flats’ identity and physical character, particularly through co-design. This part constitute chapter 5 and chapter 6 which forms the conclusion. The False Creek Flats (hereafter ‘The Flats’) is currently	identified	by	the	City	of	Vancouver	as	 having an opportunity to further develop high-tech and	creative	businesses,	offices	and	residences,	 while retaining affordable industrial lands for warehouses, light manufacturing, wholesalers, food production/distribution and green city-serving uses like recycling depots, composting centres and waste- to-energy operations. Betters connections to and within The Flats can help achieve these desired uses. This project responds to the abovementioned positioning of The Flats. Besides providing affordable industrial lands, it also examines how residential developments,	commercial	retail	spaces	and	offices	 can be included to make The Flats a more complete neighbourhood. Four main principles characterise my approach: CONNECT it to adjacent neighbourhoods and the wider city context; ACCOMMODATE a diversity of uses; RESPECT its histories, heritage, character and form, and neighbours; and RESTORE ecological functions and well-being. To articulate these principles, my project presents an urban design framework that includes urban typologies and patterns future planning initiatives may reference. The framework will also include strategies to stitch The Flats with adjacent neighbourhoods, thus making it not only complete by itself, but complete by being with its wider context. The Flats completes other neighbourhoods, and other neighbourhoods complete it. (1) City of Vancouver, Vancouver 2020: A Bright Green Future2. Background 2.1.1 Current Natural Conditions 2.1.2. Urban Structure Development This chapter outlines basic contexts and issues facing The Flats. This is done by summarising the planning directions for the area, its changing socio- economic demography, cultural histories, natural ecology and neighbourhood visions. The	Flats	is	a	land	infill	over	the	eastern	part	of	 False Creek which until the early 20th century was a tidal salt basin that extended east to Clark Drive. The primary reasons for this land reclamation was to provide land for the growth of the Great Northern Railway train tracks and station, and also to provide industrial lands for Vancouver’s growing job demands in the 19th and 20th centuries. Adjacent neighbourhoods such as Strathcona, Chinatown, Commercial Drive and Mount Pleasant were also experiencing growth. While currently there is not much immediate perceived	threat	of	flooding	and	other	forms	of	 disasters striking, studies have shown that the area is	flood-prone.	In	fact,	much	of	the	land	south	of	 Terminal	Avenue	is	susceptible	to	flooding.	(Fig.	1)	 Additionally, current hazard studies suggest, as areas become more densely populated, they also become more exposed to hazards. Increasing a localised population density can heighten the probability of even small-scale disasters affecting larger number of people.2 Future planning for The Flats should consider the resiliency of not just the physical structures, but also the socio-economic welfare of its residents, especially if future residents are lower income groups.3 Due to The Flats’ physical form, 3 kinds of natural hazards	can	be	identified: Ponding & Flooding•	 : Even though its current location is more than 300m from False Creek, according to CoV’s 2007 Flood	Proofing	Policies, due to the large upstream area tributaries to The Flats, winter storm surges, and major rainfall events, the soil can be over waterlogged which lead to ponding.  This impacts soil stability and thus limits underground parking construction and even building heights. The Flood	Proofing	report	also	notes	that	the	3.0m	flood	 construction levels (FCL) previously recommended for The Flats is 0.5m lower than the FCL recommended The 308 acres (125 hectares) Flats is bound by Prior Street to the north, Great Northern Way to the south, Main Street to the west and Clark Drive to the east. (Fig. 3) Low development intensity is characteristic there, with one-third of its land dedicated to rail usage and almost two-thirds dedicated to industrial uses ranging from warehouses, to autoshops, to some small pockets	of	offices	and	high-tech/creative	businesses.	 Average lot sizes range from around 200’ x 150’ around Industrial Avenue and Malkin Avenue, to 550’ x 250’ along Terminal Avenue, to 750’ x 900’ at the northwest and southeast corners where St. Paul’s hospital and the police training centre respectively intend to relocate to. Big-box shops and the Emily Carr University, UBC, SFU and BCIT joint education institution at Great Northern Way are there too. As of 2006 The Flats accounts for about 20% of Vancouver’s industrial lands with approximately 5800 jobs within its boundaries.7 Its central location makes it a freight-receiving and goods distribution centre as well as a passenger rail depot. Most rail tracks run east- west, thus there are very little north-south connections, except at Main Street and Glen Drive which are 1.5km apart. Many planning initiatives have noted connections problems leading to inaccessibility plays a factor in The Flats’ current low development intensity. Responding to issues of connections and low development intensity, in the past 15 years CoV has produced various plans, reports and district schedules pertaining to more intense development and better transport strategies, especially for the rail tracks. This is a short summary of some planning initiatives: 1995: Industrial Lands Strategy•	  was created to support retention of city-serving industrial, transportation and service lands. 1996: The False Creek Flats Preliminary Concept Plan•	  explored retaining The Flats’ industrial character while providing space for high-tech industries and live-work housing. It also suggests some mixed-use areas, for example, along Main Street as a link between The Flats and False Creek to the west. 1997: I-2 Light Industrial Zoning District Schedule•	  was created to better meet the needs of contemporary industry while improving the compatibility of The Flats to nearby residential areas by preventing large scale, high-impact industrial use. 1999: CD-1(402) District Schedule•	  was created for the development of a high-tech campus on the 26 acres Finning site on Great Northern Way, so as to tie in with the overall high-tech developments envisioned for The Flats. (2) Denis Mileti, Disasters by Design: A Reassessment of Natural Hazards in the United States, Washington, D.C.: Joseph Henry Press, 1999, pp.119-120. (3) http://www.straight.com/article-347233/vancouver/ vision-transforming-false-creek-flats (Accessed: March 27th 2011) (4) http://vancouver.ca/ctyclerk/cclerk/20070417/docu- ments/p3.pdf (Accessed: March 27th 2011) (5) BTAWorks (6) http://gsc.nrcan.gc.ca/urbgeo/geomapvan/ geomap8_e.php (Accessed March 25th 2011) (7) City of Vancouver, Metro Core Jobs & Economy Land Use Plans 2. Background >> > Site Cond ition s to lands on the western side of False Creek. Any new construction should have a FCL of above 3.5m or higher to reduce property and human-life damages.4 Sea-level rise•	 : Some recent study suggests that if no actions are taken to further mitigate the impacts of rising sea-levels, with a 5m to 7m rise, The Flats will be submerged. (Fig. 2) The same study also notes the absence of a dyke system around False Creek and puts future residents in those areas at even greater risk.5 Earthquakes and Liquefaction•	 : Like much of the region, The Flats is exposed to earthquake related hazards	like	liquefaction.	As	a	tidal	flat,	the	different	 layers of sediment have varying degrees of stability. This difference can cause lateral sliding, and due to gravity the capping layer can slide towards lower points in The Flats such as the west side. Buildings, road networks, railways and infrastructure are thus vulnerable to damage.6 This can have a cascading effect on socio-economic and ecological systems, and the area’s businesses and industries. Fig.1: Much of the area south of Terminal Avenue, and  nearly 50% of the area north of Terminal Avenue are prone to flooding. Fig.2: The blue indicates a 7m rise which causes downtown and Stanley Park could become islands. The Flats will be completely submerged.2.1.2. Urban Structure Development (con’t) 2.2.1. Site History and Heritage 1999: I-3 High-Tech Industrial Zoning District Schedule •	 was created to permit high-tech and creative industries involved	in	significant	amount	of	research	and	 development activities. The I-3 outrightly limits its usage to high-tech industries such as software manufacturing. A FSR of 3.0 is allowed for manufacturing, transportation, wholesales, utility and storage uses, while a FSR of 1.0 is allowable for other uses. The building height is capped at 18.3m (61’). 2001: Urban Structure Policy Report •	 was created to provide a more detailed interpretation of possible urban structure frameworks. This includes looking at how The Flats can be developed in 3 phases to slowly reduce rail usage and incorporate more diverse programs and green spaces. (Fig. 4) 2005: False Creek Flats Work Program•	  was started to give a better understanding of different stakeholders’ views, concerns, issues and wishes. Key components of	this	work	program	were	an	explicit	identification	of	 heritage sites, a proposal for The Flats to be a district energy precinct and more detailed studies of movement in and around the area while retaining industrial uses. 2005: Administrative Report on Strategic Rail Overview•	  and Detailed Operation Study was prepared by engineering services to note rail movement’s importance to Vancouver. The report recognises the rail lines are significant	barriers	to	better	connections	at	The	Flat	and	 proposes 4 schemes to deal with this. The schemes are to	keep	the	existing	rail	footprint,	to	reconfigure	the	rail	 footprint, to increase rail footprint and to decrease rail footprint. 2006:•	  Planning for The Flats took a hiatus due to reassignment of staff to other planning initiatives and programs. 2009: Rezoning Policy for “High Tech” sites in the False •	 Creek Flats was drafted to re-examine high-tech zoning, particularly with the I-3 zone. It reported that since I-3 was created, there has not been a huge market demand for these high-tech spaces. It also report a broader range of non-residential, job space be adopted. The	recommendation	is	to	consider	more	flexible	use	 of	space	to	include	offices,	albeit	a	different	form	of	 development from that of downtown. 2011•	 : Planning for The Flats restarted in May 2011. Growth in rail and sea transportation contributed to The Flats’ major transformation. Historical milestones included: 1800s:•	  The Flats was a tidal basin extending to Clark Drive. 1885•	 :	Canadian	Pacific	Railway’s	western	terminus	 moved from Port Moody to Coal Harbour and English Bay leading to rail yards construction at The Flats 1913•	 : The Great Northern Way rail way was extended through The Flats to service Vancouver’s growing industry and population. It was this development particularly that spurred the major land reclamation. 1917•	 : Reclamation reached to today’s Main Street. 1920•	 s:	The	Flats’	rail	presence	is	firmly	established,	and	 plans	were	underway	to	landfill	the	remaining	portions	 of east False Creek. 1960•	 s: Surrounding neighbourhoods began to see dramatic residential, retail and commercial growth to support the growing population and economic demands. 1980s & 1990s•	 : CoV began to formalise new policies to better understand The Flats’ industrial potential. Various heritage buildings and sites came from these developments over the past 150 years: CN Railway Station•	  designed by RB Pratt and Ross in 1919 is a Class ‘A’ neo-classical building that serves as a civic landmark, and continues to function as the passenger rail/bus depot. (Fig. 5) 750 Terminal Avenue•	  designed by Eric Arthur in 1937 is a Class ‘A’ Industrial-Moderne building, currently used as a piano retail business. 242 Terminal Avenue•	  built in 1937 is a Class ‘B’ Industrial-Moderne building, currently used as a mini storage. 250 Terminal Avenue •	 built in 1924 is a city-owned Class ‘B’ Industrial-Moderne building next to 242 Terminal Avenue that is currently vacant. Thornton Park•	  built around 1923 is named after Henry Thornton, general manager of CN Rail who contributed greatly to the park’s upkeep. 2. Background >> > Social Cond ition s Figure.3: The False Creek Flats is bounded by Prior Street to the north, Great Northern Way to the south, Main Street to the west and Clark Drive to the east. Figure.4: Culmination of the 3 phases of development with the elimination of the CN rail-yard and the BNSF rail-yard. Some of the bigger lots are subdivided to allow more pedestrian and vehicular movement through The Flats. Prior St. Clark D r. Main St . Great Northern Way2.2.2. Demographics and Culture While The Flats itself is not heavily populated its surrounding neighbourhoods are. According to 2006’s census, The Flats and immediately adjacent areas are composed of 46% visible minorities, and more than half of those are Chinese.8 And, about 67% of the population are aged 20 to 59, with more than half of this population being 20 to 39 years old.9 Besides a high visible minority population and nearly half of the population being under 40 years old, The Flats and its surrounding neighbourhoods – namely east Vancouver communities – is also home to a vibrant arts and culture scene. For example, the Eastside Culture Crawl is a celebrated event in which artist studios are opened to the public. (Fig. 6) Tertiary art institutions such as The Vancouver Film School and Emily Carr University have both moved into Chinatown and The Flats respectively. The area is also home to several galleries like the Firehall Arts Centre, Gallery Gachet, Artspeak Gallery, Interurban Gallery, the Vancouver Access Artist Run Centre, The VIVO Media Centre, The Western Front and The Elliot Louis Gallery. Since 2005 CoV is developing plans such as the Downtown Eastside Strategic Arts and Culture Framework and Investment Plan to celebrate and finance	the	eastside’s	unique	history	and	diversity	 through public-focused arts and artistic institutions. While government support is the chief funding there lays the possibility for new developments to fund some of these initiatives by means of CACs (in exchange for bonus density). 2. Background >> > Social Cond ition s Figure 5: Pacific Central Train Station currently services the CN Rail, VIA Rail as well as several cross-continental bus-lines. Figure 6: The annual Eastside Culture Crawl features open studios the public can visit. (8) http://www12.statcan.ca/census-recensement/2006/ dp-pd/prof/92-597/P3.cfm?Lang=E&CTCODE=5283& CATYPE=CMA (Accessed March 27th 2011) (9) http://www12.statcan.ca/census-recensement/2006/ dp-pd/prof/92-597/P3.cfm?Lang=E&CTCODE=5292& CATYPE=CMA (Accessed: March 27th, 2011)2.3.1. Negotiating Industrial Lands with Other Uses 2.3.2. NegotiatingRail Uses Retaining The Flats as primarily industrial as been identified	by	CoV	as	necessary	due	to	its	affordable	 land cost and rent within inner-city limits. While retaining industrial lands is a priority, CoV and businesses have expressed interests to increase more office,	retail,	live-work,	and	residential	opportunities.	 The I-2 (primarily for city-serving industries like food distribution places on Malkin Avenue, the recycling depot	on	Industrial	Avenue	and	the	firemen	and	police	 facilities) and I-3 zones (primarily for high-tech and creative industries) were created to help retain The Flats as primarily industrial, albeit toward a renewed understanding of “industrial”. Despite intentions for I-2 and I-3 to increase high- tech and light industries, and currently there being about 3 million sq ft of job spaces permitted under I-2 and I-3 zoning, the uptake has been slow. There remains a large number of vacant or low-intensity lots there. According to a 2009’s Rezoning Policy for “High Tech” sites in the False Creek Flats the uptake is slow due to wider global slowing down of high-tech and creative industries when the internet bubble burst in	the	late	90s.	As	a	result,	it	has	been	difficult	for	 further developments at The Flats to proceed due to an inability	to	secure	sufficient	high-tech	tenants	to	meet	 the I-3 zoning requirements. Aside from high-tech industries	issues,	demands	for	general	office	uses	in	 The Flats and housing needs in the Vancouver region have increased in recent years. 2009’s Rezoning Policy for “High Tech” sites in the False Creek Flats suggests several ‘solutions’ to bring more non-residential activities to The Flats: Site-specific	rezoning•	 	to	increase	flexibility	in	the	type	of	 job space permitted in I-3 zones. Broaden the usage in I-2 and I-3 zones •	 to include restaurants	and	more	general	office	uses.	The	original	 intention	to	limit	restaurants	and	office	uses	there	is	 to	reduce	vehicular	and	customer	traffic	in	the	area.	 But given The Flats’ proximity to existing and proposed transit	routes,	offices	and	restaurants	may	thrive.	 Retain city-serving uses•	  to keep The Flats’ role as a hub which can provide services that other neighbourhoods cannot provide due to other real estate demands. Strong support exists for retaining rail and even allowing growth for rail service, both freight and passenger. This is partly due to the Burrard Inlet shipping terminals getting busier. In fact, according to 2008’s False Creek Flat Rail Corridor Strategy Report, the number of containers going through Vancouver can go from around 3 million in 2010 to about 5 million by 2020. To deal with this increase, freight trains have been getting longer to carry more containers and as a result rail yards lengths grow correspondingly. With regards to passenger rail, the report estimates an increase from the current 26 passenger trains per week to 70 per week in 20 years. Currently, there are 4 rail yards at The Flats that support freight and passenger operations: CN Main Yard•	 	is	a	support	yard	for	container	traffic	from	 the south shore shipping terminals. BNSF Yard•	  generally supports the barge operations at Burrard Inlet. Glen Yard•	  is used primarily for staging grain and container cars. VIA Yard•	  is used for passenger arrival and departures. Despite the importance of the rail yards in supporting Vancouver’s growth, there have been discussions to slowly reduce the rail footprint in The Flats. This is in	light	of	the	rail	yards	creating	significant	barriers	 for much needed linkages around and through The Flats. In 2005’s Administrative Report on Strategic Rail Overview and Detailed Operation Study, the following assumptions on the respective rail yards are considered reasonable: CN Main Yard will remain the same or increase rail •	 footprint. BNSF Yard will remain the same or be eliminated.•	 Glen Yard will remain the same or increase rail footprint.•	 VIA Yard will increase rail footprint.•	 3 rail footprint scenarios arise from the above assumptions of the 4 rail yards (Fig. 8): Reconfigured	footprint•	  assumes the BNSF railyard is no longer in service and the equivalent amount of tracks are	reconfigured	to	the	CN’s	Main	Yard	and/or	Glen	Yard. Increased footprint •	 accommodates a larger footprint than today’s, with a larger CN Yard and/or Glen yard. Reduced footprint•	  assumes the BNSF railyard is no longer	in	service	and	that	enough	rail	efficiencies	 With regards to residential usage, the I-3 zone as well as the Great Northern Way site does permit some small degree of housing and promotes walkability: I-3 housing allowances •	 include dwelling for caretakers or watchmen considered to be essential to a business’ operation. Residential units integral to an artist studio is also allowed. Great Northern Way housing allowances •	 include 180000 sq	ft	of	floorspace	permitted	for	live-work	situations.	 Walkability •	 is actually encouraged by I-3’s current streetscape strategies which calls for a neighbourhood accessible by foot and cycling, as opposed to previous zoning requirements which were automobile centric. Design strategies such as continuous sidewalks already caters to a neighbourhood suitable for greater residential density. (Fig. 7) However, two issues arise with regards to including residential and live-work in The Flats: Land cost:•	  Future developments must not be weighted so much toward residential and retail that land cost and rent rise and drive out other uses such as light industrial. Rail	versus	residential	conflict:•	  While CoV is not opposed to including residential and live-work uses, potential conflict	can	arise	when	residential	and	live-work	are	 sited too close to rail. In summary the question pertains to how to best support industrial lands by keeping the cost reasonable while including other uses. 2. Background >> > Cur rent Land Us e are gained in the CN Main yard, Glen Yard, Waterfront or Grandview yards to accommodate freight rail growth. Rail footprint changes should also reconsider how blocks and lots can be adequately subdivided	to	foster	more	office,	retail	and	 residential uses to move in by. However, displacing rail yards totally and relocating them to Surrey or Coquitlam are not feasible due to two main reasons: Relation between rail and industrial lands will •	 suffer if rail yards are relocated. The Flats’ affordable industrial lands for warehouses provide space for goods from the rails to be stored prior to re-distribution. Rail and industrial lands form a synergistic land use pattern. Rail is a sustainable transport choice•	 . If freight and passenger rail yards are relocated that can translate to more use of fossil-fuel vehicles to transport goods from Surrey or Coquitlam into Vancouver proper. Also, the passenger rails can one day accommodate people coming to heart of Vancouver from surrounding municipalities such Langley, Abbotsford, and even Chilliwack using trains. Figure 7: Cross-section and photograph showing possible streetscape treatment at I-3 zones. Much of the streetscape treatment is not too different from ones recommended for residential zones.2. Background >> > Cur rent Land Us e Figure 8: Existing rail footprint (TL); Reconfigured rail footprint (BL); Increased rail footprint (TR); Reduced rail footprint (BR)2.4.1. Adjacent Neighbourhoods’ Visions Without its own community vision, summarising some aspects of the adjacent neighbourhoods’ community plans and visions can help planners better understand how The Flats can be planned and designed should it be better connected to its surrounding urban fabric. Doing so, allows one to get a sense of what The Flats’ growth potential, form and character, density and public realm treatment can be like. Knowing the larger context, one may better plan and design the Flats as a ‘connector’ and ‘extension’ of these neighbourhoods. The Flats sits amongst key neighbourhoods like (Fig. 9): Mount Pleasant to the south•	 Grandview Woodlands to the east•	 Strathcona to the immediate north•	 Southeast False Creek to the west•	 Summary of neighbourhood visions: Mount Pleasant have yet a community vision but since 2010 it has a draft community plan. Key characteristics and visions for urban form include: Topography•	  is seen by City staff and community members as integral to creating ‘Hilltown’. Urban design wise	this	entails	finding	ways	to	smooth	the	transition	of	 taller buildings and high-street feel around the key node at Broadway/Main Street to the lower-rise residential fabric along Great Northern Way. (Fig. 10) Low to mid-rise massing•	  is preferred to respect the human-scale quality of the area. Although taller buildings are possible at select sites. 2. Background >> > Communi ty Context s Figure 10: Mount Pleasant’s Hilltown character. How will future developments at The Flats complement this morphological pattern? Incorporating heritage buildings into new projects•	  to preserve heritage and to promote architectural innovation. (Fig.11) Diversity in housing and population to ensure liveability •	 for all types and sizes of families and households. This entails a wide range of affordable housing to include rentals, co-ops, supported housing and artist live- work spaces. At the same time to provide services and facilities to these families and households. Non-market housing should be distributed evenly rather than ghettoised. Public	benefits	with	large	site	developments•	  should be pursued. This can come in the form of contributions to heritage retention, improved pedestrian environment, cycling routes, rights-of-way and social housing. Large developments	should	fit	with	the	area’s	look	and	feel. Distributing green spaces •	 around the area. Green spaces are not only parks but vertical gardens, linear parks, pocket parks, laneway green treatments, semi-private courtyard and rooftops gardens. Food growing should also be considered. (Fig.12) Infill	strategies	•	 should be pursued to increase density before choosing high-rise forms. This can be done through laneway housing, redeveloping open carparks and other vacant areas within existing sites. (Fig.13) Laneway development •	 should be considered by activating the lanes with commercial activities such as artist studios and cafes. Greening the lanes is another strategy. Walking is a priority•	  when it comes to the overall design and planning of the area’s movement routes. Focus on a creative community•	  is a high priority, especially considering the area’s artistic culture such as the Eastside Culture Crawl amongst other events. Figure 11: Heritage building on Main Street Figure 12: Mount Pleasant’s green space are not limited to parks but distributed in all forms such as the rain-gardens shown here. Figure 13: Laneway-oriented infill housing can be explored in The Flats’ future development. The Flats Figure 9: The Flats is situated in the middle of several established neighbourhoods which character will affect the future developments at The Flats. Strathcona Mt. Pleasant Southeast- False Creek Grandview- Woodlands2.4.1. Adjacent Neighbourhoods’ Visions (Con’t) Grandview Woodlands have yeta community vision document. CoV is working on developing one. Grandview Woodlands is a very large area, and the areas closest to The Flats are mostly characterised by RT-3, RT-4 an RT-5 zones. Although a ring of RM-4 zone is at the edge between The Flats and Grandview- Woodlands. Key characteristics and visions for these RT zones: Primarily one-family or two-family dwelling•	  is permitted. Some provisions for seniors’ supportive housing are also permitted. Non-residential uses•	  may include small clubhouse, neighbourhood house, park, library (if near a community centre), child care facility, church, bed and breakfast as well as farmers’ markets and grocery stores (if nearby parking is provided). Commercial zoning exists along some key arterials such as Commercial Drive. (Fig.14) Strathcona have yet a community vision document; however, the Strathcona Revitalisation Committee drafted its own visioning document, Strathcona: A Clear Vision for Our Community. Key characteristics and visions include: Preserve industrial land uses •	 to retain affordability for light industry such as bodyshops and other services. However, there is also the initiative to slowly include more green and clean industries that can better co-exist with housing in these areas. Retain RT-3 zones•	  to keep the fabric of those areas relatively low intensity. This zoning is also to retain heritage stock and single family home fabric. Reinforce the presence of the artistic community •	 by re-appropriating some buildings for the use by arts 2. Background >> > Communi ty Context s Figure 17: Strathcona Community Garden incorporates disused concrete blocks to create the garden scape. community to manufacture, exhibit and sell products of creative imagination. (Fig.15) Respect heritage stock•	  in the area. By updating and including more buildings in the heritage registry, especially buildings around east Hastings. (Fig. 16) Nurture existing large non-market housing•	  developments such as housing complexes like MacLean park, Raymur Place and Mau Dan Gardens. The aim is to keep existing residents in the area. Build more market housing•	  to help support local retail businesses and bring a healthy social presence to the public realm. However, all new housing developments, especially ones along arterials, should consider a sizable proportion of non-market housing. Additionally, large housing developments should contribute to the public amenities of the community by providing green spaces, child and senior care facilities and recreational spaces, as these are short in Strathcona. Revitalise East Hastings as a shopping street•	 . To do so an increase of housing and people will be needed. There needs to be a requirement for retail at grade to revitalise street life. This also increases local jobs. Green living •	 characterised by community gardens, farmers’ markets and renewable energy are encouraged for new developments. (Fig. 17) Connected greenways and bikeways •	 are essential in creating a complete community where people can easily bike or walk to work. Appropriate	densification	•	 will increase the population while	respecting	the	local	urban	fabric.	Densification	 is	identified	by	the	committee	as	crucial	to	dilute	the	 proportions of persons on drugs or who are mentally ill.	Appropriate	densification	will	improve	the	norm	for	 street behaviour, improve conditions for industry and retail, reduce crime and make it easier for people to break the cycles of addiction and poverty. Southeast False Creek has	an	official	development	plan	 prepared to facilitate the planning and design of the Olympic Village. Of all the neighbourhoods surrounding The Flats it has the densest form of development. Key characteristics and visions for the area’s urban form include: Connection to water•	  is important to bring nature into the urban space. (Fig.18) Create distinct neighbourhoods•	 , each derived from a particular historic pattern of the adjacent neighbourhoods. The eastern most part of SEFC is to take on rail-yard identity which ties well with programs at The Flats. Connect open spaces •	 to make walking and cycling easier. Connected open spaces at SEFC can be connected up to The Flats to create a wider walking/ cycling network. (Fig.19) Street hierarchy •	 established through paving patterns and different street width provides convenient and clear access for pedestrians while discouraging thoroughfare vehicular	traffic.	 Integrated transit •	 is crucial to tie SEFC to other parts of the cities for the purpose of jobs, extra-curricular activities and school.Figure 14: RT zones in Grandview Woodlands are often immediately next to commercial C-2 and C-3 zones. Figure 16: Residential heritage buildings in Strathcona. Figure 15: Chapel Arts on Dun Levy is a repurposed building now used as a gallery, performance space and artists’ studios. Figure 18: Connection to the waterfront is key Figure 17: Strathcona Community Garden incorporates disused concrete blocks to create the garden scape. Figure 20: Community services are within close proximity of each other to help form a heart.2.4.1. Adjacent Neighbourhoods’ Visions (Con’t) 2.4.2. Community Comsultation 2. Background >> > Communi ty Context s Figure 21: Development is encouraged to create varied lot sizes via parcellisation so as to produce a varied urban morphology. Cluster community services•	  around open spaces that are accessible to all. (Fig.20) Private-public integration •	 will be achieved through ground plane design and overall building form so that private and public open spaces may be immediately adjacent to each other to create a bigger sense of open spaces. Basin morphology •	 where taller building masses are sited near 2nd Avenue and slopes down toward the Creek. Incremental development •	 is achieved by varying the parcel sizes to allow for different forms of development to occur. This is represented by a mix of building types from the low-rise townhouse to 10-storeys terrace apartments. (Fig. 21) Demonstrated sustainability •	 is achieved by incorporating storm-water managements, urban agriculture and mixed use buildings on the site. During 2005’s False Creek Flats work program a two-phase set of meetings were held with the neighbourhoods around The Flats. Phase 1 was a scoping stage and Phase 2 was a visioning stage. Representatives from local resident associations, community centres, BIAs, NGOs and First Nations groups were recruited to envision what The Flats can be. The meetings were designed to meet the following objectives: Provide ‘The Story’ of The Flats •	 in terms of current state, in process and possible future plans Explore participants’ issues, concerns and ideas •	 regarding current and future planning. Obtain recommendations •	 for information exchange, consultation and participation in the ongoing planning process. The following recommendations regarding urban form resulted from the meetings: Retain and strengthen I-2 and I-3 zones •	 to ensure land cost affordability and employment in The Flats and its surrounds Redefine	‘industrial’	to	include	more	usage.•	  One of the suggestions was to add usage such as restaurants during off-hours to draw visitors to The Flats. Access, Greenways and pathways are necessary•	  if The Flats is going to be more actively engaged as a high-tech/creative zone and possibly for some level of residential uses. Greenways can be used to link open green spaces together. Create a pedestrian-oriented zone •	 around Main and Terminal by introducing more business opportunities and better public realm treatment. Better transit linkages and connections•	  to bring future residents and workers to and from The Flats. Support natural systems •	 by daylighting streams, establishing wildlife spaces, installing green roofs and geothermal energy systems as well as using the former tidal	flats	as	a	key	design	focus.	 Protect heritage buildings •	 in area as a reminder of the Flats’ history.3. Limits and Opportunities >> > Urban For m 3. Limits and Opportunities 3.1.1 Limits Regarding Urban Form 3.1.2 Opportunities Regarding Urban Form Reflecting on issues addressed in chapter 2, this chapter points to some of the limits facing The Flats. But, also highlights how these limits can become opportunities that this project can develop in terms of an urban design framework in chapter 4. This chapter explores issues with urban form, connections, industrial uses, energy issues, environmental impact and community consultation issues. Stated urban design directions• : The various plans, such as 2001’s urban structure plan and the various rail corridor strategies, have laid out possible land uses, rail strategies and subdivisions. But, they have yet to explicitly focus on suitable building typologies and wider urban morphologies. While the current I-3 district schedule provides some architectural precedents, there is no urban design framework to more succinctly bring The Flats’ physical identity into focus. There are also no directions as to how The Flats can tie in with itself and surrounding neighbourhoods through urban form. There are, for example, no directions about how each possible sub- area’s character would look like. Significant recent investments• : There are large lots in the area that have been developed in the last 15 years. These lots include the city-owned national yard, the fire training facility, the Evans yard, the police depot as well as major private developments like Home Depot, F/X Wholesalers, Gift Exchange and a pharmaceutical building. Change on these sites may be slow. Connect to adjacent neighbourhoods by ‘stitching’ • edges: Both Southeast False Creek’s ODP and Mount Pleasant’s draft community plan call for a transition in urban form and height. In the case of SEFC the strategy is to come down in height as it approaches the creek, and for Mount Pleasant the strategy is to come down in height as it approaches Great Northern Way. Likewise, in areas of Strathcona and Grandview- Woodlands that front onto The Flats there is an expressed desire to retain the RT zone character. The typologies and morphologies at The Flats, especially at its edges, can take the opportunity to respond to these surrounding strategies by having similar fine grain blocks and buildings, mirroring the building forms and character, and/or having complementary programming. Rather than treatment edges as clear boundaries, edges can become the zone where neighbourhoods meet. (Fig.22) Create distinct sub-areas: • Both the SEFC ODP and Mount Pleasant’s community plan suggest treating their respective neighbourhoods as a series of connected but distinct precincts. Distinct precincts may begin inform how The Flats’ urban design guidelines may be drafted as it moves from west to east. The potential distinct precincts in The Flats can each have different but mutually complementary building typologies to mark its respective dominant land-use and precinct character. (Fig. 23) A series of centres• : The Flats’ adjacent neighbourhoods all have a distinguished centre where one knows one has arrived at that particular neighbourhood. Centres in the form of plazas and parks are also places where formal or informal face-to-face communication may occur and ideas about community and self begin.10 Like SEFC and Mount Pleasant, The Flats’ potential centre is one where most of the amenities and services are sited. However, unlike SEFC which has one centre, The Flats being around 5 times bigger may have to have a key centre with smaller centres for each of its potential precincts or sub-areas. The connection between the primary and secondary centres should be legible that one can move between centres without confusion. (Fig.24) Diversify building types within a development• : While The Flats is chiefly going to be industrial, the building typologies can vary especially since high-tech and creative industry businesses do not necessarily need industrial size floorplates to operate. For blocks and lots with depths more than 250’ (61m) and substantial frontage, finer grain buildings for commercial retail use, offices and creative businesses can front onto the street while blockier buildings more suited for light industry (i.e. storages, distributors, bodyshops, wholesalers, etc) can be at the back where loading bays can be accessed via lanes. Essentially, this Figure 23: How are the different future uses at The Flats that can help define different sub-areas? How will developments along Terminal Avenue differ from ones along Industrial Avenue? Figure 24: Where will the future centres for each sub-area be? What kind of form will these centres take? How will they be linked up? (10)  Hester, Randolph, Design for Ecological Democ- racy, Cambridge, MA & London, UK: MIT Press, 2006, pp.23-32. Figure 22: How will The Flats’ edge transition from and respond to Mount Pleasant ‘Hilltown’ character? 3. Limits and Opportunities >> > Connections would take on a double-fronted block form, which encourages different architectural treatment due to the differences in use and massing requirements.11 (Fig.25) North-south connections• : Currently, the rail yards are significant barriers to better north-south connections. Proposals have been made to remove or at least reduce the number of rail tracks. However, given the re-emergence of rail as a sustainable means of goods and passenger movement, complete removal may not be a viable option. East-west connections• : East-west connections are poor to due to the lack of diverse programming along Terminal Avenue and Great Northern Way which are over 1km. Visual monotony makes walking less pleasant. The dimension of buildings and the setting of these buildings influences how one perceives time.12  Psychological barrier• : The 350m distance from 2nd Avenue to Terminal Avenue has a lack of diverse programming and higher development intensity which projects The Flats as a ‘blank space’ where nothing is happening. This may form a psychological barrier keeping people from entering. Similar observations can be made for Clark Drive and Terminal Avenue. More bike lanes:•  With cycling on the rise more bike trails and lanes can be added to the existing on immediately north of the CN Rail yard to increase east-west connections. Designated bike lanes on Industrial Avenue (which will cut through to Great Northern Way) and Terminal Avenue will also improve connectivity. These bike lanes can intersect with the landscaped pedestrian and bike bridges. (Fig. 29) Reconfigured rail footprint: • One of the strategies proposed is be reconfigure the rail tracks bringing the bulk of the lines at BNSF immediately south of Industrial Avenue to the Glen Yards. With the BNSF tracks gone, the VIA passenger and the CN tracks are the only two rail yards left. The reduced number of rail yards cutting across frees up the blocks between Industrial Avenue and Great Northern Way campus for development. More robust development here can intensify Industrial Avenue’s streetscape and bring more people into The Flats. With the BNSF rail yard relocated, there 3.1.2. Opportunities Regarding Urban Form (Con’t) 3.2.1. Limits Regarding Connections 3.2.2. Opportunities Regarding Connections Blend private-public open spaces• : In areas where there are courtyards within a lot, design solutions can be sought to make that courtyard accessible to the public. (Fig.26) Infill strategies to intensify land usage• : Infill strategies can be adopted to existing underdeveloped sites where underutilised car-parks, for example, can be repurposed for the construction of secondary buildings housing small boutique offices, housing and/ or live-work studios. (Fig. 27) is the potential to link the eastern end of Industrial Avenue to Great Northern Way thus increase east-west connections. Landscaped pedestrian and bike bridges: • To increase north-south connections by foot and bicycle, landscaped pedestrian and bike bridges straddling across the rail yards can be considered. Given the potential width and thus weight of landscaped bridge they are more likely to go across the VIA rail yard which are around 150’ to 180’ (46m to 55m)  in span, the eastern edge of the CN rail yard at Cottrell Street and/or Glen Drive at Evans Avenue. Most of the CN rail yard is more than 250’ (76m). (Fig. 28) More robust east-west arterials: • More diverse programming at grade and within the individual lots on Terminal Avenue for example could add visual dynamism that can make that 1km walk more pleasant. Terminal can be The Flats’ commercial spine. The west side of Terminal can feature unique architectural designs that speak of The Flats’ industrial history, its commitment as a green neighbourhood and signal a west-side entry to The Flats. (Fig. 30) 2009’s Rezoning Policy for “High Tech” sites in the False Creek Flats also suggests that restaurants and retail along Terminal can also make night-time walking and cycling safer. Likewise Industrial Avenue can also be intensified. More robust north-south arterials:•  Good connectivity at The Flats is not just cutting through its middle. The ‘blank space’ at Main St. between 2nd Avenue and Terminal Avenue can be more intensely developed. This translates to more mixed use that includes housing and commercial- retail opportunities to tie into the fabric of SEFC and Mount Pleasant. Developing this area also signals a west entry-point to The Flats. (11) Lewis, Sally, Front to Back: A Design Agenda for Urban Housing, Oxford, UK: Elsevier Architectural Press, 2005, p.56. (12)   Bosselmann, Peter, “Images in Motion” in Urban Design Reader (Eds. M. Carmona & S. Tiesdell), Ox- ford, UK: Elsevier Architectural Press, 2007, p.285. Figure 27: The vast areas of parking space at The Flats can be developed as infills in the future when car usage to and from The Flats have decreased due to, partly, better public transport to the area. Figure 28: A Landscaped pedestrian and bicycle bridge similar to this one Laurel Street and West 6th Avenue can span across some of the rail-yard to allow more north-south connections. Figure 30: Terminal Avenue can afford to have greater density and diversity of programs to strengthen its identity as the area’s central spine. More iconic building design at the corner of Main and Terminal can signal a west-end entry point. Figure 29: Can a dedicated bike lane that cuts through to Great Northern Way and/or East 5th Avenue be installed along Industrial Avenue? Additionally, what kinds of more intense programming can go along Industrial Avenue to make a bike-trip more enjoyable? Figure 26: A blurred private-public space that combines a public courtyard with the patios of residential units produces an open space that seems larger than its part. The effect of a larger open space can be further enhanced if the courtyard can also serve as a right-of-way.  Figure 25: Buildings within larger lots can take on differently massing and architectural articulations to provide visual diversity. Fine grain buildings can take the street-side while blockier buildings suited for industrial use can be at the rear. A landscaped laneway and/or courtyard can separate the two uses.3.2.2. Opportunities Regarding Connections (con’t) 3.3.1. Limits Regarding Industrial Uses 3.3.2. Opportunities Regarding Industrial Uses East-side entry-point: • While the Clark Drive side of The Flats should be kept more or less I-2 and suited for warehouses and storages, the public realm treatment could be bettered to demarcate an east entry-point to The Flats. For example, the currently empty lot at Glen and Evan can be better designed as a park to signal to people that they have entered The Flats. Future redevelopments at the blocks at the off-ramp of Terminal Avenue and Cottrell Street can hold more height and have less setback from the front property line and more grade-level retail such as cafes and shops to mark entry into The Flats. One enters a Terminal Avenue that can service not just industrial uses but provide a human-scale experience.13 (Fig. 31) Connecting green networks:•  Both SEFC and Mount Pleasant have directions to connect their green streets, parks and open spaces into a green network. Future development at The Flats should explore how its own green network can extend from SEFC and Mount Pleasant’s. Skytrain and tram stations• : There are opportunities to bring a skytrain station to the eastern side of The Flats to service the to-be intensified commercial Terminal Avenue. The skytrain station at the eastern end can be a landmark signalling one’s entry into The Flats from the east. And if the station is next to the off-ramp of Terminal Avenue, then the station can be elevated with one of the entries from the off-ramp itself. This is to allow pedestrians who use Terminal Avenue to board the train with greater ease, and to create an uniquedly designed station. A tram station at the Great Northern Way campus is also possible to serve not just Flats’ residents but also Mount Pleasant residents. (Fig. 32) Slow uptake for I-2 and I-3• : The I-2 and I-3 zones were created to better meet the needs of contemporary light and high-tech industries respectively. Unfortunately, the uptake did not grow as anticipated. There have been suggestions by both businesses and CoV to redefine these zones to allow for more market and non-market housing, besides the currently allowed artist live-work spaces, to be developed in these zones. However, the issue of rising land cost due to residential development can drive industries out. Moreover, residential uses may conflict with rail usage. ‘Industrial’ as a defining character• : There is the opportunity to explore how The Flats’ industrial character in both look and program can become an identity. For example, the city-owned industrial lots on the Station Street and Industrial Avenue can host programs like localised composting services, shops that build and sell rainwater tanks, green fashion houses, etc to showcase a new approach to ‘industrial’. The buildings can be designed to speak of The Flats’ industrial heritage. (Fig. 34) Utilise existing residential allowances• : Besides artist live-work studios, the current I-2 and I-3 zoning allow some degree of residential floorspace for caretakers to live on work premise. Initiatives can be taken to design an arts village at The Flats. The Great Northern Way campus (zoned CD-1) also allows up to 180,000 sq-ft of Figure 32: A tram line and stations along Great Northern Way can serve future residents of The Flats as well as Mount Pleasant residents. 3. Limits and Opportunities >> > Industrial Uses Figure 33: The heritage buildings along Main Street can be tied together to showcase the history of this part of the city. Special paving can be used to mark this path that connects at least 3 to 4 neighbourhoods with The Flats in the middle. Figure 34: Instead of treating industrial buildings as derelict objects, they can be repurposed to house other programs.with The Flats in the middle. Figure 35: Close proximity of industrial and residential is possible if ‘industrial’ is cleaner, greener. To moderate the industrial land prices going up, instead of mixing uses on one lot, a lot (especially a larger one) can be subdivided with some smaller portions rezoned as CD-1 and becoming residential. Figure 31: While the east-end of The Flats can stay relatively industrial in character, greater density and better building design at the east-end of Terminal Avenue can signal a clearer entry into The Flats. Heritage Necklace: • Mount Pleasant and Strathcona have both expressed desires to retain heritage buildings. This can be an opportunity for The Flats to use its own heritage stock (such as the CN Railway Station) to join Mount Pleasant to Chinatown and Strathcona by creating a north-south ‘heritage necklace’. (Fig. 33) live-work space currently. The 180,000 sq-ft live-work space at the GNW campus can include student housing, and services and commercial retail businesses needed to support student populations. Redefine I-3• : 2009’s Rezoning Policy for “High Tech” sites in the False Creek Flats expressed interest to redefine I-3’s allowable uses. An increased amount of office and other job and retail spaces besides high-tech is proposed to enliven the area. These new office and retail spaces can be sited more toward the Main Street side so as to allow the Glen Drive side to retain a more I-2 character. Redefine ‘mixed use’• : There is also an opportunity to rethink the definition of ‘mixed use’. Typically, mixed use is conceived as vertical mixed use with commercial- retail at grade and residential above. There is the opportunity to think how mixed use can be achieved through site planning. For example, a lot with sufficient depth (250’+) and frontage (300’+) may have more commercial retail (mini-marts, clinics and post-offices) and residential programming on its street- edge, and more I-3 type program with offices and high-tech/ creative businesses in the lane- edge. The two ‘halves’ can be separated by a shared courtyard which with adequate vegetation coverage can provide residents with visual and auditory screening. This lot division will be more toward the west-half of The Flats to allow the east half to retain a more I-2 character. Such close proximity between new/light industrial and residential already exists in Vancouver’s IC-1 and IC-2 zones at the Burrard Slopes. There residential uses (as small CD-1 zones) are often above, across from or right next to uses like autoshops, software design firms and catering businesses. The Flats can pursue a similar strategy to create spots of CD-1 for residential uses. (Fig. 35) ‘Green loops’ between industries• : New developments can explore opportunities to work with existing businesses at The Flats to create a ‘green loop’ between the new and existing businesses. For example, a green loop can emerge if the future park at Thornton and (13) Ibid.3.3.2. Opportunities Regarding Industrial Uses (con’t) 3.4.1. Limits Regarding Energy 3.5.1. Limits Regarding Environmental Welness 3.5.1. Opportunities Regarding Environmental Wellness 3.4.2. Opportunities Regarding Energy 3. Limits and Opportunities >> > Ener gy; En vir onmental W el lness (14) Morris, Pierce, “In the Pipeline: District Energy and Green Building”, in Environmental Building News, 2007, Vol.16, No.3. (15) Lewis, Sally, Front to Back: A Design Agenda for Urban Housing, Oxford, UK: Elsevier Architectural Press, 2005, p.64 Malkin is allowed to become an urban agricultural site which produce can be distributed at the food distribution places along Malkin. A localised composting business can be sited nearby to turn the waste from the food distributors into product. Likewise, part of the recycled materials from the recycling depot on Industrial Avenue can become the raw materials for artists who might live and work in the future live-work studios along Industrial Avenue and at Great Northern Way campus. (Fig. 36) Low Energy Production• : Currently, the light-industrial and rail-related activities within The Flats, though not necessarily energy-intensive, only consume energy without the ability to produce their own energy. Generally, a minimum of 50 to 60 dwelling units per hectare is needed to make district energy economically feasible.14 High Vehicle Kilometres Travelled• : Given the few housing choices and numbers in The Flats, workers usually have to travel in. Very often that trip into The Flats can be by car as there not many transit routes that go through The Flats. If these car-trips are factored in, the embodied energy consumption of The Flats can be even higher. Poor soil quality• : The Flats being reclaimed lands needs soil remediation for new developments. Engineers have also reported that because of the existing soil conditions, higher building forms and underground carparks may not be structurally and environmentally suitable. The inability to build taller may lower the allowable FSR. Poor potential for urban agriculture:•  The substandard soil quality may make it hard for urban agriculture to take place. Ponding and flooding• : The Flats is prone to ponding and flooding because it is currently below flood construction levels. Soil Remediation• : Developing The Flats, both residential and industrial, can actually improve the air and soil quality. New developments can be impetuses to remediate the soil, create better drainage/filtration that can prevent flooding, erosion and toxic run-off. To combat flooding and ponding, bioswales and even day- lit streams can be designed to allow better drainage and even be used to organised public realm treatment. Environment-responsive architecture• : The inability to construct higher building forms can be an opportunity for developers and architects to invent creative solutions to increase The Flats’ population (needed for district energy, etc) while respecting the urban morphology of surrounding neighbourhoods. For example, above-grade parking can be under an eco-deck that provides green amenities to nearby residents and workers. (15) (Fig. 40) Off-ground urban agriculture• : With regards to urban agriculture, if growing edible vegetation is not possible at the ground level, then plots could be placed on building roofs and terraces, and through hydroponics systems, that are nonetheless accessible to the public. (Fig. 41) District Energy Precinct• : 2005’s working program for The Flats suggested that it along with adjacent neighbourhoods can become an energy precinct. However, for The Flats to do that, it needs to have at least 50 dwelling units per hectare. At 125 hectares, at least 6250 dwelling units must be designed for the area. It is possible to site most of these residential units on the west side of The Flats and supply energy to the east side of The Flats (and adjacent neighbourhoods) which may have much lower dwelling units or the waste output needed for district energy. The areas fronting onto Malkin Avenue, Prior Street and 2nd Avenue can be developed into residential zones to generate enough waste for district energy while most areas along Terminal Avenue can stay industrial. (Fig. 37) Solar Energy• : Given that many of the industrial buildings have larger roof-plates, placing solar panels on them should help with The Flats producing its own energy. Solar panels can also be placed amidst roof gardens to soften the panels’ hard-edge appearance, especially if roof-tops are to become areas for gathering and local food production. (Fig. 38) Biomass energy• : Being well-served by rail, it is possible for The Flats to develop a biomass processing centre where, for example, mulch and wastes from the lumber mills near rail systems can be brought in and processed to produce energy. This is a reason for why some degree of rail service must remain at The Flats. (Fig. 39) Reduced VKT• : By providing housing choices at The Flats, there can be less car-trips needed to The Flats, thereby reducing overall energy consumption. Figure 36: A green loop that explores how the waste of one business can become the construction materials for another can influence how land-use and building design is approached. Figure 39: The waste food produces from some of the food distribution centres at The Flats as well as unused mulch and lumber from regional mills can be brought in by rail to be transformed into biomass energy, hence giving The Flats a greater degree of self-reliance in terms of energy production. Figure 40: The Flats being prone to flooding should have above-grade car-parks. These car-parks, however, can under a landscaped eco-deck that offers open spaces to residents and workers, remediates air quality, reduces run-offs as well as visually screens the car-park itself. Figure 38: Solar panels can also be placed amidst roof gardens to soften the panels’ hard-edge appearance, especially if roof-tops are to become areas for gathering and local food production. Figure 37: The Flats along with adjacent neighbourhoods can become an energy precinct characterised by district energy systems, solar power amongst other systems. 2. Background >> > Communit y Engagement Figure 41: Urban agricultural spaces can serve as both food production sites and community gathering places. Figure 43: In co-design, the user (the future resident and worker of The Flats) will participate in identity and meaning making Figure 42: Should the BNSF rail yard be relocated to the Glen Yard site, the BNSF rail yard can become a greenway that features miniaturised wetlands, pedestrian walkways and bike paths. As a wetland, it can help absorb run-offs and remediate the water and soil quality in the area. Connection-wise it offers an east-west passage. 3.5.1. Opportunities Regarding Environmental Wellness 3.6.1. Limits on Community Engagement 3.6.2. Opportunities on Community Engagement Greenways• : Disused rail yards (like the BNSF yards which has been suggested to be relocated to the Glen yards) can become greenways. Greenways, having a greater degree of pervious surfacing, can help control run-offs from the adjacent areas. Bioswales and even miniaturised wetlands can feature prominently in these greenways. (Fig. 43) Green-roofs• : New developments can take the opportunity to use green roofs so as to help reduce run- offs, remediate air quality and to reduce the amount of artificial roof insulation needed.16 Lack of community feedback on urban form and design• : The community group meetings and stakeholders’ workshops held by The City in mid 2005 have articulated several important ideas for what The Flats can be in terms of being better connected to surrounding neighbourhoods and being affordable to new residents. However, due to the hiatus placed on The Flats’ planning, these workshops never produced any directions in terms of an urban design framework that discussed the desired form and character of The Flats. At the same time, there is the acknowledgment of the monetary and time expenses for enhanced engagement. Public participation through co-design• : The community consultation done so far is good. But there is still an opportunity here to further explore how citizens can be more actively involved in the physical planning and design of The Flats. Particularly, efforts can be made to utilise co-design methods to get citizens more directly involved in urban form making. (Fig. 43) Engaging growing visible minority• : Given The Flats and its surrounds has nearly 46% minority, there is an opportunity to explore how co-design methods can be tailored to work with visible minorities. Partnerships with education institutes• : The high monetary and financial cost of enhanced public participation such as co-design charrettes and working groups may be minimised if The City can partner with education institutions like Emily Carr (which is moving into The Finning site) and UBC to run some of these co-design events. (16)  http://www.roofgreening.ca/living_roofs.php (Ac- cessed: March 10th, 2010) CHAPTER 4 : PROPOSED URBAN DESIGN FRAMEWOR K This chapter provides an urban design framework. While acknowledging the importance of a built environment’s social elements, it focuses on physical design issues due to the project’s constraints of length, time and scope. Structure wise, the chapter is organised in 5 sections: First, a section on •	 overarching design principles and related strategies. Here, the design strategies are also tied to the opportunities addressed in the previous chapter. This explains which opportunity, alone or with other opportunities, informed which design strategy. Second, a section that proposes sixteen •	 typologies and patterns; each derived from a design	strategy	discussed	in	the	first	section.	 The types and patterns essentially visualises how each strategy can manifest in terms of a building, a block/site design, and physical and programmatic systems across multiple blocks. Third, a section that looks at •	 larger system daigrams that the principles and strategies play out across the entire study area. The fourth section is the •	 masterplan. The	fifth	section	concludes	with	2	•	 focused study of various areas in The Flats through street-level vignettes, street sections, and provides basic information on development data in terms of average FSRs, square-footages, different land uses, and green spaces. Proposed Urban Design FrameworkThe aims to enliven The Flats with greater commercial retail activities, to provide affordable workspace	for	new	green	industries	and	offices,	and	 to have more residents to support these activities will require a set of organising design principles to help plan and design a conducive physical environment. This section outlines four overarching principles that are developed from summarising the opportunities outlined in chapter 3. Each principle is accompanied by four design strategies that inform the types and patterns explore later in this chapter. The diagram on the right illustrates the four principles and associated strategies: Principles and Strategies 4.1 Principles and Strategies >> > CONNEC T RESPEC T ACCOMMODAT E RESTOR E - Overcome barriers - Ensure continuity - Shorten blocks and frontages - Blur private and public edges - Preserve heritage - Denote heritage gateways - Complement exisiting neighbourhoods - Link heritage necklace - Mix typologies; mix uses - Include residential -	Encourage	infills - Densify arterials - Produce resilient sources - Mitigate hazards - Integrated land use - Organise around green infrastructure4.1 Principles and Strategies >> > Connec t As the previous chapters suggest, a lack of connections within and around The Flats is prohibitive to walking and more intense commercial, institutional, office	and	residential	developments.	Better	 connections – physical and psychological – will attract more people and activities there.  Urban design strategies deriving from this principle can explore ways to: Overcome barriers•	 : Pedestrian and bicycle bridges spanning across the rail yards can help create more north-south access routes to overcome the physical barriers caused by the east-west rail yards that span The Flats’ entire length. These bridges can help people on either side of the rail yards move to each other’s area to access amenities and services with greater ease.1 These can be landscaped bridges that extend from public parks located at its ramps. Ensure continuity•	 : Paths from one area to another should ensure visual and programmatic diversity to make the journey pleasant. This can mean buildings that hug the street while maintaining human-scale and a 1:1 building height-street width ratio. It also means avoiding blank walls when possible; instead curtail-walls, shop-windows amongst other façade articulations can provide visual dynamism and permeability between the streetscape and parts of a building’s interiors.2 Shorten blocks & frontages•	 : Many of The Flats exceedingly long blocks (often over 500’) disrupts connectivity. Shorter blocks and building frontages can	create	a	finer	more	flexible	street	pattern	where	 pedestrians can choose varied and interesting routes from one area to another.3 Landscaped right-of-ways and mews in-between the shortened blocks allow the public to access a street, lane or even park on the other side.4 Blur Private-Public Edges•	 : Treat building and lot edges and the adjacent streets and lanes as one harmonious entity rather than divisive lines.5 This can mean having front- or backyards as well as green walls contribute to the streetscape. Each design strategy discussed here are informed by two or more opportunities. Each strategy can be expressed as an urban form – a particular design feature, a building typology, a single-block pattern, or a multiple-blocks morphology. The table below illustrates how the design strategies under the principle of ‘connect’ is informed by the opportunities outlined in the previous chapter. 4.1.1. Connect Linking ‘Connect’ Strategies with Opportunities Design Strategy Informative Opportunities Overcome barriers Build pedestrian-bicycle bridges•	  to improve connections, especially across rail yards Reconfigure	rail	footprint	•	 of underutiltised rail yards to increase north-south connectivity Create a series of centres•	  with the pedestrian-bike bridges as a possible key design feature Increase bike lanes •	 on current and future streets and greenways and connect them to bike-oriented bridges Ensure continuity Intensify arterials•	 	with	more	commercial,	retail,	office	and	housing	uses Adopt gradated zoning•	  along arterials to maintain some amount of city-serving industrial lands but also create more robust uses elsewhere Redefine	mixed	use•	  to explore how current industrial lands can incorporate activities that enliven streetscape Stitch neighbourhood boundaries•	  by responding to the character and form of nearby neighbourhood edges to produce visual-architectural continuity Maximise existing residential allowances•	  on some I-3 lots to create artists live-work spaces that contribute to street liveliness Shorten blocks and frontages Diversify building types •	 by	having	finer	grain	buildings	to	create	informal	landscaped	pedestrian	 thoroughfares between the buildings Extend existing green networks•	 	such	as	bicycle	paths	and	traffic-calmed	streets	through	large	lots	at	 The Flats to help parcelise the large lots Blur private-public edges Blend private-public spaces•	  by designing private patios, green-walls, public plazas and right-of-ways as one physical and visual entity Innovate environment-responsive architecture•	  by designing publicly accessible spaces such as eco- decks and green-roofs over above-grade carparks Cultivate off-ground agriculture•	  such as hydroponics garden that are publicly accessible during daytime, or at least visible from street-level Encourage restorative greenways•	  using disused rail yards together with adjacent lots to create publicly accessible restorative green spaces “Connect” (1) http://www.useful-community-development.org/ walkable-community.html (Accessed: June 29th 2011) (2) Bosselmann, Peter, “Images in Motion” in Urban Design Reader (Eds. M. Carmona & S. Tiesdell), Ox- ford, UK: Elsevier Architectural Press, 2007, p.285. (3) Lewis, Sally, Front to Back: A Design Agenda for Urban Housing,Oxford, UK: Elsevier Architectural Press, 2005, p.6. (4) Lewis, 57. (5) Moughtin, Cliff, Urban Design: Street and Square, Oxford, UK: Elsevier Architectural Press, 2003, 222.4.1 Principles and Strategies >> > Accommodat e As a complete community The Flats must accommodate the city’s wider needs to provide lands for diverse uses including traditional light industrial operations, new green city-serving services, high- tech creative businesses, education institutions, commercial retail opportunities and even housing.  Urban design strategies deriving from this principle can explore ways to: Mix typologies; mix uses•	 :	Lots	with	sufficient	depth	 (>	250’)	and	frontage	(>	500’)	can	be	subdivided	to	 produce	a	‘double	front	configuration’	where	finer	 grain commercial retail-oriented buildings sit on the street-side, and industrial-oriented buildings with larger floorplates	sit	on	the	lane-side.	A	courtyard	can	be	used	 to screen noise and provide privacy. This mix of building types on one lot creates visual and programmatic diversity.6 The front and back halves can either be legally subdivided with the front rezoned as commercial or CD-1,	and	the	back	being	kept	I-2	and	I-3.	Alternatively,	 a clause in the development permit and/or tax-break incentive may be pursued to develop both commercial- retail and industrial buildings. Include residential•	 : Lots along major arterials and future	greenways	that	are	not	deep	(<	200’)	or	wide	(<	 300’)	enough	to	support	the	‘front-back	configuration’	 to	include	industrial	and	office	uses	can	explore	 developments with residential above commercial retail units,	community	services	and	amenities,	and	offices.7 The overall idea is to have some lots take on more residences (especially on the Main Street side), while other lots (especially on the Clark Street side) will cater more to light industries like storage and wholesalers. Hence,	a	more	context-specific	approach	to	mixed	use. Encourage	infill•	 : Underutilised	lots	can	be	infilled	to	 provide	offices,	residential	and	new	industrial	uses	such	 as artist studios provided no prior ecological programs are already planned for the underutilised sections for the purpose of environmental remediation.8 Underutilised areas can either be subdivided, or the whole lot can be rezoned to CD-1 or a future iteration of the I-3 zone that makes	provisions	for	infills	to	include	infill	structures. Densify arterials•	 : Densities along major arterials can	be	increased	moderately	to	allow	more	office	 and	residential	floorspace	(where	appropriate)	 to economically buttress future commercial retail developments.	A	finer	grain	approach	to	shop	and	office	 sizes also allow for a greater diversity of businesses that	can	range	from	cafes,	boutiques,	design	firms,	 print	shops	to	art	galleries.	The	social	benefit	of	a	more	 intense street is a greater opportunity for interaction and cross socio-economic understanding.9 4.1.2.	Accommodate Linking Accommodate’ Strategies with Opportunities Design Strategy Informative Opportunities Mix types; mix uses Diversify building types •	 to cater to different, but preferably integrated uses within a block or across adjacent blocks Adopt gradated zoning •	 to maintain some adequate city-serving industrial lands but also create more robust developments elsewhere Redefine	mixed	use	•	 to explore how current industrial lands can incorporate activities that boost street life Distinguish sub-areas •	 by looking at how a group of adjacent blocks’ particular land use may inform the building types and public realm of the blocks’ area Include residential Maximise existing residential allowances •	 to create artists live-work spaces as well as student housing for the planned educational institutes Redefine	mixed	use	•	 to explore how current land uses, even industrial ones, can include housing which can bring eyes on the streets Adopt gradated zoning•	  to make some lands available for residential uses while maintaining city- serving industrial lands elsewhere Distinguish sub-areas •	 by designing a sub-area with majority residential uses Diversify building types •	 while knowing how the different uses and associated building type may integrate well with residential uses Plan for energy precinct •	 becomes more probable when there are enough necessary waste and affluent	produced	to	be	converted	to	heat	and	power Reduce VKT •	 is more possible when more workers can have jobs close to homes, hence reducing The Flats overall use of fossil fuels Recognise growing visible minorities •	 and their views on home and housing needs Encourage	infills Intensify	land	use	through	infills	•	 to transform underutiltised lands like carparks in industrial sites into offices,	commercial	units	and	retail Maximise existing residential allowances •	 by building on underutitlised lots, especially education institute lands, currently zoned to include housing Redefine	mixed	use•	 	by	rezoning	and/or	subdividing	lots	with	underutilised	lands	to	allow	for	infill	 structures with new uses Innovate green loops •	 by	ensuring	the	uses	of	the	existing	buildings	and	the	proposed	infill	buildings	 can form a close loop Remediate environmental quality •	 by	requiring	the	infill	areas	to	include	green	features	and/or	 undergo soil remediation Densify arterials Diversify building types •	 to	create	visual	variety	while	creating	more	floorspace	for	non-industrial	uses Redefine	mixed	use	•	 by increasing the allowable FSR to accommodate activities that boost street life Adopt gradated zoning •	 by maintaining some city-serving industrial lands but also create more robust developments elsewhere along the same arterial Plan new transit lines and stations •	 to service the increase number of residents and workers who will inhabit	the	densified	arterials Innovate green loops •	 that can use the waste and recyclables from arterial-fronting residences and businesses as productive raw materials Plan for energy precinct •	 becomes more probable when there are enough necessary waste and affluent	produced	to	be	converted	to	heat	and	power Reduce VKT •	 is more possible when more workers can have jobs close to homes, hence reducing The Flats overall use of fossil fuels Remediate environmental quality•	  by requiring new developments to go perform soil remediation and/ or	include	features	to	filter	run-offs Include co-design •	 to gather public desires for the adequate amount of density and height, as well as form and character, that can go into the arterials “Accommodate” Each design strategy discussed here are informed by two or more opportunities. Each strategy can be expressed as an urban form – a particular design feature, a building typology, a single-block pattern, or a multiple-blocks morphology. The table below illustrates how the design strategies under the principle of ‘accommodate’ is informed by the opportunities outlined in the previous chapter. (6) Lewis, 56. (7) Moughtin, Cliff, Urban Design: Method and Tech- niques, Oxford, UK: Elsevier Architectural Press, 1999, 122. (8) Moughtin, Cliff, Urban Design: Green Dimensions, Oxford, UK: Elsevier Architectural Press, 2005, 226. (9) Hester, Randolph T., Design for Ecological Democ- racy, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2006, p.211-215.4.1 Principles and Strategies >> > Respec t The Flats’ rich histories rooted in its industrial past should be respected in future developments. It is also at the nexus of different neighbourhoods, which histories, heritage, urban form and desires should be respected too. The Flats’ future identity may come	from	finding	ways	to	pay	homage	to	both	its	 own histories and its surrounding neighbourhoods’ character and form. Urban design strategies deriving from this principle can explore ways to: Preserve heritage•	 : Developments on lots with heritage buildings should incorporate these buildings into the overall design so as to showcase The Flats’ history. This can be done by repurposing the buildings. If keeping a building in its entirety compromises structural integrity then façade retention, at least, should be pursued. Concerning urban design, heritage elements can provide visual diversity and act as anchor points to an area’s character.10 Denote heritage gateways•	 : Heritage buildings, especially those at major intersections, should be brought to the foreground to denote a physical and psychological entrance to The Flats.11 If the heritage building(s) are not immediately at a major intersection, developments around the heritage building(s) leading to the intersection may take on similar materials, form, colour and character as the heritage building(s) so as to lead pedestrians, cyclists and drivers eyes to the designated heritage buildings. Besides complementary character and form, a clear sight-line from the intersection to the heritage building(s) can be pursued. Complement existing neighbourhoods•	 : Respect the height, form and character of the adjacent neighbourhoods’ buildings and street patterns, and find	ways	to	allow	a	smooth	transition	into	The	Flats.12 This is achievable by mirroring and responding to the height, mass, form and character of buildings at the edge of the adjacent neighbourhoods. Besides mirroring form and character, similar land-use and programs can be pursued to better stitch the edges and boundaries of neighbourhoods together as one cohesive street. Link Heritage Necklace•	 : The Flats’ adjacent neighbourhoods all have strong heritage elements. A high degree of walkability along a distinct path from one heritage building/site to another in The Flats and its adjacent neighbourhoods links the immediate region’s neighbourhoods and their histories together. Special paving treatment can denote the designated paths linking these heritage sites. 4.1.3. Respect Linking Respect’ Strategies with Opportunities Design Strategy Informative Opportunities Preserve heritage Showcase industrial character •	 of The Flats with industrial moderne buildings that symbolise the area’s history Create a series of centres •	 on sites with heritage buildings by using these building as the main organising element Distinguish sub-areas •	 by marking out part of The Flats with higher concentration of heritage buildings as a heritage district Denote entry points •	 to The Flats with heritage buildings at major intersections Intensify	land	use	through	infill	•	 on sites where heritage building stand with care to complement and not overshadow the heritage elements Remediate environmental quality •	 by requiring redevelopment on heritage sites to include ecologically restorative features Redefine	mixed	use	•	 to	explore	how	heritage	buildings	can	fit	multiple	uses	so	as	the	activate	the	 street life around it Include co-design •	 to examine how heritage buildings and sites can expressed the wider concerns and desires of residents and workers around The Flats Recognise growing visible minorities •	 and their views with regards to what a heritage rooted in a colonial industrial past mean to them Partner with educational institutes •	 like UBC, ECU, SFU and BCIT to gather feedback on how the public rank the different heritage buildings/sites Denote heritage gateways Showcase industrial character •	 of The Flats by providing clear sightlines to the designated industrial heritage buildings Denote entry points •	 to The Flats with heritage buildings at major intersections Link a heritage necklace •	 by using special paving to denote a path from one heritage gateway to another Plan new transit lines and stations •	 at or near these heritage gateways, in particular tram systems which is historically more aligned with industrial heritage Complement existing neighbourhoods Stitch neighbourhood boundaries •	 by responding to the character and form of nearby neighbourhood edges to produce visual-architectural continuity Diversify building types •	 at	The	Flats	with	finer	grain	buildings	that	are	more	characteristic	of	many	of	 the adjacent neighbourhoods Redefine	mixed	use	•	 to how lots across the street from adjacent neighbourhoods may be rezoned to better complement their programs and activities Link up heritage necklace Link a heritage necklace •	 by using special paving to denote a path from one heritage building to another Showcase industrial character •	 of The Flats by having developments next to heritage buildings adopt complementary materials, character and form Partner with educational institutes •	 like UBC, ECU, SFU and BCIT to gather public feedback/ knowledge on what existing buildings can be classed as heritage Each design strategy discussed here are informed by two or more opportunities. Each strategy can be expressed as an urban form – a particular design feature, a building typology, a single-block pattern, or a multiple-blocks morphology. The table below illustrates how the design strategies under the principle of ‘respect’ is informed by the opportunities outlined in the previous chapter. “RESPECT” (10) Moughtin, 1999, p.27-28. (11) Eco, Umberto, “Function and Sign: The Semiotics of Architecture”, in Rethinking Architecture: A Reader in Cultural Theory (ed. Neil Lech), London, UK & New York: Routledge, 1997, p.185. (12) Moughtin, 2003, p.42.4.1 Principles and Strategies >> > Resto re Restoring environmental well-being is a necessity when the aim is to bring more people to work and live in The Flats. Environmental well-being entails not only cleaner air, water and energy, but also	the	creation	of	businesses	that	benefit	the	 environment. Restoring The Flats’ health means not only preventing further environmental degradation but creating a living system that can reverse environmental damage done over the last century. Urban design strategies deriving from this principle can explore ways to: Produce Resilient Sources•	 : To make The Flats more self-reliant for water and energy, green features can be pursued. For example, rain-barrels can be integral design features in a plaza, or even be incorporated into a building design. Living walls can be installed especially on necessary blank wall faces that hide mechanical systems or provide privacy. Moreover, living walls soften the visual monotony that can be caused by a higher wall-to-window ratio necessary for minimising heating loss.13 New developments, especially industrial and	office	buildings	with	larger	floorplates,	can	 include solar panels and green roofs. Connection to existing and future district energy centres can also be written into future structure plans and even individual development permits. Mitigate Hazards•	 :	Given	The	Flats’	flooding	and	 ponding risks, an adequate treatment of run-offs is important. As such mitigative features of all scales should be pursued. On a block scale, a network of swales	and	pervious	paving	that	can	absorb	and	filter	 run-offs can be considered. On a multi-block scale, these swales can be channelled to larger wetlands and retention ponds.14 Integrate land uses to reduce waste•	 : Pair businesses where one business’s by-products can become the raw materials for another business. For example, restaurants can be sited near composting businesses. Building design and zoning should encourage this integration of uses. This strategy complements the earlier mentioned strategy to accommodate mixed uses through mixed building typologies.15 Organise site around green infrastructure•	 : Rather than treating green infrastructures as ‘add-ons’, they can become a central form from which a development is organised and designed around.16 For example, a green spine created on disused railyardsbecome an element from which adjacent developments’ site design can be connected to. In other words, a green feature can help form the spatial identity of The Flats’ various developments 4.1.4. Restore Linking Respect’ Strategies with Opportunities Design Strategy Informative Opportunities Produce Resilient Sources Opportune productive roofs •	 by	capitalising	on	industrial	and	office	buildings’	large	roof-plates	as	sites	 for green-roofs and solar panels Plan for energy precinct •	 becomes more probable when there are enough necessary waste and affluent	produced	to	be	converted	to	heat	and	power Encourage biomass energy•	  by installing a processing centre in industrial zones which are also next to rail lines which can bring in waste from the region Partner with educational institutes•	  like UBC, ECU, SFU and BCIT to run workshops on resilient communities and urban design Mitigate hazards Opportune productive roofs •	 by using green-roofs which can greatly reduce run-offs which can lead to flooding,	ponding	and	leaching Remediate environmental quality •	 by mandating new or re-developments to include design features such as rain gardens and swales that mitigate hazards Encourage restorative greenways •	 by tying disused rail yards together with adjacent lots to create a bigger hazard-mitigating feature Partner with educational institutes•	  like UBC, ECU, SFU and BCIT to raise awareness about The Flats’ potential	hazards	such	as	flooding	and	sea-level	rise Integrate land uses to reduce waste Innovate green loops •	 that can use the waste and recyclables from one business as productive raw materials for another business Redefine	mixed	use	•	 to explore how integrated land uses can be sited adjacent to each other, or how they can even be within the same building Encourage biomass energy•	  by installing a processing centre in industrial zones which can collect waste from The Flats and its nearby neighbourhoods Showcase industrial character •	 of The Flats with a contemporary biomass energy plant or recycling plant that emit little or no waste or smells Organise site around green infrastructure Create a series of centres •	 with one based around green infrastructure like a major bio-retention pond or even a district energy centre Denote entry points •	 to The Flats with major green infrastructure that can be paired with heritage buildings to show The Flats is both ‘old’ and ‘new’ Encourage restorative greenways •	 that can act as a green spine along which wetlands, bioswales, and walk- and bike-ways are organised Build pedestrian-bicycle bridges •	 that improve connections but also act as an organising element for the building and street patterns around it Innovate environment-responsive architecture•	  by designing publicly accessible spaces such as eco- decks and green-roofs over above-grade carparks Each design strategies discussed here are informed by two or more opportunities. Each strategy can be expressed as an urban form – a particular design feature, a building typology, a single-block pattern, or a multiple-blocks morphology. The table below illustrates how the design strategies under the principle of ‘restore’ is informed by the opportunities outlined in the previous chapter. “RESTORE” (13) http://www.solarbuildings.ca/c/sbn/file_db/Doc_ File_e/Window%20to%20wall%20ratios%20and%20 commercial%20building%20energy.pdf (Accessed: June 29th 2011) (14) Watson, Donald & Michele Adams, Design for Flooding: Architecture, Landscape and Urban Design for Resilience to Climate Change, Hoboken, NJ: Wiley and Sons, 2011, p.99. (15) Hester, p.31-21. (16) http://library.oregonmetro.gov/files/greenspine_ no.10_web.pdf (Accessed: May 10th, 2011)The typologies and patterns presented here are informed from the abovementioned four principles, associated strategies and informing opportunities. Each type or pattern is essentially a visualisation of what a strategy can be in terms of how a building, a block, or a system of multiple blocks can be developed. While each of the typology or pattern is initially developed from a particular site within The Flats, they are generalised to be applicable to other sites in The Flats with similar conditions like lot size, proximity to rail yards, adjacent programming, heritage value and/or capability to incorporate green infrastructures. To recap there are the sixteen types and patterns based on the strategies shown on the diagram on the right: Typologies and Patterns 4.2 Typologies and Patterns >> > CONNEC T RESPEC T ACCOMMODAT E RESTOR E - Overcome barriers - Ensure continuity - Shorten blocks and frontages - Blur private and public edges - Preserve heritage - Denote heritage gateways - Complement exisiting neighbourhoods - Link heritage necklace - Mix typologies; mix uses - Include residential -	Encourage	infills - Densify arterials - Produce resilient sources - Mitigate hazards - Integrated land use - Organise around green infrastructureThe railyards are crucial to the industrial uses there, and provides the basic infrastructure for a sustainable mode of transport for future passenger rail coming in from cities around Vancouver. However, the rail yards also set up barriers, especially for north-south connectivity. The following solutions can be pursued: Some railyards (such as the underutilised BNSF rail) •	 can	be	reconfigured	to	bring	more	connectivity.	 Barriers caused by railyards that cannot be •	 reconfigured	(such	as	the	CN	railyard	shown	here) may be overcome by having pedestrian and bicycle- oriented bridges span across them. Parks on either of sides of a ped-bike bridge can •	 be integrated so the bridge will also contribute to the betterment of the public realm besides being utilitarian. 4.2.1.	Overcome	Barriers North-south connections - Bridges that serve pedestrians   and cyclists can be installed over   some rail yards such as the CN   railyard to improve connectivity Parks on ends of bridge - Parks on one or both sides of the   bridge can contribute to the   betterment of the public realm. 		The	bridge	beautifies	space. 4.2 Typologies and Patterns >> > O vercome Barrier sConnectivity is created partly from ensuring the routes from one area to another have adequate visual and programmatic diversity and intensity to make the walking journey enjoyable. The following solutions can be pursued: Building heights should be within a 1:1 ratio to the •	 street width so that the buildings ‘hug’ the street while still maintaining an adequate human scale. It also means avoiding blank walls when possible; •	 instead curtain-walls and shop windows amongst other façade articulations can provide visual dynamism and permeability between the street and the buildings’ interiors. Street trees, street furniture and even pocket parks •	 can help make a street a continuous length of varied spaces and programs. 4.2.2.	Ensure	Continuity Avoid blank walls - Avoid blank walls especially along   the ground-level to ensure the   walking route along a street has   visual dynamism. Pocket Parks - Parks can offer pedestrians mo-   ments of respite on their journey.   Parks also add visual/progra-   matic variety to a street. 4.2 Typologies and Patterns >> > Ensu re Continui ty Right of Way - On long blocks, right of ways   from street to lane (or another   street) can offer pedestrians and 		drivers	a	more	flexible	street	grid. Mini Plazas - Mini plazas, especially in front of   civic or institutional buildings can   offer spaces where gatherings or   public events can be held.Long block frontages exceeding 500 feet is not uncommon at The Flats. These long blocks with equally long buildings have spans of blank walls that make walking by them unpleasant and thus reduce the area’s connectivity on a psychological level. The following solutions can be pursued: Long blocks can be broken up into smaller parcels •	 to create streets between them by means of subdivision. If sub-division is not possible, landscaped right-of-•	 ways through the blocks and shorter buildings can be	explored	to	offer	pedestrian	a	more	flexible	street	 pattern to walk around. Shorter buildings can mean a greater number of •	 architecturally diverse (yet still complementary) buildings can populate a certain length of a block or street, lending to greater visual diversity. 4.2.3.	Shorten	Blocks	and	Frontages Subdivide long blocks - Long blocks can be subdivided   into smaller parcels so as to   create streets that pedestrians,   cyclists and cars can access. Shorter building frontage -	Shorter	buildings	with	more	finely   articulated frontages allows more   architectural variety to emerge   within a given length of street 4.2 Typologies and Patterns >> > Shorten Blocks and F rontage s Right of Way - On long blocks, right of ways   from street to lane (or another   street) can offer pedestrians and 		drivers	a	more	flexible	street	grid.Shared open space - When private properties are not   demarcated by hard edges such   as high blank walls they can open   up to the public realm around. Landscaped Lanes - Lanes can be lined with trees,   planters and even special paving   to give it the appearance of a   street while being a service-alley. Extended backyard - Nearby parks (such as the   proposed BNSF greenway shown   here) can become a ‘backyard’ to   properties that ‘open up’ to them. 4.2 Typologies and Patterns >> > Blur Pri vate-Pub lic Edge s Lane-oriented entrances - Lane-oriented entrances can   activate a laneway, thus giving a   property two ‘fronts’ as well as   turning the lane into a ‘street’. The public and private realms need not be separated to an extent where pedestrians walking past a private property feel like they are unwelcome or do not belong to the area. A ‘shared open space’ connecting the realms can be pursued. The following solutions can be pursued: Private properties need not be demarcated by blank •	 walls and high fences. Backyards, for example, can open up to a landscaped laneway so that the laneway can become like an extended backyard. In this sense, this creates an open space that is ‘shared’ by both private property owners and pedestrians. Entrances to residences as well as some smaller •	 businesses can be fronted on the laneway to help activate such shared spaces. Privacy and safety can be maintained by softer edges •	 such as hedge rows and lattice fences instead of high concrete walls. 4.2.4.	Blur	Private-Public	EdgesIndustrial-oriented side - The rear side of a block can have 		buildings	with	larger	floorplates   to accommodate industrial and 		some	office	uses. 4.2 Typologies and Patterns >> > Mix Typologies, Mix Use s Courtyards as separation - Softer screening devices such as   trees within a courtyard can be   used provide privacy and noise   reduction. Right of way - Landscaped right of ways from   the street can be used by   employees going to the industrial   side To allow The Flats to accommodate a greater number and variety of uses, subdivision of larger lots into smaller parcels can be explored. The following solutions can be pursued: Lots	with	sufficient	depth	(>	250’)	and	frontage	•	 (>500’) can be subdivided to produce a ‘double front configuration’.	Finer	grain	commercial	retail-oriented	 buildings can sit on the street-side, while industrial- oriented	buildings	with	larger	floorplates	can	sit	on	 the lane-side. This mix of building types helps create visual and programmatic diversity. Courtyards can be used between the two types of •	 uses to screen noise and provide privacy. The subdivision can be pursued either by legally •	 rezoning the front-half to CD-1 and keep the rear- half	as	I-2	or	I-3,	or	a	clause	in	the	development	 permit and/or tax-break incentives may be explored to ensure this diversity occurs. 4.2.5.	Mix	Typologies,	Mix	Uses Commercial-oriented side - The front side of a block can 		have	buildings	with	floorplates 		more	suited	for	fine	grain	retail	   shops and residential above.Residential above commercial - Mixed-use buildings can be     pursued, especially along major   arterials with adequate bus,   skytrain and tram services.  Adequate heights - Building heights should comple   ment the adjacent neighbour-   hoods’ low- to mid-rise form. 4.2 Typologies and Patterns >> > Include Residentia l While The Flats’ land use is mostly targeted for industrial uses, some residential developments can enliven the area and support the proposed commercial retail developments. The following solutions can be pursued: Residential	uses	above	commercial	retail	and	office	•	 uses can be explored, especially along major arterials. Lots on the Main Street side are usually shallower •	 (<200’)	and	narrower	(<300’),	and	are	less	suitable	 for	large	floorplate	industrial	buildings.	They	 are	more	suited	for	finer	grain	buildings	such	as	 residential and commercial retail-oriented ones. In terms of land use the Main Street side can afford •	 to have greater residential uptake in part to provide programmatic continuity between Mount Pleasant and Chinatown/Strathcona. And, in part to alleviate the residential development pressure on the Clark Drive side, so as to allow light industrial uses like storage and wholesalers to continue. 4.2.6.	Include	Residential Fine grain commercial retail - The shops on the groudn level 		should	be	finer	grain	to	fit	with   the commercial spaces in the   adjacent neighbourhoods. Work close to home - By providing more residences in   The Flats, it can mean more of   its future workers can live near   to work hence reducing VKTCourtyards as separation - Softer screening devices such as   trees within a courtyard can be   used provide privacy and noise   reduction. Entrances to infills -	Access	to	the	infills	can	be			   through right of ways from the   street or via the lane where the 		infills’	entrances	are	oriented Underground parking - Should parking be a concern, some   small amounts of underground     parking going down one level can   be pursued. Redevelop underutilised sites - Underutilised carparks and other   disused areas can accommodate 		artist	studios,	small	offices	and   even some residences. 4.2 Typologies and Patterns >> > Encour age 	Infi ll Currently, there are several underutilised lots at The Flats where over 50% of the site is for parking or simply underdeveloped. Planning for a future where driving is reduced and more public transport will cater to The Flats, parking requirements may be reduced. As such, redevelopments	at	these	lots	can	explore	infills.	The	 following solutions can be pursued: Provided no prior ecological-remediative features are •	 planned for the underutilised lots, artist studios, small office	structures	and	even	boutique	manufacturers	 such as clothiers can be pursued. The underutilied lots can either be subdivided, or the •	 redevelopment can be rezoned as an unique CD-1, or a future iteration of I-3 that makes provisions for mixed	use	infill	structures. Clauses in a development permit and/or tax incentive •	 can be pursued to encourage developers to do less parking	and	instead	build	infill	structures. 4.2.7.	Encourage	InfillResidences along arterials - Residences along arterials (such as   Terminal Ave shown here) can help   economically buttress the future   commercial developments. Big-box shop, small entrance - Big box shops can have ‘bottled- 		neck’	entrances	so	that	finer	grain   shops can line the streets. 4.2 Typologies and Patterns >> > Dens ify Arterials  Densities along major arterials can be increased moderately	to	allow	more	office	and	residential	 floorspace	to	economically	buttress	future	commercial	 retail developments. The following solutions can be pursued: A	finer	grain	approach	to	shop-front	and	building	•	 façade design should be pursued to allow for a greater diversity of businesses – ranging from cafes, boutiques,	design	firms,	printers	to	art	galleries	–	to	 emerge. If a big-box shop is necessary to help a development •	 attain economic viability, its entrance can be ‘bottled- neck’	so	as	to	fit	better	with	the	smaller	shop-fronts	 next to it. The	social	benefit	of	a	more	intense	street	is	that	it	•	 attracts more people there, thus provides a greater opportunity for interaction and cross socio-economic and cultural understanding. 4.2.8.	Densify	Arterials	 Tree-lined streets - Tree-lined streets with adequate   amount of street furniture can   make an arterial more liveable by   offering spaces of respite. Public transport - Trams, buses and skytrains are all   important to make an arterial   lievable as they connect its   residents to a wider area.Facade Retention - If keeping the whole heritage will   comprise structural integrity, then   facade retention can be explored. 4.2 Typologies and Patterns >> > Preser ve Her itage  The ‘industrial modern’ aesthetic is an element that helps The Flats create its sense of identity. As such, efforts to retain buildings built in this architectural style should be pursued. The following solutions can be pursued: Developments on lots with heritage buildings should •	 incorporate these buildings into the overall design so as to showcase The Flats’ history. The heritage buildings should become the organising element for the development. The heritage element can provide visual diversity and act as an anchor to an area. If keeping a heritage building in its entirety •	 compromises structural integrity then façade retention, at least, should be pursued (as shown here for the industrial moderne buildings at Terminal and Main). Existing and future buildings of socio-cultural and •	 architectural merit can be added to the heritage list. 4.2.9.	Preserve	Heritage Added floors -	Depending	on	the	needs	identified 		for	a	certain	sub-area,	added	floors   may be pursued to provide more   density. Complementary materials - The materials and architectural 		style	of	added	floors	and	adjacent   buildings should complement a      heritage character. Complementary form and height - Developments next to heritage   buildings should be complementary   in height and massing to ensure   visual and stylistic continuity.Complement heritage - Buildings next to heritage buildings   can be articulated to complement,   so as to strengthen a gateway’s   heritage presence. Link up to transport nodes - Gateways to The Flats can be   strengthened by the presence of   transport nodes such as tram-stops   skytrain and buses. Green street medians - Green street medians not only   soften the area but also acts as a   processional ‘guide’ into The Flats. 		They	define	a	clear	axis. Park and open spaces - Parks and open spaces at a gate-   way allows people to take a breath   to dwell and appreciate the   surroundings. 4.2 Typologies and Patterns >> > Denote Her itage Gate w ays  Heritage buildings, singly or in groups, can help The Flats define	entry	points.	They	help	establish,	in	the	minds	of	 pedestrians, the character and history of the area. The following solutions can be pursued: Especially at major intersections, heritage buildings •	 and sites help denote a physical and psychological presence and entry to The Flats. Green	street	medians	help	define	the	processional	•	 path into The Flats. If there are no heritage buildings immediately at the •	 intersections, developments around heritage buildings and sites may take on similar materials, form, colour and character so as to lead pedestrians, cyclists and motorists’ eyes to the designated heritage buildings. A clear sightline to the heritage buildings and sites •	 should be maintained from at least a few blocks away from a designated gateway intersection. 4.2.10.	Denote	Heritage	GatewaysComplement adjacent form - Buildings on the edge with other   neighbourhoods should have form, 		heights	and	character	that	fits   to create a smooth transition. Create right of ways - Long blocks at The Flats can be 		broken	up	to	bring	the	finer	street   network of adjacent neighbourhoods   into The Flats. Complementary programming - Programming, especially on the 		ground	floor,	should	be	similar	to   those in adjacent neighbourhoods   to ensure programmatic continuity. 4.2 Typologies and Patterns >> > Complement Existing Neighbourhood s The Flats sit amongst several established neighbourhoods. In this regard it is important new developments at The Flats complement them. The following solutions can be pursued: Respect the height, form and character of the •	 surrounding neighbourhoods’ buildings (such as mid- rise slab-form residential buildings at Mt. Pleasant shown on the rightside of the illustration). If taller buildings are to be pursued at the edges •	 between The Flats and other neighbourhoods, the height difference should ‘step-up’ gradually instead of overshadowing the mid-rise character around. The Flats currently has longer blocks; breaking them •	 up	can	help	bring	in	the	finer	grain	street	networks	 around (like those in Mount Pleasant). Land use and programs on The Flats’ side should •	 complement the surrounding neighbourhoods. 4.2.11.	Complement	Existing	NeighbourhoodsSpecial paving to mark heritage - Special paving along Main Street 		can	visually	strengthen	and	define   the path that leads from one   heritage building/site to another. Signboards - Signboards can tell the history of   heritage buildings at The Flats and   how they are part of a wider east   side heritage presence. Add buildings to heritage list - Buildings of architectural and   socio-cultural merits can be     added to the heritage list. 4.2 Typologies and Patterns >> > Link Her itage Necklac e The Flats and its adjacent neighbourhoods all have strong heritage elements. Linking these heritage buildings and sites together into a necklace can tell a story about east Vancouver’s unique industrial-based history. The following solutions can be pursued: Special paving, special tree-surrounds and/or •	 signboards can make the walking path from one heritage building to another more distinguishable. This is doable along Main Street where most of The Flats and its adajcent neighbourhoods’ heritage buildings and sites are located. These special paving and tree surrounds can be extended on streets that lead to heritage buildings away from Main Street. The aim is to physically link The Flats to other •	 neighbourhoods like Mt. Pleasant, Chinatown and Strathcona by linking their unique heritage elements. Buildings of architectural and socio-cultural merits can •	 be added to the heritage list. 4.2.12.	Link	Heritage	NecklaceFuture developments at The Flats should aim to lessen their dependency on the grid for energy and water supplies. Rain-barrels coupled with water treatment facilities •	 can be considered to provide developments with a certain amount of water supply. Solar panels can provide some amount of electricity.•	 On a neighbourhood scale, several buildings can be •	 connected to district energy facilities for energy and heat. Living walls can soften the visual monotony that is •	 caused by a higher wall-to-window ration necessary for minimising heat loss. The ‘functionalist’ look of the above hardware can •	 become part of The Flats’ ‘look’. 4.2.13.	Produce	Resilient	Sources Rain-Barrels - Rain-barrels can help a building   and even a wider area reduce   dependency on municipal water   supplies Green walls - Green walls can soften the blank   walls sometimes necessary for a   higher wall-to-window ratio needed   to minimise heat loss Solar Panels - Solar panels can provide some   amount of electricity. This is   especially true for buildings with   larger roof-plates 4.2 Typologies and Patterns >> > Produce Res ilient Sou rce sFlooding and ponding are two most immediate natural hazards The Flats faces. Mitigative features of all scales should be pursued to minimise the potential impact. On a block scale, bioswales can run along the sides •	 of buildings and street shoulders to help absorb and filter	run-offs. On a multi-block scale, the bioswales can be •	 connected to larger wetlands and retention ponds prior	to	flowing	to	larger	water	bodies	such	as	False	 Creek. Permeable paving along with more naturalised •	 landscape in developments can reduce sheet run-offs during heavy rainfall. 4.2.14.	Mitigate	Hazards Bioswales - Swales along roads and buildings   can help mitigate run-offs and 		reduce	the	risk	of	flooding	and   ponding. 4.2 Typologies and Patterns >> > M itigate Haza rds Larger Mitigative Systems - Bioswales can be connected to   larger mitigative systems like   wetlands at False Creek to further 		filtrate	run-offs.Placing businesses where one business’ by-products can become the raw materials for another business can help reduce waste, On the long term this reduces the need for	rubbish	landfills.	Situating	these	businesses	close	 together can also reduce the use of fossil fuels needed for longer haul vehicular journeys. Local food productions such as urban farms can •	 supply food distributors nearby with produce. The distributors can in turn supply nearby restaurants with ingredients. The waste from the restaurants and food distributors can go to composting centres nearby in the industrial areas of The Flats to produce natural fertilisers for the urban farms. An integrated loop is formed. 4.2.15.	Integrate	Land	Uses	to	Reduce	Waste Intergrated Businesses - Produce grown at the urban   farms can be distributed at   nearby wholesalers, and in turn   sold to nearby restaurants Reduce Waste - The waste from restaurants can   be processed at nearby compost   businesses, and the compost can   fertilise the urban farms 4.2 Typologies and Patterns >> > Integ rate Land Uses to Reduce W aste  4.2 Typologies and Patterns >> > O rganise a round G reen Infrastructu re Rather than treating green infrastructure as ‘add-ons’, they can become the central feature from which site/ neighbourhood design and public realm treatments are anchored upon. Green spines can be created from disused railyards. •	 These spines improve not only ecological well-being but can help strengthen an area’s spatial identity. The	green	spines	can	be	connected	to	green	fingers	•	 nearby,	and	these	green	fingers	can	branch	into	 other neighbourhoods or lead to larger naturalised areas such as wetlands and/or bio-retention ponds. In effect, the green spines can connect The Flats, within and without itself, to a wider area spatially and ecologically. 4.2.16.	Organise	around	green	infrastructure Green Spine - Neighbourhoods can be   organised around a green spine,   which can act as a ‘backyard’ to   nearby developments4.3 System Diagrams >> > Pulling back at a wider scale, the following system diagrams represent how the four key design concepts of ‘connect’, ‘accommodate’, ‘respect’ and ‘restore’ can be applied at a neighbourhood level. The system diagrams explore: Sub-Areas and Key Centres•	  describes how different areas of The Flats may be based on its locale’s unique history and/or function as well as potential developments. Land Use•	  describes the different types of uses in the future. These land uses are based on current uses as well as projections that can help The Flats develop more robustly. Movements•	  describes the way pedestrians, bicycles and proposed tram lines can move within The Flats as well as to the wider Vancouver region. Public Amenities•	  describes the parks, civic centres such as a proposed community centre and other city- serving institutions that may be developed. Green Infrastructure •	 describes the ways The Flats can capture energy to rely less on fossil fuels and municipal power. It also mentions the greenways and bioswales that can improve its ecological wellness. System DiagramsWest Gateway - Industrial Moderne heritage - Historic park - Boutique shops - Mid to mid-high-rise residential Terminal High Street - High street shopping area -	Offices - Creative industries - Mid to mid-high-rise residential Park Living - Restorative landscape - Community centre - Low to mid-rise residential - District energy facilities Industrial Lands - Distributors and storage - Low-impact manufacturers - City-serving lands - Passenger rail service Urban Farmland - Urban agriculture - Teaching farms - Public parks - Community gardens Greenway Neighbourhood - Disused BNSF railyard as park - Creative industries - Commercial retail on west side - Low to mid-rise residential GNW Neighbourhood - Great Northenway Campus - Creative industries - Finer grain commercial retail - Mid-rise residential Each	sub	area’s	character	is	influenced	by	the	 kinds of uses and associated building types it is programmed to accommodate. Given the size of The Flats, it is reasonable for each sub area to have its own heart, usually characterised by a space suitable for gatherings. However, each heart is easily accessible to each other. 4.3.1. Sub Areas & Key Centres = Key Centres 4.3 System Diagrams >> > Sub A reas & Key Cent res Creative Industries -	Offices	&	wholesalers - Artists’ studios - City-serving lands - Freight rail yards East Gateway - Sculpture garden - Skate park - Commercial retail - New Skytrain stration4.3 System Diagrams >> > Land Us e Residential - Mulitfamily residential - Neighbourhood scale shops - Public park spaces While The Flats can accommodate non-industrial uses, industrial lands should be retained not only for the purpose of providing businesses with affordable lands, but to provide jobs for the growing population in both adjacent neighbourhoods and The Flats’ future residential developments. The overall strategy is to gradate the land use by allowing  more residential developments to take place on the west and south sides, while the east and north sides stay more industrial. 4.3.2.	Land	Use Green Space - Urban farms - Public park space - Site for outdoor activities or   events Green Space - Public park space - Sculpture garden - Skate parks and basketball   courts Green Space - Public park space - Community gardens - Site for outdoor activities or   events Institutional - Community Centre - Childcare - Neighbourhood scale shops - Non-market housing Industrial -	Offices	&	wholesalers - Big box stores - Artists’ studios - City-serving lands Industrial - Distributors and storage - Low-impact manufacturers - City-serving services - Automobile repairs Rail - Freight rail - Passenger rail - Coach-bus depot Commercial -	Commercial	retail	and	offices - Eateries and supermarkets - Multifamily residential - Public park space Mixed Use -	Commercial	retail	and	offices - Creative Industries - Multifamily residential - Artists’ studios Institutional - Tertiary education provider - Student/artists’ housing - Live-work spaces - Neighbourhood scale shops4.3 System Diagrams >> > M ovemen t To increase connectivity, some of the larger, longer lots are subdivided, or have right-of-ways cut across to	create	a	more	flexible	walking	grid.	Pedestrian	and	 biycle bridges are built to allow movement across the city-serving railyards. A new skytrain station is added at Glen and Terminal to serve future residents and workers. A tram-line will also run along Great Northern Way. 4.3.3. Movement = New Pedestrian = Skytrain = Trams = Rail Station St. Extension: - North-south connection linking   Industrial Ave to Terminal Ave - Breaks up long block Green Fingers: - East-West connection - Breaks up long block - Creates a ‘landscape-oriented’   urban block Thornton Ped-Bike Bridge: - North-south connection across   CN rail yard linking GNW   to Terminal Ave - Parks on north and south sides Glen Drive Skytrain Station: - Services future residents and   workers at The Flats - Iconic architecture to mark the   eastern gateway to The Flats Chess St. Ped-Bike Bridge: - North-south connection across   VIA rail yard linking Malkin Ave   to Terminal Ave - Public park on south side GNW Tram Line: - East-west connection which   better link together areas east     and west of The Flats. BNSF Greenway: - East-west connection offering   pedestrians and cyclists a   landscaped, car-free route - Restorative landscape Prior St. Tram Line: - East-west connection which   serves residents living in the   heart of Strathcona New S t. New S t. New S t. New S t. New S t. New S t. New S t.4.3 System Diagrams >> > Public Ammenitie s Currently, The Flats does not have much public amenities due to its low population. However, with more residences and employment opportunities, amenities become necessary to accommodate the needs and well-being of its residents. Besides the new shops on major arterials, other prominent amenities are naturalised spaces such as the BNSF greenway to restore the area’s natural ecology. A proposed Trillium Community Centre, an after-school arts program at GNW campus, and the Glen Drive Skate and Ball Park are other amenities. 4.3.4. Public Amenities Great Northern Way Campus - Tertiary education in the   creative arts - Proposed after-school arts   program for high-schoolers. Trillium Community Centre - Community centre for future   Flats, Strathcona, Yaletown and   Chinatown residents - Childcare and library services Glen Dr. Skate and Ball Park - Skate park and basketball   courts under the Terminal Ave   overpass at Glen Drive - Serves nearby youths Strathcona Urban Farms - Combines food production and   naturalised landscape - Provides produce for grocery   distributors and wholesalers BNSF Greenway - East-west linear park that   becomes a ‘backyard’ for   residents living in the area - Playground for children Chinese Freemason Housing - Expansion on existing seniors   housing. - Serves Vancouver’s ageging   population Chess St Park - Park in the middle of the light   industrial area - Park is also a right of way that   links Chess and Beggs streets Mid Terminal Ave Park - Park that offers pedestrians and   cyclists a chance to slow down  on the future busy Terminal Ave Trillium Park - Park can act as a ‘backyard’ for   the new residences to the north   of the park - Restorative landscape Station St Bioretention Park - Provides new residents and   workers with green space   amidst dense residential   developments4.3 System Diagrams >> > G reen Infrastructu re The City of Vancouver has plans to make The Flats a sutainability precinct. A key large scale green infrastructure here is a restorative system that ties the	BNSF	greenway	to	the	green	fingers	around	 Station	Street	and	finally	naturalised	wetlands	around	 Science World. A district energy will link The Flats to existing energy plants nearby. 4.3.5. Green Infrastructure BNSF greenway - Swales along the greenway can 		help	filter	out	polluntants	in	   run-offs, and handle extreme   rainfalls and divert storm surges = Swale/Wetland System = District Energy Lines Station St bioretention park - Bioretention pond at the end of 		CN	rail	yard	to	catch	and	filter   run-offs prior to it entering False   Creek Solar panels and green roofs - Buildings with large roof-plates   are suitable for solar panels - Green roofs can help reduce   run-offs Strathcona Urban Farms - Locally grown produce can help    reduce the carbon footprint of   food production “Green fingers”: -	Swales	along	the	green	fingers	 		will	filter	run-offs	and	any	over- 		flow	that	does	not	permeate   onsite. Proposed estuarine wetland - The swales will be connected to   the wetland via culverts. The 		wetlands	is	the	‘final	filter’	prior   to water entering the creek District energy system - Waste can be channelled to the   SEFC Energy Utility Facilities to   be converted to heat and   energy for the wider region GNW district energy centre - A district energy centre can be   installed at future developments   of the GNW campus to provide   energy and heat to the local area4.4 Masterplan >> > The urban design framework provided here is based on four principles: CONNECT The Flats to adjacent neighbourhoods and the wider city context as a connected neighbourhood creates the atmosphere of belonging for people; ACCOMMODATE a variety of uses to create a liveable and complete neighbourhood; RESPECT The Flats’ histories, heritage, character and form, and RESTORE its ecological well-being so that the environment and its future inhabitants may be healthy. Masterplan Terminal Ave Scotia St . Lorne St . East	2nd	Ave. Great Northern Way Chess S t. Beggs S t. Industrial Ave Thornton S t. Thornton S t. Co tt re ll S t. Main S t. Quebec S t. Glen D r. Glen D r. Station S t. Fr aser S t. Foley S t. W estern S t. Malkin St. Map Information - Scale: 1:5000 -	Shadows:	Sept	22,	2pm Ca roline S t.4.5 Focused Study Areas >> > 2	focused	study	areas	will	be	presented	here	to	give	 readers a more in-depth look at what can happen at The Flats when connections, accommodations, respect	and	ecological	restoration	are	pursued.	The	2	 areas are: Station Street Mixed Use Quarters1. ‘Double-Fronted Block’ at 500 Terminal Avenue2.	 Focused Study Areas 1 2 Map Information - Scale: 1:5000 -	Shadows:	Sept	22,	2pm4.5 Focused Study Areas >> > Station St reet Mi xed Use Quarter s 4.5.1. Station Street Mixed USe Quarters This area is currently a collection of disused and under-used warehouses. In line with the principles of accommodating more uses, respecting The Flats’ history and restoring ecological functions, this area will be developed with the following features: Continue to •	 house some light industrial uses such as R&D	firms,	software	design,	architecture,	planning	 and design businesses, artisan studios, boutique clothing and/or furniture manufacturers, etc. Given the area’s proximity to Main Street, some of the first	floors	will	be	for	commercial	retail	uses	such	 as eateries, small to mid-scale shops and essential services	such	as	clinics,	post-offices	and	banks.	 Some	of	the	second	floors	can	be	used	for	offices.	 Most	floors	from	the	second	floor	and	up	will	be	for	 residential uses. Improve ecological well-being with bioswales running •	 along the buildings’ sides. They can capture and filter	run-offs	and	stormwater.	In	addition,	they	can	 also catch excess grey water that is not already treated. The swales are connected through culverts westward to the proposed wetlands at False Creek, and eastward to the proposed retention pond at the western edge of the CN railyard. The swales can become a main feature in the streetscape design. Retain sense of heritage through facade retention •	 for heritage listed buildings, repurpose warehouses built in the industrial moderne style, and use complementary materials and articulations for any new buildings in the vicinity. Development Data for Focus Area Average	Typical	Lot	(+/-170’	X	160’	lot):	23000	to	27000sf Existing Conditions on typical lot Average Building(s)’ Floorspace: 37000sf Average Net FSR: 1.17 to 1.37 Average	Heights:	2	storeys Land Use: Warehouses, storages and wholesalers Green Space: 0sf Proposed Conditions on typical lot Average	Building	Floorspace:	92000sf Average Net FSR: 3.41 to 4.0 Average Heights: 6 storeys (stepback at 4th storey) Land Use: Light industrial, commercial retail, cafes, offices	and	services	(on	first	and/or	second	floor),	and	 residential	(from	second/third	floor	up) Green Space: 10000sf (Including roof-top gardens, but excluding the bioswales) Bioswales - Swales along roads and buildings   can help mitigate run-offs and 		reduce	the	risk	of	flooding	and   ponding. Complementary materials - The materials and architectural 		style	of	added	floors	and	adjacent   buildings should complement a      heritage character. Traffic-calmed streets - As the streets will still be used for   the businesses, vehicular access is   still important. However, the streets 		are	narrower	to	calm	traffic.4.5 Focused Study Areas >> > Station St reet Mi xed Use Quarter s Station Street Mixed USe Quarters Existing Conditions around Focus Area Map Information -	Scale:	1:2000 -	Shadows:	Sept	22,	2pm Streetview (Looking west on Northern Street) Street-Section (Looking west on Northern Street) Northern St. Main S t. Quebec S t. Station S t. W estern S t. Terminal Ave Skytrain Lin e Northern Street Commercial Retail Commercial Retail Commercial RetailResidential Residential Residential Residential Residential Residential Residential Residential Residential BioswaleBioswale4.5 Focused Study Areas >> > ‘Double-F ronted Blocks’ at Terminal Ave 4.5.2.	Double-Fronted	Blocks	at	Terminal	Ave Most of the blocks along Terminal Avenue are currently zoned for light industrial uses. In order to accommodate a wider range of uses at The Flats while respecting its industrial function, lots along Terminal Avenue can develop with the following features: Maximise the lots’ potentials by ‘double-fronting’ •	 them, especially for the deeper lots on the south side of Terminal Ave. This involves splitting the lots into a front-half and a back-half. The front half faces onto Terminal Avenue and the back half faces onto the laneway. This is doable especially for lots more than	250’	deep.	The	front	half	will	accommodate	 finer	grain	commercial-retail	buildings,	with	some	 residential	uses	from	the	second	or	third	floor	up,	 especially for lots closer to Main Street. The back half will be industrial oriented buildings with larger floorplates	suited	for	light	industrial	uses	as	well	as	 R&D	type	offices.	Entrance	to	the	industrial	part	can	 be accessed via the lane. Provide privacy, especially to the residents living in •	 there, by having a courtyard with a 40’ to 50’ depth that separates the front and back buildings. Trees can be planted here to screen out noise that may emit from the industrial oriented buildings. Encourage	this	‘double-front’	configurations	by	•	 subdividing	these	250’+	lots	into	the	two	halves	and	 rezoning the front half to CD-1, while keeping the rear	half	I-2	(as	it	is	now)	or	a	modified	I-2/I-3	that	 allows for closer proximity to non-industrial uses. Development Data for Focus Area Average	Typical	Lot	(+/-250’	X	420’	lot):	80000	to	120000sf Existing Conditions on typical lot Average	Buildings(s)’	Floorspace:	127500sf Average	Net	FSR:	1.06	to	1.29 Average	Heights:	2	to	3	storeys Land	Use:	Warehouses,	storages,	wholesalers,	offices,	 auto-dealerships, fast-food restaurants, big-box stores. Green Space: 0sf Proposed Conditions on typical lot Average	Building(s)’	Floorspace:	255000sf	(~	110000	sf	 for industrial, 60000sf for commercial-retail, and 85000sf for residential. Ratio will weigh more industrial towards the east end of Terminal) Average	Net	FSR:	2.13	to	3.19 Average Heights: 6 to 8 storeys (stepback at 4th storey) Land	Use:	Front-half:	Commercial	retail,	cafes,	offices	 and	services	(on	first	and/or	second	floor),	and	 residential	(from	second/third	floor	up);	Rear-half:	 big-box	stores,	warehouses,	storages,	R&D	offices	and	 wholesalers, green businesses. Green Space: 10000sf (Mainly in the courtyards and R.O.Ws) Terminal Ave-fronted buildings - Buildings that faces on to Ter-   minal can host commercial-   retail units as well as residential 		units	from	the	second	floor	up. Light Industrial Buildings -	Larger	floorplate	buildings	are	sited	   at the rear side of the lot. Loading   can be from the lane or onsite. 		Offices	can	be	above.		 Courtyards - To give residents living on the   premise some degree of privacy,   courtyards can be used to screen   out noise and direct sight-lines.4.5 Focused Study Areas >> > ‘Double-F ronted Blocks’ at Terminal Ave ‘Double-Fronted’ Blocks at Terminal Ave Existing Conditions around Focus Area Map Information -	Scale:	1:2000 -	Shadows:	Sept	22,	2pm Streetview (Looking northeast into courtyard) Terminal Ave Skytrain Lin e CN Railyard Thornton S t. Ca roline S t.New Roa d St. Geo rge S t. Ca roline S t. Street-Section (Looking northeast into courtyard) Service lane Light Industrial Commercial Retail Light Industrial Offices Residential Residential Residential Residential Residential Residential Offices Courtyard Green Strip False Creek Flats: An Urban Design Framework for a Connected Complete Neighbourhood By Patrick Foong Chan Professional Project School of Community and Regional Planning University of British Columbia Summer 2011False Creek Flats: An Urban Design Framewor k By Patrick Foong Chan  False Creek Flats: An Urban Design Framework for a Connected Complete Neighbourhood by Patrick Foong Chan BFA, University of Victoria MDes(Arch), University of New South Wales PhD(Arch), Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology A PROJECT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS (PLANNING) in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES School of Community and Regional Planning We accept this project as conforming to the required standard ...................................................... (Maged Senbel) ..................................................... (Scot Hein) THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 2011 © Patrick Foong Chan, 2011 Acknowledgments: Maged Senbel - Thank you for guiding me through the process, teaching me how to read the city, and believing in my work. Scot Hein - Thank you for showing me how to think and do as an urban designer, and those desk-crits lessons you would show us that change how we think about space. Neal LaMontagne - Thank you for giving me the opportunity to experience what it is to work as a planner and designer, and most of all being a friend who gives great advice. Irena Hoti - Thank you most of all for believing in me and being patient with me while I pursue worlds in my funny mind. And thank you for believing in me for the rest of my life.Table of COntents >> > Table of Contents Part 1 1. Introduction 1.1 Project Description•	 1.2 Key Rationales for Undertaking this Project•	 1.3 Research methods•	 1.4 Deliverables•	 2. Background 2.1 Site Conditions•	  2.1.1 Current Natural Conditions  2.1.2 Urban Structure Development 2.2 Social Conditions•	  2.2.1 Site History and Heritage  2.2.2 Demographics and Culture 2.3 Current Land Use•	  2.3.1 Negotiating Industrial Lands with Other Uses  2.3.2 Negotiating Rail Uses 2.4 Community Contexts•	  2.4.1 Adjacent Neighbourhoods’ Visions  2.4.2 Community Consultation 3. Limits and Opportunities 3.1 Urban Form•	  3.1.1 Limits regarding Urban Form  3.1.2 Opporunities regarding Urban Form 3.2 Connections•	  3.1.1 Limits regarding Connections  3.1.2 Opporunities regarding Connections 3.3 Industrial Uses•	  3.3.1 Limits regarding Industrial Uses  3.3.2 Opporunities regarding Industrial Uses 3.4 Energy•	  3.4.1 Limits regarding Energy  3.4.2 Opporunities regarding Energy 3.5 Environmental Wellness•	  3.5.1 Limits regarding Environmental Wellness  3.5.2 Opporunities regarding Environmental Wellness 3.6 Community Engagement•	  3.6.1 Limits regarding Community Engagement  3.1.2 Opporunities regarding Community Engagement Part 2 4. Proposed Urban Design Framework 4.1 Principles and Strategies•	  4.1.1 Connect  4.1.2 Accommodate  4.1.3 Respect  4.1.4 Restore 4.2 Typologies and Patterns•	  4.2.1 Overcome Barriers  4.2.2 Ensure Continuity  4.2.3 Shorten Blocks and Frontages  4.2.4 Blur Private-Public Edges  4.2.5 Mix Typologies, Mix Uses  4.2.6 Include Residential 	 4.2.7	Encourage	Infill  4.2.8 Densify Arterials  4.2.9 Preserve Heritage  4.2.10 Denote Heritage Gateways  4.2.11 Complement Existing Neighbourhoods  4.2.12 Link Heritage Necklace  4.2.13 Produce Resilient Sources  4.2.14 Mitigate Hazards  4.2.15 Integrate Land Uses to Reduce Waste  4.2.16 Organise around Green Infrastructure 4.3 System Diagrams•	  4.3.1 Sub Areas and Key Centres  4.3.2 Land Use  4.3.3 Movement  4.3.4 Public Amenities  4.3.5 Green Infrastructure 4.4 Masterplan •	 4.5 Focused Study Areas•	  4.5.1 Station Street Mixed Use Quarters  4.5.2 Double-Fronted Blocks at Terminal Avenue Part 3 5. Public Participation Checklist 5.1 Establishing a Working Group•	 5.2 Facilitating Co-Design•	 6. Conclusion 6.1 Summary•	 6.2 Next Steps•	1. Introduction >> > 1. Introduction 1.2. Key Rationales for Undertaking this Project 1.3. Research Methods 1.4. Deliverables 1.1. Project Description This chapter describes the project, the principles it adopts the rationales for undertaking this work, the research methods employed and the deliverables to give readers a sense of its scope. Taking on this project initially came from observing how The Flats is currently a ‘dead zone’ for walking despite being just 1km in breadth and 1.5km in length. The area’s lack of diverse programming and connections due to the rail-yards make it uneasy to traverse. The Flats was not ‘complete’ because it was not well integrated into the surrounding urban fabric physically and programmatically. It is hard for people and businesses to go in to enliven the area. Three related rationales for engaging The Flats follow this question of ‘What can make The Flats complete?’ Opportunity to create a ‘connector’ neighbourhood•	 : Given its location, The Flats can become a nexus between different neighbourhoods of different socio- economic demographics. A connector neighbourhood ties the adjacent neighbourhoods’ boundaries by means of reconsidering the edge condition, the functions of the corridors and public realms, typology of buildings, morphological character of blocks, and programming within buildings. Increasing connectivity aligns well with the Greenest City Action Plan’s aim to create walkable neighbourhoods.1 Stitching The Flats together with adjacent neighbourhoods makes The Flats complete by being with its wider context. Reduce development pressure in adjacent areas•	 : By increasing the housing, as well as lands for high- tech/creative	industries	and	offices	in	The	Flats	we	 can possibly reduce some development pressure to radically transform adjacent neighbourhoods like Chinatown, Strathcona and Mount Pleasant. Increasing development and thus employment opportunities in The Flats is in line with The Greenest City Action Plan to secure jobs near where workers live. By providing jobs, The Flats completes its adjacent neighbourhoods, and vice versa Opportunity for participatory and co-design strategies•	 : Given The Flats’ current vacant condition, it does not have many of its own residents and communities. But, as it develops and becomes better connected to adjacent neighbourhoods, residents and communities from these neighbourhoods may become interested to participate and co-design The Flats’ identity and physical form. Hence, engaging with The Flats is an opportunity to reach out to these neighbourhoods. It is an opportunity for both planners and residents to, collectively, understand, the histories, relations, sensibilities and socio-economic and cultural forces constituting The Flats. Given the project’s short time span (3 months over summer 2011), literature review, personal observations and scheduled meetings with city planners connected to The Flats’ current planning program provide the bulk of the information for decision making about the urban design framework being proposed here: Literature review•	 : Factoring time constraints, information	that	influence	urban	design	decisions	is	 sourced largely from existing City policy documents and reports, and planning and design literature rather than	first-hand	engagements	with	community	groups.	 Personal observations•	 : Design decisions made are also	be	partly	influenced	by	personal	observations	and	 interpretations of site conditions. Scheduled meetings with city planners•	 : These scheduled meetings with Scot Hein (senior urban designer) and Karis Hiebert (lead planner for The Flats) are to chart progress and viability of the project’s various proposals The project is presented in three parts: First, a •	 summary of The Flats’ context – its natural, socio-cultural and economic character, as well as its past and current planning initiatives. A key component of this first	part	is	to	review	the	surrounding	neighbourhoods’	 community visions to get a sense of how these neighbourhoods	aim	to	develop,	and	find	ways	to	make	 The	Flats’	future	development	complementary.	This	first	 part will conclude by identifying some limits facing The Flats, and make preliminary recommendations on how to turn these limits into opportunities. The opportunities form the basis for the design principles and strategies in part 2. This part constitutes chapters 1 to 3. Second, this being my project’s key contribution, is •	 an urban design framework that comprises design principles, strategies, typologies and patterns, system diagrams as well as focused studies on 2 areas. This part constitute chapter 4. Third, recognising The Flats’ future development will •	 impact adjacent neighbourhoods, a checklist catered to ensure that future public participation processes can adequately involve locals in the formation of The Flats’ identity and physical character, particularly through co-design. This part constitute chapter 5 and chapter 6 which forms the conclusion. The False Creek Flats (hereafter ‘The Flats’) is currently	identified	by	the	City	of	Vancouver	as	 having an opportunity to further develop high-tech and	creative	businesses,	offices	and	residences,	 while retaining affordable industrial lands for warehouses, light manufacturing, wholesalers, food production/distribution and green city-serving uses like recycling depots, composting centres and waste- to-energy operations. Betters connections to and within The Flats can help achieve these desired uses. This project responds to the abovementioned positioning of The Flats. Besides providing affordable industrial lands, it also examines how residential developments,	commercial	retail	spaces	and	offices	 can be included to make The Flats a more complete neighbourhood. Four main principles characterise my approach: CONNECT it to adjacent neighbourhoods and the wider city context; ACCOMMODATE a diversity of uses; RESPECT its histories, heritage, character and form, and neighbours; and RESTORE ecological functions and well-being. To articulate these principles, my project presents an urban design framework that includes urban typologies and patterns future planning initiatives may reference. The framework will also include strategies to stitch The Flats with adjacent neighbourhoods, thus making it not only complete by itself, but complete by being with its wider context. The Flats completes other neighbourhoods, and other neighbourhoods complete it. (1) City of Vancouver, Vancouver 2020: A Bright Green Future2. Background 2.1.1 Current Natural Conditions 2.1.2. Urban Structure Development This chapter outlines basic contexts and issues facing The Flats. This is done by summarising the planning directions for the area, its changing socio- economic demography, cultural histories, natural ecology and neighbourhood visions. The	Flats	is	a	land	infill	over	the	eastern	part	of	 False Creek which until the early 20th century was a tidal salt basin that extended east to Clark Drive. The primary reasons for this land reclamation was to provide land for the growth of the Great Northern Railway train tracks and station, and also to provide industrial lands for Vancouver’s growing job demands in the 19th and 20th centuries. Adjacent neighbourhoods such as Strathcona, Chinatown, Commercial Drive and Mount Pleasant were also experiencing growth. While currently there is not much immediate perceived	threat	of	flooding	and	other	forms	of	 disasters striking, studies have shown that the area is	flood-prone.	In	fact,	much	of	the	land	south	of	 Terminal	Avenue	is	susceptible	to	flooding.	(Fig.	1)	 Additionally, current hazard studies suggest, as areas become more densely populated, they also become more exposed to hazards. Increasing a localised population density can heighten the probability of even small-scale disasters affecting larger number of people.2 Future planning for The Flats should consider the resiliency of not just the physical structures, but also the socio-economic welfare of its residents, especially if future residents are lower income groups.3 Due to The Flats’ physical form, 3 kinds of natural hazards	can	be	identified: Ponding & Flooding•	 : Even though its current location is more than 300m from False Creek, according to CoV’s 2007 Flood	Proofing	Policies, due to the large upstream area tributaries to The Flats, winter storm surges, and major rainfall events, the soil can be over waterlogged which lead to ponding.  This impacts soil stability and thus limits underground parking construction and even building heights. The Flood	Proofing	report	also	notes	that	the	3.0m	flood	 construction levels (FCL) previously recommended for The Flats is 0.5m lower than the FCL recommended The 308 acres (125 hectares) Flats is bound by Prior Street to the north, Great Northern Way to the south, Main Street to the west and Clark Drive to the east. (Fig. 3) Low development intensity is characteristic there, with one-third of its land dedicated to rail usage and almost two-thirds dedicated to industrial uses ranging from warehouses, to autoshops, to some small pockets	of	offices	and	high-tech/creative	businesses.	 Average lot sizes range from around 200’ x 150’ around Industrial Avenue and Malkin Avenue, to 550’ x 250’ along Terminal Avenue, to 750’ x 900’ at the northwest and southeast corners where St. Paul’s hospital and the police training centre respectively intend to relocate to. Big-box shops and the Emily Carr University, UBC, SFU and BCIT joint education institution at Great Northern Way are there too. As of 2006 The Flats accounts for about 20% of Vancouver’s industrial lands with approximately 5800 jobs within its boundaries.7 Its central location makes it a freight-receiving and goods distribution centre as well as a passenger rail depot. Most rail tracks run east- west, thus there are very little north-south connections, except at Main Street and Glen Drive which are 1.5km apart. Many planning initiatives have noted connections problems leading to inaccessibility plays a factor in The Flats’ current low development intensity. Responding to issues of connections and low development intensity, in the past 15 years CoV has produced various plans, reports and district schedules pertaining to more intense development and better transport strategies, especially for the rail tracks. This is a short summary of some planning initiatives: 1995: Industrial Lands Strategy•	  was created to support retention of city-serving industrial, transportation and service lands. 1996: The False Creek Flats Preliminary Concept Plan•	  explored retaining The Flats’ industrial character while providing space for high-tech industries and live-work housing. It also suggests some mixed-use areas, for example, along Main Street as a link between The Flats and False Creek to the west. 1997: I-2 Light Industrial Zoning District Schedule•	  was created to better meet the needs of contemporary industry while improving the compatibility of The Flats to nearby residential areas by preventing large scale, high-impact industrial use. 1999: CD-1(402) District Schedule•	  was created for the development of a high-tech campus on the 26 acres Finning site on Great Northern Way, so as to tie in with the overall high-tech developments envisioned for The Flats. (2) Denis Mileti, Disasters by Design: A Reassessment of Natural Hazards in the United States, Washington, D.C.: Joseph Henry Press, 1999, pp.119-120. (3) http://www.straight.com/article-347233/vancouver/ vision-transforming-false-creek-flats (Accessed: March 27th 2011) (4) http://vancouver.ca/ctyclerk/cclerk/20070417/docu- ments/p3.pdf (Accessed: March 27th 2011) (5) BTAWorks (6) http://gsc.nrcan.gc.ca/urbgeo/geomapvan/ geomap8_e.php (Accessed March 25th 2011) (7) City of Vancouver, Metro Core Jobs & Economy Land Use Plans 2. Background >> > Site Cond ition s to lands on the western side of False Creek. Any new construction should have a FCL of above 3.5m or higher to reduce property and human-life damages.4 Sea-level rise•	 : Some recent study suggests that if no actions are taken to further mitigate the impacts of rising sea-levels, with a 5m to 7m rise, The Flats will be submerged. (Fig. 2) The same study also notes the absence of a dyke system around False Creek and puts future residents in those areas at even greater risk.5 Earthquakes and Liquefaction•	 : Like much of the region, The Flats is exposed to earthquake related hazards	like	liquefaction.	As	a	tidal	flat,	the	different	 layers of sediment have varying degrees of stability. This difference can cause lateral sliding, and due to gravity the capping layer can slide towards lower points in The Flats such as the west side. Buildings, road networks, railways and infrastructure are thus vulnerable to damage.6 This can have a cascading effect on socio-economic and ecological systems, and the area’s businesses and industries. Fig.1: Much of the area south of Terminal Avenue, and  nearly 50% of the area north of Terminal Avenue are prone to flooding. Fig.2: The blue indicates a 7m rise which causes downtown and Stanley Park could become islands. The Flats will be completely submerged.2.1.2. Urban Structure Development (con’t) 2.2.1. Site History and Heritage 1999: I-3 High-Tech Industrial Zoning District Schedule •	 was created to permit high-tech and creative industries involved	in	significant	amount	of	research	and	 development activities. The I-3 outrightly limits its usage to high-tech industries such as software manufacturing. A FSR of 3.0 is allowed for manufacturing, transportation, wholesales, utility and storage uses, while a FSR of 1.0 is allowable for other uses. The building height is capped at 18.3m (61’). 2001: Urban Structure Policy Report •	 was created to provide a more detailed interpretation of possible urban structure frameworks. This includes looking at how The Flats can be developed in 3 phases to slowly reduce rail usage and incorporate more diverse programs and green spaces. (Fig. 4) 2005: False Creek Flats Work Program•	  was started to give a better understanding of different stakeholders’ views, concerns, issues and wishes. Key components of	this	work	program	were	an	explicit	identification	of	 heritage sites, a proposal for The Flats to be a district energy precinct and more detailed studies of movement in and around the area while retaining industrial uses. 2005: Administrative Report on Strategic Rail Overview•	  and Detailed Operation Study was prepared by engineering services to note rail movement’s importance to Vancouver. The report recognises the rail lines are significant	barriers	to	better	connections	at	The	Flat	and	 proposes 4 schemes to deal with this. The schemes are to	keep	the	existing	rail	footprint,	to	reconfigure	the	rail	 footprint, to increase rail footprint and to decrease rail footprint. 2006:•	  Planning for The Flats took a hiatus due to reassignment of staff to other planning initiatives and programs. 2009: Rezoning Policy for “High Tech” sites in the False •	 Creek Flats was drafted to re-examine high-tech zoning, particularly with the I-3 zone. It reported that since I-3 was created, there has not been a huge market demand for these high-tech spaces. It also report a broader range of non-residential, job space be adopted. The	recommendation	is	to	consider	more	flexible	use	 of	space	to	include	offices,	albeit	a	different	form	of	 development from that of downtown. 2011•	 : Planning for The Flats restarted in May 2011. Growth in rail and sea transportation contributed to The Flats’ major transformation. Historical milestones included: 1800s:•	  The Flats was a tidal basin extending to Clark Drive. 1885•	 :	Canadian	Pacific	Railway’s	western	terminus	 moved from Port Moody to Coal Harbour and English Bay leading to rail yards construction at The Flats 1913•	 : The Great Northern Way rail way was extended through The Flats to service Vancouver’s growing industry and population. It was this development particularly that spurred the major land reclamation. 1917•	 : Reclamation reached to today’s Main Street. 1920•	 s:	The	Flats’	rail	presence	is	firmly	established,	and	 plans	were	underway	to	landfill	the	remaining	portions	 of east False Creek. 1960•	 s: Surrounding neighbourhoods began to see dramatic residential, retail and commercial growth to support the growing population and economic demands. 1980s & 1990s•	 : CoV began to formalise new policies to better understand The Flats’ industrial potential. Various heritage buildings and sites came from these developments over the past 150 years: CN Railway Station•	  designed by RB Pratt and Ross in 1919 is a Class ‘A’ neo-classical building that serves as a civic landmark, and continues to function as the passenger rail/bus depot. (Fig. 5) 750 Terminal Avenue•	  designed by Eric Arthur in 1937 is a Class ‘A’ Industrial-Moderne building, currently used as a piano retail business. 242 Terminal Avenue•	  built in 1937 is a Class ‘B’ Industrial-Moderne building, currently used as a mini storage. 250 Terminal Avenue •	 built in 1924 is a city-owned Class ‘B’ Industrial-Moderne building next to 242 Terminal Avenue that is currently vacant. Thornton Park•	  built around 1923 is named after Henry Thornton, general manager of CN Rail who contributed greatly to the park’s upkeep. 2. Background >> > Social Cond ition s Figure.3: The False Creek Flats is bounded by Prior Street to the north, Great Northern Way to the south, Main Street to the west and Clark Drive to the east. Figure.4: Culmination of the 3 phases of development with the elimination of the CN rail-yard and the BNSF rail-yard. Some of the bigger lots are subdivided to allow more pedestrian and vehicular movement through The Flats. Prior St. Clark D r. Main St . Great Northern Way2.2.2. Demographics and Culture While The Flats itself is not heavily populated its surrounding neighbourhoods are. According to 2006’s census, The Flats and immediately adjacent areas are composed of 46% visible minorities, and more than half of those are Chinese.8 And, about 67% of the population are aged 20 to 59, with more than half of this population being 20 to 39 years old.9 Besides a high visible minority population and nearly half of the population being under 40 years old, The Flats and its surrounding neighbourhoods – namely east Vancouver communities – is also home to a vibrant arts and culture scene. For example, the Eastside Culture Crawl is a celebrated event in which artist studios are opened to the public. (Fig. 6) Tertiary art institutions such as The Vancouver Film School and Emily Carr University have both moved into Chinatown and The Flats respectively. The area is also home to several galleries like the Firehall Arts Centre, Gallery Gachet, Artspeak Gallery, Interurban Gallery, the Vancouver Access Artist Run Centre, The VIVO Media Centre, The Western Front and The Elliot Louis Gallery. Since 2005 CoV is developing plans such as the Downtown Eastside Strategic Arts and Culture Framework and Investment Plan to celebrate and finance	the	eastside’s	unique	history	and	diversity	 through public-focused arts and artistic institutions. While government support is the chief funding there lays the possibility for new developments to fund some of these initiatives by means of CACs (in exchange for bonus density). 2. Background >> > Social Cond ition s Figure 5: Pacific Central Train Station currently services the CN Rail, VIA Rail as well as several cross-continental bus-lines. Figure 6: The annual Eastside Culture Crawl features open studios the public can visit. (8) http://www12.statcan.ca/census-recensement/2006/ dp-pd/prof/92-597/P3.cfm?Lang=E&CTCODE=5283& CATYPE=CMA (Accessed March 27th 2011) (9) http://www12.statcan.ca/census-recensement/2006/ dp-pd/prof/92-597/P3.cfm?Lang=E&CTCODE=5292& CATYPE=CMA (Accessed: March 27th, 2011)2.3.1. Negotiating Industrial Lands with Other Uses 2.3.2. NegotiatingRail Uses Retaining The Flats as primarily industrial as been identified	by	CoV	as	necessary	due	to	its	affordable	 land cost and rent within inner-city limits. While retaining industrial lands is a priority, CoV and businesses have expressed interests to increase more office,	retail,	live-work,	and	residential	opportunities.	 The I-2 (primarily for city-serving industries like food distribution places on Malkin Avenue, the recycling depot	on	Industrial	Avenue	and	the	firemen	and	police	 facilities) and I-3 zones (primarily for high-tech and creative industries) were created to help retain The Flats as primarily industrial, albeit toward a renewed understanding of “industrial”. Despite intentions for I-2 and I-3 to increase high- tech and light industries, and currently there being about 3 million sq ft of job spaces permitted under I-2 and I-3 zoning, the uptake has been slow. There remains a large number of vacant or low-intensity lots there. According to a 2009’s Rezoning Policy for “High Tech” sites in the False Creek Flats the uptake is slow due to wider global slowing down of high-tech and creative industries when the internet bubble burst in	the	late	90s.	As	a	result,	it	has	been	difficult	for	 further developments at The Flats to proceed due to an inability	to	secure	sufficient	high-tech	tenants	to	meet	 the I-3 zoning requirements. Aside from high-tech industries	issues,	demands	for	general	office	uses	in	 The Flats and housing needs in the Vancouver region have increased in recent years. 2009’s Rezoning Policy for “High Tech” sites in the False Creek Flats suggests several ‘solutions’ to bring more non-residential activities to The Flats: Site-specific	rezoning•	 	to	increase	flexibility	in	the	type	of	 job space permitted in I-3 zones. Broaden the usage in I-2 and I-3 zones •	 to include restaurants	and	more	general	office	uses.	The	original	 intention	to	limit	restaurants	and	office	uses	there	is	 to	reduce	vehicular	and	customer	traffic	in	the	area.	 But given The Flats’ proximity to existing and proposed transit	routes,	offices	and	restaurants	may	thrive.	 Retain city-serving uses•	  to keep The Flats’ role as a hub which can provide services that other neighbourhoods cannot provide due to other real estate demands. Strong support exists for retaining rail and even allowing growth for rail service, both freight and passenger. This is partly due to the Burrard Inlet shipping terminals getting busier. In fact, according to 2008’s False Creek Flat Rail Corridor Strategy Report, the number of containers going through Vancouver can go from around 3 million in 2010 to about 5 million by 2020. To deal with this increase, freight trains have been getting longer to carry more containers and as a result rail yards lengths grow correspondingly. With regards to passenger rail, the report estimates an increase from the current 26 passenger trains per week to 70 per week in 20 years. Currently, there are 4 rail yards at The Flats that support freight and passenger operations: CN Main Yard•	 	is	a	support	yard	for	container	traffic	from	 the south shore shipping terminals. BNSF Yard•	  generally supports the barge operations at Burrard Inlet. Glen Yard•	  is used primarily for staging grain and container cars. VIA Yard•	  is used for passenger arrival and departures. Despite the importance of the rail yards in supporting Vancouver’s growth, there have been discussions to slowly reduce the rail footprint in The Flats. This is in	light	of	the	rail	yards	creating	significant	barriers	 for much needed linkages around and through The Flats. In 2005’s Administrative Report on Strategic Rail Overview and Detailed Operation Study, the following assumptions on the respective rail yards are considered reasonable: CN Main Yard will remain the same or increase rail •	 footprint. BNSF Yard will remain the same or be eliminated.•	 Glen Yard will remain the same or increase rail footprint.•	 VIA Yard will increase rail footprint.•	 3 rail footprint scenarios arise from the above assumptions of the 4 rail yards (Fig. 8): Reconfigured	footprint•	  assumes the BNSF railyard is no longer in service and the equivalent amount of tracks are	reconfigured	to	the	CN’s	Main	Yard	and/or	Glen	Yard. Increased footprint •	 accommodates a larger footprint than today’s, with a larger CN Yard and/or Glen yard. Reduced footprint•	  assumes the BNSF railyard is no longer	in	service	and	that	enough	rail	efficiencies	 With regards to residential usage, the I-3 zone as well as the Great Northern Way site does permit some small degree of housing and promotes walkability: I-3 housing allowances •	 include dwelling for caretakers or watchmen considered to be essential to a business’ operation. Residential units integral to an artist studio is also allowed. Great Northern Way housing allowances •	 include 180000 sq	ft	of	floorspace	permitted	for	live-work	situations.	 Walkability •	 is actually encouraged by I-3’s current streetscape strategies which calls for a neighbourhood accessible by foot and cycling, as opposed to previous zoning requirements which were automobile centric. Design strategies such as continuous sidewalks already caters to a neighbourhood suitable for greater residential density. (Fig. 7) However, two issues arise with regards to including residential and live-work in The Flats: Land cost:•	  Future developments must not be weighted so much toward residential and retail that land cost and rent rise and drive out other uses such as light industrial. Rail	versus	residential	conflict:•	  While CoV is not opposed to including residential and live-work uses, potential conflict	can	arise	when	residential	and	live-work	are	 sited too close to rail. In summary the question pertains to how to best support industrial lands by keeping the cost reasonable while including other uses. 2. Background >> > Cur rent Land Us e are gained in the CN Main yard, Glen Yard, Waterfront or Grandview yards to accommodate freight rail growth. Rail footprint changes should also reconsider how blocks and lots can be adequately subdivided	to	foster	more	office,	retail	and	 residential uses to move in by. However, displacing rail yards totally and relocating them to Surrey or Coquitlam are not feasible due to two main reasons: Relation between rail and industrial lands will •	 suffer if rail yards are relocated. The Flats’ affordable industrial lands for warehouses provide space for goods from the rails to be stored prior to re-distribution. Rail and industrial lands form a synergistic land use pattern. Rail is a sustainable transport choice•	 . If freight and passenger rail yards are relocated that can translate to more use of fossil-fuel vehicles to transport goods from Surrey or Coquitlam into Vancouver proper. Also, the passenger rails can one day accommodate people coming to heart of Vancouver from surrounding municipalities such Langley, Abbotsford, and even Chilliwack using trains. Figure 7: Cross-section and photograph showing possible streetscape treatment at I-3 zones. Much of the streetscape treatment is not too different from ones recommended for residential zones.2. Background >> > Cur rent Land Us e Figure 8: Existing rail footprint (TL); Reconfigured rail footprint (BL); Increased rail footprint (TR); Reduced rail footprint (BR)2.4.1. Adjacent Neighbourhoods’ Visions Without its own community vision, summarising some aspects of the adjacent neighbourhoods’ community plans and visions can help planners better understand how The Flats can be planned and designed should it be better connected to its surrounding urban fabric. Doing so, allows one to get a sense of what The Flats’ growth potential, form and character, density and public realm treatment can be like. Knowing the larger context, one may better plan and design the Flats as a ‘connector’ and ‘extension’ of these neighbourhoods. The Flats sits amongst key neighbourhoods like (Fig. 9): Mount Pleasant to the south•	 Grandview Woodlands to the east•	 Strathcona to the immediate north•	 Southeast False Creek to the west•	 Summary of neighbourhood visions: Mount Pleasant have yet a community vision but since 2010 it has a draft community plan. Key characteristics and visions for urban form include: Topography•	  is seen by City staff and community members as integral to creating ‘Hilltown’. Urban design wise	this	entails	finding	ways	to	smooth	the	transition	of	 taller buildings and high-street feel around the key node at Broadway/Main Street to the lower-rise residential fabric along Great Northern Way. (Fig. 10) Low to mid-rise massing•	  is preferred to respect the human-scale quality of the area. Although taller buildings are possible at select sites. 2. Background >> > Communi ty Context s Figure 10: Mount Pleasant’s Hilltown character. How will future developments at The Flats complement this morphological pattern? Incorporating heritage buildings into new projects•	  to preserve heritage and to promote architectural innovation. (Fig.11) Diversity in housing and population to ensure liveability •	 for all types and sizes of families and households. This entails a wide range of affordable housing to include rentals, co-ops, supported housing and artist live- work spaces. At the same time to provide services and facilities to these families and households. Non-market housing should be distributed evenly rather than ghettoised. Public	benefits	with	large	site	developments•	  should be pursued. This can come in the form of contributions to heritage retention, improved pedestrian environment, cycling routes, rights-of-way and social housing. Large developments	should	fit	with	the	area’s	look	and	feel. Distributing green spaces •	 around the area. Green spaces are not only parks but vertical gardens, linear parks, pocket parks, laneway green treatments, semi-private courtyard and rooftops gardens. Food growing should also be considered. (Fig.12) Infill	strategies	•	 should be pursued to increase density before choosing high-rise forms. This can be done through laneway housing, redeveloping open carparks and other vacant areas within existing sites. (Fig.13) Laneway development •	 should be considered by activating the lanes with commercial activities such as artist studios and cafes. Greening the lanes is another strategy. Walking is a priority•	  when it comes to the overall design and planning of the area’s movement routes. Focus on a creative community•	  is a high priority, especially considering the area’s artistic culture such as the Eastside Culture Crawl amongst other events. Figure 11: Heritage building on Main Street Figure 12: Mount Pleasant’s green space are not limited to parks but distributed in all forms such as the rain-gardens shown here. Figure 13: Laneway-oriented infill housing can be explored in The Flats’ future development. The Flats Figure 9: The Flats is situated in the middle of several established neighbourhoods which character will affect the future developments at The Flats. Strathcona Mt. Pleasant Southeast- False Creek Grandview- Woodlands2.4.1. Adjacent Neighbourhoods’ Visions (Con’t) Grandview Woodlands have yeta community vision document. CoV is working on developing one. Grandview Woodlands is a very large area, and the areas closest to The Flats are mostly characterised by RT-3, RT-4 an RT-5 zones. Although a ring of RM-4 zone is at the edge between The Flats and Grandview- Woodlands. Key characteristics and visions for these RT zones: Primarily one-family or two-family dwelling•	  is permitted. Some provisions for seniors’ supportive housing are also permitted. Non-residential uses•	  may include small clubhouse, neighbourhood house, park, library (if near a community centre), child care facility, church, bed and breakfast as well as farmers’ markets and grocery stores (if nearby parking is provided). Commercial zoning exists along some key arterials such as Commercial Drive. (Fig.14) Strathcona have yet a community vision document; however, the Strathcona Revitalisation Committee drafted its own visioning document, Strathcona: A Clear Vision for Our Community. Key characteristics and visions include: Preserve industrial land uses •	 to retain affordability for light industry such as bodyshops and other services. However, there is also the initiative to slowly include more green and clean industries that can better co-exist with housing in these areas. Retain RT-3 zones•	  to keep the fabric of those areas relatively low intensity. This zoning is also to retain heritage stock and single family home fabric. Reinforce the presence of the artistic community •	 by re-appropriating some buildings for the use by arts 2. Background >> > Communi ty Context s Figure 17: Strathcona Community Garden incorporates disused concrete blocks to create the garden scape. community to manufacture, exhibit and sell products of creative imagination. (Fig.15) Respect heritage stock•	  in the area. By updating and including more buildings in the heritage registry, especially buildings around east Hastings. (Fig. 16) Nurture existing large non-market housing•	  developments such as housing complexes like MacLean park, Raymur Place and Mau Dan Gardens. The aim is to keep existing residents in the area. Build more market housing•	  to help support local retail businesses and bring a healthy social presence to the public realm. However, all new housing developments, especially ones along arterials, should consider a sizable proportion of non-market housing. Additionally, large housing developments should contribute to the public amenities of the community by providing green spaces, child and senior care facilities and recreational spaces, as these are short in Strathcona. Revitalise East Hastings as a shopping street•	 . To do so an increase of housing and people will be needed. There needs to be a requirement for retail at grade to revitalise street life. This also increases local jobs. Green living •	 characterised by community gardens, farmers’ markets and renewable energy are encouraged for new developments. (Fig. 17) Connected greenways and bikeways •	 are essential in creating a complete community where people can easily bike or walk to work. Appropriate	densification	•	 will increase the population while	respecting	the	local	urban	fabric.	Densification	 is	identified	by	the	committee	as	crucial	to	dilute	the	 proportions of persons on drugs or who are mentally ill.	Appropriate	densification	will	improve	the	norm	for	 street behaviour, improve conditions for industry and retail, reduce crime and make it easier for people to break the cycles of addiction and poverty. Southeast False Creek has	an	official	development	plan	 prepared to facilitate the planning and design of the Olympic Village. Of all the neighbourhoods surrounding The Flats it has the densest form of development. Key characteristics and visions for the area’s urban form include: Connection to water•	  is important to bring nature into the urban space. (Fig.18) Create distinct neighbourhoods•	 , each derived from a particular historic pattern of the adjacent neighbourhoods. The eastern most part of SEFC is to take on rail-yard identity which ties well with programs at The Flats. Connect open spaces •	 to make walking and cycling easier. Connected open spaces at SEFC can be connected up to The Flats to create a wider walking/ cycling network. (Fig.19) Street hierarchy •	 established through paving patterns and different street width provides convenient and clear access for pedestrians while discouraging thoroughfare vehicular	traffic.	 Integrated transit •	 is crucial to tie SEFC to other parts of the cities for the purpose of jobs, extra-curricular activities and school.Figure 14: RT zones in Grandview Woodlands are often immediately next to commercial C-2 and C-3 zones. Figure 16: Residential heritage buildings in Strathcona. Figure 15: Chapel Arts on Dun Levy is a repurposed building now used as a gallery, performance space and artists’ studios. Figure 18: Connection to the waterfront is key Figure 17: Strathcona Community Garden incorporates disused concrete blocks to create the garden scape. Figure 20: Community services are within close proximity of each other to help form a heart.2.4.1. Adjacent Neighbourhoods’ Visions (Con’t) 2.4.2. Community Comsultation 2. Background >> > Communi ty Context s Figure 21: Development is encouraged to create varied lot sizes via parcellisation so as to produce a varied urban morphology. Cluster community services•	  around open spaces that are accessible to all. (Fig.20) Private-public integration •	 will be achieved through ground plane design and overall building form so that private and public open spaces may be immediately adjacent to each other to create a bigger sense of open spaces. Basin morphology •	 where taller building masses are sited near 2nd Avenue and slopes down toward the Creek. Incremental development •	 is achieved by varying the parcel sizes to allow for different forms of development to occur. This is represented by a mix of building types from the low-rise townhouse to 10-storeys terrace apartments. (Fig. 21) Demonstrated sustainability •	 is achieved by incorporating storm-water managements, urban agriculture and mixed use buildings on the site. During 2005’s False Creek Flats work program a two-phase set of meetings were held with the neighbourhoods around The Flats. Phase 1 was a scoping stage and Phase 2 was a visioning stage. Representatives from local resident associations, community centres, BIAs, NGOs and First Nations groups were recruited to envision what The Flats can be. The meetings were designed to meet the following objectives: Provide ‘The Story’ of The Flats •	 in terms of current state, in process and possible future plans Explore participants’ issues, concerns and ideas •	 regarding current and future planning. Obtain recommendations •	 for information exchange, consultation and participation in the ongoing planning process. The following recommendations regarding urban form resulted from the meetings: Retain and strengthen I-2 and I-3 zones •	 to ensure land cost affordability and employment in The Flats and its surrounds Redefine	‘industrial’	to	include	more	usage.•	  One of the suggestions was to add usage such as restaurants during off-hours to draw visitors to The Flats. Access, Greenways and pathways are necessary•	  if The Flats is going to be more actively engaged as a high-tech/creative zone and possibly for some level of residential uses. Greenways can be used to link open green spaces together. Create a pedestrian-oriented zone •	 around Main and Terminal by introducing more business opportunities and better public realm treatment. Better transit linkages and connections•	  to bring future residents and workers to and from The Flats. Support natural systems •	 by daylighting streams, establishing wildlife spaces, installing green roofs and geothermal energy systems as well as using the former tidal	flats	as	a	key	design	focus.	 Protect heritage buildings •	 in area as a reminder of the Flats’ history.3. Limits and Opportunities >> > Urban For m 3. Limits and Opportunities 3.1.1 Limits Regarding Urban Form 3.1.2 Opportunities Regarding Urban Form Reflecting on issues addressed in chapter 2, this chapter points to some of the limits facing The Flats. But, also highlights how these limits can become opportunities that this project can develop in terms of an urban design framework in chapter 4. This chapter explores issues with urban form, connections, industrial uses, energy issues, environmental impact and community consultation issues. Stated urban design directions• : The various plans, such as 2001’s urban structure plan and the various rail corridor strategies, have laid out possible land uses, rail strategies and subdivisions. But, they have yet to explicitly focus on suitable building typologies and wider urban morphologies. While the current I-3 district schedule provides some architectural precedents, there is no urban design framework to more succinctly bring The Flats’ physical identity into focus. There are also no directions as to how The Flats can tie in with itself and surrounding neighbourhoods through urban form. There are, for example, no directions about how each possible sub- area’s character would look like. Significant recent investments• : There are large lots in the area that have been developed in the last 15 years. These lots include the city-owned national yard, the fire training facility, the Evans yard, the police depot as well as major private developments like Home Depot, F/X Wholesalers, Gift Exchange and a pharmaceutical building. Change on these sites may be slow. Connect to adjacent neighbourhoods by ‘stitching’ • edges: Both Southeast False Creek’s ODP and Mount Pleasant’s draft community plan call for a transition in urban form and height. In the case of SEFC the strategy is to come down in height as it approaches the creek, and for Mount Pleasant the strategy is to come down in height as it approaches Great Northern Way. Likewise, in areas of Strathcona and Grandview- Woodlands that front onto The Flats there is an expressed desire to retain the RT zone character. The typologies and morphologies at The Flats, especially at its edges, can take the opportunity to respond to these surrounding strategies by having similar fine grain blocks and buildings, mirroring the building forms and character, and/or having complementary programming. Rather than treatment edges as clear boundaries, edges can become the zone where neighbourhoods meet. (Fig.22) Create distinct sub-areas: • Both the SEFC ODP and Mount Pleasant’s community plan suggest treating their respective neighbourhoods as a series of connected but distinct precincts. Distinct precincts may begin inform how The Flats’ urban design guidelines may be drafted as it moves from west to east. The potential distinct precincts in The Flats can each have different but mutually complementary building typologies to mark its respective dominant land-use and precinct character. (Fig. 23) A series of centres• : The Flats’ adjacent neighbourhoods all have a distinguished centre where one knows one has arrived at that particular neighbourhood. Centres in the form of plazas and parks are also places where formal or informal face-to-face communication may occur and ideas about community and self begin.10 Like SEFC and Mount Pleasant, The Flats’ potential centre is one where most of the amenities and services are sited. However, unlike SEFC which has one centre, The Flats being around 5 times bigger may have to have a key centre with smaller centres for each of its potential precincts or sub-areas. The connection between the primary and secondary centres should be legible that one can move between centres without confusion. (Fig.24) Diversify building types within a development• : While The Flats is chiefly going to be industrial, the building typologies can vary especially since high-tech and creative industry businesses do not necessarily need industrial size floorplates to operate. For blocks and lots with depths more than 250’ (61m) and substantial frontage, finer grain buildings for commercial retail use, offices and creative businesses can front onto the street while blockier buildings more suited for light industry (i.e. storages, distributors, bodyshops, wholesalers, etc) can be at the back where loading bays can be accessed via lanes. Essentially, this Figure 23: How are the different future uses at The Flats that can help define different sub-areas? How will developments along Terminal Avenue differ from ones along Industrial Avenue? Figure 24: Where will the future centres for each sub-area be? What kind of form will these centres take? How will they be linked up? (10)  Hester, Randolph, Design for Ecological Democ- racy, Cambridge, MA & London, UK: MIT Press, 2006, pp.23-32. Figure 22: How will The Flats’ edge transition from and respond to Mount Pleasant ‘Hilltown’ character? 3. Limits and Opportunities >> > Connections would take on a double-fronted block form, which encourages different architectural treatment due to the differences in use and massing requirements.11 (Fig.25) North-south connections• : Currently, the rail yards are significant barriers to better north-south connections. Proposals have been made to remove or at least reduce the number of rail tracks. However, given the re-emergence of rail as a sustainable means of goods and passenger movement, complete removal may not be a viable option. East-west connections• : East-west connections are poor to due to the lack of diverse programming along Terminal Avenue and Great Northern Way which are over 1km. Visual monotony makes walking less pleasant. The dimension of buildings and the setting of these buildings influences how one perceives time.12  Psychological barrier• : The 350m distance from 2nd Avenue to Terminal Avenue has a lack of diverse programming and higher development intensity which projects The Flats as a ‘blank space’ where nothing is happening. This may form a psychological barrier keeping people from entering. Similar observations can be made for Clark Drive and Terminal Avenue. More bike lanes:•  With cycling on the rise more bike trails and lanes can be added to the existing on immediately north of the CN Rail yard to increase east-west connections. Designated bike lanes on Industrial Avenue (which will cut through to Great Northern Way) and Terminal Avenue will also improve connectivity. These bike lanes can intersect with the landscaped pedestrian and bike bridges. (Fig. 29) Reconfigured rail footprint: • One of the strategies proposed is be reconfigure the rail tracks bringing the bulk of the lines at BNSF immediately south of Industrial Avenue to the Glen Yards. With the BNSF tracks gone, the VIA passenger and the CN tracks are the only two rail yards left. The reduced number of rail yards cutting across frees up the blocks between Industrial Avenue and Great Northern Way campus for development. More robust development here can intensify Industrial Avenue’s streetscape and bring more people into The Flats. With the BNSF rail yard relocated, there 3.1.2. Opportunities Regarding Urban Form (Con’t) 3.2.1. Limits Regarding Connections 3.2.2. Opportunities Regarding Connections Blend private-public open spaces• : In areas where there are courtyards within a lot, design solutions can be sought to make that courtyard accessible to the public. (Fig.26) Infill strategies to intensify land usage• : Infill strategies can be adopted to existing underdeveloped sites where underutilised car-parks, for example, can be repurposed for the construction of secondary buildings housing small boutique offices, housing and/ or live-work studios. (Fig. 27) is the potential to link the eastern end of Industrial Avenue to Great Northern Way thus increase east-west connections. Landscaped pedestrian and bike bridges: • To increase north-south connections by foot and bicycle, landscaped pedestrian and bike bridges straddling across the rail yards can be considered. Given the potential width and thus weight of landscaped bridge they are more likely to go across the VIA rail yard which are around 150’ to 180’ (46m to 55m)  in span, the eastern edge of the CN rail yard at Cottrell Street and/or Glen Drive at Evans Avenue. Most of the CN rail yard is more than 250’ (76m). (Fig. 28) More robust east-west arterials: • More diverse programming at grade and within the individual lots on Terminal Avenue for example could add visual dynamism that can make that 1km walk more pleasant. Terminal can be The Flats’ commercial spine. The west side of Terminal can feature unique architectural designs that speak of The Flats’ industrial history, its commitment as a green neighbourhood and signal a west-side entry to The Flats. (Fig. 30) 2009’s Rezoning Policy for “High Tech” sites in the False Creek Flats also suggests that restaurants and retail along Terminal can also make night-time walking and cycling safer. Likewise Industrial Avenue can also be intensified. More robust north-south arterials:•  Good connectivity at The Flats is not just cutting through its middle. The ‘blank space’ at Main St. between 2nd Avenue and Terminal Avenue can be more intensely developed. This translates to more mixed use that includes housing and commercial- retail opportunities to tie into the fabric of SEFC and Mount Pleasant. Developing this area also signals a west entry-point to The Flats. (11) Lewis, Sally, Front to Back: A Design Agenda for Urban Housing, Oxford, UK: Elsevier Architectural Press, 2005, p.56. (12)   Bosselmann, Peter, “Images in Motion” in Urban Design Reader (Eds. M. Carmona & S. Tiesdell), Ox- ford, UK: Elsevier Architectural Press, 2007, p.285. Figure 27: The vast areas of parking space at The Flats can be developed as infills in the future when car usage to and from The Flats have decreased due to, partly, better public transport to the area. Figure 28: A Landscaped pedestrian and bicycle bridge similar to this one Laurel Street and West 6th Avenue can span across some of the rail-yard to allow more north-south connections. Figure 30: Terminal Avenue can afford to have greater density and diversity of programs to strengthen its identity as the area’s central spine. More iconic building design at the corner of Main and Terminal can signal a west-end entry point. Figure 29: Can a dedicated bike lane that cuts through to Great Northern Way and/or East 5th Avenue be installed along Industrial Avenue? Additionally, what kinds of more intense programming can go along Industrial Avenue to make a bike-trip more enjoyable? Figure 26: A blurred private-public space that combines a public courtyard with the patios of residential units produces an open space that seems larger than its part. The effect of a larger open space can be further enhanced if the courtyard can also serve as a right-of-way.  Figure 25: Buildings within larger lots can take on differently massing and architectural articulations to provide visual diversity. Fine grain buildings can take the street-side while blockier buildings suited for industrial use can be at the rear. A landscaped laneway and/or courtyard can separate the two uses.3.2.2. Opportunities Regarding Connections (con’t) 3.3.1. Limits Regarding Industrial Uses 3.3.2. Opportunities Regarding Industrial Uses East-side entry-point: • While the Clark Drive side of The Flats should be kept more or less I-2 and suited for warehouses and storages, the public realm treatment could be bettered to demarcate an east entry-point to The Flats. For example, the currently empty lot at Glen and Evan can be better designed as a park to signal to people that they have entered The Flats. Future redevelopments at the blocks at the off-ramp of Terminal Avenue and Cottrell Street can hold more height and have less setback from the front property line and more grade-level retail such as cafes and shops to mark entry into The Flats. One enters a Terminal Avenue that can service not just industrial uses but provide a human-scale experience.13 (Fig. 31) Connecting green networks:•  Both SEFC and Mount Pleasant have directions to connect their green streets, parks and open spaces into a green network. Future development at The Flats should explore how its own green network can extend from SEFC and Mount Pleasant’s. Skytrain and tram stations• : There are opportunities to bring a skytrain station to the eastern side of The Flats to service the to-be intensified commercial Terminal Avenue. The skytrain station at the eastern end can be a landmark signalling one’s entry into The Flats from the east. And if the station is next to the off-ramp of Terminal Avenue, then the station can be elevated with one of the entries from the off-ramp itself. This is to allow pedestrians who use Terminal Avenue to board the train with greater ease, and to create an uniquedly designed station. A tram station at the Great Northern Way campus is also possible to serve not just Flats’ residents but also Mount Pleasant residents. (Fig. 32) Slow uptake for I-2 and I-3• : The I-2 and I-3 zones were created to better meet the needs of contemporary light and high-tech industries respectively. Unfortunately, the uptake did not grow as anticipated. There have been suggestions by both businesses and CoV to redefine these zones to allow for more market and non-market housing, besides the currently allowed artist live-work spaces, to be developed in these zones. However, the issue of rising land cost due to residential development can drive industries out. Moreover, residential uses may conflict with rail usage. ‘Industrial’ as a defining character• : There is the opportunity to explore how The Flats’ industrial character in both look and program can become an identity. For example, the city-owned industrial lots on the Station Street and Industrial Avenue can host programs like localised composting services, shops that build and sell rainwater tanks, green fashion houses, etc to showcase a new approach to ‘industrial’. The buildings can be designed to speak of The Flats’ industrial heritage. (Fig. 34) Utilise existing residential allowances• : Besides artist live-work studios, the current I-2 and I-3 zoning allow some degree of residential floorspace for caretakers to live on work premise. Initiatives can be taken to design an arts village at The Flats. The Great Northern Way campus (zoned CD-1) also allows up to 180,000 sq-ft of Figure 32: A tram line and stations along Great Northern Way can serve future residents of The Flats as well as Mount Pleasant residents. 3. Limits and Opportunities >> > Industrial Uses Figure 33: The heritage buildings along Main Street can be tied together to showcase the history of this part of the city. Special paving can be used to mark this path that connects at least 3 to 4 neighbourhoods with The Flats in the middle. Figure 34: Instead of treating industrial buildings as derelict objects, they can be repurposed to house other programs.with The Flats in the middle. Figure 35: Close proximity of industrial and residential is possible if ‘industrial’ is cleaner, greener. To moderate the industrial land prices going up, instead of mixing uses on one lot, a lot (especially a larger one) can be subdivided with some smaller portions rezoned as CD-1 and becoming residential. Figure 31: While the east-end of The Flats can stay relatively industrial in character, greater density and better building design at the east-end of Terminal Avenue can signal a clearer entry into The Flats. Heritage Necklace: • Mount Pleasant and Strathcona have both expressed desires to retain heritage buildings. This can be an opportunity for The Flats to use its own heritage stock (such as the CN Railway Station) to join Mount Pleasant to Chinatown and Strathcona by creating a north-south ‘heritage necklace’. (Fig. 33) live-work space currently. The 180,000 sq-ft live-work space at the GNW campus can include student housing, and services and commercial retail businesses needed to support student populations. Redefine I-3• : 2009’s Rezoning Policy for “High Tech” sites in the False Creek Flats expressed interest to redefine I-3’s allowable uses. An increased amount of office and other job and retail spaces besides high-tech is proposed to enliven the area. These new office and retail spaces can be sited more toward the Main Street side so as to allow the Glen Drive side to retain a more I-2 character. Redefine ‘mixed use’• : There is also an opportunity to rethink the definition of ‘mixed use’. Typically, mixed use is conceived as vertical mixed use with commercial- retail at grade and residential above. There is the opportunity to think how mixed use can be achieved through site planning. For example, a lot with sufficient depth (250’+) and frontage (300’+) may have more commercial retail (mini-marts, clinics and post-offices) and residential programming on its street- edge, and more I-3 type program with offices and high-tech/ creative businesses in the lane- edge. The two ‘halves’ can be separated by a shared courtyard which with adequate vegetation coverage can provide residents with visual and auditory screening. This lot division will be more toward the west-half of The Flats to allow the east half to retain a more I-2 character. Such close proximity between new/light industrial and residential already exists in Vancouver’s IC-1 and IC-2 zones at the Burrard Slopes. There residential uses (as small CD-1 zones) are often above, across from or right next to uses like autoshops, software design firms and catering businesses. The Flats can pursue a similar strategy to create spots of CD-1 for residential uses. (Fig. 35) ‘Green loops’ between industries• : New developments can explore opportunities to work with existing businesses at The Flats to create a ‘green loop’ between the new and existing businesses. For example, a green loop can emerge if the future park at Thornton and (13) Ibid.3.3.2. Opportunities Regarding Industrial Uses (con’t) 3.4.1. Limits Regarding Energy 3.5.1. Limits Regarding Environmental Welness 3.5.1. Opportunities Regarding Environmental Wellness 3.4.2. Opportunities Regarding Energy 3. Limits and Opportunities >> > Ener gy; En vir onmental W el lness (14) Morris, Pierce, “In the Pipeline: District Energy and Green Building”, in Environmental Building News, 2007, Vol.16, No.3. (15) Lewis, Sally, Front to Back: A Design Agenda for Urban Housing, Oxford, UK: Elsevier Architectural Press, 2005, p.64 Malkin is allowed to become an urban agricultural site which produce can be distributed at the food distribution places along Malkin. A localised composting business can be sited nearby to turn the waste from the food distributors into product. Likewise, part of the recycled materials from the recycling depot on Industrial Avenue can become the raw materials for artists who might live and work in the future live-work studios along Industrial Avenue and at Great Northern Way campus. (Fig. 36) Low Energy Production• : Currently, the light-industrial and rail-related activities within The Flats, though not necessarily energy-intensive, only consume energy without the ability to produce their own energy. Generally, a minimum of 50 to 60 dwelling units per hectare is needed to make district energy economically feasible.14 High Vehicle Kilometres Travelled• : Given the few housing choices and numbers in The Flats, workers usually have to travel in. Very often that trip into The Flats can be by car as there not many transit routes that go through The Flats. If these car-trips are factored in, the embodied energy consumption of The Flats can be even higher. Poor soil quality• : The Flats being reclaimed lands needs soil remediation for new developments. Engineers have also reported that because of the existing soil conditions, higher building forms and underground carparks may not be structurally and environmentally suitable. The inability to build taller may lower the allowable FSR. Poor potential for urban agriculture:•  The substandard soil quality may make it hard for urban agriculture to take place. Ponding and flooding• : The Flats is prone to ponding and flooding because it is currently below flood construction levels. Soil Remediation• : Developing The Flats, both residential and industrial, can actually improve the air and soil quality. New developments can be impetuses to remediate the soil, create better drainage/filtration that can prevent flooding, erosion and toxic run-off. To combat flooding and ponding, bioswales and even day- lit streams can be designed to allow better drainage and even be used to organised public realm treatment. Environment-responsive architecture• : The inability to construct higher building forms can be an opportunity for developers and architects to invent creative solutions to increase The Flats’ population (needed for district energy, etc) while respecting the urban morphology of surrounding neighbourhoods. For example, above-grade parking can be under an eco-deck that provides green amenities to nearby residents and workers. (15) (Fig. 40) Off-ground urban agriculture• : With regards to urban agriculture, if growing edible vegetation is not possible at the ground level, then plots could be placed on building roofs and terraces, and through hydroponics systems, that are nonetheless accessible to the public. (Fig. 41) District Energy Precinct• : 2005’s working program for The Flats suggested that it along with adjacent neighbourhoods can become an energy precinct. However, for The Flats to do that, it needs to have at least 50 dwelling units per hectare. At 125 hectares, at least 6250 dwelling units must be designed for the area. It is possible to site most of these residential units on the west side of The Flats and supply energy to the east side of The Flats (and adjacent neighbourhoods) which may have much lower dwelling units or the waste output needed for district energy. The areas fronting onto Malkin Avenue, Prior Street and 2nd Avenue can be developed into residential zones to generate enough waste for district energy while most areas along Terminal Avenue can stay industrial. (Fig. 37) Solar Energy• : Given that many of the industrial buildings have larger roof-plates, placing solar panels on them should help with The Flats producing its own energy. Solar panels can also be placed amidst roof gardens to soften the panels’ hard-edge appearance, especially if roof-tops are to become areas for gathering and local food production. (Fig. 38) Biomass energy• : Being well-served by rail, it is possible for The Flats to develop a biomass processing centre where, for example, mulch and wastes from the lumber mills near rail systems can be brought in and processed to produce energy. This is a reason for why some degree of rail service must remain at The Flats. (Fig. 39) Reduced VKT• : By providing housing choices at The Flats, there can be less car-trips needed to The Flats, thereby reducing overall energy consumption. Figure 36: A green loop that explores how the waste of one business can become the construction materials for another can influence how land-use and building design is approached. Figure 39: The waste food produces from some of the food distribution centres at The Flats as well as unused mulch and lumber from regional mills can be brought in by rail to be transformed into biomass energy, hence giving The Flats a greater degree of self-reliance in terms of energy production. Figure 40: The Flats being prone to flooding should have above-grade car-parks. These car-parks, however, can under a landscaped eco-deck that offers open spaces to residents and workers, remediates air quality, reduces run-offs as well as visually screens the car-park itself. Figure 38: Solar panels can also be placed amidst roof gardens to soften the panels’ hard-edge appearance, especially if roof-tops are to become areas for gathering and local food production. Figure 37: The Flats along with adjacent neighbourhoods can become an energy precinct characterised by district energy systems, solar power amongst other systems. 2. Background >> > Communit y Engagement Figure 41: Urban agricultural spaces can serve as both food production sites and community gathering places. Figure 43: In co-design, the user (the future resident and worker of The Flats) will participate in identity and meaning making Figure 42: Should the BNSF rail yard be relocated to the Glen Yard site, the BNSF rail yard can become a greenway that features miniaturised wetlands, pedestrian walkways and bike paths. As a wetland, it can help absorb run-offs and remediate the water and soil quality in the area. Connection-wise it offers an east-west passage. 3.5.1. Opportunities Regarding Environmental Wellness 3.6.1. Limits on Community Engagement 3.6.2. Opportunities on Community Engagement Greenways• : Disused rail yards (like the BNSF yards which has been suggested to be relocated to the Glen yards) can become greenways. Greenways, having a greater degree of pervious surfacing, can help control run-offs from the adjacent areas. Bioswales and even miniaturised wetlands can feature prominently in these greenways. (Fig. 43) Green-roofs• : New developments can take the opportunity to use green roofs so as to help reduce run- offs, remediate air quality and to reduce the amount of artificial roof insulation needed.16 Lack of community feedback on urban form and design• : The community group meetings and stakeholders’ workshops held by The City in mid 2005 have articulated several important ideas for what The Flats can be in terms of being better connected to surrounding neighbourhoods and being affordable to new residents. However, due to the hiatus placed on The Flats’ planning, these workshops never produced any directions in terms of an urban design framework that discussed the desired form and character of The Flats. At the same time, there is the acknowledgment of the monetary and time expenses for enhanced engagement. Public participation through co-design• : The community consultation done so far is good. But there is still an opportunity here to further explore how citizens can be more actively involved in the physical planning and design of The Flats. Particularly, efforts can be made to utilise co-design methods to get citizens more directly involved in urban form making. (Fig. 43) Engaging growing visible minority• : Given The Flats and its surrounds has nearly 46% minority, there is an opportunity to explore how co-design methods can be tailored to work with visible minorities. Partnerships with education institutes• : The high monetary and financial cost of enhanced public participation such as co-design charrettes and working groups may be minimised if The City can partner with education institutions like Emily Carr (which is moving into The Finning site) and UBC to run some of these co-design events. (16)  http://www.roofgreening.ca/living_roofs.php (Ac- cessed: March 10th, 2010) CHAPTER 4 : PROPOSED URBAN DESIGN FRAMEWOR K This chapter provides an urban design framework. While acknowledging the importance of a built environment’s social elements, it focuses on physical design issues due to the project’s constraints of length, time and scope. Structure wise, the chapter is organised in 5 sections: First, a section on •	 overarching design principles and related strategies. Here, the design strategies are also tied to the opportunities addressed in the previous chapter. This explains which opportunity, alone or with other opportunities, informed which design strategy. Second, a section that proposes sixteen •	 typologies and patterns; each derived from a design	strategy	discussed	in	the	first	section.	 The types and patterns essentially visualises how each strategy can manifest in terms of a building, a block/site design, and physical and programmatic systems across multiple blocks. Third, a section that looks at •	 larger system daigrams that the principles and strategies play out across the entire study area. The fourth section is the •	 masterplan. The	fifth	section	concludes	with	2	•	 focused study of various areas in The Flats through street-level vignettes, street sections, and provides basic information on development data in terms of average FSRs, square-footages, different land uses, and green spaces. Proposed Urban Design FrameworkThe aims to enliven The Flats with greater commercial retail activities, to provide affordable workspace	for	new	green	industries	and	offices,	and	 to have more residents to support these activities will require a set of organising design principles to help plan and design a conducive physical environment. This section outlines four overarching principles that are developed from summarising the opportunities outlined in chapter 3. Each principle is accompanied by four design strategies that inform the types and patterns explore later in this chapter. The diagram on the right illustrates the four principles and associated strategies: Principles and Strategies 4.1 Principles and Strategies >> > CONNEC T RESPEC T ACCOMMODAT E RESTOR E - Overcome barriers - Ensure continuity - Shorten blocks and frontages - Blur private and public edges - Preserve heritage - Denote heritage gateways - Complement exisiting neighbourhoods - Link heritage necklace - Mix typologies; mix uses - Include residential -	Encourage	infills - Densify arterials - Produce resilient sources - Mitigate hazards - Integrated land use - Organise around green infrastructure4.1 Principles and Strategies >> > Connec t As the previous chapters suggest, a lack of connections within and around The Flats is prohibitive to walking and more intense commercial, institutional, office	and	residential	developments.	Better	 connections – physical and psychological – will attract more people and activities there.  Urban design strategies deriving from this principle can explore ways to: Overcome barriers•	 : Pedestrian and bicycle bridges spanning across the rail yards can help create more north-south access routes to overcome the physical barriers caused by the east-west rail yards that span The Flats’ entire length. These bridges can help people on either side of the rail yards move to each other’s area to access amenities and services with greater ease.1 These can be landscaped bridges that extend from public parks located at its ramps. Ensure continuity•	 : Paths from one area to another should ensure visual and programmatic diversity to make the journey pleasant. This can mean buildings that hug the street while maintaining human-scale and a 1:1 building height-street width ratio. It also means avoiding blank walls when possible; instead curtail-walls, shop-windows amongst other façade articulations can provide visual dynamism and permeability between the streetscape and parts of a building’s interiors.2 Shorten blocks & frontages•	 : Many of The Flats exceedingly long blocks (often over 500’) disrupts connectivity. Shorter blocks and building frontages can	create	a	finer	more	flexible	street	pattern	where	 pedestrians can choose varied and interesting routes from one area to another.3 Landscaped right-of-ways and mews in-between the shortened blocks allow the public to access a street, lane or even park on the other side.4 Blur Private-Public Edges•	 : Treat building and lot edges and the adjacent streets and lanes as one harmonious entity rather than divisive lines.5 This can mean having front- or backyards as well as green walls contribute to the streetscape. Each design strategy discussed here are informed by two or more opportunities. Each strategy can be expressed as an urban form – a particular design feature, a building typology, a single-block pattern, or a multiple-blocks morphology. The table below illustrates how the design strategies under the principle of ‘connect’ is informed by the opportunities outlined in the previous chapter. 4.1.1. Connect Linking ‘Connect’ Strategies with Opportunities Design Strategy Informative Opportunities Overcome barriers Build pedestrian-bicycle bridges•	  to improve connections, especially across rail yards Reconfigure	rail	footprint	•	 of underutiltised rail yards to increase north-south connectivity Create a series of centres•	  with the pedestrian-bike bridges as a possible key design feature Increase bike lanes •	 on current and future streets and greenways and connect them to bike-oriented bridges Ensure continuity Intensify arterials•	 	with	more	commercial,	retail,	office	and	housing	uses Adopt gradated zoning•	  along arterials to maintain some amount of city-serving industrial lands but also create more robust uses elsewhere Redefine	mixed	use•	  to explore how current industrial lands can incorporate activities that enliven streetscape Stitch neighbourhood boundaries•	  by responding to the character and form of nearby neighbourhood edges to produce visual-architectural continuity Maximise existing residential allowances•	  on some I-3 lots to create artists live-work spaces that contribute to street liveliness Shorten blocks and frontages Diversify building types •	 by	having	finer	grain	buildings	to	create	informal	landscaped	pedestrian	 thoroughfares between the buildings Extend existing green networks•	 	such	as	bicycle	paths	and	traffic-calmed	streets	through	large	lots	at	 The Flats to help parcelise the large lots Blur private-public edges Blend private-public spaces•	  by designing private patios, green-walls, public plazas and right-of-ways as one physical and visual entity Innovate environment-responsive architecture•	  by designing publicly accessible spaces such as eco- decks and green-roofs over above-grade carparks Cultivate off-ground agriculture•	  such as hydroponics garden that are publicly accessible during daytime, or at least visible from street-level Encourage restorative greenways•	  using disused rail yards together with adjacent lots to create publicly accessible restorative green spaces “Connect” (1) http://www.useful-community-development.org/ walkable-community.html (Accessed: June 29th 2011) (2) Bosselmann, Peter, “Images in Motion” in Urban Design Reader (Eds. M. Carmona & S. Tiesdell), Ox- ford, UK: Elsevier Architectural Press, 2007, p.285. (3) Lewis, Sally, Front to Back: A Design Agenda for Urban Housing,Oxford, UK: Elsevier Architectural Press, 2005, p.6. (4) Lewis, 57. (5) Moughtin, Cliff, Urban Design: Street and Square, Oxford, UK: Elsevier Architectural Press, 2003, 222.4.1 Principles and Strategies >> > Accommodat e As a complete community The Flats must accommodate the city’s wider needs to provide lands for diverse uses including traditional light industrial operations, new green city-serving services, high- tech creative businesses, education institutions, commercial retail opportunities and even housing.  Urban design strategies deriving from this principle can explore ways to: Mix typologies; mix uses•	 :	Lots	with	sufficient	depth	 (>	250’)	and	frontage	(>	500’)	can	be	subdivided	to	 produce	a	‘double	front	configuration’	where	finer	 grain commercial retail-oriented buildings sit on the street-side, and industrial-oriented buildings with larger floorplates	sit	on	the	lane-side.	A	courtyard	can	be	used	 to screen noise and provide privacy. This mix of building types on one lot creates visual and programmatic diversity.6 The front and back halves can either be legally subdivided with the front rezoned as commercial or CD-1,	and	the	back	being	kept	I-2	and	I-3.	Alternatively,	 a clause in the development permit and/or tax-break incentive may be pursued to develop both commercial- retail and industrial buildings. Include residential•	 : Lots along major arterials and future	greenways	that	are	not	deep	(<	200’)	or	wide	(<	 300’)	enough	to	support	the	‘front-back	configuration’	 to	include	industrial	and	office	uses	can	explore	 developments with residential above commercial retail units,	community	services	and	amenities,	and	offices.7 The overall idea is to have some lots take on more residences (especially on the Main Street side), while other lots (especially on the Clark Street side) will cater more to light industries like storage and wholesalers. Hence,	a	more	context-specific	approach	to	mixed	use. Encourage	infill•	 : Underutilised	lots	can	be	infilled	to	 provide	offices,	residential	and	new	industrial	uses	such	 as artist studios provided no prior ecological programs are already planned for the underutilised sections for the purpose of environmental remediation.8 Underutilised areas can either be subdivided, or the whole lot can be rezoned to CD-1 or a future iteration of the I-3 zone that makes	provisions	for	infills	to	include	infill	structures. Densify arterials•	 : Densities along major arterials can	be	increased	moderately	to	allow	more	office	 and	residential	floorspace	(where	appropriate)	 to economically buttress future commercial retail developments.	A	finer	grain	approach	to	shop	and	office	 sizes also allow for a greater diversity of businesses that	can	range	from	cafes,	boutiques,	design	firms,	 print	shops	to	art	galleries.	The	social	benefit	of	a	more	 intense street is a greater opportunity for interaction and cross socio-economic understanding.9 4.1.2.	Accommodate Linking Accommodate’ Strategies with Opportunities Design Strategy Informative Opportunities Mix types; mix uses Diversify building types •	 to cater to different, but preferably integrated uses within a block or across adjacent blocks Adopt gradated zoning •	 to maintain some adequate city-serving industrial lands but also create more robust developments elsewhere Redefine	mixed	use	•	 to explore how current industrial lands can incorporate activities that boost street life Distinguish sub-areas •	 by looking at how a group of adjacent blocks’ particular land use may inform the building types and public realm of the blocks’ area Include residential Maximise existing residential allowances •	 to create artists live-work spaces as well as student housing for the planned educational institutes Redefine	mixed	use	•	 to explore how current land uses, even industrial ones, can include housing which can bring eyes on the streets Adopt gradated zoning•	  to make some lands available for residential uses while maintaining city- serving industrial lands elsewhere Distinguish sub-areas •	 by designing a sub-area with majority residential uses Diversify building types •	 while knowing how the different uses and associated building type may integrate well with residential uses Plan for energy precinct •	 becomes more probable when there are enough necessary waste and affluent	produced	to	be	converted	to	heat	and	power Reduce VKT •	 is more possible when more workers can have jobs close to homes, hence reducing The Flats overall use of fossil fuels Recognise growing visible minorities •	 and their views on home and housing needs Encourage	infills Intensify	land	use	through	infills	•	 to transform underutiltised lands like carparks in industrial sites into offices,	commercial	units	and	retail Maximise existing residential allowances •	 by building on underutitlised lots, especially education institute lands, currently zoned to include housing Redefine	mixed	use•	 	by	rezoning	and/or	subdividing	lots	with	underutilised	lands	to	allow	for	infill	 structures with new uses Innovate green loops •	 by	ensuring	the	uses	of	the	existing	buildings	and	the	proposed	infill	buildings	 can form a close loop Remediate environmental quality •	 by	requiring	the	infill	areas	to	include	green	features	and/or	 undergo soil remediation Densify arterials Diversify building types •	 to	create	visual	variety	while	creating	more	floorspace	for	non-industrial	uses Redefine	mixed	use	•	 by increasing the allowable FSR to accommodate activities that boost street life Adopt gradated zoning •	 by maintaining some city-serving industrial lands but also create more robust developments elsewhere along the same arterial Plan new transit lines and stations •	 to service the increase number of residents and workers who will inhabit	the	densified	arterials Innovate green loops •	 that can use the waste and recyclables from arterial-fronting residences and businesses as productive raw materials Plan for energy precinct •	 becomes more probable when there are enough necessary waste and affluent	produced	to	be	converted	to	heat	and	power Reduce VKT •	 is more possible when more workers can have jobs close to homes, hence reducing The Flats overall use of fossil fuels Remediate environmental quality•	  by requiring new developments to go perform soil remediation and/ or	include	features	to	filter	run-offs Include co-design •	 to gather public desires for the adequate amount of density and height, as well as form and character, that can go into the arterials “Accommodate” Each design strategy discussed here are informed by two or more opportunities. Each strategy can be expressed as an urban form – a particular design feature, a building typology, a single-block pattern, or a multiple-blocks morphology. The table below illustrates how the design strategies under the principle of ‘accommodate’ is informed by the opportunities outlined in the previous chapter. (6) Lewis, 56. (7) Moughtin, Cliff, Urban Design: Method and Tech- niques, Oxford, UK: Elsevier Architectural Press, 1999, 122. (8) Moughtin, Cliff, Urban Design: Green Dimensions, Oxford, UK: Elsevier Architectural Press, 2005, 226. (9) Hester, Randolph T., Design for Ecological Democ- racy, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2006, p.211-215.4.1 Principles and Strategies >> > Respec t The Flats’ rich histories rooted in its industrial past should be respected in future developments. It is also at the nexus of different neighbourhoods, which histories, heritage, urban form and desires should be respected too. The Flats’ future identity may come	from	finding	ways	to	pay	homage	to	both	its	 own histories and its surrounding neighbourhoods’ character and form. Urban design strategies deriving from this principle can explore ways to: Preserve heritage•	 : Developments on lots with heritage buildings should incorporate these buildings into the overall design so as to showcase The Flats’ history. This can be done by repurposing the buildings. If keeping a building in its entirety compromises structural integrity then façade retention, at least, should be pursued. Concerning urban design, heritage elements can provide visual diversity and act as anchor points to an area’s character.10 Denote heritage gateways•	 : Heritage buildings, especially those at major intersections, should be brought to the foreground to denote a physical and psychological entrance to The Flats.11 If the heritage building(s) are not immediately at a major intersection, developments around the heritage building(s) leading to the intersection may take on similar materials, form, colour and character as the heritage building(s) so as to lead pedestrians, cyclists and drivers eyes to the designated heritage buildings. Besides complementary character and form, a clear sight-line from the intersection to the heritage building(s) can be pursued. Complement existing neighbourhoods•	 : Respect the height, form and character of the adjacent neighbourhoods’ buildings and street patterns, and find	ways	to	allow	a	smooth	transition	into	The	Flats.12 This is achievable by mirroring and responding to the height, mass, form and character of buildings at the edge of the adjacent neighbourhoods. Besides mirroring form and character, similar land-use and programs can be pursued to better stitch the edges and boundaries of neighbourhoods together as one cohesive street. Link Heritage Necklace•	 : The Flats’ adjacent neighbourhoods all have strong heritage elements. A high degree of walkability along a distinct path from one heritage building/site to another in The Flats and its adjacent neighbourhoods links the immediate region’s neighbourhoods and their histories together. Special paving treatment can denote the designated paths linking these heritage sites. 4.1.3. Respect Linking Respect’ Strategies with Opportunities Design Strategy Informative Opportunities Preserve heritage Showcase industrial character •	 of The Flats with industrial moderne buildings that symbolise the area’s history Create a series of centres •	 on sites with heritage buildings by using these building as the main organising element Distinguish sub-areas •	 by marking out part of The Flats with higher concentration of heritage buildings as a heritage district Denote entry points •	 to The Flats with heritage buildings at major intersections Intensify	land	use	through	infill	•	 on sites where heritage building stand with care to complement and not overshadow the heritage elements Remediate environmental quality •	 by requiring redevelopment on heritage sites to include ecologically restorative features Redefine	mixed	use	•	 to	explore	how	heritage	buildings	can	fit	multiple	uses	so	as	the	activate	the	 street life around it Include co-design •	 to examine how heritage buildings and sites can expressed the wider concerns and desires of residents and workers around The Flats Recognise growing visible minorities •	 and their views with regards to what a heritage rooted in a colonial industrial past mean to them Partner with educational institutes •	 like UBC, ECU, SFU and BCIT to gather feedback on how the public rank the different heritage buildings/sites Denote heritage gateways Showcase industrial character •	 of The Flats by providing clear sightlines to the designated industrial heritage buildings Denote entry points •	 to The Flats with heritage buildings at major intersections Link a heritage necklace •	 by using special paving to denote a path from one heritage gateway to another Plan new transit lines and stations •	 at or near these heritage gateways, in particular tram systems which is historically more aligned with industrial heritage Complement existing neighbourhoods Stitch neighbourhood boundaries •	 by responding to the character and form of nearby neighbourhood edges to produce visual-architectural continuity Diversify building types •	 at	The	Flats	with	finer	grain	buildings	that	are	more	characteristic	of	many	of	 the adjacent neighbourhoods Redefine	mixed	use	•	 to how lots across the street from adjacent neighbourhoods may be rezoned to better complement their programs and activities Link up heritage necklace Link a heritage necklace •	 by using special paving to denote a path from one heritage building to another Showcase industrial character •	 of The Flats by having developments next to heritage buildings adopt complementary materials, character and form Partner with educational institutes •	 like UBC, ECU, SFU and BCIT to gather public feedback/ knowledge on what existing buildings can be classed as heritage Each design strategy discussed here are informed by two or more opportunities. Each strategy can be expressed as an urban form – a particular design feature, a building typology, a single-block pattern, or a multiple-blocks morphology. The table below illustrates how the design strategies under the principle of ‘respect’ is informed by the opportunities outlined in the previous chapter. “RESPECT” (10) Moughtin, 1999, p.27-28. (11) Eco, Umberto, “Function and Sign: The Semiotics of Architecture”, in Rethinking Architecture: A Reader in Cultural Theory (ed. Neil Lech), London, UK & New York: Routledge, 1997, p.185. (12) Moughtin, 2003, p.42.4.1 Principles and Strategies >> > Resto re Restoring environmental well-being is a necessity when the aim is to bring more people to work and live in The Flats. Environmental well-being entails not only cleaner air, water and energy, but also	the	creation	of	businesses	that	benefit	the	 environment. Restoring The Flats’ health means not only preventing further environmental degradation but creating a living system that can reverse environmental damage done over the last century. Urban design strategies deriving from this principle can explore ways to: Produce Resilient Sources•	 : To make The Flats more self-reliant for water and energy, green features can be pursued. For example, rain-barrels can be integral design features in a plaza, or even be incorporated into a building design. Living walls can be installed especially on necessary blank wall faces that hide mechanical systems or provide privacy. Moreover, living walls soften the visual monotony that can be caused by a higher wall-to-window ratio necessary for minimising heating loss.13 New developments, especially industrial and	office	buildings	with	larger	floorplates,	can	 include solar panels and green roofs. Connection to existing and future district energy centres can also be written into future structure plans and even individual development permits. Mitigate Hazards•	 :	Given	The	Flats’	flooding	and	 ponding risks, an adequate treatment of run-offs is important. As such mitigative features of all scales should be pursued. On a block scale, a network of swales	and	pervious	paving	that	can	absorb	and	filter	 run-offs can be considered. On a multi-block scale, these swales can be channelled to larger wetlands and retention ponds.14 Integrate land uses to reduce waste•	 : Pair businesses where one business’s by-products can become the raw materials for another business. For example, restaurants can be sited near composting businesses. Building design and zoning should encourage this integration of uses. This strategy complements the earlier mentioned strategy to accommodate mixed uses through mixed building typologies.15 Organise site around green infrastructure•	 : Rather than treating green infrastructures as ‘add-ons’, they can become a central form from which a development is organised and designed around.16 For example, a green spine created on disused railyardsbecome an element from which adjacent developments’ site design can be connected to. In other words, a green feature can help form the spatial identity of The Flats’ various developments 4.1.4. Restore Linking Respect’ Strategies with Opportunities Design Strategy Informative Opportunities Produce Resilient Sources Opportune productive roofs •	 by	capitalising	on	industrial	and	office	buildings’	large	roof-plates	as	sites	 for green-roofs and solar panels Plan for energy precinct •	 becomes more probable when there are enough necessary waste and affluent	produced	to	be	converted	to	heat	and	power Encourage biomass energy•	  by installing a processing centre in industrial zones which are also next to rail lines which can bring in waste from the region Partner with educational institutes•	  like UBC, ECU, SFU and BCIT to run workshops on resilient communities and urban design Mitigate hazards Opportune productive roofs •	 by using green-roofs which can greatly reduce run-offs which can lead to flooding,	ponding	and	leaching Remediate environmental quality •	 by mandating new or re-developments to include design features such as rain gardens and swales that mitigate hazards Encourage restorative greenways •	 by tying disused rail yards together with adjacent lots to create a bigger hazard-mitigating feature Partner with educational institutes•	  like UBC, ECU, SFU and BCIT to raise awareness about The Flats’ potential	hazards	such	as	flooding	and	sea-level	rise Integrate land uses to reduce waste Innovate green loops •	 that can use the waste and recyclables from one business as productive raw materials for another business Redefine	mixed	use	•	 to explore how integrated land uses can be sited adjacent to each other, or how they can even be within the same building Encourage biomass energy•	  by installing a processing centre in industrial zones which can collect waste from The Flats and its nearby neighbourhoods Showcase industrial character •	 of The Flats with a contemporary biomass energy plant or recycling plant that emit little or no waste or smells Organise site around green infrastructure Create a series of centres •	 with one based around green infrastructure like a major bio-retention pond or even a district energy centre Denote entry points •	 to The Flats with major green infrastructure that can be paired with heritage buildings to show The Flats is both ‘old’ and ‘new’ Encourage restorative greenways •	 that can act as a green spine along which wetlands, bioswales, and walk- and bike-ways are organised Build pedestrian-bicycle bridges •	 that improve connections but also act as an organising element for the building and street patterns around it Innovate environment-responsive architecture•	  by designing publicly accessible spaces such as eco- decks and green-roofs over above-grade carparks Each design strategies discussed here are informed by two or more opportunities. Each strategy can be expressed as an urban form – a particular design feature, a building typology, a single-block pattern, or a multiple-blocks morphology. The table below illustrates how the design strategies under the principle of ‘restore’ is informed by the opportunities outlined in the previous chapter. “RESTORE” (13) http://www.solarbuildings.ca/c/sbn/file_db/Doc_ File_e/Window%20to%20wall%20ratios%20and%20 commercial%20building%20energy.pdf (Accessed: June 29th 2011) (14) Watson, Donald & Michele Adams, Design for Flooding: Architecture, Landscape and Urban Design for Resilience to Climate Change, Hoboken, NJ: Wiley and Sons, 2011, p.99. (15) Hester, p.31-21. (16) http://library.oregonmetro.gov/files/greenspine_ no.10_web.pdf (Accessed: May 10th, 2011)The typologies and patterns presented here are informed from the abovementioned four principles, associated strategies and informing opportunities. Each type or pattern is essentially a visualisation of what a strategy can be in terms of how a building, a block, or a system of multiple blocks can be developed. While each of the typology or pattern is initially developed from a particular site within The Flats, they are generalised to be applicable to other sites in The Flats with similar conditions like lot size, proximity to rail yards, adjacent programming, heritage value and/or capability to incorporate green infrastructures. To recap there are the sixteen types and patterns based on the strategies shown on the diagram on the right: Typologies and Patterns 4.2 Typologies and Patterns >> > CONNEC T RESPEC T ACCOMMODAT E RESTOR E - Overcome barriers - Ensure continuity - Shorten blocks and frontages - Blur private and public edges - Preserve heritage - Denote heritage gateways - Complement exisiting neighbourhoods - Link heritage necklace - Mix typologies; mix uses - Include residential -	Encourage	infills - Densify arterials - Produce resilient sources - Mitigate hazards - Integrated land use - Organise around green infrastructureThe railyards are crucial to the industrial uses there, and provides the basic infrastructure for a sustainable mode of transport for future passenger rail coming in from cities around Vancouver. However, the rail yards also set up barriers, especially for north-south connectivity. The following solutions can be pursued: Some railyards (such as the underutilised BNSF rail) •	 can	be	reconfigured	to	bring	more	connectivity.	 Barriers caused by railyards that cannot be •	 reconfigured	(such	as	the	CN	railyard	shown	here) may be overcome by having pedestrian and bicycle- oriented bridges span across them. Parks on either of sides of a ped-bike bridge can •	 be integrated so the bridge will also contribute to the betterment of the public realm besides being utilitarian. 4.2.1.	Overcome	Barriers North-south connections - Bridges that serve pedestrians   and cyclists can be installed over   some rail yards such as the CN   railyard to improve connectivity Parks on ends of bridge - Parks on one or both sides of the   bridge can contribute to the   betterment of the public realm. 		The	bridge	beautifies	space. 4.2 Typologies and Patterns >> > O vercome Barrier sConnectivity is created partly from ensuring the routes from one area to another have adequate visual and programmatic diversity and intensity to make the walking journey enjoyable. The following solutions can be pursued: Building heights should be within a 1:1 ratio to the •	 street width so that the buildings ‘hug’ the street while still maintaining an adequate human scale. It also means avoiding blank walls when possible; •	 instead curtain-walls and shop windows amongst other façade articulations can provide visual dynamism and permeability between the street and the buildings’ interiors. Street trees, street furniture and even pocket parks •	 can help make a street a continuous length of varied spaces and programs. 4.2.2.	Ensure	Continuity Avoid blank walls - Avoid blank walls especially along   the ground-level to ensure the   walking route along a street has   visual dynamism. Pocket Parks - Parks can offer pedestrians mo-   ments of respite on their journey.   Parks also add visual/progra-   matic variety to a street. 4.2 Typologies and Patterns >> > Ensu re Continui ty Right of Way - On long blocks, right of ways   from street to lane (or another   street) can offer pedestrians and 		drivers	a	more	flexible	street	grid. Mini Plazas - Mini plazas, especially in front of   civic or institutional buildings can   offer spaces where gatherings or   public events can be held.Long block frontages exceeding 500 feet is not uncommon at The Flats. These long blocks with equally long buildings have spans of blank walls that make walking by them unpleasant and thus reduce the area’s connectivity on a psychological level. The following solutions can be pursued: Long blocks can be broken up into smaller parcels •	 to create streets between them by means of subdivision. If sub-division is not possible, landscaped right-of-•	 ways through the blocks and shorter buildings can be	explored	to	offer	pedestrian	a	more	flexible	street	 pattern to walk around. Shorter buildings can mean a greater number of •	 architecturally diverse (yet still complementary) buildings can populate a certain length of a block or street, lending to greater visual diversity. 4.2.3.	Shorten	Blocks	and	Frontages Subdivide long blocks - Long blocks can be subdivided   into smaller parcels so as to   create streets that pedestrians,   cyclists and cars can access. Shorter building frontage -	Shorter	buildings	with	more	finely   articulated frontages allows more   architectural variety to emerge   within a given length of street 4.2 Typologies and Patterns >> > Shorten Blocks and F rontage s Right of Way - On long blocks, right of ways   from street to lane (or another   street) can offer pedestrians and 		drivers	a	more	flexible	street	grid.Shared open space - When private properties are not   demarcated by hard edges such   as high blank walls they can open   up to the public realm around. Landscaped Lanes - Lanes can be lined with trees,   planters and even special paving   to give it the appearance of a   street while being a service-alley. Extended backyard - Nearby parks (such as the   proposed BNSF greenway shown   here) can become a ‘backyard’ to   properties that ‘open up’ to them. 4.2 Typologies and Patterns >> > Blur Pri vate-Pub lic Edge s Lane-oriented entrances - Lane-oriented entrances can   activate a laneway, thus giving a   property two ‘fronts’ as well as   turning the lane into a ‘street’. The public and private realms need not be separated to an extent where pedestrians walking past a private property feel like they are unwelcome or do not belong to the area. A ‘shared open space’ connecting the realms can be pursued. The following solutions can be pursued: Private properties need not be demarcated by blank •	 walls and high fences. Backyards, for example, can open up to a landscaped laneway so that the laneway can become like an extended backyard. In this sense, this creates an open space that is ‘shared’ by both private property owners and pedestrians. Entrances to residences as well as some smaller •	 businesses can be fronted on the laneway to help activate such shared spaces. Privacy and safety can be maintained by softer edges •	 such as hedge rows and lattice fences instead of high concrete walls. 4.2.4.	Blur	Private-Public	EdgesIndustrial-oriented side - The rear side of a block can have 		buildings	with	larger	floorplates   to accommodate industrial and 		some	office	uses. 4.2 Typologies and Patterns >> > Mix Typologies, Mix Use s Courtyards as separation - Softer screening devices such as   trees within a courtyard can be   used provide privacy and noise   reduction. Right of way - Landscaped right of ways from   the street can be used by   employees going to the industrial   side To allow The Flats to accommodate a greater number and variety of uses, subdivision of larger lots into smaller parcels can be explored. The following solutions can be pursued: Lots	with	sufficient	depth	(>	250’)	and	frontage	•	 (>500’) can be subdivided to produce a ‘double front configuration’.	Finer	grain	commercial	retail-oriented	 buildings can sit on the street-side, while industrial- oriented	buildings	with	larger	floorplates	can	sit	on	 the lane-side. This mix of building types helps create visual and programmatic diversity. Courtyards can be used between the two types of •	 uses to screen noise and provide privacy. The subdivision can be pursued either by legally •	 rezoning the front-half to CD-1 and keep the rear- half	as	I-2	or	I-3,	or	a	clause	in	the	development	 permit and/or tax-break incentives may be explored to ensure this diversity occurs. 4.2.5.	Mix	Typologies,	Mix	Uses Commercial-oriented side - The front side of a block can 		have	buildings	with	floorplates 		more	suited	for	fine	grain	retail	   shops and residential above.Residential above commercial - Mixed-use buildings can be     pursued, especially along major   arterials with adequate bus,   skytrain and tram services.  Adequate heights - Building heights should comple   ment the adjacent neighbour-   hoods’ low- to mid-rise form. 4.2 Typologies and Patterns >> > Include Residentia l While The Flats’ land use is mostly targeted for industrial uses, some residential developments can enliven the area and support the proposed commercial retail developments. The following solutions can be pursued: Residential	uses	above	commercial	retail	and	office	•	 uses can be explored, especially along major arterials. Lots on the Main Street side are usually shallower •	 (<200’)	and	narrower	(<300’),	and	are	less	suitable	 for	large	floorplate	industrial	buildings.	They	 are	more	suited	for	finer	grain	buildings	such	as	 residential and commercial retail-oriented ones. In terms of land use the Main Street side can afford •	 to have greater residential uptake in part to provide programmatic continuity between Mount Pleasant and Chinatown/Strathcona. And, in part to alleviate the residential development pressure on the Clark Drive side, so as to allow light industrial uses like storage and wholesalers to continue. 4.2.6.	Include	Residential Fine grain commercial retail - The shops on the groudn level 		should	be	finer	grain	to	fit	with   the commercial spaces in the   adjacent neighbourhoods. Work close to home - By providing more residences in   The Flats, it can mean more of   its future workers can live near   to work hence reducing VKTCourtyards as separation - Softer screening devices such as   trees within a courtyard can be   used provide privacy and noise   reduction. Entrances to infills -	Access	to	the	infills	can	be			   through right of ways from the   street or via the lane where the 		infills’	entrances	are	oriented Underground parking - Should parking be a concern, some   small amounts of underground     parking going down one level can   be pursued. Redevelop underutilised sites - Underutilised carparks and other   disused areas can accommodate 		artist	studios,	small	offices	and   even some residences. 4.2 Typologies and Patterns >> > Encour age 	Infi ll Currently, there are several underutilised lots at The Flats where over 50% of the site is for parking or simply underdeveloped. Planning for a future where driving is reduced and more public transport will cater to The Flats, parking requirements may be reduced. As such, redevelopments	at	these	lots	can	explore	infills.	The	 following solutions can be pursued: Provided no prior ecological-remediative features are •	 planned for the underutilised lots, artist studios, small office	structures	and	even	boutique	manufacturers	 such as clothiers can be pursued. The underutilied lots can either be subdivided, or the •	 redevelopment can be rezoned as an unique CD-1, or a future iteration of I-3 that makes provisions for mixed	use	infill	structures. Clauses in a development permit and/or tax incentive •	 can be pursued to encourage developers to do less parking	and	instead	build	infill	structures. 4.2.7.	Encourage	InfillResidences along arterials - Residences along arterials (such as   Terminal Ave shown here) can help   economically buttress the future   commercial developments. Big-box shop, small entrance - Big box shops can have ‘bottled- 		neck’	entrances	so	that	finer	grain   shops can line the streets. 4.2 Typologies and Patterns >> > Dens ify Arterials  Densities along major arterials can be increased moderately	to	allow	more	office	and	residential	 floorspace	to	economically	buttress	future	commercial	 retail developments. The following solutions can be pursued: A	finer	grain	approach	to	shop-front	and	building	•	 façade design should be pursued to allow for a greater diversity of businesses – ranging from cafes, boutiques,	design	firms,	printers	to	art	galleries	–	to	 emerge. If a big-box shop is necessary to help a development •	 attain economic viability, its entrance can be ‘bottled- neck’	so	as	to	fit	better	with	the	smaller	shop-fronts	 next to it. The	social	benefit	of	a	more	intense	street	is	that	it	•	 attracts more people there, thus provides a greater opportunity for interaction and cross socio-economic and cultural understanding. 4.2.8.	Densify	Arterials	 Tree-lined streets - Tree-lined streets with adequate   amount of street furniture can   make an arterial more liveable by   offering spaces of respite. Public transport - Trams, buses and skytrains are all   important to make an arterial   lievable as they connect its   residents to a wider area.Facade Retention - If keeping the whole heritage will   comprise structural integrity, then   facade retention can be explored. 4.2 Typologies and Patterns >> > Preser ve Her itage  The ‘industrial modern’ aesthetic is an element that helps The Flats create its sense of identity. As such, efforts to retain buildings built in this architectural style should be pursued. The following solutions can be pursued: Developments on lots with heritage buildings should •	 incorporate these buildings into the overall design so as to showcase The Flats’ history. The heritage buildings should become the organising element for the development. The heritage element can provide visual diversity and act as an anchor to an area. If keeping a heritage building in its entirety •	 compromises structural integrity then façade retention, at least, should be pursued (as shown here for the industrial moderne buildings at Terminal and Main). Existing and future buildings of socio-cultural and •	 architectural merit can be added to the heritage list. 4.2.9.	Preserve	Heritage Added floors -	Depending	on	the	needs	identified 		for	a	certain	sub-area,	added	floors   may be pursued to provide more   density. Complementary materials - The materials and architectural 		style	of	added	floors	and	adjacent   buildings should complement a      heritage character. Complementary form and height - Developments next to heritage   buildings should be complementary   in height and massing to ensure   visual and stylistic continuity.Complement heritage - Buildings next to heritage buildings   can be articulated to complement,   so as to strengthen a gateway’s   heritage presence. Link up to transport nodes - Gateways to The Flats can be   strengthened by the presence of   transport nodes such as tram-stops   skytrain and buses. Green street medians - Green street medians not only   soften the area but also acts as a   processional ‘guide’ into The Flats. 		They	define	a	clear	axis. Park and open spaces - Parks and open spaces at a gate-   way allows people to take a breath   to dwell and appreciate the   surroundings. 4.2 Typologies and Patterns >> > Denote Her itage Gate w ays  Heritage buildings, singly or in groups, can help The Flats define	entry	points.	They	help	establish,	in	the	minds	of	 pedestrians, the character and history of the area. The following solutions can be pursued: Especially at major intersections, heritage buildings •	 and sites help denote a physical and psychological presence and entry to The Flats. Green	street	medians	help	define	the	processional	•	 path into The Flats. If there are no heritage buildings immediately at the •	 intersections, developments around heritage buildings and sites may take on similar materials, form, colour and character so as to lead pedestrians, cyclists and motorists’ eyes to the designated heritage buildings. A clear sightline to the heritage buildings and sites •	 should be maintained from at least a few blocks away from a designated gateway intersection. 4.2.10.	Denote	Heritage	GatewaysComplement adjacent form - Buildings on the edge with other   neighbourhoods should have form, 		heights	and	character	that	fits   to create a smooth transition. Create right of ways - Long blocks at The Flats can be 		broken	up	to	bring	the	finer	street   network of adjacent neighbourhoods   into The Flats. Complementary programming - Programming, especially on the 		ground	floor,	should	be	similar	to   those in adjacent neighbourhoods   to ensure programmatic continuity. 4.2 Typologies and Patterns >> > Complement Existing Neighbourhood s The Flats sit amongst several established neighbourhoods. In this regard it is important new developments at The Flats complement them. The following solutions can be pursued: Respect the height, form and character of the •	 surrounding neighbourhoods’ buildings (such as mid- rise slab-form residential buildings at Mt. Pleasant shown on the rightside of the illustration). If taller buildings are to be pursued at the edges •	 between The Flats and other neighbourhoods, the height difference should ‘step-up’ gradually instead of overshadowing the mid-rise character around. The Flats currently has longer blocks; breaking them •	 up	can	help	bring	in	the	finer	grain	street	networks	 around (like those in Mount Pleasant). Land use and programs on The Flats’ side should •	 complement the surrounding neighbourhoods. 4.2.11.	Complement	Existing	NeighbourhoodsSpecial paving to mark heritage - Special paving along Main Street 		can	visually	strengthen	and	define   the path that leads from one   heritage building/site to another. Signboards - Signboards can tell the history of   heritage buildings at The Flats and   how they are part of a wider east   side heritage presence. Add buildings to heritage list - Buildings of architectural and   socio-cultural merits can be     added to the heritage list. 4.2 Typologies and Patterns >> > Link Her itage Necklac e The Flats and its adjacent neighbourhoods all have strong heritage elements. Linking these heritage buildings and sites together into a necklace can tell a story about east Vancouver’s unique industrial-based history. The following solutions can be pursued: Special paving, special tree-surrounds and/or •	 signboards can make the walking path from one heritage building to another more distinguishable. This is doable along Main Street where most of The Flats and its adajcent neighbourhoods’ heritage buildings and sites are located. These special paving and tree surrounds can be extended on streets that lead to heritage buildings away from Main Street. The aim is to physically link The Flats to other •	 neighbourhoods like Mt. Pleasant, Chinatown and Strathcona by linking their unique heritage elements. Buildings of architectural and socio-cultural merits can •	 be added to the heritage list. 4.2.12.	Link	Heritage	NecklaceFuture developments at The Flats should aim to lessen their dependency on the grid for energy and water supplies. Rain-barrels coupled with water treatment facilities •	 can be considered to provide developments with a certain amount of water supply. Solar panels can provide some amount of electricity.•	 On a neighbourhood scale, several buildings can be •	 connected to district energy facilities for energy and heat. Living walls can soften the visual monotony that is •	 caused by a higher wall-to-window ration necessary for minimising heat loss. The ‘functionalist’ look of the above hardware can •	 become part of The Flats’ ‘look’. 4.2.13.	Produce	Resilient	Sources Rain-Barrels - Rain-barrels can help a building   and even a wider area reduce   dependency on municipal water   supplies Green walls - Green walls can soften the blank   walls sometimes necessary for a   higher wall-to-window ratio needed   to minimise heat loss Solar Panels - Solar panels can provide some   amount of electricity. This is   especially true for buildings with   larger roof-plates 4.2 Typologies and Patterns >> > Produce Res ilient Sou rce sFlooding and ponding are two most immediate natural hazards The Flats faces. Mitigative features of all scales should be pursued to minimise the potential impact. On a block scale, bioswales can run along the sides •	 of buildings and street shoulders to help absorb and filter	run-offs. On a multi-block scale, the bioswales can be •	 connected to larger wetlands and retention ponds prior	to	flowing	to	larger	water	bodies	such	as	False	 Creek. Permeable paving along with more naturalised •	 landscape in developments can reduce sheet run-offs during heavy rainfall. 4.2.14.	Mitigate	Hazards Bioswales - Swales along roads and buildings   can help mitigate run-offs and 		reduce	the	risk	of	flooding	and   ponding. 4.2 Typologies and Patterns >> > M itigate Haza rds Larger Mitigative Systems - Bioswales can be connected to   larger mitigative systems like   wetlands at False Creek to further 		filtrate	run-offs.Placing businesses where one business’ by-products can become the raw materials for another business can help reduce waste, On the long term this reduces the need for	rubbish	landfills.	Situating	these	businesses	close	 together can also reduce the use of fossil fuels needed for longer haul vehicular journeys. Local food productions such as urban farms can •	 supply food distributors nearby with produce. The distributors can in turn supply nearby restaurants with ingredients. The waste from the restaurants and food distributors can go to composting centres nearby in the industrial areas of The Flats to produce natural fertilisers for the urban farms. An integrated loop is formed. 4.2.15.	Integrate	Land	Uses	to	Reduce	Waste Intergrated Businesses - Produce grown at the urban   farms can be distributed at   nearby wholesalers, and in turn   sold to nearby restaurants Reduce Waste - The waste from restaurants can   be processed at nearby compost   businesses, and the compost can   fertilise the urban farms 4.2 Typologies and Patterns >> > Integ rate Land Uses to Reduce W aste  4.2 Typologies and Patterns >> > O rganise a round G reen Infrastructu re Rather than treating green infrastructure as ‘add-ons’, they can become the central feature from which site/ neighbourhood design and public realm treatments are anchored upon. Green spines can be created from disused railyards. •	 These spines improve not only ecological well-being but can help strengthen an area’s spatial identity. The	green	spines	can	be	connected	to	green	fingers	•	 nearby,	and	these	green	fingers	can	branch	into	 other neighbourhoods or lead to larger naturalised areas such as wetlands and/or bio-retention ponds. In effect, the green spines can connect The Flats, within and without itself, to a wider area spatially and ecologically. 4.2.16.	Organise	around	green	infrastructure Green Spine - Neighbourhoods can be   organised around a green spine,   which can act as a ‘backyard’ to   nearby developments4.3 System Diagrams >> > Pulling back at a wider scale, the following system diagrams represent how the four key design concepts of ‘connect’, ‘accommodate’, ‘respect’ and ‘restore’ can be applied at a neighbourhood level. The system diagrams explore: Sub-Areas and Key Centres•	  describes how different areas of The Flats may be based on its locale’s unique history and/or function as well as potential developments. Land Use•	  describes the different types of uses in the future. These land uses are based on current uses as well as projections that can help The Flats develop more robustly. Movements•	  describes the way pedestrians, bicycles and proposed tram lines can move within The Flats as well as to the wider Vancouver region. Public Amenities•	  describes the parks, civic centres such as a proposed community centre and other city- serving institutions that may be developed. Green Infrastructure •	 describes the ways The Flats can capture energy to rely less on fossil fuels and municipal power. It also mentions the greenways and bioswales that can improve its ecological wellness. System DiagramsWest Gateway - Industrial Moderne heritage - Historic park - Boutique shops - Mid to mid-high-rise residential Terminal High Street - High street shopping area -	Offices - Creative industries - Mid to mid-high-rise residential Park Living - Restorative landscape - Community centre - Low to mid-rise residential - District energy facilities Industrial Lands - Distributors and storage - Low-impact manufacturers - City-serving lands - Passenger rail service Urban Farmland - Urban agriculture - Teaching farms - Public parks - Community gardens Greenway Neighbourhood - Disused BNSF railyard as park - Creative industries - Commercial retail on west side - Low to mid-rise residential GNW Neighbourhood - Great Northenway Campus - Creative industries - Finer grain commercial retail - Mid-rise residential Each	sub	area’s	character	is	influenced	by	the	 kinds of uses and associated building types it is programmed to accommodate. Given the size of The Flats, it is reasonable for each sub area to have its own heart, usually characterised by a space suitable for gatherings. However, each heart is easily accessible to each other. 4.3.1. Sub Areas & Key Centres = Key Centres 4.3 System Diagrams >> > Sub A reas & Key Cent res Creative Industries -	Offices	&	wholesalers - Artists’ studios - City-serving lands - Freight rail yards East Gateway - Sculpture garden - Skate park - Commercial retail - New Skytrain stration4.3 System Diagrams >> > Land Us e Residential - Mulitfamily residential - Neighbourhood scale shops - Public park spaces While The Flats can accommodate non-industrial uses, industrial lands should be retained not only for the purpose of providing businesses with affordable lands, but to provide jobs for the growing population in both adjacent neighbourhoods and The Flats’ future residential developments. The overall strategy is to gradate the land use by allowing  more residential developments to take place on the west and south sides, while the east and north sides stay more industrial. 4.3.2.	Land	Use Green Space - Urban farms - Public park space - Site for outdoor activities or   events Green Space - Public park space - Sculpture garden - Skate parks and basketball   courts Green Space - Public park space - Community gardens - Site for outdoor activities or   events Institutional - Community Centre - Childcare - Neighbourhood scale shops - Non-market housing Industrial -	Offices	&	wholesalers - Big box stores - Artists’ studios - City-serving lands Industrial - Distributors and storage - Low-impact manufacturers - City-serving services - Automobile repairs Rail - Freight rail - Passenger rail - Coach-bus depot Commercial -	Commercial	retail	and	offices - Eateries and supermarkets - Multifamily residential - Public park space Mixed Use -	Commercial	retail	and	offices - Creative Industries - Multifamily residential - Artists’ studios Institutional - Tertiary education provider - Student/artists’ housing - Live-work spaces - Neighbourhood scale shops4.3 System Diagrams >> > M ovemen t To increase connectivity, some of the larger, longer lots are subdivided, or have right-of-ways cut across to	create	a	more	flexible	walking	grid.	Pedestrian	and	 biycle bridges are built to allow movement across the city-serving railyards. A new skytrain station is added at Glen and Terminal to serve future residents and workers. A tram-line will also run along Great Northern Way. 4.3.3. Movement = New Pedestrian = Skytrain = Trams = Rail Station St. Extension: - North-south connection linking   Industrial Ave to Terminal Ave - Breaks up long block Green Fingers: - East-West connection - Breaks up long block - Creates a ‘landscape-oriented’   urban block Thornton Ped-Bike Bridge: - North-south connection across   CN rail yard linking GNW   to Terminal Ave - Parks on north and south sides Glen Drive Skytrain Station: - Services future residents and   workers at The Flats - Iconic architecture to mark the   eastern gateway to The Flats Chess St. Ped-Bike Bridge: - North-south connection across   VIA rail yard linking Malkin Ave   to Terminal Ave - Public park on south side GNW Tram Line: - East-west connection which   better link together areas east     and west of The Flats. BNSF Greenway: - East-west connection offering   pedestrians and cyclists a   landscaped, car-free route - Restorative landscape Prior St. Tram Line: - East-west connection which   serves residents living in the   heart of Strathcona New S t. New S t. New S t. New S t. New S t. New S t. New S t.4.3 System Diagrams >> > Public Ammenitie s Currently, The Flats does not have much public amenities due to its low population. However, with more residences and employment opportunities, amenities become necessary to accommodate the needs and well-being of its residents. Besides the new shops on major arterials, other prominent amenities are naturalised spaces such as the BNSF greenway to restore the area’s natural ecology. A proposed Trillium Community Centre, an after-school arts program at GNW campus, and the Glen Drive Skate and Ball Park are other amenities. 4.3.4. Public Amenities Great Northern Way Campus - Tertiary education in the   creative arts - Proposed after-school arts   program for high-schoolers. Trillium Community Centre - Community centre for future   Flats, Strathcona, Yaletown and   Chinatown residents - Childcare and library services Glen Dr. Skate and Ball Park - Skate park and basketball   courts under the Terminal Ave   overpass at Glen Drive - Serves nearby youths Strathcona Urban Farms - Combines food production and   naturalised landscape - Provides produce for grocery   distributors and wholesalers BNSF Greenway - East-west linear park that   becomes a ‘backyard’ for   residents living in the area - Playground for children Chinese Freemason Housing - Expansion on existing seniors   housing. - Serves Vancouver’s ageging   population Chess St Park - Park in the middle of the light   industrial area - Park is also a right of way that   links Chess and Beggs streets Mid Terminal Ave Park - Park that offers pedestrians and   cyclists a chance to slow down  on the future busy Terminal Ave Trillium Park - Park can act as a ‘backyard’ for   the new residences to the north   of the park - Restorative landscape Station St Bioretention Park - Provides new residents and   workers with green space   amidst dense residential   developments4.3 System Diagrams >> > G reen Infrastructu re The City of Vancouver has plans to make The Flats a sutainability precinct. A key large scale green infrastructure here is a restorative system that ties the	BNSF	greenway	to	the	green	fingers	around	 Station	Street	and	finally	naturalised	wetlands	around	 Science World. A district energy will link The Flats to existing energy plants nearby. 4.3.5. Green Infrastructure BNSF greenway - Swales along the greenway can 		help	filter	out	polluntants	in	   run-offs, and handle extreme   rainfalls and divert storm surges = Swale/Wetland System = District Energy Lines Station St bioretention park - Bioretention pond at the end of 		CN	rail	yard	to	catch	and	filter   run-offs prior to it entering False   Creek Solar panels and green roofs - Buildings with large roof-plates   are suitable for solar panels - Green roofs can help reduce   run-offs Strathcona Urban Farms - Locally grown produce can help    reduce the carbon footprint of   food production “Green fingers”: -	Swales	along	the	green	fingers	 		will	filter	run-offs	and	any	over- 		flow	that	does	not	permeate   onsite. Proposed estuarine wetland - The swales will be connected to   the wetland via culverts. The 		wetlands	is	the	‘final	filter’	prior   to water entering the creek District energy system - Waste can be channelled to the   SEFC Energy Utility Facilities to   be converted to heat and   energy for the wider region GNW district energy centre - A district energy centre can be   installed at future developments   of the GNW campus to provide   energy and heat to the local area4.4 Masterplan >> > The urban design framework provided here is based on four principles: CONNECT The Flats to adjacent neighbourhoods and the wider city context as a connected neighbourhood creates the atmosphere of belonging for people; ACCOMMODATE a variety of uses to create a liveable and complete neighbourhood; RESPECT The Flats’ histories, heritage, character and form, and RESTORE its ecological well-being so that the environment and its future inhabitants may be healthy. Masterplan Terminal Ave Scotia St . Lorne St . East	2nd	Ave. Great Northern Way Chess S t. Beggs S t. Industrial Ave Thornton S t. Thornton S t. Co tt re ll S t. Main S t. Quebec S t. Glen D r. Glen D r. Station S t. Fr aser S t. Foley S t. W estern S t. Malkin St. Map Information - Scale: 1:5000 -	Shadows:	Sept	22,	2pm Ca roline S t.4.5 Focused Study Areas >> > 2	focused	study	areas	will	be	presented	here	to	give	 readers a more in-depth look at what can happen at The Flats when connections, accommodations, respect	and	ecological	restoration	are	pursued.	The	2	 areas are: Station Street Mixed Use Quarters1. ‘Double-Fronted Block’ at 500 Terminal Avenue2.	 Focused Study Areas 1 2 Map Information - Scale: 1:5000 -	Shadows:	Sept	22,	2pm4.5 Focused Study Areas >> > Station St reet Mi xed Use Quarter s 4.5.1. Station Street Mixed USe Quarters This area is currently a collection of disused and under-used warehouses. In line with the principles of accommodating more uses, respecting The Flats’ history and restoring ecological functions, this area will be developed with the following features: Continue to •	 house some light industrial uses such as R&D	firms,	software	design,	architecture,	planning	 and design businesses, artisan studios, boutique clothing and/or furniture manufacturers, etc. Given the area’s proximity to Main Street, some of the first	floors	will	be	for	commercial	retail	uses	such	 as eateries, small to mid-scale shops and essential services	such	as	clinics,	post-offices	and	banks.	 Some	of	the	second	floors	can	be	used	for	offices.	 Most	floors	from	the	second	floor	and	up	will	be	for	 residential uses. Improve ecological well-being with bioswales running •	 along the buildings’ sides. They can capture and filter	run-offs	and	stormwater.	In	addition,	they	can	 also catch excess grey water that is not already treated. The swales are connected through culverts westward to the proposed wetlands at False Creek, and eastward to the proposed retention pond at the western edge of the CN railyard. The swales can become a main feature in the streetscape design. Retain sense of heritage through facade retention •	 for heritage listed buildings, repurpose warehouses built in the industrial moderne style, and use complementary materials and articulations for any new buildings in the vicinity. Development Data for Focus Area Average	Typical	Lot	(+/-170’	X	160’	lot):	23000	to	27000sf Existing Conditions on typical lot Average Building(s)’ Floorspace: 37000sf Average Net FSR: 1.17 to 1.37 Average	Heights:	2	storeys Land Use: Warehouses, storages and wholesalers Green Space: 0sf Proposed Conditions on typical lot Average	Building	Floorspace:	92000sf Average Net FSR: 3.41 to 4.0 Average Heights: 6 storeys (stepback at 4th storey) Land Use: Light industrial, commercial retail, cafes, offices	and	services	(on	first	and/or	second	floor),	and	 residential	(from	second/third	floor	up) Green Space: 10000sf (Including roof-top gardens, but excluding the bioswales) Bioswales - Swales along roads and buildings   can help mitigate run-offs and 		reduce	the	risk	of	flooding	and   ponding. Complementary materials - The materials and architectural 		style	of	added	floors	and	adjacent   buildings should complement a      heritage character. Traffic-calmed streets - As the streets will still be used for   the businesses, vehicular access is   still important. However, the streets 		are	narrower	to	calm	traffic.4.5 Focused Study Areas >> > Station St reet Mi xed Use Quarter s Station Street Mixed USe Quarters Existing Conditions around Focus Area Map Information -	Scale:	1:2000 -	Shadows:	Sept	22,	2pm Streetview (Looking west on Northern Street) Street-Section (Looking west on Northern Street) Northern St. Main S t. Quebec S t. Station S t. W estern S t. Terminal Ave Skytrain Lin e Northern Street Commercial Retail Commercial Retail Commercial RetailResidential Residential Residential Residential Residential Residential Residential Residential Residential BioswaleBioswale4.5 Focused Study Areas >> > ‘Double-F ronted Blocks’ at Terminal Ave 4.5.2.	Double-Fronted	Blocks	at	Terminal	Ave Most of the blocks along Terminal Avenue are currently zoned for light industrial uses. In order to accommodate a wider range of uses at The Flats while respecting its industrial function, lots along Terminal Avenue can develop with the following features: Maximise the lots’ potentials by ‘double-fronting’ •	 them, especially for the deeper lots on the south side of Terminal Ave. This involves splitting the lots into a front-half and a back-half. The front half faces onto Terminal Avenue and the back half faces onto the laneway. This is doable especially for lots more than	250’	deep.	The	front	half	will	accommodate	 finer	grain	commercial-retail	buildings,	with	some	 residential	uses	from	the	second	or	third	floor	up,	 especially for lots closer to Main Street. The back half will be industrial oriented buildings with larger floorplates	suited	for	light	industrial	uses	as	well	as	 R&D	type	offices.	Entrance	to	the	industrial	part	can	 be accessed via the lane. Provide privacy, especially to the residents living in •	 there, by having a courtyard with a 40’ to 50’ depth that separates the front and back buildings. Trees can be planted here to screen out noise that may emit from the industrial oriented buildings. Encourage	this	‘double-front’	configurations	by	•	 subdividing	these	250’+	lots	into	the	two	halves	and	 rezoning the front half to CD-1, while keeping the rear	half	I-2	(as	it	is	now)	or	a	modified	I-2/I-3	that	 allows for closer proximity to non-industrial uses. Development Data for Focus Area Average	Typical	Lot	(+/-250’	X	420’	lot):	80000	to	120000sf Existing Conditions on typical lot Average	Buildings(s)’	Floorspace:	127500sf Average	Net	FSR:	1.06	to	1.29 Average	Heights:	2	to	3	storeys Land	Use:	Warehouses,	storages,	wholesalers,	offices,	 auto-dealerships, fast-food restaurants, big-box stores. Green Space: 0sf Proposed Conditions on typical lot Average	Building(s)’	Floorspace:	255000sf	(~	110000	sf	 for industrial, 60000sf for commercial-retail, and 85000sf for residential. Ratio will weigh more industrial towards the east end of Terminal) Average	Net	FSR:	2.13	to	3.19 Average Heights: 6 to 8 storeys (stepback at 4th storey) Land	Use:	Front-half:	Commercial	retail,	cafes,	offices	 and	services	(on	first	and/or	second	floor),	and	 residential	(from	second/third	floor	up);	Rear-half:	 big-box	stores,	warehouses,	storages,	R&D	offices	and	 wholesalers, green businesses. Green Space: 10000sf (Mainly in the courtyards and R.O.Ws) Terminal Ave-fronted buildings - Buildings that faces on to Ter-   minal can host commercial-   retail units as well as residential 		units	from	the	second	floor	up. Light Industrial Buildings -	Larger	floorplate	buildings	are	sited	   at the rear side of the lot. Loading   can be from the lane or onsite. 		Offices	can	be	above.		 Courtyards - To give residents living on the   premise some degree of privacy,   courtyards can be used to screen   out noise and direct sight-lines.4.5 Focused Study Areas >> > ‘Double-F ronted Blocks’ at Terminal Ave ‘Double-Fronted’ Blocks at Terminal Ave Existing Conditions around Focus Area Map Information -	Scale:	1:2000 -	Shadows:	Sept	22,	2pm Streetview (Looking northeast into courtyard) Terminal Ave Skytrain Lin e CN Railyard Thornton S t. Ca roline S t.New Roa d St. Geo rge S t. Ca roline S t. Street-Section (Looking northeast into courtyard) Service lane Light Industrial Commercial Retail Light Industrial Offices Residential Residential Residential Residential Residential Residential Offices Courtyard Green Strip 5. Public Participation Checklist >> > Public Participation Checklist Providing an urban design framework for The False Creek Flats is as much an offering of design principles, strategies, typologies and patterns as it is about providing ways in which local communities of residents and businesses in and around The Flats can participate in envisioning a physical and social form for future developments. This chapter provides a checklist that future work on The Flats can use to ensure adequate local involvement in the formation of The Flats’ future identity and physical character. To provide a checklist at the end of this report - in an addendum  form - may seem contradictory when a democratic mode of planning is intended; usually, public participation normally precedes the drafting of physical plans and design strategies. As such, it is important to consider the principles, strategies, typologies and patterns suggested in earlier chapters as more catalysts to start dialogues rather than a decision on what The Flats should be. As this report is urban design-focused, the indicators provided in this chapter will pertain to design issues. Mainly, there will be two sub-sets of cecklists: First, a set of checklist that can help establish •	 a working group. The working group can in turn help planners and designers understand the communities of residents and businesses around and in The Flats, so as to establish values and desires. Second,	a	set	of	checklist	that	specifically	help	•	 visualise those values and desires through co- design events. With co-design, participants are not just providing ideas but the forms and representations from which planners and designers can base their own work from; it is not merely translating others’ values and desires into visual form but appreciating others’ visual forms and	transfiguring	them.5. Public Participation Checklist >> > Estab lishing a W orking G rou p 5.1. Establishing a Working Group Establishing a community-elected design-focused working group is important to help steer the planning process. While this working group will discuss a wide range of issues, there needs to be a focus on design issues, urban forms and land-use in order to help The City in further developing an urban design framework for The Flats. Size-wise, the working group will ideally be large enough (15 to 20 people) that smaller groups (4 to 5) within can be formed so as to provide a greater number of views and choices. Some studies have shown that the optimal size for a working group is around 7 to 20 people, with a median of 10 to 15 people. Christopher Allen calls this size a “sympathy circle” where we can begin to interact with each other at a level that genuine care toward others begin without getting to the point where other people are read as generalised personalities. At the same	time	this	group	size	allows	sufficient	variety	of	 views to emerge.1 To indicate a wide socio-economic and cultural spectrum is represented in the working group the following action-based criteria as shown in the opposite table may be useful: Action-Based Criteria Operation Asssessment Identify local leaders City staff to contact local community groups to identify leaders Yes/No Identify local socio-economic/cultural groups and stakeholders City staff to work with local leaders and community representatives to identify these groups and persons Yes/No Identify and elect representatives from socio-economic/cultural and age groups City staff to work with local leaders to elect members for the working group Yes/No Identify diverse interests and form smaller groups based on these interests Charrettes to identify diverse interests and form smaller groups Yes/No Channelling various interests into design-focused discussion Charrettes to translate non-physical concerns into issues of built form and land-use. Yes/No (1) http://howtosavetheworld.ca/2009/03/18/the-opti- mal-size-of-groups/ (Accessed: Aug 7th 2011)5. Public Participation Indicators >> > Fac ilitating Co-Desig n 5.2. Facilitating Co-Design Acquiring a role in the design of an environment will give citizens a sense of responsibility for future developments and a feeling of belonging to the area not just in the present but in the future. Co-design is more than the usual public participation process in that it actively brings citizens into creating meaning and form. In this sense, citizens are not just making decisions, but helping City staff create the decisions from which to choose from. With co-design, one may suggest there is a greater distribution of power here. In fact, the physical environment emerges from the interaction of people. As Adrian Snodgrass and Richard Coyne suggest, The design process belongs to the domain of	social	actions	and	interactions,	is	firmly	 embedded in a human situation, and is a focal nexus within a network of intersubjective relationships.2 Hence, co-design, generally put, is neither about designers hard-selling their designs to the neighbourhood nor a matter of the clients (neighbours) being always right. As Elizabeth Sanders, a design theorist specialising in co-design processes, suggest, In co-design... the roles get mixed up: the person who will eventually be served through the design process is given the position of ‘expert of his/her experience’, and plays a large role in knowledge development, idea generation and concept development. In generating insights, the researcher supports the ‘expert of his/her experience’ by providing tools for ideation and expression. The [local] expert and the researcher collaborate on the tools for ideation.3 To indicate an adequate co-design process takes place a list of action-based criteria shown on the opposite table may help: Action-Based Criteria Operation Asssessment Identify local artist to lead the production of visual-based content City staff to work with working group to identify an artist for each of the smaller groups. Yes/No Create an enriched urban design glossary list that features not just standard terms but ones the community may value Charrette to create a list an expanded  glossary list and the elected artists may help illustrate the terms Yes/No Organise photo-based asset mapping Each smaller group will walk around The Flats broadly to photograph  areas viewed as important. Also, individual members will walk in a neighbourhood not their own and photograph areas they think is crucial. Working with City staff, the elected artists will produce a photo- base asset map. Yes/No Produce visual preference survey Each smaller working group will assemble a catalogue of urban forms and public spaces deem suitable for The Flats. These chosen urban forms will be assembled into a visual survey; the public will be invited to rank the urban forms. Yes/No Host co-design charrette to generate a series of physical plans and typolo- gies In a two-day event, the smaller groups along with their artist will team up with planners and architects to produce physical plans and drawings of what The Flats can be. Each smaller working group will then present on their plan; the speaker will be a local community member as opposed to a design professional. Yes/No Host open house event The working group will hold an open- house	to	showcase	their	findings	and	 recommendations in the same way the planning department holds open houses. Yes/No (2) Adrian Snodgrass and Richard Coyne, “Is Designing Hermeneutical?” in Architectural Theory Review: Journal of the Department of Architecture, University of Sydney, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1997, pp 65-97. p.95. (3) Elizabeth Sanders and Pieter Jan Stappers, Co- Creation and the New Landscape of Design, http:// maketools.com/pdfs/CoCreation_Sanders_Stappers_08_ preprint.pdf (accessed: 20th March 2009), p.86. Conclusion >> > Conclusion 6.2 Next Steps 6.1 Summary In this last chapter a short concluding summary of what can be done urban-design wise will be presented. This will be followed by suggestions of the next steps that can be taken in order to ensure the principles, strategies, typologies, patterns, opportunities and most of all vision can get toward implementation. To ensure the principles, strategies, typologies, patterns, opportunities and most of all vision can get to implementation, a few issues that goes beyond the scope of this urban design-oriented report should be	carried	out	to	buttress	the	findings	of	this	report: Zoning•	 : Many of the strategies – such as to ensure continuity, mix uses, include residential, integrate land uses, etc – would require the crafting of new zones that are more robust than the current I-2 and I-3 districts that occupies most of The Flats. City staff will have to investigate whether to apply mass rezoning, at least for lots with potential mixed use purposes, to some form of “I-4” district that allows for more residential and commercial-retail uses, or to rezone those lots to CD-1 upon development application. Market Feasibility•	 : City staff should investigate the adequate amount of FSR needed to support the principles, strategies and types proposed in this report given the current/future land and development cost. Investigations should include reports on how much residential	floorspace	should	take	place	to	ensure	 economic	viability	in	each	of	the	sub-areas	identified	 in this report as suitable for residential uses. Likewise, investigations on how much commercial-retail and office	floorspace	should	take	place	especially	along	 arterials. More importantly, how much residential, commercial-retail	and	office	floorspace	can	take	place	 before the impact on industrial land cost becomes unacceptable to meet City’s goals to maintain inner city industrial lands. Market feasibility will also affect the way development is phased. Transport Issues•	 : This report recommends a tram-line along Great Northern Way going towards Southeast False Creek via East 2nd Avenue. It also recommends an additional Skytrain Station at the southeast corner of Terminal Avenue and Glen Drive. Both transport The design principles, strategies, opportunities, typologies and patterns presented in this project are meant to aid future planning work for The False Creek Flats in terms of an urban design framework. In summary, the framework presented here serves the following demands: Be	aligned	with	the	City	of	Vancouver’s	identification	•	 to maintain adequate amounts industrial lands for light industrial businesses as well as city serving purposes like the Fire Training Facility, The National yard and the Police Training Facility. Intensify activities and population•	  to support the desired future commercial activities for the area, especially along arterials such as Terminal Avenue, Main Street and some sections of Industrial Avenue and Great Northern Way. Connect The Flats to adjacent neighbourhoods•	  by introducing more north-south paths for pedestrians and cyclists by means of ped-bike bridges and rights- of-ways.	This	creates	a	fine	grain	grid	pattern	that	 complements surrounding neighbourhoods. Greater pedestrian permeability encourages walking, thus healthier lifestyles and lower carbon footprints overall. Accommodate residential uses so as to bring jobs •	 closer to homes where future workers can easily walk or cycle to work as opposed to driving. Increasing the residential density is align with the City’s desire to grow in a compact manner to combat sprawl. In the case of the metro Vancouver region, it alleviates development pressure to build on Agriculture Land Reserves. On a smaller neighbourhood scale, it alleviates development pressure to dramatically change the more established fabric of adjacent neighbourhoods. Respect the industrial heritage•	  of the area by means of preserving heritage buildings and some forms of industrial uses such as storage warehouses and even the railyards which are important to host trains as a sustainable transport choice in the future where goods and passengers from near and far can be brought to/fro Vancouver. Respect also means complementing the urban forms of surrounding neighbourhoods so that developments at The Flats would not be out of scale. Restore the ecological functions •	 of the area that may have diminished through years of rail and industrial use by means of regenerative features at all scales from greenways, bioswales, wetland, bioretention ponds to rain barrels. This is especially important for The	Flats	which	is	flood	and	ponding-proned,	and	 currently has a high degree of impervious surfaces that increase the amount of run-offs with pollutants going into False Creek. infrastructures are to accommodate a future growing population and to improve connectivity. However, the feasibility and siting of these two infrastructures should be further investigated. For the tram-line, is the population along Great Northern Way going to	be	sufficient	to	support	the	line.	For	the	Skytrain	 station, is the number of businesses and residences along	Terminal	going	to	be	sufficient	to	justify	a	new	 station. Public Engagement•	 : As part of a larger design study process, a series of stakeholder workshops and open houses should be held with residents of nearby neighbourhoods, businesses at/around The Flats as well	as	non-profit	groups	engaging	with	issues	of	 sustainability, community well-being, etc. This report has provided a checklist (in chapter 5) pertaining to using co-design methods as a means to help generate more visions of what The Flats can be. However, co- design events are more catered to smaller working groups. To further investigate what the public feels and envision for The Flats, larger scale surveys in several	iterations	should	be	conducted.	The	first	 iterations of these surveys, workshops and open houses can use the strategies, principles, typologies and	opportunities	identified	in	this	report	as	a	 discussion-starting point. For all the abovementioned issues, alternatives should be provided so as to supply information for the drafting of future iterations of urban design frameworks.Bibliograph y City Documents City of Vancouver. Industrial Lands Strategy. 1995 ---. False Creek Flats Preliminary Concept Plan. 1996 ---. I-2: Light Industrial District Schedule. 1997 ---. CD-1 (402) District Schedule. 1999 ---. I-3 HighTech Industrial District Schedule. 1999 ---. Urban Structure Plan. 2001 ---. Administrative Report on Strategic Rail Overview and Detailed Operation Study. 2005 ---. Metro Core Jobs & Economy Land Use Plans. 2006 ---. Flood	Proofing	Policies. 2007 ---. Rezoning Policy for “HighTech” sites in the False Creek Flats. 2009 Planning and Design Literature Bing Thom Architects Works <www.btaworks.com> Bosselmann, Peter, “Images in Motion” in Urban Design Reader (Eds. M. Carmona & S. Tiesdell), Oxford, UK: Elsevier Architectural Press, 2007 Eco, Umberto, “Function and Sign: The Semiotics of Architecture”, in Rethinking Architecture: A Reader in Cultural Theory (ed. Neil Lech), London, UK & New York: Routledge, 1997 Hester, Randolph, Design for Ecological Democracy, Cambridge, MA & London, UK: MIT Press, 2006 Lewis, Sally, Front to Back: A Design Agenda for Urban Housing, Oxford, UK: Elsevier Architectural Press, 2005 Mileti, Denis, Disasters by Design: A Reassessment of Natural Hazards in the United States, Washington, D.C.: Joseph Henry Press, 1999 Morris, Pierce, “In the Pipeline: District Energy and Green Building”, in Environmental Building News, 2007, Vol.16, No.3 Moughtin, Cliff, Urban Design: Street and Square, Oxford, UK: Elsevier Architectural Press, 2003 Moughtin, Cliff, Urban Design: Method and Techniques, Oxford, UK: Elsevier Architectural Press, 1999 Moughtin, Cliff, Urban Design: Green Dimensions, Oxford, UK: Elsevier Architectural Press, 2005 Sanders, Liz and Pieter Jan Stappers, Co-Creation and the New Landscape of Design, www.maketools.com Snodgrass, Adrian and Richard Coyne, “Is Designing Hermeneutical?” in Architectural Theory Review: Journal of the Department of Architecture, University of Sydney, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1997 Watson, Donald & Michele Adams, Design for Flooding: Architecture, Landscape and Urban Design for Resilience to Climate Change, Hoboken, NJ: Wiley and Sons, 2011

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