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False Creek Flats: An Urban Design Framework for a Connected Complete Neighbourhood Chan, Patrick Foong 2011-08-15

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False Creek Flats:  An Urban Design Framework for a Connected Complete Neighbourhood By Patrick Foong Chan Professional Project School of Community and Regional Planning University of British Columbia Summer 2011  by Patrick Foong Chan BFA, University of Victoria MDes(Arch), University of New South Wales PhD(Arch), Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology  A PROJECT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS (PLANNING) in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES School of Community and Regional Planning We accept this project as conforming to the required standard ...................................................... (Maged Senbel) ..................................................... (Scot Hein) THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 2011 © Patrick Foong Chan, 2011  Acknowledgments: Maged Senbel - Thank you for guiding me through the process, teaching me how to read the city, and believing in my work. Scot Hein - Thank you for showing me how to think and do as an urban designer, and those desk-crits lessons you would show us that change how we think about space. Neal LaMontagne - Thank you for giving me the opportunity to experience what it is to work as a planner and designer, and most of all being a friend who gives great advice. Irena Hoti - Thank you most of all for believing in me and being patient with me while I pursue worlds in my funny mind. And thank you for believing in me for the rest of my life.  False Creek Flats: An Urban Design Framework By Patrick Foong Chan  False Creek Flats: An Urban Design Framework for a Connected Complete Neighbourhood  Part 1  Part 2  Part 3  1. Introduction •	 1.1 Project Description •	 1.2 Key Rationales for Undertaking this Project •	 1.3 Research methods •	 1.4 Deliverables  4. Proposed Urban Design Framework •	 4.1 Principles and Strategies  5. Public Participation Checklist •	 5.1 Establishing a Working Group •	 5.2 Facilitating Co-Design  2. Background •	 2.1 Site Conditions  2.1.1 Current Natural Conditions   2.1.2 Urban Structure Development    2.2.2 Demographics and Culture     2.3.1 Negotiating Industrial Lands with Other Uses 2.3.2 Negotiating Rail Uses     2.4.1 Adjacent Neighbourhoods’ Visions 2.4.2 Community Consultation  •	 2.2 Social Conditions  2.2.1 Site History and Heritage •	 2.3 Current Land Use  •	 2.4 Community Contexts  3. Limits and Opportunities •	 3.1 Urban Form  3.1.1 Limits regarding Urban Form   3.1.2 Opporunities regarding Urban Form    3.1.2 Opporunities regarding Connections     3.3.1 Limits regarding Industrial Uses 3.3.2 Opporunities regarding Industrial Uses    3.4.2 Opporunities regarding Energy     3.5.1 Limits regarding Environmental Wellness 3.5.2 Opporunities regarding Environmental Wellness     3.6.1 Limits regarding Community Engagement 3.1.2 Opporunities regarding Community Engagement  •	 3.2 Connections  3.1.1 Limits regarding Connections •	 3.3 Industrial Uses  •	 3.4 Energy  3.4.1 Limits regarding Energy •	 3.5 Environmental Wellness  •	 3.6 Community Engagement       4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3 4.1.4  Connect Accommodate Respect Restore                   4.2.1 Overcome Barriers 4.2.2 Ensure Continuity 4.2.3 Shorten Blocks and Frontages 4.2.4 Blur Private-Public Edges 4.2.5 Mix Typologies, Mix Uses 4.2.6 Include Residential 4.2.7 Encourage Infill 4.2.8 Densify Arterials 4.2.9 Preserve Heritage 4.2.10 Denote Heritage Gateways 4.2.11 Complement Existing Neighbourhoods 4.2.12 Link Heritage Necklace 4.2.13 Produce Resilient Sources 4.2.14 Mitigate Hazards 4.2.15 Integrate Land Uses to Reduce Waste 4.2.16 Organise around Green Infrastructure        4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3 4.3.4 4.3.5     4.5.1 Station Street Mixed Use Quarters 4.5.2 Double-Fronted Blocks at Terminal Avenue  •	 4.2 Typologies and Patterns  •	 4.3 System Diagrams  Sub Areas and Key Centres Land Use Movement Public Amenities Green Infrastructure  •	 4.4 Masterplan •	 4.5 Focused Study Areas  6. Conclusion •	 6.1 Summary •	 6.2 Next Steps  Table of COntents >>>  Table of Contents  This chapter describes the project, the principles it adopts the rationales for undertaking this work, the research methods employed and the deliverables to give readers a sense of its scope. 1.1. Project Description  1.2. Key Rationales for Undertaking this Project Taking on this project initially came from observing how The Flats is currently a ‘dead zone’ for walking despite being just 1km in breadth and 1.5km in length. The area’s lack of diverse programming and connections due to the rail-yards make it uneasy to traverse. The Flats was not ‘complete’ because it was not well integrated into the surrounding urban fabric physically and programmatically. It is hard for people and businesses to go in to enliven the area. Three related rationales for engaging The Flats follow this question of ‘What can make The Flats complete?’  The False Creek Flats (hereafter ‘The Flats’) is currently identified by the City of Vancouver as having an opportunity to further develop high-tech and creative businesses, offices and residences, while retaining affordable industrial lands for warehouses, light manufacturing, wholesalers, food •	 Opportunity to create a ‘connector’ neighbourhood: production/distribution and green city-serving uses Given its location, The Flats can become a nexus like recycling depots, composting centres and wastebetween different neighbourhoods of different socioto-energy operations. Betters connections to and economic demographics. A connector neighbourhood within The Flats can help achieve these desired uses.  1.3. Research Methods  1. Introduction >>>  1. Introduction  Given the project’s short time span (3 months over summer 2011), literature review, personal observations and scheduled meetings with city planners connected to The Flats’ current planning program provide the bulk of the information for decision making about the urban design framework being proposed here:  •	 Literature review: Factoring time constraints, information that influence urban design decisions is sourced largely from existing City policy documents and reports, and planning and design literature rather than first-hand engagements with community groups. •	 Personal observations: Design decisions made are also be partly influenced by personal observations and interpretations of site conditions. •	 Scheduled meetings with city planners: These ties the adjacent neighbourhoods’ boundaries by scheduled meetings with Scot Hein (senior urban means of reconsidering the edge condition, the This project responds to the abovementioned designer) and Karis Hiebert (lead planner for The functions of the corridors and public realms, typology positioning of The Flats. Besides providing affordable Flats) are to chart progress and viability of the of buildings, morphological character of blocks, and project’s various proposals industrial lands, it also examines how residential programming within buildings. Increasing connectivity developments, commercial retail spaces and offices aligns well with the Greenest City Action Plan’s aim to 1.4. Deliverables can be included to make The Flats a more complete create walkable neighbourhoods.1 Stitching The Flats neighbourhood. Four main principles characterise my together with adjacent neighbourhoods makes The The project is presented in three parts: Flats complete by being with its wider context. approach: CONNECT it to adjacent neighbourhoods •	 Reduce development pressure in adjacent areas: By •	 First, a summary of The Flats’ context – its natural, and the wider city context; ACCOMMODATE a increasing the housing, as well as lands for highsocio-cultural and economic character, as well as its past diversity of uses; RESPECT its histories, heritage, tech/creative industries and offices in The Flats we and current planning initiatives. A key component of this character and form, and neighbours; and RESTORE can possibly reduce some development pressure first part is to review the surrounding neighbourhoods’ ecological functions and well-being. to radically transform adjacent neighbourhoods community visions to get a sense of how these like Chinatown, Strathcona and Mount Pleasant. neighbourhoods aim to develop, and find ways to make To articulate these principles, my project presents Increasing development and thus employment The Flats’ future development complementary. This first an urban design framework that includes urban opportunities in The Flats is in line with The Greenest part will conclude by identifying some limits facing The typologies and patterns future planning initiatives City Action Plan to secure jobs near where workers Flats, and make preliminary recommendations on how may reference. The framework will also include live. By providing jobs, The Flats completes its to turn these limits into opportunities. The opportunities strategies to stitch The Flats with adjacent adjacent neighbourhoods, and vice versa form the basis for the design principles and strategies in •	 Opportunity for participatory and co-design strategies: neighbourhoods, thus making it not only complete part 2. This part constitutes chapters 1 to 3. Given The Flats’ current vacant condition, it does not •	 Second, this being my project’s key contribution, is by itself, but complete by being with its wider have many of its own residents and communities. an urban design framework that comprises design context. But, as it develops and becomes better connected to principles, strategies, typologies and patterns, system adjacent neighbourhoods, residents and communities diagrams as well as focused studies on 2 areas. This The Flats completes other neighbourhoods, and from these neighbourhoods may become interested part constitute chapter 4. other neighbourhoods complete it. to participate and co-design The Flats’ identity and •	 Third, recognising The Flats’ future development will physical form. Hence, engaging with The Flats is an impact adjacent neighbourhoods, a checklist catered opportunity to reach out to these neighbourhoods. to ensure that future public participation processes can It is an opportunity for both planners and residents adequately involve locals in the formation of The Flats’ to, collectively, understand, the histories, relations, identity and physical character, particularly through sensibilities and socio-economic and cultural forces co-design. This part constitute chapter 5 and chapter 6 constituting The Flats. which forms the conclusion. (1) City of Vancouver, Vancouver 2020: A Bright  Green Future  to lands on the western side of False Creek. Any new construction should have a FCL of above 3.5m or This chapter outlines basic contexts and issues higher to reduce property and human-life damages.4 facing The Flats. This is done by summarising the •	 Sea-level rise: Some recent study suggests that if no actions are taken to further mitigate the impacts of planning directions for the area, its changing sociorising sea-levels, with a 5m to 7m rise, The Flats will economic demography, cultural histories, natural be submerged. (Fig. 2) The same study also notes ecology and neighbourhood visions. the absence of a dyke system around False Creek and 2.1.1 Current Natural Conditions puts future residents in those areas at even greater risk.5 The Flats is a land infill over the eastern part of •	 Earthquakes and Liquefaction: Like much of the False Creek which until the early 20th century was region, The Flats is exposed to earthquake related a tidal salt basin that extended east to Clark Drive. hazards like liquefaction. As a tidal flat, the different The primary reasons for this land reclamation layers of sediment have varying degrees of stability. was to provide land for the growth of the Great This difference can cause lateral sliding, and due to Northern Railway train tracks and station, and also to gravity the capping layer can slide towards lower points in The Flats such as the west side. Buildings, provide industrial lands for Vancouver’s growing job road networks, railways and infrastructure are thus demands in the 19th and 20th centuries. Adjacent vulnerable to damage.6 This can have a cascading neighbourhoods such as Strathcona, Chinatown, effect on socio-economic and ecological systems, and Commercial Drive and Mount Pleasant were also the area’s businesses and industries. experiencing growth.  While currently there is not much immediate perceived threat of flooding and other forms of disasters striking, studies have shown that the area is flood-prone. In fact, much of the land south of Terminal Avenue is susceptible to flooding. (Fig. 1) Additionally, current hazard studies suggest, as areas become more densely populated, they also become more exposed to hazards. Increasing a localised population density can heighten the probability of even small-scale disasters affecting larger number of people.2 Future planning for The Flats should consider the resiliency of not just the physical structures, but also the socio-economic welfare of its residents, especially if future residents are lower income groups.3 Due to The Flats’ physical form, 3 kinds of natural hazards can be identified: •	 Ponding & Flooding: Even though its current location is more than 300m from False Creek, according to CoV’s 2007 Flood Proofing Policies, due to the large upstream area tributaries to The Flats, winter storm surges, and major rainfall events, the soil can be over waterlogged which lead to ponding. This impacts soil stability and thus limits underground parking construction and even building heights. The Flood Proofing report also notes that the 3.0m flood construction levels (FCL) previously recommended for The Flats is 0.5m lower than the FCL recommended  2. Background >>> Site Conditions  2. Background  2.1.2. Urban Structure Development The 308 acres (125 hectares) Flats is bound by Prior Street to the north, Great Northern Way to the south, Main Street to the west and Clark Drive to the east. (Fig. 3) Low development intensity is characteristic there, with one-third of its land dedicated to rail usage and almost two-thirds dedicated to industrial uses ranging from warehouses, to autoshops, to some small pockets of offices and high-tech/creative businesses. Average lot sizes range from around 200’ x 150’ around Industrial Avenue and Malkin Avenue, to 550’ x 250’ along Terminal Avenue, to 750’ x 900’ at the northwest and southeast corners where St. Paul’s hospital and the police training centre respectively intend to relocate to. Big-box shops and the Emily Carr University, UBC, SFU and BCIT joint education institution at Great Northern Way are there too. As of 2006 The Flats accounts for about 20% of Vancouver’s industrial lands with approximately 5800 jobs within its boundaries.7 Its central location makes it a freight-receiving and goods distribution centre as well as a passenger rail depot. Most rail tracks run eastwest, thus there are very little north-south connections, except at Main Street and Glen Drive which are 1.5km apart. Many planning initiatives have noted connections problems leading to inaccessibility plays a factor in The Flats’ current low development intensity.  Fig.1: Much of the area south of Terminal Avenue, and nearly 50% of the area north of Terminal Avenue are prone to flooding.  Responding to issues of connections and low development intensity, in the past 15 years CoV has produced various plans, reports and district schedules pertaining to more intense development and better transport strategies, especially for the rail tracks. This is a short summary of some planning initiatives: •	 1995: Industrial Lands Strategy was created to support retention of city-serving industrial, transportation and service lands. •	 1996: The False Creek Flats Preliminary Concept Plan explored retaining The Flats’ industrial character while providing space for high-tech industries and live-work housing. It also suggests some mixed-use areas, for example, along Main Street as a link between The Flats and False Creek to the west. •	 1997: I-2 Light Industrial Zoning District Schedule was created to better meet the needs of contemporary industry while improving the compatibility of The Flats to nearby residential areas by preventing large scale, high-impact industrial use. •	 1999: CD-1(402) District Schedule was created for the development of a high-tech campus on the 26 acres Finning site on Great Northern Way, so as to tie in with the overall high-tech developments envisioned for The Flats.  Fig.2: The blue indicates a 7m rise which causes downtown and Stanley Park could become islands. The Flats will be completely submerged. (2) Denis Mileti, Disasters by Design: A Reassessment of Natural Hazards in the United States, Washington, D.C.: Joseph Henry Press, 1999, pp.119-120. (3) http://www.straight.com/article-347233/vancouver/ vision-transforming-false-creek-flats (Accessed: March 27th 2011) (4) http://vancouver.ca/ctyclerk/cclerk/20070417/documents/p3.pdf (Accessed: March 27th 2011) (5) BTAWorks (6) http://gsc.nrcan.gc.ca/urbgeo/geomapvan/ geomap8_e.php (Accessed March 25th 2011) (7) City of Vancouver, Metro Core Jobs & Economy Land Use Plans  Growth in rail and sea transportation contributed to The Flats’ major transformation. Historical milestones included:  Various heritage buildings and sites came from these developments over the past 150 years:  Clark Dr.  •	 1800s: The Flats was a tidal basin extending to Clark Drive. •	 1885: Canadian Pacific Railway’s western terminus moved from Port Moody to Coal Harbour and English Bay leading to rail yards construction at The Flats •	 1913: The Great Northern Way rail way was extended through The Flats to service Vancouver’s growing industry and population. It was this development particularly that spurred the major land reclamation. •	 1917: Reclamation reached to today’s Main Street. •	 1920s: The Flats’ rail presence is firmly established, and plans were underway to landfill the remaining portions of east False Creek. •	 1960s: Surrounding neighbourhoods began to see dramatic residential, retail and commercial growth to support the growing population and economic demands. •	 1980s & 1990s: CoV began to formalise new policies to better understand The Flats’ industrial potential.  Prior St.  Main St.  •	 1999: I-3 High-Tech Industrial Zoning District Schedule was created to permit high-tech and creative industries involved in significant amount of research and development activities. The I-3 outrightly limits its usage to high-tech industries such as software manufacturing. A FSR of 3.0 is allowed for manufacturing, transportation, wholesales, utility and storage uses, while a FSR of 1.0 is allowable for other uses. The building height is capped at 18.3m (61’). •	 2001: Urban Structure Policy Report was created to provide a more detailed interpretation of possible urban structure frameworks. This includes looking at how The Flats can be developed in 3 phases to slowly reduce rail usage and incorporate more diverse programs and green spaces. (Fig. 4) •	 2005: False Creek Flats Work Program was started to give a better understanding of different stakeholders’ views, concerns, issues and wishes. Key components of this work program were an explicit identification of heritage sites, a proposal for The Flats to be a district energy precinct and more detailed studies of movement in and around the area while retaining industrial uses. •	 2005: Administrative Report on Strategic Rail Overview and Detailed Operation Study was prepared by engineering services to note rail movement’s importance to Vancouver. The report recognises the rail lines are significant barriers to better connections at The Flat and proposes 4 schemes to deal with this. The schemes are to keep the existing rail footprint, to reconfigure the rail footprint, to increase rail footprint and to decrease rail footprint. •	 2006: Planning for The Flats took a hiatus due to reassignment of staff to other planning initiatives and programs. •	 2009: Rezoning Policy for “High Tech” sites in the False Creek Flats was drafted to re-examine high-tech zoning, particularly with the I-3 zone. It reported that since I-3 was created, there has not been a huge market demand for these high-tech spaces. It also report a broader range of non-residential, job space be adopted. The recommendation is to consider more flexible use of space to include offices, albeit a different form of development from that of downtown. •	 2011: Planning for The Flats restarted in May 2011.  2.2.1. Site History and Heritage  Great Northern Way  Figure.3: The False Creek Flats is bounded by Prior Street to the north, Great Northern Way to the south, Main Street to the west and Clark Drive to the east.  •	 CN Railway Station designed by RB Pratt and Ross in 1919 is a Class ‘A’ neo-classical building that serves as a civic landmark, and continues to function as the passenger rail/bus depot. (Fig. 5) •	 750 Terminal Avenue designed by Eric Arthur in 1937 is a Class ‘A’ Industrial-Moderne building, currently used as a piano retail business. •	 242 Terminal Avenue built in 1937 is a Class ‘B’ Industrial-Moderne building, currently used as a mini storage. •	 250 Terminal Avenue built in 1924 is a city-owned Class ‘B’ Industrial-Moderne building next to 242 Terminal Avenue that is currently vacant. •	 Thornton Park built around 1923 is named after Henry Thornton, general manager of CN Rail who contributed greatly to the park’s upkeep.  Figure.4: Culmination of the 3 phases of development with the elimination of the CN rail-yard and the BNSF rail-yard. Some of the bigger lots are subdivided to allow more pedestrian and vehicular movement through The Flats.  2. Background >>> Social Conditions  2.1.2. Urban Structure Development (con’t)  2. Background >>> Social Conditions  2.2.2. Demographics and Culture While The Flats itself is not heavily populated its surrounding neighbourhoods are. According to 2006’s census, The Flats and immediately adjacent areas are composed of 46% visible minorities, and more than half of those are Chinese.8 And, about 67% of the population are aged 20 to 59, with more than half of this population being 20 to 39 years old.9 Besides a high visible minority population and nearly half of the population being under 40 years old, The Flats and its surrounding neighbourhoods – namely east Vancouver communities – is also home to a vibrant arts and culture scene. For example, the Eastside Culture Crawl is a celebrated event in which artist studios are opened to the public. (Fig. 6) Tertiary art institutions such as The Vancouver Film School and Emily Carr University have both moved into Chinatown and The Flats respectively. The area is also home to several galleries like the Firehall Arts Centre, Gallery Gachet, Artspeak Gallery, Interurban Gallery, the Vancouver Access Artist Run Centre, The VIVO Media Centre, The Western Front and The Elliot Louis Gallery. Since 2005 CoV is developing plans such as the  Downtown Eastside Strategic Arts and Culture Framework and Investment Plan to celebrate and  Figure 5: Pacific Central Train Station currently services the CN Rail, VIA Rail as well as several cross-continental bus-lines.  finance the eastside’s unique history and diversity through public-focused arts and artistic institutions. While government support is the chief funding there lays the possibility for new developments to fund some of these initiatives by means of CACs (in exchange for bonus density).  Figure 6: The annual Eastside Culture Crawl features open studios the public can visit.  (8) http://www12.statcan.ca/census-recensement/2006/ dp-pd/prof/92-597/P3.cfm?Lang=E&CTCODE=5283& CATYPE=CMA (Accessed March 27th 2011) (9) http://www12.statcan.ca/census-recensement/2006/ dp-pd/prof/92-597/P3.cfm?Lang=E&CTCODE=5292& CATYPE=CMA (Accessed: March 27th, 2011)  2.3.2. NegotiatingRail Uses Strong support exists for retaining rail and even allowing growth for rail service, both freight and passenger. This is partly due to the Burrard Inlet shipping terminals getting busier. In fact, according to 2008’s False Creek Flat Rail Corridor Strategy Report, the number of containers going through Vancouver can go from around 3 million in 2010 to about 5 million by 2020. To deal with this increase, freight trains have been getting longer to carry more containers and as a result rail yards lengths grow correspondingly. With regards to passenger rail, the report estimates an increase from the current 26 passenger trains per week to 70 per week in 20 years. Currently, there are 4 rail yards at The Flats that support freight and passenger operations:  are gained in the CN Main yard, Glen Yard, Waterfront or Grandview yards to accommodate freight rail growth.  Rail footprint changes should also reconsider how blocks and lots can be adequately subdivided to foster more office, retail and residential uses to move in by. However, displacing rail yards totally and relocating them to Surrey or Coquitlam are not feasible due to two main reasons:  •	 Relation between rail and industrial lands will suffer if rail yards are relocated. The Flats’ affordable industrial lands for warehouses provide space for goods from the rails to density. (Fig. 7) be stored prior to re-distribution. Rail and Despite intentions for I-2 and I-3 to increase highindustrial lands form a synergistic land use tech and light industries, and currently there being However, two issues arise with regards to including pattern. •	 CN Main Yard is a support yard for container traffic from about 3 million sq ft of job spaces permitted under residential and live-work in The Flats: • Rail is a sustainable transport choice. If the south shore shipping terminals. I-2 and I-3 zoning, the uptake has been slow. There freight and passenger rail yards are relocated •	 BNSF Yard generally supports the barge operations at remains a large number of vacant or low-intensity •	 Land cost: Future developments must not be weighted that can translate to more use of fossil-fuel Burrard Inlet. lots there. According to a 2009’s Rezoning Policy for so much toward residential and retail that land cost and vehicles to transport goods from Surrey or •	 Glen Yard is used primarily for staging grain and “High Tech” sites in the False Creek Flats the uptake rent rise and drive out other uses such as light industrial. Coquitlam into Vancouver proper. Also, the container cars. is slow due to wider global slowing down of high-tech •	 Rail versus residential conflict: While CoV is not opposed passenger rails can one day accommodate •	 VIA Yard is used for passenger arrival and departures. to including residential and live-work uses, potential people coming to heart of Vancouver from and creative industries when the internet bubble burst conflict can arise when residential and live-work are surrounding municipalities such Langley, in the late 90s. As a result, it has been difficult for Despite the importance of the rail yards in supporting sited too close to rail. Abbotsford, and even Chilliwack using trains. further developments at The Flats to proceed due to an  Vancouver’s growth, there have been discussions to slowly reduce the rail footprint in The Flats. This is In summary the question pertains to how to best support industrial lands by keeping the cost reasonable in light of the rail yards creating significant barriers for much needed linkages around and through The while including other uses. Flats. In 2005’s Administrative Report on Strategic Rail Overview and Detailed Operation Study, the following assumptions on the respective rail yards are considered 2009’s Rezoning Policy for “High Tech” sites in the False reasonable: Creek Flats suggests several ‘solutions’ to bring more non-residential activities to The Flats: •	 CN Main Yard will remain the same or increase rail inability to secure sufficient high-tech tenants to meet the I-3 zoning requirements. Aside from high-tech industries issues, demands for general office uses in The Flats and housing needs in the Vancouver region have increased in recent years.  •	 Site-specific rezoning to increase flexibility in the type of job space permitted in I-3 zones. •	 Broaden the usage in I-2 and I-3 zones to include restaurants and more general office uses. The original intention to limit restaurants and office uses there is to reduce vehicular and customer traffic in the area. But given The Flats’ proximity to existing and proposed transit routes, offices and restaurants may thrive. •	 Retain city-serving uses to keep The Flats’ role as a hub which can provide services that other neighbourhoods cannot provide due to other real estate demands.  footprint. •	 BNSF Yard will remain the same or be eliminated. •	 Glen Yard will remain the same or increase rail footprint. •	 VIA Yard will increase rail footprint.  3 rail footprint scenarios arise from the above assumptions of the 4 rail yards (Fig. 8): •	 Reconfigured footprint assumes the BNSF railyard is no Figure 7: Cross-section and photograph showing possible longer in service and the equivalent amount of tracks streetscape treatment at I-3 zones. Much of the streetscape treatment are reconfigured to the CN’s Main Yard and/or Glen Yard. is not too different from ones recommended for residential zones. •	 Increased footprint accommodates a larger footprint than today’s, with a larger CN Yard and/or Glen yard. •	 Reduced footprint assumes the BNSF railyard is no longer in service and that enough rail efficiencies  2. Background >>> Current Land Use  2.3.1. Negotiating Industrial Lands with Other Uses With regards to residential usage, the I-3 zone as well as the Great Northern Way site does permit some small Retaining The Flats as primarily industrial as been degree of housing and promotes walkability: identified by CoV as necessary due to its affordable land cost and rent within inner-city limits. While •	 I-3 housing allowances include dwelling for caretakers retaining industrial lands is a priority, CoV and or watchmen considered to be essential to a business’ businesses have expressed interests to increase more operation. Residential units integral to an artist studio is also allowed. office, retail, live-work, and residential opportunities. • Great Northern Way housing allowances include 180000 The I-2 (primarily for city-serving industries like food sq ft of floorspace permitted for live-work situations. distribution places on Malkin Avenue, the recycling depot on Industrial Avenue and the firemen and police •	 Walkability is actually encouraged by I-3’s current streetscape strategies which calls for a neighbourhood facilities) and I-3 zones (primarily for high-tech and accessible by foot and cycling, as opposed to previous creative industries) were created to help retain The zoning requirements which were automobile centric. Flats as primarily industrial, albeit toward a renewed Design strategies such as continuous sidewalks already understanding of “industrial”. caters to a neighbourhood suitable for greater residential  2. Background >>> Current Land Use  Figure 8: Existing rail footprint (TL); Reconfigured rail footprint (BL); Increased rail footprint (TR); Reduced rail footprint (BR)  Without its own community vision, summarising some aspects of the adjacent neighbourhoods’ community plans and visions can help planners better understand how The Flats can be planned and designed should it be better connected to its surrounding urban fabric. Doing so, allows one to get a sense of what The Flats’ growth potential, form and character, density and public realm treatment can be like. Knowing the larger context, one may better plan and design the Flats as a ‘connector’ and ‘extension’ of these neighbourhoods. The Flats sits amongst key neighbourhoods like (Fig. 9): • • • •  Mount Pleasant to the south Grandview Woodlands to the east Strathcona to the immediate north Southeast False Creek to the west  Summary of neighbourhood visions: Mount Pleasant have yet a community vision but since 2010 it has a draft community plan. Key characteristics and visions for urban form include: •	 Topography is seen by City staff and community members as integral to creating ‘Hilltown’. Urban design wise this entails finding ways to smooth the transition of taller buildings and high-street feel around the key node at Broadway/Main Street to the lower-rise residential fabric along Great Northern Way. (Fig. 10) •	 Low to mid-rise massing is preferred to respect the human-scale quality of the area. Although taller buildings are possible at select sites.  •	 Incorporating heritage buildings into new projects to preserve heritage and to promote architectural innovation. (Fig.11) •	 Diversity in housing and population to ensure liveability for all types and sizes of families and households. This entails a wide range of affordable housing to include rentals, co-ops, supported housing and artist livework spaces. At the same time to provide services and facilities to these families and households. Non-market housing should be distributed evenly rather than ghettoised. •	 Public benefits with large site developments should be pursued. This can come in the form of contributions to heritage retention, improved pedestrian environment, cycling routes, rights-of-way and social housing. Large developments should fit with the area’s look and feel. •	 Distributing green spaces around the area. Green spaces are not only parks but vertical gardens, linear parks, pocket parks, laneway green treatments, semi-private courtyard and rooftops gardens. Food growing should also be considered. (Fig.12) •	 Infill strategies should be pursued to increase density before choosing high-rise forms. This can be done through laneway housing, redeveloping open carparks and other vacant areas within existing sites. (Fig.13) •	 Laneway development should be considered by activating the lanes with commercial activities such as artist studios and cafes. Greening the lanes is another strategy. •	 Walking is a priority when it comes to the overall design and planning of the area’s movement routes. •	 Focus on a creative community is a high priority, especially considering the area’s artistic culture such as the Eastside Culture Crawl amongst other events.  Strathcona  Southeast-  Figure 9: The Flats is situated in the middle of several established neighbourhoods which character will affect the future developments at The Flats.  The Flats  Figure 10: Mount Pleasant’s Hilltown character. How will future developments at The Flats complement this morphological pattern?  Figure 11: Heritage building on Main Street  Figure 12: Mount Pleasant’s green space are not limited to parks but distributed in all forms such as the rain-gardens shown here.  Grandview-  False Creek  Figure 13: Laneway-oriented infill housing can be explored in The Flats’ future development.  Woodlands  Mt. Pleasant  2. Background >>> Community Contexts  2.4.1. Adjacent Neighbourhoods’ Visions  Grandview Woodlands have yeta community vision • document. CoV is working on developing one. Grandview Woodlands is a very large area, and the areas closest to The Flats are mostly characterised by • RT-3, RT-4 an RT-5 zones. Although a ring of RM-4 zone is at the edge between The Flats and GrandviewWoodlands. Key characteristics and visions for these RT • zones: •	 Primarily one-family or two-family dwelling is permitted. Some provisions for seniors’ supportive housing are also permitted. •	 Non-residential uses may include small clubhouse, neighbourhood house, park, library (if near a community centre), child care facility, church, bed and breakfast as well as farmers’ markets and grocery stores (if nearby • parking is provided). Commercial zoning exists along some key arterials such as Commercial Drive. (Fig.14)  Strathcona have yet a community vision document; however, the Strathcona Revitalisation Committee drafted its own visioning document, Strathcona: A Clear Vision for Our Community. Key characteristics and visions include:  • •  • •	 Preserve industrial land uses to retain affordability for light industry such as bodyshops and other services. However, there is also the initiative to slowly include more green and clean industries that can better co-exist with housing in these areas. •	 Retain RT-3 zones to keep the fabric of those areas relatively low intensity. This zoning is also to retain heritage stock and single family home fabric. •	 Reinforce the presence of the artistic community by re-appropriating some buildings for the use by arts  Figure 14: RT zones in Grandview Woodlands are often immediately next to commercial C-2 and C-3 zones.  community to manufacture, exhibit and sell products of creative imagination. (Fig.15) Respect heritage stock in the area. By updating and including more buildings in the heritage registry, especially buildings around east Hastings. (Fig. 16) Nurture existing large non-market housing developments such as housing complexes like MacLean park, Raymur Place and Mau Dan Gardens. The aim is to keep existing residents in the area. Build more market housing to help support local retail businesses and bring a healthy social presence to the public realm. However, all new housing developments, especially ones along arterials, should consider a sizable proportion of non-market housing. Additionally, large housing developments should contribute to the public amenities of the community by providing green spaces, child and senior care facilities and recreational spaces, as these are short in Strathcona. Revitalise East Hastings as a shopping street. To do so an increase of housing and people will be needed. There needs to be a requirement for retail at grade to revitalise street life. This also increases local jobs. Green living characterised by community gardens, farmers’ markets and renewable energy are encouraged for new developments. (Fig. 17) Connected greenways and bikeways are essential in creating a complete community where people can easily bike or walk to work. Appropriate densification will increase the population while respecting the local urban fabric. Densification is identified by the committee as crucial to dilute the proportions of persons on drugs or who are mentally ill. Appropriate densification will improve the norm for street behaviour, improve conditions for industry and retail, reduce crime and make it easier for people to break the cycles of addiction and poverty.  Figure 15: Chapel Arts on Dun Levy is a repurposed building now used as a gallery, performance space and artists’ studios.  Figure 16: Residential heritage buildings in Strathcona.  Figure 18: Connection to the waterfront is key  Figure 17: Strathcona Community Garden incorporates disused concrete blocks to create the garden scape.  Figure 17: Strathcona Community Garden incorporates disused concrete blocks to create the garden scape.  Southeast False Creek has an official development plan prepared to facilitate the planning and design of the Olympic Village. Of all the neighbourhoods surrounding The Flats it has the densest form of development. Key characteristics and visions for the area’s urban form include: •	 Connection to water is important to bring nature into the urban space. (Fig.18) •	 Create distinct neighbourhoods, each derived from a particular historic pattern of the adjacent neighbourhoods. The eastern most part of SEFC is to take on rail-yard identity which ties well with programs at The Flats. •	 Connect open spaces to make walking and cycling easier. Connected open spaces at SEFC can be connected up to The Flats to create a wider walking/ cycling network. (Fig.19) •	 Street hierarchy established through paving patterns and different street width provides convenient and clear access for pedestrians while discouraging thoroughfare vehicular traffic. •	 Integrated transit is crucial to tie SEFC to other parts of the cities for the purpose of jobs, extra-curricular activities and school.  Figure 20: Community services are within close proximity of each other to help form a heart.  2. Background >>> Community Contexts  2.4.1. Adjacent Neighbourhoods’ Visions (Con’t)  •	 Cluster community services around open spaces that are accessible to all. (Fig.20) •	 Private-public integration will be achieved through ground plane design and overall building form so that private and public open spaces may be immediately adjacent to each other to create a bigger sense of open spaces. •	 Basin morphology where taller building masses are sited near 2nd Avenue and slopes down toward the Creek. •	 Incremental development is achieved by varying the parcel sizes to allow for different forms of development to occur. This is represented by a mix of building types from the low-rise townhouse to 10-storeys terrace apartments. (Fig. 21) •	 Demonstrated sustainability is achieved by incorporating storm-water managements, urban agriculture and mixed use buildings on the site.  Figure 21: Development is encouraged to create varied lot sizes via parcellisation so as to produce a varied urban morphology.  2.4.2. Community Comsultation During 2005’s False Creek Flats work program a two-phase set of meetings were held with the neighbourhoods around The Flats. Phase 1 was a scoping stage and Phase 2 was a visioning stage. Representatives from local resident associations, community centres, BIAs, NGOs and First Nations groups were recruited to envision what The Flats can be. The meetings were designed to meet the following objectives: •	 Provide ‘The Story’ of The Flats in terms of current state, in process and possible future plans •	 Explore participants’ issues, concerns and ideas regarding current and future planning. •	 Obtain recommendations for information exchange, consultation and participation in the ongoing planning process.  The following recommendations regarding urban form resulted from the meetings: •	 Retain and strengthen I-2 and I-3 zones to ensure land cost affordability and employment in The Flats and its surrounds •	 Redefine ‘industrial’ to include more usage. One of the suggestions was to add usage such as restaurants during off-hours to draw visitors to The Flats. •	 Access, Greenways and pathways are necessary if The Flats is going to be more actively engaged as a high-tech/creative zone and possibly for some level of residential uses. Greenways can be used to link open green spaces together. •	 Create a pedestrian-oriented zone around Main and Terminal by introducing more business opportunities and better public realm treatment. •	 Better transit linkages and connections to bring future residents and workers to and from The Flats. •	 Support natural systems by daylighting streams, establishing wildlife spaces, installing green roofs and geothermal energy systems as well as using the former tidal flats as a key design focus. •	 Protect heritage buildings in area as a reminder of the Flats’ history.  2. Background >>> Community Contexts  2.4.1. Adjacent Neighbourhoods’ Visions (Con’t)  Reflecting on issues addressed in chapter 2, this chapter points to some of the limits facing The Flats. But, also highlights how these limits can become opportunities that this project can develop in terms of an urban design framework in chapter 4. This chapter explores issues with urban form, connections, industrial uses, energy issues, environmental impact and community consultation issues.  boundaries, edges can become the zone where neighbourhoods meet. (Fig.22) •	 Create distinct sub-areas: Both the SEFC ODP and Mount Pleasant’s community plan suggest treating their respective neighbourhoods as a series of connected but distinct precincts. Distinct precincts may begin inform how The Flats’ urban design guidelines may be drafted as it moves from west to east. The potential distinct precincts in The Flats can each have different but mutually complementary building typologies to mark its respective dominant land-use and precinct character. (Fig. 23)  3. Limits and Opportunities >>> Urban Form  3. Limits and Opportunities  3.1.1 Limits Regarding Urban Form •	 Stated urban design directions: The various plans, such as 2001’s urban structure plan and the various rail corridor strategies, have laid out possible land uses, rail strategies and subdivisions. But, they have yet to explicitly focus on suitable building typologies and wider urban morphologies. While the current I-3 district schedule provides some architectural precedents, there is no urban design framework to more succinctly bring The Flats’ physical identity into focus. There are also no directions as to how The Flats can tie in with itself and surrounding Figure 22: How will The Flats’ edge transition from and respond to neighbourhoods through urban form. There are, for Mount Pleasant ‘Hilltown’ character? example, no directions about how each possible sub•	 A series of centres: The Flats’ adjacent area’s character would look like. neighbourhoods all have a distinguished centre •	 Significant recent investments: There are large lots where one knows one has arrived at that particular in the area that have been developed in the last 15 neighbourhood. Centres in the form of plazas and years. These lots include the city-owned national parks are also places where formal or informal yard, the fire training facility, the Evans yard, the face-to-face communication may occur and ideas police depot as well as major private developments about community and self begin.10 Like SEFC and like Home Depot, F/X Wholesalers, Gift Exchange and Mount Pleasant, The Flats’ potential centre is one a pharmaceutical building. Change on these sites may where most of the amenities and services are sited. be slow. However, unlike SEFC which has one centre, The Flats 3.1.2 Opportunities Regarding Urban Form being around 5 times bigger may have to have a key centre with smaller centres for each of its potential •	 Connect to adjacent neighbourhoods by ‘stitching’ precincts or sub-areas. The connection between the edges: Both Southeast False Creek’s ODP and Mount primary and secondary centres should be legible that Pleasant’s draft community plan call for a transition one can move between centres without confusion. in urban form and height. In the case of SEFC the (Fig.24) strategy is to come down in height as it approaches • Diversify building types within a development: While the creek, and for Mount Pleasant the strategy is to The Flats is chiefly going to be industrial, the building come down in height as it approaches Great Northern typologies can vary especially since high-tech and Way. Likewise, in areas of Strathcona and Grandviewcreative industry businesses do not necessarily need Woodlands that front onto The Flats there is an industrial size floorplates to operate. For blocks and expressed desire to retain the RT zone character. The lots with depths more than 250’ (61m) and substantial typologies and morphologies at The Flats, especially frontage, finer grain buildings for commercial retail at its edges, can take the opportunity to respond to use, offices and creative businesses can front onto these surrounding strategies by having similar fine the street while blockier buildings more suited for grain blocks and buildings, mirroring the building light industry (i.e. storages, distributors, bodyshops, forms and character, and/or having complementary wholesalers, etc) can be at the back where loading programming. Rather than treatment edges as clear bays can be accessed via lanes. Essentially, this  Figure 23: How are the different future uses at The Flats that can help define different sub-areas? How will developments along Terminal Avenue differ from ones along Industrial Avenue?  Figure 24: Where will the future centres for each sub-area be? What kind of form will these centres take? How will they be linked up? (10) Hester, Randolph, Design for Ecological Democracy, Cambridge, MA & London, UK: MIT Press, 2006, pp.23-32.  Figure 30: Terminal Avenue can afford to have greater density and diversity of programs to strengthen its identity as the area’s central spine. More iconic building design at the corner of Main and Terminal can signal a west-end entry point.  3.2.2. Opportunities Regarding Connections  Figure 26: A blurred private-public space that combines a public courtyard with the patios of residential units produces an open space that seems larger than its part. The effect of a larger open space can be further enhanced if the courtyard can also serve as a right-of-way.  •	 Reconfigured rail footprint: One of the strategies proposed is be reconfigure the rail tracks bringing the bulk of the lines at BNSF immediately south of Industrial Avenue to the Glen Yards. With the BNSF tracks gone, the VIA passenger and the CN tracks are the only two rail yards left. The reduced number of rail yards cutting across frees up the blocks between Industrial Avenue and Great Northern Way campus for development. More robust development here can intensify Industrial Avenue’s streetscape and bring more people into The Flats. With the BNSF rail yard relocated, there  Figure 29: Can a dedicated bike lane that cuts through to Great Northern Way and/or East 5th Avenue be installed along Industrial Avenue? Additionally, what kinds of more intense programming can go along Industrial Avenue to make a bike-trip more enjoyable?  (11) Lewis, Sally, Front to Back: A Design Agenda for Urban Housing, Oxford, UK: Elsevier Architectural Press, 2005, p.56. (12) Bosselmann, Peter, “Images in Motion” in Urban Design Reader (Eds. M. Carmona & S. Tiesdell), Oxford, UK: Elsevier Architectural Press, 2007, p.285.  3. Limits and Opportunities >>> Connections  is the potential to link the eastern end of Industrial •	 More robust east-west arterials: More Avenue to Great Northern Way thus increase east-west diverse programming at grade and within would take on a double-fronted block form, which connections. the individual lots on Terminal Avenue for encourages different architectural treatment due to •	 Landscaped pedestrian and bike bridges: To increase example could add visual dynamism that the differences in use and massing requirements.11 north-south connections by foot and bicycle, landscaped can make that 1km walk more pleasant. (Fig.25) pedestrian and bike bridges straddling across the rail Terminal can be The Flats’ commercial yards can be considered. Given the potential width and spine. The west side of Terminal can thus weight of landscaped bridge they are more likely feature unique architectural designs that to go across the VIA rail yard which are around 150’ to speak of The Flats’ industrial history, its 180’ (46m to 55m) in span, the eastern edge of the CN commitment as a green neighbourhood rail yard at Cottrell Street and/or Glen Drive at Evans and signal a west-side entry to The Flats. Avenue. Most of the CN rail yard is more than 250’ (Fig. 30) 2009’s Rezoning Policy for “High (76m). (Fig. 28) Tech” sites in the False Creek Flats also suggests that restaurants and retail along Terminal can also make night-time walking and cycling safer. Likewise Industrial Figure 27: The vast areas of parking space at The Flats can be Figure 25: Buildings within larger lots can take on differently Avenue can also be intensified. developed as infills in the future when car usage to and from The massing and architectural articulations to provide visual diversity. •	 More robust north-south arterials: Good Flats have decreased due to, partly, better public transport to the area. Fine grain buildings can take the street-side while blockier connectivity at The Flats is not just cutting buildings suited for industrial use can be at the rear. A landscaped through its middle. The ‘blank space’ 3.2.1. Limits Regarding Connections laneway and/or courtyard can separate the two uses. at Main St. between 2nd Avenue and •	 Blend private-public open spaces: In areas where •	 North-south connections: Currently, the rail yards are Terminal Avenue can be more intensely there are courtyards within a lot, design solutions can significant barriers to better north-south connections. developed. This translates to more mixed Proposals have been made to remove or at least be sought to make that courtyard accessible to the use that includes housing and commercialreduce the number of rail tracks. However, given the public. (Fig.26) Figure 28: A Landscaped pedestrian and bicycle bridge similar to retail opportunities to tie into the fabric of re-emergence of rail as a sustainable means of goods this one Laurel Street and West 6th Avenue can span across some of •	 Infill strategies to intensify land usage: Infill strategies SEFC and Mount Pleasant. Developing this and passenger movement, complete removal may not the rail-yard to allow more north-south connections. can be adopted to existing underdeveloped sites area also signals a west entry-point to The be a viable option. where underutilised car-parks, for example, can Flats. •	 More bike lanes: With cycling on the rise more bike •	 East-west connections: East-west connections are be repurposed for the construction of secondary trails and lanes can be added to the existing on poor to due to the lack of diverse programming along buildings housing small boutique offices, housing and/ immediately north of the CN Rail yard to increase Terminal Avenue and Great Northern Way which are or live-work studios. (Fig. 27) east-west connections. Designated bike lanes on over 1km. Visual monotony makes walking less pleasant. Industrial Avenue (which will cut through to Great The dimension of buildings and the setting of these Northern Way) and Terminal Avenue will also improve buildings influences how one perceives time.12 connectivity. These bike lanes can intersect with the •	 Psychological barrier: The 350m distance from 2nd landscaped pedestrian and bike bridges. (Fig. 29) Avenue to Terminal Avenue has a lack of diverse programming and higher development intensity which projects The Flats as a ‘blank space’ where nothing is happening. This may form a psychological barrier keeping people from entering. Similar observations can be made for Clark Drive and Terminal Avenue.  3.1.2. Opportunities Regarding Urban Form (Con’t)  •	 Heritage Necklace: Mount Pleasant and Strathcona have both expressed desires to retain heritage buildings. This can be an opportunity for The Flats to use its own heritage stock (such as the CN Railway Station) to join Mount Pleasant to Chinatown and Strathcona by creating a north-south ‘heritage necklace’. (Fig. 33)  •	 East-side entry-point: While the Clark Drive side of The Flats should be kept more or less I-2 and suited for warehouses and storages, the public realm treatment could be bettered to demarcate an east entry-point to The Flats. For example, the currently empty lot at Glen and Evan can be better designed as a park to signal to people that they have entered The Flats. Future redevelopments at the blocks at the off-ramp of Terminal Avenue and Cottrell Street can hold more Figure 33: The heritage buildings along Main Street can be tied height and have less setback from the front property line together to showcase the history of this part of the city. Special and more grade-level retail such as cafes and shops to paving can be used to mark this path that connects at least 3 to 4 mark entry into The Flats. One enters a Terminal Avenue neighbourhoods with The Flats in the middle. that can service not just industrial uses but provide a live-work space currently. The 180,000 sq-ft live-work human-scale experience.13 (Fig. 31) space at the GNW campus can include student housing, •	 Connecting green networks: Both SEFC and Mount and services and commercial retail businesses needed to Pleasant have directions to connect their green streets, support student populations. parks and open spaces into a green network. Future •	 Redefine I-3: 2009’s Rezoning Policy for “High Tech” development at The Flats should explore how its own sites in the False Creek Flats expressed interest to green network can extend from SEFC and Mount redefine I-3’s allowable uses. An increased amount of Pleasant’s. office and other job and retail spaces besides high-tech Figure 32: A tram line and stations along Great Northern Way can •	 Skytrain and tram stations: There are opportunities to serve future residents of The Flats as well as Mount Pleasant residents. is proposed to enliven the area. These new office and bring a skytrain station to the eastern side of The Flats retail spaces can be sited more toward the Main Street to service the to-be intensified commercial Terminal 3.3.1. Limits Regarding Industrial Uses side so as to allow the Glen Drive side to retain a more Avenue. The skytrain station at the eastern end can be I-2 character. • Slow uptake for I-2 and I-3 : The I-2 and I-3 zones were a landmark signalling one’s entry into The Flats from Figure 34: Instead of treating industrial buildings as • Redefine ‘mixed use’: There is also an opportunity to created to better meet the needs of contemporary light the east. And if the station is next to the off-ramp of derelict objects, they can be repurposed to house other rethink the definition of ‘mixed use’. Typically, mixed and high-tech industries respectively. Unfortunately, the Terminal Avenue, then the station can be elevated with programs.with The Flats in the middle. use is conceived as vertical mixed use with commercialuptake did not grow as anticipated. There have been one of the entries from the off-ramp itself. This is to retail at grade and residential above. There is the suggestions by both businesses and CoV to redefine allow pedestrians who use Terminal Avenue to board opportunity to think how mixed use can be achieved these zones to allow for more market and non-market the train with greater ease, and to create an uniquedly through site planning. For example, a lot with sufficient housing, besides the currently allowed artist live-work designed station. A tram station at the Great Northern depth (250’+) and frontage (300’+) may have more spaces, to be developed in these zones. However, the Way campus is also possible to serve not just Flats’ commercial retail (mini-marts, clinics and post-offices) issue of rising land cost due to residential development residents but also Mount Pleasant residents. (Fig. 32) and residential programming on its street- edge, and can drive industries out. Moreover, residential uses may more I-3 type program with offices and high-tech/ conflict with rail usage. creative businesses in the lane- edge. The two ‘halves’ 3.3.2. Opportunities Regarding Industrial Uses can be separated by a shared courtyard which with adequate vegetation coverage can provide residents •	 ‘Industrial’ as a defining character: There is the with visual and auditory screening. This lot division opportunity to explore how The Flats’ industrial will be more toward the west-half of The Flats to allow character in both look and program can become an the east half to retain a more I-2 character. Such close Figure 35: Close proximity of industrial and identity. For example, the city-owned industrial lots residential is possible if ‘industrial’ is cleaner, greener. proximity between new/light industrial and residential on the Station Street and Industrial Avenue can host To moderate the industrial land prices going up, already exists in Vancouver’s IC-1 and IC-2 zones at the programs like localised composting services, shops that instead of mixing uses on one lot, a lot (especially Burrard Slopes. There residential uses (as small CD-1 build and sell rainwater tanks, green fashion houses, etc a larger one) can be subdivided with some smaller zones) are often above, across from or right next to to showcase a new approach to ‘industrial’. The buildings portions rezoned as CD-1 and becoming residential. uses like autoshops, software design firms and catering can be designed to speak of The Flats’ industrial businesses. The Flats can pursue a similar strategy to heritage. (Fig. 34) create spots of CD-1 for residential uses. (Fig. 35) •	 Utilise existing residential allowances: Besides artist • ‘Green loops’ between industries: New developments live-work studios, the current I-2 and I-3 zoning allow can explore opportunities to work with existing some degree of residential floorspace for caretakers to businesses at The Flats to create a ‘green loop’ between live on work premise. Initiatives can be taken to design Figure 31: While the east-end of The Flats can stay relatively industrial the new and existing businesses. For example, a green an arts village at The Flats. The Great Northern Way in character, greater density and better building design at the east-end loop can emerge if the future park at Thornton and of Terminal Avenue can signal a clearer entry into The Flats. campus (zoned CD-1) also allows up to 180,000 sq-ft of (13) Ibid.  3. Limits and Opportunities >>> Industrial Uses  3.2.2. Opportunities Regarding Connections (con’t)  3.4.2. Opportunities Regarding Energy  Malkin is allowed to become an urban agricultural site •	 District Energy Precinct: 2005’s working program which produce can be distributed at the food distribution for The Flats suggested that it along with adjacent places along Malkin. A localised composting business neighbourhoods can become an energy precinct. can be sited nearby to turn the waste from the food However, for The Flats to do that, it needs to have at distributors into product. Likewise, part of the recycled least 50 dwelling units per hectare. At 125 hectares, materials from the recycling depot on Industrial Avenue at least 6250 dwelling units must be designed for the can become the raw materials for artists who might live area. It is possible to site most of these residential units and work in the future live-work studios along Industrial on the west side of The Flats and supply energy to the Avenue and at Great Northern Way campus. (Fig. 36) east side of The Flats (and adjacent neighbourhoods) which may have much lower dwelling units or the waste Figure 38: Solar panels can also be placed amidst roof gardens to soften the panels’ hard-edge appearance, especially if roof-tops are output needed for district energy. The areas fronting to become areas for gathering and local food production. onto Malkin Avenue, Prior Street and 2nd Avenue can be developed into residential zones to generate enough waste for district energy while most areas along 3.5.1. Limits Regarding Environmental Welness Terminal Avenue can stay industrial. (Fig. 37) •	 Poor soil quality: The Flats being reclaimed lands needs soil remediation for new developments. Engineers have also reported that because of the existing soil conditions, higher building forms and underground carparks may not be structurally and environmentally suitable. The inability to build taller may lower the allowable FSR. •	 Poor potential for urban agriculture: The substandard soil quality may make it hard for urban agriculture to take place. •	 Ponding and flooding: The Flats is prone to ponding and flooding because it is currently below flood construction levels.  Figure 39: The waste food produces from some of the food distribution centres at The Flats as well as unused mulch and lumber from regional mills can be brought in by rail to be transformed into biomass energy, hence giving The Flats a greater degree of self-reliance in terms of energy production.  3.5.1. Opportunities Regarding Environmental Wellness •	 Soil Remediation: Developing The Flats, both residential and industrial, can actually improve the air and soil quality. New developments can be impetuses to Figure 36: A green loop that explores how the waste of one business can become the construction materials for another can remediate the soil, create better drainage/filtration •	 Solar Energy: Given that many of the industrial buildings influence how land-use and building design is approached. that can prevent flooding, erosion and toxic run-off. To have larger roof-plates, placing solar panels on them combat flooding and ponding, bioswales and even dayshould help with The Flats producing its own energy. 3.4.1. Limits Regarding Energy lit streams can be designed to allow better drainage and Solar panels can also be placed amidst roof gardens to even be used to organised public realm treatment. •	 Low Energy Production: Currently, the light-industrial soften the panels’ hard-edge appearance, especially if • Environment-responsive architecture: The inability to and rail-related activities within The Flats, though not roof-tops are to become areas for gathering and local construct higher building forms can be an opportunity necessarily energy-intensive, only consume energy food production. (Fig. 38) for developers and architects to invent creative solutions without the ability to produce their own energy. •	 Biomass energy: Being well-served by rail, it is to increase The Flats’ population (needed for district Generally, a minimum of 50 to 60 dwelling units per possible for The Flats to develop a biomass processing energy, etc) while respecting the urban morphology of hectare is needed to make district energy economically centre where, for example, mulch and wastes from surrounding neighbourhoods. For example, above-grade feasible.14 the lumber mills near rail systems can be brought in parking can be under an eco-deck that provides green •	 High Vehicle Kilometres Travelled: Given the few housing and processed to produce energy. This is a reason for amenities to nearby residents and workers. (15) (Fig. 40) choices and numbers in The Flats, workers usually have why some degree of rail service must remain at The •	 Off-ground urban agriculture: With regards to urban to travel in. Very often that trip into The Flats can be by Flats. (Fig. 39) agriculture, if growing edible vegetation is not possible car as there not many transit routes that go through The •	 Reduced VKT: By providing housing choices at The at the ground level, then plots could be placed on Flats. If these car-trips are factored in, the embodied Flats, there can be less car-trips needed to The Flats, building roofs and terraces, and through hydroponics energy consumption of The Flats can be even higher. thereby reducing overall energy consumption. systems, that are nonetheless accessible to the public. (Fig. 41) Figure 37: The Flats along with adjacent neighbourhoods can become an energy precinct characterised by district energy systems, solar power amongst other systems.  Figure 40: The Flats being prone to flooding should have above-grade car-parks. These car-parks, however, can under a landscaped eco-deck that offers open spaces to residents and workers, remediates air quality, reduces run-offs as well as visually screens the car-park itself.  (14) Morris, Pierce, “In the Pipeline: District Energy and Green Building”, in Environmental Building News, 2007, Vol.16, No.3. (15) Lewis, Sally, Front to Back: A Design Agenda for Urban Housing, Oxford, UK: Elsevier Architectural Press, 2005, p.64  3. Limits and Opportunities >>> Energy; Environmental Wellness  3.3.2. Opportunities Regarding Industrial Uses (con’t)  3.6.1. Limits on Community Engagement  2. Background >>> Community Engagement  3.5.1. Opportunities Regarding Environmental Wellness  •	 Greenways: Disused rail yards (like the BNSF yards •	 Lack of community feedback on urban form and design: which has been suggested to be relocated to the Glen The community group meetings and stakeholders’ yards) can become greenways. Greenways, having a workshops held by The City in mid 2005 have articulated greater degree of pervious surfacing, can help control several important ideas for what The Flats can be run-offs from the adjacent areas. Bioswales and even in terms of being better connected to surrounding miniaturised wetlands can feature prominently in these neighbourhoods and being affordable to new greenways. (Fig. 43) residents. However, due to the hiatus placed on The •	 Green-roofs: New developments can take the Flats’ planning, these workshops never produced any opportunity to use green roofs so as to help reduce rundirections in terms of an urban design framework that offs, remediate air quality and to reduce the amount of discussed the desired form and character of The Flats. 16 artificial roof insulation needed. At the same time, there is the acknowledgment of the monetary and time expenses for enhanced engagement.  3.6.2. Opportunities on Community Engagement  Figure 41: Urban agricultural spaces can serve as both food production sites and community gathering places.  •	 Public participation through co-design: The community consultation done so far is good. But there is still an opportunity here to further explore how citizens can be more actively involved in the physical planning and design of The Flats. Particularly, efforts can be made to utilise co-design methods to get citizens more directly involved in urban form making. (Fig. 43) •	 Engaging growing visible minority: Given The Flats and its surrounds has nearly 46% minority, there is an opportunity to explore how co-design methods can be tailored to work with visible minorities. •	 Partnerships with education institutes: The high monetary and financial cost of enhanced public participation such as co-design charrettes and working groups may be minimised if The City can partner with education institutions like Emily Carr (which is moving into The Finning site) and UBC to run some of these co-design events.  Figure 43: In co-design, the user (the future resident and worker of The Flats) will participate in identity and meaning making  Figure 42: Should the BNSF rail yard be relocated to the Glen Yard site, the BNSF rail yard can become a greenway that features miniaturised wetlands, pedestrian walkways and bike paths. As a wetland, it can help absorb run-offs and remediate the water and soil quality in the area. Connection-wise it offers an east-west passage.  (16) http://www.roofgreening.ca/living_roofs.php (Accessed: March 10th, 2010)   This chapter provides an urban design framework. While acknowledging the importance of a built environment’s social elements, it focuses on physical design issues due to the project’s constraints of length, time and scope. Structure wise, the chapter is organised in 5 sections: •	 First, a section on overarching design principles and related strategies. Here, the design strategies are also tied to the opportunities addressed in the previous chapter. This explains which opportunity, alone or with other opportunities, informed which design strategy. •	 Second, a section that proposes sixteen typologies and patterns; each derived from a design strategy discussed in the first section. The types and patterns essentially visualises how each strategy can manifest in terms of a building, a block/site design, and physical and programmatic systems across multiple blocks. •	 Third, a section that looks at larger system daigrams that the principles and strategies play out across the entire study area. •	 The fourth section is the masterplan. •	 The fifth section concludes with 2 focused study of various areas in The Flats through street-level vignettes, street sections, and provides basic information on development data in terms of average FSRs, square-footages, different land uses, and green spaces.  CHAPTER 4: PROPOSED URBAN DESIGN FRAMEWORK  Proposed Urban Design Framework  The aims to enliven The Flats with greater commercial retail activities, to provide affordable workspace for new green industries and offices, and to have more residents to support these activities will require a set of organising design principles to help plan and design a conducive physical environment. This section outlines four overarching principles that are developed from summarising the opportunities outlined in chapter 3. Each principle is accompanied by four design strategies that inform the types and patterns explore later in this chapter. The diagram on the right illustrates the four principles and associated strategies:  AT  E  Overcome barriers Ensure continuity Shorten blocks and frontages Blur private and public edges  -  Mix typologies; mix uses Include residential Encourage infills Densify arterials  CO AC  CT PE ES R  E  R  TO  - Preserve heritage - Denote heritage gateways - Complement exisiting neighbourhoods - Link heritage necklace  ES  R  T  EC  N  N  M  M  CO  O  D  -  - Produce resilient sources - Mitigate hazards - Integrated land use - Organise around green infrastructure  4.1 Principles and Strategies >>>  Principles and Strategies  As the previous chapters suggest, a lack of connections within and around The Flats is prohibitive to walking and more intense commercial, institutional, office and residential developments. Better connections – physical and psychological – will attract more people and activities there. Urban design strategies deriving from this principle can explore ways to: •	 Overcome barriers: Pedestrian and bicycle bridges spanning across the rail yards can help create more north-south access routes to overcome the physical barriers caused by the east-west rail yards that span The Flats’ entire length. These bridges can help people on either side of the rail yards move to each other’s area to access amenities and services with greater ease.1 These can be landscaped bridges that extend from public parks located at its ramps. •	 Ensure continuity: Paths from one area to another should ensure visual and programmatic diversity to make the journey pleasant. This can mean buildings that hug the street while maintaining human-scale and a 1:1 building height-street width ratio. It also means avoiding blank walls when possible; instead curtail-walls, shop-windows amongst other façade articulations can provide visual dynamism and permeability between the streetscape and parts of a building’s interiors.2 •	 Shorten blocks & frontages: Many of The Flats exceedingly long blocks (often over 500’) disrupts connectivity. Shorter blocks and building frontages can create a finer more flexible street pattern where pedestrians can choose varied and interesting routes from one area to another.3 Landscaped right-of-ways and mews in-between the shortened blocks allow the public to access a street, lane or even park on the other side.4 •	 Blur Private-Public Edges: Treat building and lot edges and the adjacent streets and lanes as one harmonious entity rather than divisive lines.5 This can mean having front- or backyards as well as green walls contribute to the streetscape.  Linking ‘Connect’ Strategies with Opportunities Each design strategy discussed here are informed by two or more opportunities. Each strategy can be expressed as an urban form – a particular design feature, a building typology, a single-block pattern, or a multiple-blocks morphology. The table below illustrates how the design strategies under the principle of ‘connect’ is informed by the opportunities outlined in the previous chapter. Design Strategy Informative Opportunities Overcome barriers  Ensure continuity  • • • •  Build pedestrian-bicycle bridges to improve connections, especially across rail yards Reconfigure rail footprint of underutiltised rail yards to increase north-south connectivity Create a series of centres with the pedestrian-bike bridges as a possible key design feature Increase bike lanes on current and future streets and greenways and connect them to bike-oriented bridges  • •  Intensify arterials with more commercial, retail, office and housing uses Adopt gradated zoning along arterials to maintain some amount of city-serving industrial lands but also create more robust uses elsewhere Redefine mixed use to explore how current industrial lands can incorporate activities that enliven streetscape Stitch neighbourhood boundaries by responding to the character and form of nearby neighbourhood edges to produce visual-architectural continuity Maximise existing residential allowances on some I-3 lots to create artists live-work spaces that contribute to street liveliness  • • • Shorten blocks and • frontages •  Diversify building types by having finer grain buildings to create informal landscaped pedestrian thoroughfares between the buildings Extend existing green networks such as bicycle paths and traffic-calmed streets through large lots at The Flats to help parcelise the large lots  Blur private-public edges  Blend private-public spaces by designing private patios, green-walls, public plazas and right-of-ways as one physical and visual entity Innovate environment-responsive architecture by designing publicly accessible spaces such as ecodecks and green-roofs over above-grade carparks Cultivate off-ground agriculture such as hydroponics garden that are publicly accessible during daytime, or at least visible from street-level Encourage restorative greenways using disused rail yards together with adjacent lots to create publicly accessible restorative green spaces  • • • •  “Connect”  (1) http://www.useful-community-development.org/ walkable-community.html (Accessed: June 29th 2011) (2) Bosselmann, Peter, “Images in Motion” in Urban Design Reader (Eds. M. Carmona & S. Tiesdell), Oxford, UK: Elsevier Architectural Press, 2007, p.285. (3) Lewis, Sally, Front to Back: A Design Agenda for Urban Housing,Oxford, UK: Elsevier Architectural Press, 2005, p.6. (4) Lewis, 57. (5) Moughtin, Cliff, Urban Design: Street and Square, Oxford, UK: Elsevier Architectural Press, 2003, 222.  4.1 Principles and Strategies >>> Connect  4.1.1. Connect  As a complete community The Flats must accommodate the city’s wider needs to provide lands for diverse uses including traditional light industrial operations, new green city-serving services, hightech creative businesses, education institutions, commercial retail opportunities and even housing. Urban design strategies deriving from this principle can explore ways to:  Linking Accommodate’ Strategies with Opportunities  4.1 Principles and Strategies >>> Accommodate  4.1.2. Accommodate  Each design strategy discussed here are informed by two or more opportunities. Each strategy can be expressed as an urban form – a particular design feature, a building typology, a single-block pattern, or a multiple-blocks morphology. The table below illustrates how the design strategies under the principle of ‘accommodate’ is informed by the opportunities outlined in the previous chapter. Design Strategy  Informative Opportunities  Mix types; mix uses •  •	 Mix typologies; mix uses: Lots with sufficient depth (> 250’) and frontage (> 500’) can be subdivided to produce a ‘double front configuration’ where finer grain commercial retail-oriented buildings sit on the Include residential street-side, and industrial-oriented buildings with larger floorplates sit on the lane-side. A courtyard can be used to screen noise and provide privacy. This mix of building types on one lot creates visual and programmatic diversity.6 The front and back halves can either be legally subdivided with the front rezoned as commercial or CD-1, and the back being kept I-2 and I-3. Alternatively, a clause in the development permit and/or tax-break incentive may be pursued to develop both commercialretail and industrial buildings. •	 Include residential: Lots along major arterials and future greenways that are not deep (< 200’) or wide (< 300’) enough to support the ‘front-back configuration’ Encourage infills to include industrial and office uses can explore developments with residential above commercial retail units, community services and amenities, and offices.7 The overall idea is to have some lots take on more residences (especially on the Main Street side), while other lots (especially on the Clark Street side) will cater more to light industries like storage and wholesalers. Hence, a more context-specific approach to mixed use. •	 Encourage infill: Underutilised lots can be infilled to provide offices, residential and new industrial uses such Densify arterials as artist studios provided no prior ecological programs are already planned for the underutilised sections for the purpose of environmental remediation.8 Underutilised areas can either be subdivided, or the whole lot can be rezoned to CD-1 or a future iteration of the I-3 zone that makes provisions for infills to include infill structures. •	 Densify arterials: Densities along major arterials can be increased moderately to allow more office and residential floorspace (where appropriate) to economically buttress future commercial retail developments. A finer grain approach to shop and office sizes also allow for a greater diversity of businesses that can range from cafes, boutiques, design firms, print shops to art galleries. The social benefit of a more intense street is a greater opportunity for interaction and cross socio-economic understanding.9  • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •  Diversify building types to cater to different, but preferably integrated uses within a block or across adjacent blocks Adopt gradated zoning to maintain some adequate city-serving industrial lands but also create more robust developments elsewhere Redefine mixed use to explore how current industrial lands can incorporate activities that boost street life Distinguish sub-areas by looking at how a group of adjacent blocks’ particular land use may inform the building types and public realm of the blocks’ area Maximise existing residential allowances to create artists live-work spaces as well as student housing for the planned educational institutes Redefine mixed use to explore how current land uses, even industrial ones, can include housing which can bring eyes on the streets Adopt gradated zoning to make some lands available for residential uses while maintaining cityserving industrial lands elsewhere Distinguish sub-areas by designing a sub-area with majority residential uses Diversify building types while knowing how the different uses and associated building type may integrate well with residential uses Plan for energy precinct becomes more probable when there are enough necessary waste and affluent produced to be converted to heat and power Reduce VKT is more possible when more workers can have jobs close to homes, hence reducing The Flats overall use of fossil fuels Recognise growing visible minorities and their views on home and housing needs  “Accommodate”  Intensify land use through infills to transform underutiltised lands like carparks in industrial sites into offices, commercial units and retail Maximise existing residential allowances by building on underutitlised lots, especially education institute lands, currently zoned to include housing Redefine mixed use by rezoning and/or subdividing lots with underutilised lands to allow for infill structures with new uses Innovate green loops by ensuring the uses of the existing buildings and the proposed infill buildings can form a close loop Remediate environmental quality by requiring the infill areas to include green features and/or undergo soil remediation Diversify building types to create visual variety while creating more floorspace for non-industrial uses Redefine mixed use by increasing the allowable FSR to accommodate activities that boost street life Adopt gradated zoning by maintaining some city-serving industrial lands but also create more robust developments elsewhere along the same arterial Plan new transit lines and stations to service the increase number of residents and workers who will inhabit the densified arterials Innovate green loops that can use the waste and recyclables from arterial-fronting residences and businesses as productive raw materials Plan for energy precinct becomes more probable when there are enough necessary waste and affluent produced to be converted to heat and power Reduce VKT is more possible when more workers can have jobs close to homes, hence reducing The Flats overall use of fossil fuels Remediate environmental quality by requiring new developments to go perform soil remediation and/ or include features to filter run-offs Include co-design to gather public desires for the adequate amount of density and height, as well as form and character, that can go into the arterials  (6) Lewis, 56. (7) Moughtin, Cliff, Urban Design: Method and Techniques, Oxford, UK: Elsevier Architectural Press, 1999, 122. (8) Moughtin, Cliff, Urban Design: Green Dimensions, Oxford, UK: Elsevier Architectural Press, 2005, 226. (9) Hester, Randolph T., Design for Ecological Democracy, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2006, p.211-215.  The Flats’ rich histories rooted in its industrial past should be respected in future developments. It is also at the nexus of different neighbourhoods, which histories, heritage, urban form and desires should be respected too. The Flats’ future identity may come from finding ways to pay homage to both its own histories and its surrounding neighbourhoods’ character and form. Urban design strategies deriving from this principle can explore ways to: •	 Preserve heritage: Developments on lots with heritage buildings should incorporate these buildings into the overall design so as to showcase The Flats’ history. This can be done by repurposing the buildings. If keeping a building in its entirety compromises structural integrity then façade retention, at least, should be pursued. Concerning urban design, heritage elements can provide visual diversity and act as anchor points to an area’s character.10 •	 Denote heritage gateways: Heritage buildings, especially those at major intersections, should be brought to the foreground to denote a physical and psychological entrance to The Flats.11 If the heritage building(s) are not immediately at a major intersection, developments around the heritage building(s) leading to the intersection may take on similar materials, form, colour and character as the heritage building(s) so as to lead pedestrians, cyclists and drivers eyes to the designated heritage buildings. Besides complementary character and form, a clear sight-line from the intersection to the heritage building(s) can be pursued. •	 Complement existing neighbourhoods: Respect the height, form and character of the adjacent neighbourhoods’ buildings and street patterns, and find ways to allow a smooth transition into The Flats.12 This is achievable by mirroring and responding to the height, mass, form and character of buildings at the edge of the adjacent neighbourhoods. Besides mirroring form and character, similar land-use and programs can be pursued to better stitch the edges and boundaries of neighbourhoods together as one cohesive street. •	 Link Heritage Necklace: The Flats’ adjacent neighbourhoods all have strong heritage elements. A high degree of walkability along a distinct path from one heritage building/site to another in The Flats and its adjacent neighbourhoods links the immediate region’s neighbourhoods and their histories together. Special paving treatment can denote the designated paths linking these heritage sites.  Linking Respect’ Strategies with Opportunities Each design strategy discussed here are informed by two or more opportunities. Each strategy can be expressed as an urban form – a particular design feature, a building typology, a single-block pattern, or a multiple-blocks morphology. The table below illustrates how the design strategies under the principle of ‘respect’ is informed by the opportunities outlined in the previous chapter. Design Strategy  Informative Opportunities  Preserve heritage  • • • • • • • • • •  Denote heritage gateways  • • • •  Complement existing neighbourhoods  • • •  Link up heritage necklace  • • •  Showcase industrial character of The Flats with industrial moderne buildings that symbolise the area’s history Create a series of centres on sites with heritage buildings by using these building as the main organising element Distinguish sub-areas by marking out part of The Flats with higher concentration of heritage buildings as a heritage district Denote entry points to The Flats with heritage buildings at major intersections Intensify land use through infill on sites where heritage building stand with care to complement and not overshadow the heritage elements Remediate environmental quality by requiring redevelopment on heritage sites to include ecologically restorative features Redefine mixed use to explore how heritage buildings can fit multiple uses so as the activate the street life around it Include co-design to examine how heritage buildings and sites can expressed the wider concerns and desires of residents and workers around The Flats Recognise growing visible minorities and their views with regards to what a heritage rooted in a colonial industrial past mean to them Partner with educational institutes like UBC, ECU, SFU and BCIT to gather feedback on how the public rank the different heritage buildings/sites  “RESPECT”  Showcase industrial character of The Flats by providing clear sightlines to the designated industrial heritage buildings Denote entry points to The Flats with heritage buildings at major intersections Link a heritage necklace by using special paving to denote a path from one heritage gateway to another Plan new transit lines and stations at or near these heritage gateways, in particular tram systems which is historically more aligned with industrial heritage Stitch neighbourhood boundaries by responding to the character and form of nearby neighbourhood edges to produce visual-architectural continuity Diversify building types at The Flats with finer grain buildings that are more characteristic of many of the adjacent neighbourhoods Redefine mixed use to how lots across the street from adjacent neighbourhoods may be rezoned to better complement their programs and activities Link a heritage necklace by using special paving to denote a path from one heritage building to another Showcase industrial character of The Flats by having developments next to heritage buildings adopt complementary materials, character and form Partner with educational institutes like UBC, ECU, SFU and BCIT to gather public feedback/ knowledge on what existing buildings can be classed as heritage  (10) Moughtin, 1999, p.27-28. (11) Eco, Umberto, “Function and Sign: The Semiotics of Architecture”, in Rethinking Architecture: A Reader in Cultural Theory (ed. Neil Lech), London, UK & New York: Routledge, 1997, p.185. (12) Moughtin, 2003, p.42.  4.1 Principles and Strategies >>> Respect  4.1.3. Respect  Restoring environmental well-being is a necessity when the aim is to bring more people to work and live in The Flats. Environmental well-being entails not only cleaner air, water and energy, but also the creation of businesses that benefit the environment. Restoring The Flats’ health means not only preventing further environmental degradation but creating a living system that can reverse environmental damage done over the last century. Urban design strategies deriving from this principle can explore ways to: •	 Produce Resilient Sources: To make The Flats more self-reliant for water and energy, green features can be pursued. For example, rain-barrels can be integral design features in a plaza, or even be incorporated into a building design. Living walls can be installed especially on necessary blank wall faces that hide mechanical systems or provide privacy. Moreover, living walls soften the visual monotony that can be caused by a higher wall-to-window ratio necessary for minimising heating loss.13 New developments, especially industrial and office buildings with larger floorplates, can include solar panels and green roofs. Connection to existing and future district energy centres can also be written into future structure plans and even individual development permits. •	 Mitigate Hazards: Given The Flats’ flooding and ponding risks, an adequate treatment of run-offs is important. As such mitigative features of all scales should be pursued. On a block scale, a network of swales and pervious paving that can absorb and filter run-offs can be considered. On a multi-block scale, these swales can be channelled to larger wetlands and retention ponds.14 •	 Integrate land uses to reduce waste: Pair businesses where one business’s by-products can become the raw materials for another business. For example, restaurants can be sited near composting businesses. Building design and zoning should encourage this integration of uses. This strategy complements the earlier mentioned strategy to accommodate mixed uses through mixed building typologies.15 •	 Organise site around green infrastructure: Rather than treating green infrastructures as ‘add-ons’, they can become a central form from which a development is organised and designed around.16 For example, a green spine created on disused railyardsbecome an element from which adjacent developments’ site design can be connected to. In other words, a green feature can help form the spatial identity of The Flats’ various developments  Linking Respect’ Strategies with Opportunities Each design strategies discussed here are informed by two or more opportunities. Each strategy can be expressed as an urban form – a particular design feature, a building typology, a single-block pattern, or a multiple-blocks morphology. The table below illustrates how the design strategies under the principle of ‘restore’ is informed by the opportunities outlined in the previous chapter. Design Strategy  Informative Opportunities  Produce Resilient Sources  • • • •  Mitigate hazards  • • • •  Integrate land uses to reduce waste  • • • •  Organise site around green infrastructure  • • • • •  Opportune productive roofs by capitalising on industrial and office buildings’ large roof-plates as sites for green-roofs and solar panels Plan for energy precinct becomes more probable when there are enough necessary waste and affluent produced to be converted to heat and power Encourage biomass energy by installing a processing centre in industrial zones which are also next to rail lines which can bring in waste from the region Partner with educational institutes like UBC, ECU, SFU and BCIT to run workshops on resilient communities and urban design Opportune productive roofs by using green-roofs which can greatly reduce run-offs which can lead to flooding, ponding and leaching Remediate environmental quality by mandating new or re-developments to include design features such as rain gardens and swales that mitigate hazards Encourage restorative greenways by tying disused rail yards together with adjacent lots to create a bigger hazard-mitigating feature Partner with educational institutes like UBC, ECU, SFU and BCIT to raise awareness about The Flats’ potential hazards such as flooding and sea-level rise  “RESTORE”  Innovate green loops that can use the waste and recyclables from one business as productive raw materials for another business Redefine mixed use to explore how integrated land uses can be sited adjacent to each other, or how they can even be within the same building Encourage biomass energy by installing a processing centre in industrial zones which can collect waste from The Flats and its nearby neighbourhoods Showcase industrial character of The Flats with a contemporary biomass energy plant or recycling plant that emit little or no waste or smells Create a series of centres with one based around green infrastructure like a major bio-retention pond or even a district energy centre Denote entry points to The Flats with major green infrastructure that can be paired with heritage buildings to show The Flats is both ‘old’ and ‘new’ Encourage restorative greenways that can act as a green spine along which wetlands, bioswales, and walk- and bike-ways are organised Build pedestrian-bicycle bridges that improve connections but also act as an organising element for the building and street patterns around it Innovate environment-responsive architecture by designing publicly accessible spaces such as ecodecks and green-roofs over above-grade carparks  (13) http://www.solarbuildings.ca/c/sbn/file_db/Doc_ File_e/Window%20to%20wall%20ratios%20and%20 commercial%20building%20energy.pdf (Accessed: June 29th 2011) (14) Watson, Donald & Michele Adams, Design for  Flooding: Architecture, Landscape and Urban Design for Resilience to Climate Change, Hoboken, NJ: Wiley and Sons, 2011, p.99. (15) Hester, p.31-21. (16) http://library.oregonmetro.gov/files/greenspine_ no.10_web.pdf (Accessed: May 10th, 2011)  4.1 Principles and Strategies >>> Restore  4.1.4. Restore  The typologies and patterns presented here are informed from the abovementioned four principles, associated strategies and informing opportunities. Each type or pattern is essentially a visualisation of what a strategy can be in terms of how a building, a block, or a system of multiple blocks can be developed. While each of the typology or pattern is initially developed from a particular site within The Flats, they are generalised to be applicable to other sites in The Flats with similar conditions like lot size, proximity to rail yards, adjacent programming, heritage value and/or capability to incorporate green infrastructures.  AT  E  Overcome barriers Ensure continuity Shorten blocks and frontages Blur private and public edges  -  Mix typologies; mix uses Include residential Encourage infills Densify arterials  AC  CT  CO E  PE ES  R  TO  - Preserve heritage - Denote heritage gateways - Complement exisiting neighbourhoods - Link heritage necklace  ES  R  T  EC  N  N  M  M  CO  O  D  -  R  To recap there are the sixteen types and patterns based on the strategies shown on the diagram on the right:  - Produce resilient sources - Mitigate hazards - Integrated land use - Organise around green infrastructure  4.2 Typologies and Patterns >>>  Typologies and Patterns  Parks on ends of bridge - Parks on one or both sides of the bridge can contribute to the betterment of the public realm.   The bridge beautifies space.  4.2.1. Overcome Barriers The railyards are crucial to the industrial uses there, and provides the basic infrastructure for a sustainable mode of transport for future passenger rail coming in from cities around Vancouver. However, the rail yards also set up barriers, especially for north-south connectivity. The following solutions can be pursued: • •  •  Some railyards (such as the underutilised BNSF rail) can be reconfigured to bring more connectivity. Barriers caused by railyards that cannot be reconfigured (such as the CN railyard shown here) may be overcome by having pedestrian and bicycleoriented bridges span across them. Parks on either of sides of a ped-bike bridge can be integrated so the bridge will also contribute to the betterment of the public realm besides being utilitarian.  4.2 Typologies and Patterns >>> Overcome Barriers  North-south connections - Bridges that serve pedestrians and cyclists can be installed over some rail yards such as the CN railyard to improve connectivity  Avoid blank walls - Avoid blank walls especially along the ground-level to ensure the walking route along a street has visual dynamism.  4.2.2. Ensure Continuity Connectivity is created partly from ensuring the routes from one area to another have adequate visual and programmatic diversity and intensity to make the walking journey enjoyable. The following solutions can be pursued: • •  •  Building heights should be within a 1:1 ratio to the street width so that the buildings ‘hug’ the street while still maintaining an adequate human scale. It also means avoiding blank walls when possible; instead curtain-walls and shop windows amongst other façade articulations can provide visual dynamism and permeability between the street and the buildings’ interiors. Street trees, street furniture and even pocket parks can help make a street a continuous length of varied spaces and programs.  Mini Plazas - Mini plazas, especially in front of civic or institutional buildings can offer spaces where gatherings or public events can be held. Right of Way - On long blocks, right of ways from street to lane (or another street) can offer pedestrians and   drivers a more flexible street grid.  4.2 Typologies and Patterns >>> Ensure Continuity  Pocket Parks - Parks can offer pedestrians moments of respite on their journey. Parks also add visual/programatic variety to a street.  4.2.3. Shorten Blocks and Frontages Long block frontages exceeding 500 feet is not uncommon at The Flats. These long blocks with equally long buildings have spans of blank walls that make walking by them unpleasant and thus reduce the area’s connectivity on a psychological level. The following solutions can be pursued: • •  •  Long blocks can be broken up into smaller parcels to create streets between them by means of subdivision. If sub-division is not possible, landscaped right-ofways through the blocks and shorter buildings can be explored to offer pedestrian a more flexible street pattern to walk around. Shorter buildings can mean a greater number of architecturally diverse (yet still complementary) buildings can populate a certain length of a block or street, lending to greater visual diversity.  Shorter building frontage - Shorter buildings with more finely articulated frontages allows more architectural variety to emerge within a given length of street  Right of Way - On long blocks, right of ways from street to lane (or another street) can offer pedestrians and   drivers a more flexible street grid.  4.2 Typologies and Patterns >>> Shorten Blocks and Frontages  Subdivide long blocks - Long blocks can be subdivided into smaller parcels so as to create streets that pedestrians, cyclists and cars can access.  Extended backyard - Nearby parks (such as the proposed BNSF greenway shown here) can become a ‘backyard’ to properties that ‘open up’ to them.  4.2.4. Blur Private-Public Edges The public and private realms need not be separated to an extent where pedestrians walking past a private property feel like they are unwelcome or do not belong to the area. A ‘shared open space’ connecting the realms can be pursued. The following solutions can be pursued: •  • •  Private properties need not be demarcated by blank walls and high fences. Backyards, for example, can open up to a landscaped laneway so that the laneway can become like an extended backyard. In this sense, this creates an open space that is ‘shared’ by both private property owners and pedestrians. Entrances to residences as well as some smaller businesses can be fronted on the laneway to help activate such shared spaces. Privacy and safety can be maintained by softer edges such as hedge rows and lattice fences instead of high concrete walls.  Landscaped Lanes - Lanes can be lined with trees, planters and even special paving to give it the appearance of a street while being a service-alley.  Lane-oriented entrances - Lane-oriented entrances can activate a laneway, thus giving a property two ‘fronts’ as well as turning the lane into a ‘street’.  4.2 Typologies and Patterns >>> Blur Private-Public Edges  Shared open space - When private properties are not demarcated by hard edges such as high blank walls they can open up to the public realm around.  Commercial-oriented side - The front side of a block can   have buildings with floorplates   more suited for fine grain retail shops and residential above.  4.2.5. Mix Typologies, Mix Uses To allow The Flats to accommodate a greater number and variety of uses, subdivision of larger lots into smaller parcels can be explored. The following solutions can be pursued: •  • •  Lots with sufficient depth (> 250’) and frontage (>500’) can be subdivided to produce a ‘double front configuration’. Finer grain commercial retail-oriented buildings can sit on the street-side, while industrialoriented buildings with larger floorplates can sit on the lane-side. This mix of building types helps create visual and programmatic diversity. Courtyards can be used between the two types of uses to screen noise and provide privacy. The subdivision can be pursued either by legally rezoning the front-half to CD-1 and keep the rearhalf as I-2 or I-3, or a clause in the development permit and/or tax-break incentives may be explored to ensure this diversity occurs.  Courtyards as separation - Softer screening devices such as trees within a courtyard can be used provide privacy and noise reduction.  Right of way - Landscaped right of ways from the street can be used by employees going to the industrial side  4.2 Typologies and Patterns >>> Mix Typologies, Mix Uses  Industrial-oriented side - The rear side of a block can have   buildings with larger floorplates to accommodate industrial and   some office uses.  4.2.6. Include Residential While The Flats’ land use is mostly targeted for industrial uses, some residential developments can enliven the area and support the proposed commercial retail developments. The following solutions can be pursued: • •  •  Residential uses above commercial retail and office uses can be explored, especially along major arterials. Lots on the Main Street side are usually shallower (<200’) and narrower (<300’), and are less suitable for large floorplate industrial buildings. They are more suited for finer grain buildings such as residential and commercial retail-oriented ones. In terms of land use the Main Street side can afford to have greater residential uptake in part to provide programmatic continuity between Mount Pleasant and Chinatown/Strathcona. And, in part to alleviate the residential development pressure on the Clark Drive side, so as to allow light industrial uses like storage and wholesalers to continue.  Work close to home - By providing more residences in The Flats, it can mean more of its future workers can live near to work hence reducing VKT  Fine grain commercial retail - The shops on the groudn level   should be finer grain to fit with the commercial spaces in the adjacent neighbourhoods.  Adequate heights - Building heights should comple ment the adjacent neighbourhoods’ low- to mid-rise form.  4.2 Typologies and Patterns >>> Include Residential  Residential above commercial - Mixed-use buildings can be pursued, especially along major arterials with adequate bus, skytrain and tram services.  Underground parking - Should parking be a concern, some small amounts of underground parking going down one level can be pursued.  4.2.7. Encourage Infill Currently, there are several underutilised lots at The Flats where over 50% of the site is for parking or simply underdeveloped. Planning for a future where driving is reduced and more public transport will cater to The Flats, parking requirements may be reduced. As such, redevelopments at these lots can explore infills. The following solutions can be pursued: •  •  •  Provided no prior ecological-remediative features are planned for the underutilised lots, artist studios, small office structures and even boutique manufacturers such as clothiers can be pursued. The underutilied lots can either be subdivided, or the redevelopment can be rezoned as an unique CD-1, or a future iteration of I-3 that makes provisions for mixed use infill structures. Clauses in a development permit and/or tax incentive can be pursued to encourage developers to do less parking and instead build infill structures.  Entrances to infills - Access to the infills can be through right of ways from the street or via the lane where the   infills’ entrances are oriented  Redevelop underutilised sites - Underutilised carparks and other disused areas can accommodate   artist studios, small offices and even some residences.  4.2 Typologies and Patterns >>> Encourage Infill  Courtyards as separation - Softer screening devices such as trees within a courtyard can be used provide privacy and noise reduction.  4.2.8. Densify Arterials Densities along major arterials can be increased moderately to allow more office and residential floorspace to economically buttress future commercial retail developments. The following solutions can be pursued: •  •  •  A finer grain approach to shop-front and building façade design should be pursued to allow for a greater diversity of businesses – ranging from cafes, boutiques, design firms, printers to art galleries – to emerge. If a big-box shop is necessary to help a development attain economic viability, its entrance can be ‘bottledneck’ so as to fit better with the smaller shop-fronts next to it. The social benefit of a more intense street is that it attracts more people there, thus provides a greater opportunity for interaction and cross socio-economic and cultural understanding.  Public transport - Trams, buses and skytrains are all important to make an arterial lievable as they connect its residents to a wider area.  Residences along arterials - Residences along arterials (such as Terminal Ave shown here) can help economically buttress the future commercial developments.  Big-box shop, small entrance - Big box shops can have ‘bottled  neck’ entrances so that finer grain shops can line the streets.  4.2 Typologies and Patterns >>> Densify Arterials  Tree-lined streets - Tree-lined streets with adequate amount of street furniture can make an arterial more liveable by offering spaces of respite.  4.2.9. Preserve Heritage The ‘industrial modern’ aesthetic is an element that helps The Flats create its sense of identity. As such, efforts to retain buildings built in this architectural style should be pursued. The following solutions can be pursued: •  •  •  Developments on lots with heritage buildings should incorporate these buildings into the overall design so as to showcase The Flats’ history. The heritage buildings should become the organising element for the development. The heritage element can provide visual diversity and act as an anchor to an area. If keeping a heritage building in its entirety compromises structural integrity then façade retention, at least, should be pursued (as shown here for the industrial moderne buildings at Terminal and Main). Existing and future buildings of socio-cultural and architectural merit can be added to the heritage list.  Complementary materials - The materials and architectural   style of added floors and adjacent buildings should complement a heritage character.  Added floors - Depending on the needs identified   for a certain sub-area, added floors may be pursued to provide more density.  Facade Retention - If keeping the whole heritage will comprise structural integrity, then facade retention can be explored.  4.2 Typologies and Patterns >>> Preserve Heritage  Complementary form and height - Developments next to heritage buildings should be complementary in height and massing to ensure visual and stylistic continuity.  Park and open spaces - Parks and open spaces at a gateway allows people to take a breath to dwell and appreciate the surroundings.  4.2.10. Denote Heritage Gateways Heritage buildings, singly or in groups, can help The Flats define entry points. They help establish, in the minds of pedestrians, the character and history of the area. The following solutions can be pursued: • • •  •  Especially at major intersections, heritage buildings and sites help denote a physical and psychological presence and entry to The Flats. Green street medians help define the processional path into The Flats. If there are no heritage buildings immediately at the intersections, developments around heritage buildings and sites may take on similar materials, form, colour and character so as to lead pedestrians, cyclists and motorists’ eyes to the designated heritage buildings. A clear sightline to the heritage buildings and sites should be maintained from at least a few blocks away from a designated gateway intersection.  Link up to transport nodes - Gateways to The Flats can be strengthened by the presence of transport nodes such as tram-stops skytrain and buses.  Complement heritage - Buildings next to heritage buildings can be articulated to complement, so as to strengthen a gateway’s heritage presence.  4.2 Typologies and Patterns >>> Denote Heritage Gateways  Green street medians - Green street medians not only soften the area but also acts as a processional ‘guide’ into The Flats.   They define a clear axis.  4.2.11. Complement Existing Neighbourhoods The Flats sit amongst several established neighbourhoods. In this regard it is important new developments at The Flats complement them. The following solutions can be pursued: •  •  • •  Respect the height, form and character of the surrounding neighbourhoods’ buildings (such as midrise slab-form residential buildings at Mt. Pleasant shown on the rightside of the illustration). If taller buildings are to be pursued at the edges between The Flats and other neighbourhoods, the height difference should ‘step-up’ gradually instead of overshadowing the mid-rise character around. The Flats currently has longer blocks; breaking them up can help bring in the finer grain street networks around (like those in Mount Pleasant). Land use and programs on The Flats’ side should complement the surrounding neighbourhoods.  Create right of ways - Long blocks at The Flats can be   broken up to bring the finer street network of adjacent neighbourhoods into The Flats.  Complement adjacent form - Buildings on the edge with other neighbourhoods should have form,   heights and character that fits to create a smooth transition.  4.2 Typologies and Patterns >>> Complement Existing Neighbourhoods  Complementary programming - Programming, especially on the   ground floor, should be similar to those in adjacent neighbourhoods to ensure programmatic continuity.  4.2.12. Link Heritage Necklace The Flats and its adjacent neighbourhoods all have strong heritage elements. Linking these heritage buildings and sites together into a necklace can tell a story about east Vancouver’s unique industrial-based history. The following solutions can be pursued: •  • •  Special paving, special tree-surrounds and/or signboards can make the walking path from one heritage building to another more distinguishable. This is doable along Main Street where most of The Flats and its adajcent neighbourhoods’ heritage buildings and sites are located. These special paving and tree surrounds can be extended on streets that lead to heritage buildings away from Main Street. The aim is to physically link The Flats to other neighbourhoods like Mt. Pleasant, Chinatown and Strathcona by linking their unique heritage elements. Buildings of architectural and socio-cultural merits can be added to the heritage list.  Special paving to mark heritage - Special paving along Main Street   can visually strengthen and define the path that leads from one heritage building/site to another.  Add buildings to heritage list - Buildings of architectural and socio-cultural merits can be added to the heritage list.  4.2 Typologies and Patterns >>> Link Heritage Necklace  Signboards - Signboards can tell the history of heritage buildings at The Flats and how they are part of a wider east side heritage presence.  Green walls - Green walls can soften the blank walls sometimes necessary for a higher wall-to-window ratio needed to minimise heat loss  4.2.13. Produce Resilient Sources Future developments at The Flats should aim to lessen their dependency on the grid for energy and water supplies. • • • • •  Rain-barrels coupled with water treatment facilities can be considered to provide developments with a certain amount of water supply. Solar panels can provide some amount of electricity. On a neighbourhood scale, several buildings can be connected to district energy facilities for energy and heat. Living walls can soften the visual monotony that is caused by a higher wall-to-window ration necessary for minimising heat loss. The ‘functionalist’ look of the above hardware can become part of The Flats’ ‘look’.  Solar Panels - Solar panels can provide some amount of electricity. This is especially true for buildings with larger roof-plates  4.2 Typologies and Patterns >>> Produce Resilient Sources  Rain-Barrels - Rain-barrels can help a building and even a wider area reduce dependency on municipal water supplies  4.2.14. Mitigate Hazards Flooding and ponding are two most immediate natural hazards The Flats faces. Mitigative features of all scales should be pursued to minimise the potential impact. • •  •  On a block scale, bioswales can run along the sides of buildings and street shoulders to help absorb and filter run-offs. On a multi-block scale, the bioswales can be connected to larger wetlands and retention ponds prior to flowing to larger water bodies such as False Creek. Permeable paving along with more naturalised landscape in developments can reduce sheet run-offs during heavy rainfall.  4.2 Typologies and Patterns >>> Mitigate Hazards  Bioswales - Swales along roads and buildings can help mitigate run-offs and   reduce the risk of flooding and ponding.  Larger Mitigative Systems - Bioswales can be connected to larger mitigative systems like wetlands at False Creek to further   filtrate run-offs.  4.2.15. Integrate Land Uses to Reduce Waste Placing businesses where one business’ by-products can become the raw materials for another business can help reduce waste, On the long term this reduces the need for rubbish landfills. Situating these businesses close together can also reduce the use of fossil fuels needed for longer haul vehicular journeys. •  Local food productions such as urban farms can supply food distributors nearby with produce. The distributors can in turn supply nearby restaurants with ingredients. The waste from the restaurants and food distributors can go to composting centres nearby in the industrial areas of The Flats to produce natural fertilisers for the urban farms. An integrated loop is formed.  Intergrated Businesses - Produce grown at the urban farms can be distributed at nearby wholesalers, and in turn sold to nearby restaurants  4.2 Typologies and Patterns >>> Integrate Land Uses to Reduce Waste  Reduce Waste - The waste from restaurants can be processed at nearby compost businesses, and the compost can fertilise the urban farms  4.2.16. Organise around green infrastructure Rather than treating green infrastructure as ‘add-ons’, they can become the central feature from which site/ neighbourhood design and public realm treatments are anchored upon. • •  Green spines can be created from disused railyards. These spines improve not only ecological well-being but can help strengthen an area’s spatial identity. The green spines can be connected to green fingers nearby, and these green fingers can branch into other neighbourhoods or lead to larger naturalised areas such as wetlands and/or bio-retention ponds. In effect, the green spines can connect The Flats, within and without itself, to a wider area spatially and ecologically.  4.2 Typologies and Patterns >>> Organise around Green Infrastructure  Green Spine - Neighbourhoods can be organised around a green spine, which can act as a ‘backyard’ to nearby developments  Pulling back at a wider scale, the following system diagrams represent how the four key design concepts of ‘connect’, ‘accommodate’, ‘respect’ and ‘restore’ can be applied at a neighbourhood level. The system diagrams explore: •	 Sub-Areas and Key Centres describes how different areas of The Flats may be based on its locale’s unique history and/or function as well as potential developments. •	 Land Use describes the different types of uses in the future. These land uses are based on current uses as well as projections that can help The Flats develop more robustly. •	 Movements describes the way pedestrians, bicycles and proposed tram lines can move within The Flats as well as to the wider Vancouver region. •	 Public Amenities describes the parks, civic centres such as a proposed community centre and other cityserving institutions that may be developed. •	 Green Infrastructure describes the ways The Flats can capture energy to rely less on fossil fuels and municipal power. It also mentions the greenways and bioswales that can improve its ecological wellness.  4.3 System Diagrams >>>  System Diagrams  West Gateway - Industrial Moderne heritage - Historic park - Boutique shops - Mid to mid-high-rise residential  Greenway Neighbourhood - Disused BNSF railyard as park - Creative industries - Commercial retail on west side - Low to mid-rise residential  GNW Neighbourhood - Great Northenway Campus - Creative industries - Finer grain commercial retail - Mid-rise residential  4.3.1. Sub Areas & Key Centres Each sub area’s character is influenced by the kinds of uses and associated building types it is programmed to accommodate. Given the size of The Flats, it is reasonable for each sub area to have its own heart, usually characterised by a space suitable for gatherings. However, each heart is easily accessible to each other.  = Key Centres  Urban Farmland - Urban agriculture - Teaching farms - Public parks - Community gardens  Industrial Lands - Distributors and storage - Low-impact manufacturers - City-serving lands - Passenger rail service  Terminal High Street - High street shopping area - Offices - Creative industries - Mid to mid-high-rise residential  East Gateway - Sculpture garden - Skate park - Commercial retail - New Skytrain stration  Creative Industries - Offices & wholesalers - Artists’ studios - City-serving lands - Freight rail yards  4.3 System Diagrams >>> Sub Areas & Key Centres  Park Living - Restorative landscape - Community centre - Low to mid-rise residential - District energy facilities  Institutional - Community Centre - Childcare - Neighbourhood scale shops - Non-market housing  Commercial - Commercial retail and offices - Eateries and supermarkets - Multifamily residential - Public park space  Mixed Use - Commercial retail and offices - Creative Industries - Multifamily residential - Artists’ studios  Institutional - Tertiary education provider - Student/artists’ housing - Live-work spaces - Neighbourhood scale shops  4.3.2. Land Use While The Flats can accommodate non-industrial uses, industrial lands should be retained not only for the purpose of providing businesses with affordable lands, but to provide jobs for the growing population in both adjacent neighbourhoods and The Flats’ future residential developments. The overall strategy is to gradate the land use by allowing more residential developments to take place on the west and south sides, while the east and north sides stay more industrial.  Green Space - Urban farms - Public park space - Site for outdoor activities or events  Industrial - Distributors and storage - Low-impact manufacturers - City-serving services - Automobile repairs Rail - Freight rail - Passenger rail - Coach-bus depot  4.3 System Diagrams >>> Land Use  Residential - Mulitfamily residential - Neighbourhood scale shops - Public park spaces  Green Space - Public park space - Sculpture garden - Skate parks and basketball courts  Industrial - Offices & wholesalers - Big box stores - Artists’ studios - City-serving lands  Green Space - Public park space - Community gardens - Site for outdoor activities or events  Green Fingers: - East-West connection - Breaks up long block - Creates a ‘landscape-oriented’ urban block  . St w  St.  = Trams = Rail  N  To increase connectivity, some of the larger, longer lots are subdivided, or have right-of-ways cut across to create a more flexible walking grid. Pedestrian and biycle bridges are built to allow movement across the city-serving railyards. A new skytrain station is added at Glen and Terminal to serve future residents and workers. A tram-line will also run along Great Northern Way.  St.  4.3.3. Movement  ew  New  St.  New  Station St. Extension: - North-south connection linking Industrial Ave to Terminal Ave - Breaks up long block  = New Pedestrian = Skytrain  Glen Drive Skytrain Station: - Services future residents and workers at The Flats - Iconic architecture to mark the eastern gateway to The Flats  Ne  Thornton Ped-Bike Bridge: - North-south connection across CN rail yard linking GNW to Terminal Ave - Parks on north and south sides  New S t.  New  St.  New  St.  Chess St. Ped-Bike Bridge: - North-south connection across VIA rail yard linking Malkin Ave to Terminal Ave - Public park on south side  4.3 System Diagrams >>> Movement  Prior St. Tram Line: - East-west connection which serves residents living in the heart of Strathcona  BNSF Greenway: - East-west connection offering pedestrians and cyclists a landscaped, car-free route - Restorative landscape GNW Tram Line: - East-west connection which better link together areas east and west of The Flats.  Chinese Freemason Housing - Expansion on existing seniors housing. - Serves Vancouver’s ageging population  Trillium Park - Park can act as a ‘backyard’ for the new residences to the north of the park - Restorative landscape  Strathcona Urban Farms - Combines food production and naturalised landscape - Provides produce for grocery distributors and wholesalers  Mid Terminal Ave Park - Park that offers pedestrians and cyclists a chance to slow down on the future busy Terminal Ave  Station St Bioretention Park - Provides new residents and workers with green space amidst dense residential developments  Great Northern Way Campus - Tertiary education in the creative arts - Proposed after-school arts program for high-schoolers.  4.3.4. Public Amenities Currently, The Flats does not have much public amenities due to its low population. However, with more residences and employment opportunities, amenities become necessary to accommodate the needs and well-being of its residents. Besides the new shops on major arterials, other prominent amenities are naturalised spaces such as the BNSF greenway to restore the area’s natural ecology. A proposed Trillium Community Centre, an after-school arts program at GNW campus, and the Glen Drive Skate and Ball Park are other amenities.  Chess St Park - Park in the middle of the light industrial area - Park is also a right of way that links Chess and Beggs streets  4.3 System Diagrams >>> Public Ammenities  Trillium Community Centre - Community centre for future Flats, Strathcona, Yaletown and Chinatown residents - Childcare and library services  Glen Dr. Skate and Ball Park - Skate park and basketball courts under the Terminal Ave overpass at Glen Drive - Serves nearby youths  BNSF Greenway - East-west linear park that becomes a ‘backyard’ for residents living in the area - Playground for children  District energy system - Waste can be channelled to the SEFC Energy Utility Facilities to be converted to heat and energy for the wider region  Strathcona Urban Farms - Locally grown produce can help reduce the carbon footprint of food production  4.3 System Diagrams >>> Green Infrastructure  Proposed estuarine wetland - The swales will be connected to the wetland via culverts. The   wetlands is the ‘final filter’ prior to water entering the creek  Solar panels and green roofs - Buildings with large roof-plates are suitable for solar panels - Green roofs can help reduce run-offs  “Green fingers”: - Swales along the green fingers   will filter run-offs and any over  flow that does not permeate onsite. Station St bioretention park - Bioretention pond at the end of   CN rail yard to catch and filter run-offs prior to it entering False Creek  4.3.5. Green Infrastructure The City of Vancouver has plans to make The Flats a sutainability precinct. A key large scale green infrastructure here is a restorative system that ties the BNSF greenway to the green fingers around Station Street and finally naturalised wetlands around Science World. A district energy will link The Flats to existing energy plants nearby.  = Swale/Wetland System = District Energy Lines  BNSF greenway - Swales along the greenway can   help filter out polluntants in run-offs, and handle extreme rainfalls and divert storm surges GNW district energy centre - A district energy centre can be installed at future developments of the GNW campus to provide energy and heat to the local area  4.4 Masterplan >>>  s St.  nal A ve  Begg  Term i  Carol  ine S t.  Thorn Station St.  rn St . Wes te  Mai  n St  .  St. bec Que  Glen Dr.  ton S t.  Ches  s St .  Malkin St.  East 2nd Ave.  St .  Indus  Glen Dr.  ton S t.  Foley St.  Great Northern Way  Fraser St.  Thorn  St . ot ia The urban design framework provided here is based on four principles: CONNECT The Flats to adjacent neighbourhoods and the wider city context as a connected neighbourhood creates the atmosphere of belonging for people; ACCOMMODATE a variety of uses to create a liveable and complete neighbourhood; RESPECT The Flats’ histories, heritage, character and form, and RESTORE its ecological well-being so that the environment and its future inhabitants may be healthy.  Sc  Masterplan  Cottr ell St .  rn  e  trial A ve  Lo  Map Information - Scale: 1:5000 - Shadows: Sept 22, 2pm  4.5 Focused Study Areas >>>  1  2  Map Information - Scale: 1:5000 - Shadows: Sept 22, 2pm  Focused Study Areas 2 focused study areas will be presented here to give readers a more in-depth look at what can happen at The Flats when connections, accommodations, respect and ecological restoration are pursued. The 2 areas are: 1.	 Station Street Mixed Use Quarters 2.	 ‘Double-Fronted Block’ at 500 Terminal Avenue  4.5 Focused Study Areas >>> Station Street Mixed Use Quarters  4.5.1. Station Street Mixed USe Quarters This area is currently a collection of disused and under-used warehouses. In line with the principles of accommodating more uses, respecting The Flats’ history and restoring ecological functions, this area will be developed with the following features: •  •  •  Continue to house some light industrial uses such as R&D firms, software design, architecture, planning and design businesses, artisan studios, boutique clothing and/or furniture manufacturers, etc. Given the area’s proximity to Main Street, some of the first floors will be for commercial retail uses such as eateries, small to mid-scale shops and essential services such as clinics, post-offices and banks. Some of the second floors can be used for offices. Most floors from the second floor and up will be for residential uses. Improve ecological well-being with bioswales running along the buildings’ sides. They can capture and filter run-offs and stormwater. In addition, they can also catch excess grey water that is not already treated. The swales are connected through culverts westward to the proposed wetlands at False Creek, and eastward to the proposed retention pond at the western edge of the CN railyard. The swales can become a main feature in the streetscape design. Retain sense of heritage through facade retention for heritage listed buildings, repurpose warehouses built in the industrial moderne style, and use complementary materials and articulations for any new buildings in the vicinity.  Development Data for Focus Area Average Typical Lot (+/-170’ X 160’ lot): 23000 to 27000sf Existing Conditions on typical lot Average Building(s)’ Floorspace: 37000sf Average Net FSR: 1.17 to 1.37 Average Heights: 2 storeys Land Use: Warehouses, storages and wholesalers Green Space: 0sf Proposed Conditions on typical lot Average Building Floorspace: 92000sf Average Net FSR: 3.41 to 4.0 Average Heights: 6 storeys (stepback at 4th storey) Land Use: Light industrial, commercial retail, cafes, offices and services (on first and/or second floor), and residential (from second/third floor up) Green Space: 10000sf (Including roof-top gardens, but excluding the bioswales)  Bioswales - Swales along roads and buildings can help mitigate run-offs and   reduce the risk of flooding and ponding.  Traffic-calmed streets - As the streets will still be used for the businesses, vehicular access is still important. However, the streets   are narrower to calm traffic.  Complementary materials - The materials and architectural   style of added floors and adjacent buildings should complement a heritage character.  Streetview (Looking west on Northern Street)  4.5 Focused Study Areas >>> Station Street Mixed Use Quarters  Station Street Mixed USe Quarters Term i  nal A ve  Skyt  Que bec S  t.  rain Line  Existing Conditions around Focus Area  t. rn S  Station St.  Map Information - Scale: 1:2000 - Shadows: Sept 22, 2pm  Wes te  Mai n  St.  Northern St.  Street-Section (Looking west on Northern Street)  Residential  Residential  Residential  Residential  Residential  Residential  Residential  Residential  Residential  Commercial Retail  Commercial Retail  Commercial Retail  Bioswale  Northern Street  Bioswale  4.5 Focused Study Areas >>> ‘Double-Fronted Blocks’ at Terminal Ave  4.5.2. Double-Fronted Blocks at Terminal Ave Most of the blocks along Terminal Avenue are currently zoned for light industrial uses. In order to accommodate a wider range of uses at The Flats while respecting its industrial function, lots along Terminal Avenue can develop with the following features: •  •  •  Maximise the lots’ potentials by ‘double-fronting’ them, especially for the deeper lots on the south side of Terminal Ave. This involves splitting the lots into a front-half and a back-half. The front half faces onto Terminal Avenue and the back half faces onto the laneway. This is doable especially for lots more than 250’ deep. The front half will accommodate finer grain commercial-retail buildings, with some residential uses from the second or third floor up, especially for lots closer to Main Street. The back half will be industrial oriented buildings with larger floorplates suited for light industrial uses as well as R&D type offices. Entrance to the industrial part can be accessed via the lane. Provide privacy, especially to the residents living in there, by having a courtyard with a 40’ to 50’ depth that separates the front and back buildings. Trees can be planted here to screen out noise that may emit from the industrial oriented buildings. Encourage this ‘double-front’ configurations by subdividing these 250’+ lots into the two halves and rezoning the front half to CD-1, while keeping the rear half I-2 (as it is now) or a modified I-2/I-3 that allows for closer proximity to non-industrial uses.  Development Data for Focus Area Average Typical Lot (+/-250’ X 420’ lot): 80000 to 120000sf Existing Conditions on typical lot Average Buildings(s)’ Floorspace: 127500sf Average Net FSR: 1.06 to 1.29 Average Heights: 2 to 3 storeys Land Use: Warehouses, storages, wholesalers, offices, auto-dealerships, fast-food restaurants, big-box stores. Green Space: 0sf Proposed Conditions on typical lot Average Building(s)’ Floorspace: 255000sf (~ 110000 sf for industrial, 60000sf for commercial-retail, and 85000sf for residential. Ratio will weigh more industrial towards the east end of Terminal) Average Net FSR: 2.13 to 3.19 Average Heights: 6 to 8 storeys (stepback at 4th storey) Land Use: Front-half: Commercial retail, cafes, offices and services (on first and/or second floor), and residential (from second/third floor up); Rear-half: big-box stores, warehouses, storages, R&D offices and wholesalers, green businesses. Green Space: 10000sf (Mainly in the courtyards and R.O.Ws)  Terminal Ave-fronted buildings - Buildings that faces on to Terminal can host commercialretail units as well as residential   units from the second floor up.  Courtyards - To give residents living on the premise some degree of privacy, courtyards can be used to screen out noise and direct sight-lines.  Light Industrial Buildings - Larger floorplate buildings are sited at the rear side of the lot. Loading can be from the lane or onsite.   Offices can be above.  ine S t. al Av e  Carol  ine S t.  Road  St .  Skytr ain L ine  New Map Information - Scale: 1:2000 - Shadows: Sept 22, 2pm  Carol  Term in  St. G eorge  Thorn ton S t.  Streetview (Looking northeast into courtyard)  4.5 Focused Study Areas >>> ‘Double-Fronted Blocks’ at Terminal Ave  ‘Double-Fronted’ Blocks at Terminal Ave  CN  Rail yard  Existing Conditions around Focus Area  Street-Section (Looking northeast into courtyard) Residential  Residential Offices Residential  Offices  Residential  Residential  Light Industrial  Residential  Commercial Retail  Light Industrial  Courtyard  Service lane  Green Strip   Providing an urban design framework for The False Creek Flats is as much an offering of design principles, strategies, typologies and patterns as it is about providing ways in which local communities of residents and businesses in and around The Flats can participate in envisioning a physical and social form for future developments. This chapter provides a checklist that future work on The Flats can use to ensure adequate local involvement in the formation of The Flats’ future identity and physical character. To provide a checklist at the end of this report - in an addendum form may seem contradictory when a democratic mode of planning is intended; usually, public participation normally precedes the drafting of physical plans and design strategies. As such, it is important to consider the principles, strategies, typologies and patterns suggested in earlier chapters as more catalysts to start dialogues rather than a decision on what The Flats should be. As this report is urban design-focused, the indicators provided in this chapter will pertain to design issues. Mainly, there will be two sub-sets of cecklists: •	 First, a set of checklist that can help establish a working group. The working group can in turn help planners and designers understand the communities of residents and businesses around and in The Flats, so as to establish values and desires. •	 Second, a set of checklist that specifically help visualise those values and desires through codesign events. With co-design, participants are not just providing ideas but the forms and representations from which planners and designers can base their own work from; it is not merely translating others’ values and desires into visual form but appreciating others’ visual forms and transfiguring them.  5. Public Participation Checklist >>>  Public Participation Checklist  Establishing a community-elected design-focused working group is important to help steer the planning process. While this working group will discuss a wide range of issues, there needs to be a focus on design issues, urban forms and land-use in order to help The City in further developing an urban design framework for The Flats. Size-wise, the working group will ideally be large enough (15 to 20 people) that smaller groups (4 to 5) within can be formed so as to provide a greater number of views and choices. Some studies have shown that the optimal size for a working group is around 7 to 20 people, with a median of 10 to 15 people. Christopher Allen calls this size a “sympathy circle” where we can begin to interact with each other at a level that genuine care toward others begin without getting to the point where other people are read as generalised personalities. At the same time this group size allows sufficient variety of views to emerge.1  Action-Based Criteria Identify local leaders  Operation  City staff to contact local community groups to identify leaders Identify local socio-economic/cultural City staff to work with local leaders groups and stakeholders and community representatives to identify these groups and persons Identify and elect representatives City staff to work with local leaders from socio-economic/cultural and to elect members for the working age groups group Identify diverse interests and form Charrettes to identify diverse smaller groups based on these interests and form smaller groups interests Channelling various interests into Charrettes to translate non-physical design-focused discussion concerns into issues of built form and land-use.  Asssessment  5. Public Participation Checklist >>> Establishing a Working Group  5.1. Establishing a Working Group  Yes/No Yes/No  Yes/No  Yes/No  Yes/No  To indicate a wide socio-economic and cultural spectrum is represented in the working group the following action-based criteria as shown in the opposite table may be useful:  (1) http://howtosavetheworld.ca/2009/03/18/the-optimal-size-of-groups/ (Accessed: Aug 7th 2011)  Acquiring a role in the design of an environment will give citizens a sense of responsibility for future developments and a feeling of belonging to the area not just in the present but in the future. Co-design is more than the usual public participation process in that it actively brings citizens into creating meaning and form. In this sense, citizens are not just making decisions, but helping City staff create the decisions from which to choose from. With co-design, one may suggest there is a greater distribution of power here. In fact, the physical environment emerges from the interaction of people. As Adrian Snodgrass and Richard Coyne suggest, The design process belongs to the domain of social actions and interactions, is firmly embedded in a human situation, and is a focal nexus within a network of intersubjective relationships.2 Hence, co-design, generally put, is neither about designers hard-selling their designs to the neighbourhood nor a matter of the clients (neighbours) being always right. As Elizabeth Sanders, a design theorist specialising in co-design processes, suggest, In co-design... the roles get mixed up: the person who will eventually be served through the design process is given the position of ‘expert of his/her experience’, and plays a large role in knowledge development, idea generation and concept development. In generating insights, the researcher supports the ‘expert of his/her experience’ by providing tools for ideation and expression. The [local] expert and the researcher collaborate on the tools for ideation.3 To indicate an adequate co-design process takes place a list of action-based criteria shown on the opposite table may help:  Action-Based Criteria Identify local artist to lead the production of visual-based content  Operation  City staff to work with working group to identify an artist for each of the smaller groups. Create an enriched urban design Charrette to create a list an glossary list that features not expanded glossary list and the just standard terms but ones the elected artists may help illustrate the community may value terms Organise photo-based asset mapping Each smaller group will walk around The Flats broadly to photograph areas viewed as important. Also, individual members will walk in a neighbourhood not their own and photograph areas they think is crucial. Working with City staff, the elected artists will produce a photobase asset map. Produce visual preference survey Each smaller working group will assemble a catalogue of urban forms and public spaces deem suitable for The Flats. These chosen urban forms will be assembled into a visual survey; the public will be invited to rank the urban forms. Host co-design charrette to generate In a two-day event, the smaller a series of physical plans and typolo- groups along with their artist will gies team up with planners and architects to produce physical plans and drawings of what The Flats can be. Each smaller working group will then present on their plan; the speaker will be a local community member as opposed to a design professional. Host open house event The working group will hold an openhouse to showcase their findings and recommendations in the same way the planning department holds open houses.  Asssessment  5. Public Participation Indicators >>> Facilitating Co-Design  5.2. Facilitating Co-Design  Yes/No  Yes/No  Yes/No  Yes/No  Yes/No  Yes/No  (2) Adrian Snodgrass and Richard Coyne, “Is Designing Hermeneutical?” in Architectural Theory Review: Journal of the Department of Architecture, University of Sydney, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1997, pp 65-97. p.95. (3) Elizabeth Sanders and Pieter Jan Stappers, CoCreation and the New Landscape of Design, http:// maketools.com/pdfs/CoCreation_Sanders_Stappers_08_ preprint.pdf (accessed: 20th March 2009), p.8  be brought to/fro Vancouver. Respect also means complementing the urban forms of surrounding neighbourhoods so that developments at The Flats would not be out of scale. •	 Restore the ecological functions of the area that may have diminished through years of rail and industrial use by means of regenerative features at all scales from greenways, bioswales, wetland, bioretention ponds to rain barrels. This is especially important for The Flats which is flood and ponding-proned, and currently has a high degree of impervious surfaces that increase the amount of run-offs with pollutants going into False Creek.  6. Conclusion >>>  infrastructures are to accommodate a future growing population and to improve connectivity. However, In this last chapter a short concluding summary the feasibility and siting of these two infrastructures of what can be done urban-design wise will be should be further investigated. For the tram-line, is the population along Great Northern Way going presented. This will be followed by suggestions of to be sufficient to support the line. For the Skytrain the next steps that can be taken in order to ensure station, is the number of businesses and residences the principles, strategies, typologies, patterns, along Terminal going to be sufficient to justify a new opportunities and most of all vision can get toward station. implementation. •	 Public Engagement: As part of a larger design study process, a series of stakeholder workshops and 6.1 Summary open houses should be held with residents of nearby The design principles, strategies, opportunities, neighbourhoods, businesses at/around The Flats as typologies and patterns presented in this project well as non-profit groups engaging with issues of are meant to aid future planning work for The False sustainability, community well-being, etc. This report Creek Flats in terms of an urban design framework. has provided a checklist (in chapter 5) pertaining to 6.2 Next Steps using co-design methods as a means to help generate In summary, the framework presented here serves more visions of what The Flats can be. However, coTo ensure the principles, strategies, typologies, design events are more catered to smaller working the following demands: patterns, opportunities and most of all vision can get groups. To further investigate what the public feels to implementation, a few issues that goes beyond and envision for The Flats, larger scale surveys in •	 Be aligned with the City of Vancouver’s identification the scope of this urban design-oriented report should several iterations should be conducted. The first to maintain adequate amounts industrial lands for be carried out to buttress the findings of this report: iterations of these surveys, workshops and open light industrial businesses as well as city serving houses can use the strategies, principles, typologies purposes like the Fire Training Facility, The National •	 Zoning: Many of the strategies – such as to ensure and opportunities identified in this report as a yard and the Police Training Facility. continuity, mix uses, include residential, integrate land discussion-starting point. •	 Intensify activities and population to support the uses, etc – would require the crafting of new zones desired future commercial activities for the area, that are more robust than the current I-2 and I-3 especially along arterials such as Terminal Avenue, For all the abovementioned issues, alternatives districts that occupies most of The Flats. City staff will Main Street and some sections of Industrial Avenue should be provided so as to supply information for have to investigate whether to apply mass rezoning, and Great Northern Way. the drafting of future iterations of urban design at least for lots with potential mixed use purposes, •	 Connect The Flats to adjacent neighbourhoods by frameworks. to some form of “I-4” district that allows for more introducing more north-south paths for pedestrians residential and commercial-retail uses, or to rezone and cyclists by means of ped-bike bridges and rightsthose lots to CD-1 upon development application. of-ways. This creates a fine grain grid pattern that •	 Market Feasibility: City staff should investigate the complements surrounding neighbourhoods. Greater adequate amount of FSR needed to support the pedestrian permeability encourages walking, thus principles, strategies and types proposed in this report healthier lifestyles and lower carbon footprints overall. given the current/future land and development cost. •	 Accommodate residential uses so as to bring jobs Investigations should include reports on how much closer to homes where future workers can easily walk residential floorspace should take place to ensure or cycle to work as opposed to driving. Increasing economic viability in each of the sub-areas identified the residential density is align with the City’s desire in this report as suitable for residential uses. Likewise, to grow in a compact manner to combat sprawl. In investigations on how much commercial-retail and the case of the metro Vancouver region, it alleviates office floorspace should take place especially along development pressure to build on Agriculture Land arterials. More importantly, how much residential, Reserves. On a smaller neighbourhood scale, it commercial-retail and office floorspace can take place alleviates development pressure to dramatically before the impact on industrial land cost becomes change the more established fabric of adjacent unacceptable to meet City’s goals to maintain inner neighbourhoods. city industrial lands. Market feasibility will also affect •	 Respect the industrial heritage of the area by means the way development is phased. of preserving heritage buildings and some forms • Transport Issues: This report recommends a tram-line of industrial uses such as storage warehouses and along Great Northern Way going towards Southeast even the railyards which are important to host False Creek via East 2nd Avenue. It also recommends trains as a sustainable transport choice in the future an additional Skytrain Station at the southeast corner where goods and passengers from near and far can of Terminal Avenue and Glen Drive. Both transport  Conclusion  City of Vancouver. Industrial Lands Strategy. 1995 ---. False Creek Flats Preliminary Concept Plan. 1996 ---. I-2: Light Industrial District Schedule. 1997 ---. CD-1 (402) District Schedule. 1999 ---. I-3 HighTech Industrial District Schedule. 1999 ---. Urban Structure Plan. 2001 ---. Administrative Report on Strategic Rail Overview and Detailed Operation Study. 2005 ---. Metro Core Jobs & Economy Land Use Plans. 2006 ---. Flood Proofing Policies. 2007 ---. Rezoning Policy for “HighTech” sites in the False Creek Flats. 2009 Planning and Design Literature Bing Thom Architects Works <www.btaworks.com> Bosselmann, Peter, “Images in Motion” in Urban Design Reader (Eds. M. Carmona & S. Tiesdell), Oxford, UK: Elsevier Architectural Press, 2007 Eco, Umberto, “Function and Sign: The Semiotics of Architecture”, in Rethinking Architecture: A Reader in Cultural Theory (ed. Neil Lech), London, UK & New York: Routledge, 1997 Hester, Randolph, Design for Ecological Democracy, Cambridge, MA & London, UK: MIT Press, 2006 Lewis, Sally, Front to Back: A Design Agenda for Urban Housing, Oxford, UK: Elsevier Architectural Press, 2005 Mileti, Denis, Disasters by Design: A Reassessment of Natural Hazards in the United States, Washington, D.C.: Joseph Henry Press, 1999 Morris, Pierce, “In the Pipeline: District Energy and Green Building”, in Environmental Building News, 2007, Vol.16, No.3 Moughtin, Cliff, Urban Design: Street and Square, Oxford, UK: Elsevier Architectural Press, 2003 Moughtin, Cliff, Urban Design: Method and Techniques, Oxford, UK: Elsevier Architectural Press, 1999 Moughtin, Cliff, Urban Design: Green Dimensions, Oxford, UK: Elsevier Architectural Press, 2005 Sanders, Liz and Pieter Jan Stappers, Co-Creation and the New Landscape of Design, www.maketools.com Snodgrass, Adrian and Richard Coyne, “Is Designing Hermeneutical?” in Architectural Theory Review: Journal of the Department of Architecture, University of Sydney, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1997 Watson, Donald & Michele Adams, Design for Flooding: Architecture, Landscape and Urban Design for Resilience to Climate Change, Hoboken, NJ: Wiley and Sons, 2011  Bibliography  City Documents  

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