Open Collections

UBC Graduate Research

Neighbourhood Retail Change: The Evolution of Local Shopping Areas in Vancouver, BC Kay, Vanessa 2010

You don't seem to have a PDF reader installed, try download the pdf

Item Metadata

Download

Media
SCARP_2010_gradproject_Kay.pdf [ 18.97MB ]
[if-you-see-this-DO-NOT-CLICK]
[if-you-see-this-DO-NOT-CLICK]
Metadata
JSON: 1.0102523.json
JSON-LD: 1.0102523+ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 1.0102523.xml
RDF/JSON: 1.0102523+rdf.json
Turtle: 1.0102523+rdf-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 1.0102523+rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 1.0102523 +original-record.json
Full Text
1.0102523.txt
Citation
1.0102523.ris

Full Text

	
   	
   	
   Neighbourhood	
  Retail	
  Change	
  	
   	
   The	
  Evolution	
  of	
  Local	
  Shopping	
  Areas	
  in	
  Vancouver,	
  BC	
   	
   	
   	
    	
   	
   	
   	
   Professional	
  Project	
  Report	
   by	
  Vanessa	
  Kay	
   Masters	
  of	
  Planning	
  Candidate	
   School	
  of	
  Community	
  and	
  Regional	
  Planning	
   University	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia,	
  Canada	
    	
    TABLE	
  OF	
  CONTENTS	
   ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS........................................................................................................................................i	
   EXECUTIVE	
  SUMMARY .........................................................................................................................................i	
   1.0	
    INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………………………………………………………1	
    2.0	
  	
   LITERATURE	
  REVIEW............................................................................................................................. 2	
   2.1	
  	
   Sustainability	
  Literature .................................................................................................................. 2	
   Implications	
  for	
  GHG	
  Reduction	
  and	
  Post-­‐Carbon	
  Resilience .....................................................................2	
   Active	
  Transportation	
  and	
  Public	
  Health .............................................................................................................3	
   Social	
  Cohesion	
  and	
  Neighbourhood	
  Identity ....................................................................................................4	
   Portland	
  Example:	
  The	
  “Twenty-­‐Minute	
  Neighbourhood”	
  Planning	
  Concept .....................................5	
   2.2	
   Neighbourhood	
  Planning	
  Literature............................................................................................. 6	
   Retail	
  Revitalization	
  Literature.................................................................................................................................7	
   2.3	
   Retail	
  Planning	
  Concepts .................................................................................................................. 7	
   Hierarchy/Levels	
  of	
  Retail ..........................................................................................................................................8	
   Convenience	
  vs.	
  Shopping	
  Goods	
  and	
  Services..................................................................................................9	
   Threshold	
  Population....................................................................................................................................................9	
   Trade	
  Areas/	
  Catchment........................................................................................................................................... 10	
   2.4	
  	
   Local	
  Retail	
  Profile	
  Completeness...............................................................................................10	
   3.0	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  CONTEXTUAL	
  REVIEW………………………………………………………………………………………………..12	
   3.1	
  	
   City	
  of	
  Vancouver	
  Policy .................................................................................................................13	
   Retail	
  as	
  Amenity.......................................................................................................................................................... 14	
   CityPlan	
  and	
  Neighbourhood	
  Centres................................................................................................................. 14	
   Zoning................................................................................................................................................................................ 15	
   3.2	
   City	
  of	
  Vancouver	
  Retail	
  Development	
  History .......................................................................17	
   3.3	
   Case	
  Study	
  Analysis	
  Periods...........................................................................................................18	
   3.4	
   Case	
  Study	
  Area	
  Selection	
  Criteria...............................................................................................19	
   3.5	
   Introduction	
  to	
  the	
  Case	
  Study	
  Areas..........................................................................................20	
   Dunbar	
  Centre	
  Shopping	
  Area................................................................................................................................ 21	
   Rupert	
  and	
  22nd	
  Shopping	
  Area ............................................................................................................................. 25	
   Nanaimo	
  and	
  Charles	
  Shopping	
  Area .................................................................................................................. 28	
   4.0	
  	
   METHODS .................................................................................................................................................32	
   4.1	
   Data	
  Collection....................................................................................................................................32	
   4.2	
   Analytical	
  Methods............................................................................................................................32	
   4.3	
   Limitations	
  of	
  data ............................................................................................................................34	
   5.0	
   ANALYSIS	
  AND	
  FINDINGS .....................................................................................................................35	
   5.1	
   Overall	
  Numbers	
  of	
  Businesses.....................................................................................................36	
   5.2	
   Retail	
  Mix	
  Profile:	
  Broad	
  Categories ...........................................................................................40	
   5.3	
   Retail	
  Mix	
  Profile:	
  Selected	
  Specific	
  Uses ..................................................................................44	
   6.0	
   IMPLICATIONS .........................................................................................................................................48	
   6.1	
   A	
  Story	
  of	
  Neighbourhood	
  Retail ..................................................................................................48	
   6.2	
   Policy	
  Implications	
  and	
  Recommendations .............................................................................49	
   7.0	
   CONCLUSION.............................................................................................................................................51	
   GLOSSARY	
  OF	
  TERMS .......................................................................................................................................52	
   WORKS	
  CITED .....................................................................................................................................................53	
   	
    i	
    TABLE	
  OF	
  FIGURES	
   	
   Figure	
  1	
  -­‐	
  Map	
  of	
  Case	
  Study	
  Areas	
  and	
  Vancouver	
  Neighbourhood	
  Contexts ........................................... 20	
   Figure	
  2	
  -­‐	
  Map	
  of	
  Dunbar	
  Centre	
  Shopping	
  Area ...................................................................................................... 21	
   Figure	
  3	
  -­‐	
  Photo	
  of	
  Scott's	
  Grocery,	
  Dunbar	
  Centre	
  (1923) ....................................................................................... 24	
   Figure	
  4	
  -­‐	
  Photo	
  of	
  Dunbar	
  Centre,	
  1932 ......................................................................................................................... 24	
   Figure	
  5	
  -­‐	
  Map	
  of	
  Rupert	
  and	
  22nd	
  Shopping	
  Area ................................................................................................... 25	
   Figure	
  6	
  -­‐	
  Map	
  of	
  Nanaimo	
  and	
  Charles	
  Shopping	
  Area ........................................................................................ 28	
   Figure	
  7	
  -­‐	
  Number	
  of	
  Businesses	
  Over	
  Time	
  by	
  Case	
  Study	
  Area	
  (Chart) ..................................................... 36	
   Figure	
  8	
  -­‐	
  Annual	
  Percentage	
  Change	
  in	
  Number	
  of	
  Businesses	
  over	
  Time	
  (Chart) ................................. 37	
   Figure	
  9	
  -­‐	
  Photo:	
  SE	
  Corner	
  of	
  Rupert	
  St.	
  and	
  E.	
  22nd	
  Ave.	
  (1980s	
  or	
  1990s) ..................................................... 39	
   Figure	
  10	
  -­‐	
  Photo:	
  SE	
  Corner	
  of	
  Rupert	
  St.	
  and	
  E.	
  22nd	
  Ave.	
  (2010)....................................................................... 39	
   Figure	
  11	
  -­‐	
  Photo:	
  NW	
  Corner	
  of	
  Rupert	
  St.	
  and	
  E.	
  22nd	
  Ave.	
  (1970s) .................................................................. 39	
   Figure	
  12	
  -­‐	
  Photo:	
  NW	
  Corner	
  of	
  Rupert	
  St.	
  and	
  E.	
  22nd	
  Ave.	
  (2010).................................................................... 39	
   Figure	
  13	
  -­‐	
  Dunbar	
  Centre	
  -­‐	
  Mix	
  of	
  Business	
  Use	
  Categories	
  over	
  Time	
  (Chart)........................................ 41	
   Figure	
  14	
  -­‐	
  Rupert	
  and	
  22nd	
  -­‐	
  Mix	
  of	
  Business	
  Use	
  Categories	
  over	
  Time	
  (Chart) ................................... 41	
   Figure	
  15	
  -­‐	
  Nanaimo	
  and	
  Charles	
  -­‐	
  Mix	
  of	
  Business	
  Use	
  Categories	
  over	
  Time	
  (Chart) .......................... 41	
   Figure	
  16	
  -­‐	
  Photo:	
  Storefront	
  of	
  Gateway	
  Appraisal,	
  Nanaimo	
  Street	
  (2010) ..................................................... 43	
   Figure	
  17	
  -­‐	
  Photo:	
  Storefront	
  of	
  L3	
  Design,	
  Nanaimo	
  Street	
  (2010) ....................................................................... 43	
   Figure	
  18	
  -­‐	
  Convenience	
  Services	
  by	
  Type	
  over	
  Time	
  (Chart)............................................................................ 47	
   	
  	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   LIST	
  OF	
  APPENDICES	
   	
   Appendix	
  A:	
   Characteristics	
  of	
  Selected	
  Vancouver	
  Retail	
  Areas	
   Appendix	
  B:	
    Complete	
  Set	
  of	
  Ground	
  Codes	
  for	
  Occupancy	
  Data	
    Appendix	
  C:	
    Ground	
  Codes	
  and	
  Retail	
  Mix	
  Categories	
    Appendix	
  D:	
    Coded	
  Case	
  Study	
  Area	
  Occupancy	
  Data	
  and	
  Basic	
  Retail	
  Mix	
  Analysis	
  Count	
  Data	
    	
   ii	
    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS	
   	
  	
   This	
  research	
  was	
  made	
  possible	
  with	
  the	
  support	
  of	
  many	
  key	
  individuals.	
  Thanks	
  to	
  Adjunct	
   Professors	
  Ann	
  McAfee	
  and	
  Jay	
  Wollenberg,	
  and	
  Distinguished	
  Practice	
  Professor	
  Larry	
  Beasley	
  for	
   taking	
  the	
  time	
  to	
  offer	
  suggestions	
  which	
  were	
  very	
  helpful	
  in	
  shaping	
  the	
  early	
  stages	
  of	
  this	
   research.	
  Thanks	
  to	
  Glenn	
  Buholzer	
  for	
  his	
  careful	
  proofreading.	
   A	
  complete	
  set	
  of	
  ground	
  codes	
  developed	
  by	
  Vancouver-­‐based	
  retail	
  consultant	
  Lewis	
  Silberberg	
   provided	
  an	
  invaluable	
  basis	
  for	
  coding	
  case	
  study	
  occupancy	
  data.	
  Additional	
  thanks	
  go	
  to	
  staff	
  of	
   the	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver	
  Planning	
  Department	
  who	
  have	
  offered	
  the	
  benefit	
  of	
  their	
  experience	
  and	
   insight.	
  Particular	
  thanks	
  are	
  due	
  to:	
   -­‐  Andy	
  Coupland,	
  Planner,	
  Research	
  and	
  Data	
    -­‐  Michelle	
  McGuire,	
  Planner,	
  Community	
  Planning	
    I	
  am	
  especially	
  grateful	
  to	
  Peter	
  Vaisbord,	
  Planner,	
  Business	
  Improvement	
  Area	
  Program,	
  for	
  his	
   interest	
  in	
  this	
  project,	
  his	
  pithy	
  comments	
  on	
  a	
  draft	
  of	
  this	
  report,	
  and	
  for	
  taking	
  the	
  time	
  to	
  serve	
   as	
  its	
  second	
  reader.	
   Finally,	
  my	
  heartfelt	
  thanks	
  go	
  out	
  to	
  Dr.	
  Thomas	
  A	
  Hutton,	
  who	
  has	
  been	
  a	
  kind	
  and	
  inspirational	
   advisor	
  and	
  professor	
  at	
  the	
  School	
  of	
  Community	
  and	
  Regional	
  Planning.	
  His	
  assistance	
  with	
  both	
   substantive	
  subject	
  matter	
  and	
  research	
  methods	
  has	
  been	
  invaluable.	
  	
    	
   EXECUTIVE	
  SUMMARY	
   Neighbourhood-­‐serving	
  urban	
  shopping	
  areas	
  have	
  traditionally	
  offered	
  local	
  residents	
  access	
  to	
   the	
  most	
  frequently	
  needed	
  goods	
  and	
  services,	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  places	
  to	
  connect	
  and	
  socialize.	
  Since	
  the	
   mid-­‐20th	
  century,	
  however,	
  the	
  urban	
  retail	
  landscape	
  has	
  undergone	
  major	
  changes,	
  including	
  the	
   rise	
  of	
  regional	
  shopping	
  malls	
  and	
  large	
  format	
  retailers.	
  The	
  impact	
  of	
  these	
  shifts	
  on	
  lower-­‐order	
   urban	
  retail	
  areas	
  is	
  poorly	
  understood	
  and	
  seldom	
  researched,	
  except	
  in	
  cases	
  of	
  decline	
   characterized	
  by	
  high	
  vacancy	
  rates	
  and	
  deteriorating	
  buildings.	
  Nevertheless,	
  access	
  to	
  basic	
  goods	
   and	
  services	
  within	
  urban	
  neighbourhoods	
  remains	
  an	
  important	
  equity	
  issue	
  and	
  a	
  catalyst	
  for	
   strong	
  communities.	
  Recent	
  research	
  indicates	
  that	
  it	
  is	
  also	
  a	
  critical	
  factor	
  in	
  supporting	
  local	
   resilience	
  and	
  public	
  health.	
    	
    i	
    The	
  purpose	
  of	
  this	
  study	
  is	
  to	
  investigate	
  the	
  evolving	
  functions	
  of	
  Vancouver’s	
  neighbourhood-­‐ serving	
  shopping	
  areas	
  from	
  the	
  end	
  of	
  the	
  1950s	
  to	
  the	
  present.	
  This	
  critical	
  period	
  spans	
  the	
   replacement	
  of	
  the	
  city’s	
  streetcar	
  system	
  by	
  trolley	
  buses,	
  the	
  rise	
  of	
  regionally-­‐serving	
  large-­‐ format	
  retail,	
  and	
  the	
  emergence	
  of	
  sustainability	
  as	
  a	
  pillar	
  of	
  planning	
  policy.	
  Analysis	
  of	
  historical	
   occupancy	
  data	
  from	
  case	
  study	
  areas	
  over	
  this	
  period	
  informs	
  generalizations	
  about	
  past	
  and	
   present	
  trends	
  in	
  the	
  overall	
  number	
  and	
  mix	
  of	
  businesses	
  supported	
  within	
  Vancouver’s	
   neighbourhood-­‐serving	
  shopping	
  areas.	
  Findings	
  of	
  this	
  report	
  are	
  intended	
  to	
  inform	
  future	
  policy	
   directions	
  and	
  planning	
  strategies	
  relating	
  to	
  Vancouver’s	
  local	
  retail.	
  While	
  findings,	
  conclusions	
   and	
  recommendations	
  are	
  specific	
  to	
  this	
  city,	
  trends	
  found	
  in	
  Vancouver	
  are	
  also	
  relevant	
  to	
   circumstances	
  described	
  within	
  the	
  planning	
  literature	
  as	
  affecting	
  	
  other	
  cities	
  in	
  North	
  America	
   and	
  Europe.	
  	
   	
   	
   Background	
  Literature	
  and	
  Contexts	
   As	
  discussed	
  in	
  the	
  Literature	
  Review	
  section	
  of	
  this	
  report,	
  a	
  diverse	
  body	
  of	
  literature	
  about	
   urban	
  sustainability	
  highlights	
  the	
  role	
  of	
  neighbourhood-­‐serving	
  retail	
  in	
  increasing	
  community	
   resilience,	
  supporting	
  public	
  health	
  and	
  fostering	
  social	
  cohesion.	
  Recent	
  research	
  shows	
  that	
   access	
  to	
  everyday	
  goods	
  and	
  services	
  within	
  walkable	
  shopping	
  areas	
  not	
  only	
  contributes	
  to	
  GHG	
   reduction	
  by	
  reducing	
  automobile	
  trips,	
  but	
  also	
  offer	
  positive	
  impacts	
  for	
  public	
  health	
  through	
   improving	
  access	
  to	
  healthy	
  food	
  and	
  increasing	
  levels	
  of	
  active	
  transportation.	
  Local	
  gathering	
   spots	
  such	
  as	
  cafes	
  and	
  beauty	
  parlours	
  in	
  walkable	
  neighbourhoods	
  also	
  foster	
  social	
  well-­‐being	
   and	
  cohesion.	
  Planning	
  and	
  local	
  economic	
  development	
  literature	
  offers	
  strategies	
  to	
  support	
  the	
   revitalization	
  of	
  troubled	
  and	
  declining	
  local	
  retail	
  districts.	
  However,	
  the	
  changing	
  functions	
  of	
   healthy	
  neighbourhood-­‐oriented	
  urban	
  retail	
  have	
  not	
  been	
  widely	
  studied.	
  Portland's	
  "Twenty-­‐ Minute	
  Neighbourhood"	
  planning	
  concept	
  pioneers	
  formal	
  consideration	
  of	
  access	
  to	
  local	
  retail	
   "destinations"	
  in	
  guiding	
  policy	
  decisions.	
   Key	
  concepts	
  within	
  the	
  analytical	
  framework	
  of	
  this	
  research	
  are	
  drawn	
  from	
  the	
  fields	
  of	
   economic	
  development	
  and	
  commercial	
  real	
  estate	
  development.	
  The	
  concept	
  of	
  classifying	
  retail	
   areas	
  within	
  a	
  regional	
  hierarchy	
  informed	
  the	
  selection	
  of	
  a	
  range	
  of	
  study	
  areas	
  that	
  includes	
   representatives	
  of	
  Vancouver's	
  two	
  levels	
  of	
  neighbourhood-­‐serving	
  shopping	
  areas.	
  (Local	
  Centres	
   serve	
  nearby	
  residents,	
  while	
  District	
  Centres	
  serve	
  larger	
  residential	
  districts.)	
  The	
  distinction	
   between	
  convenience	
  goods	
  and	
  services	
  (which	
  consumers	
  purchase	
  more	
  frequently)	
  and	
   shoppers'	
  goods	
  and	
  services	
  (for	
  which	
  consumers	
  are	
  more	
  likely	
  to	
  do	
  comparison	
  shopping)	
  is	
    	
   ii	
    applied	
  to	
  the	
  mix	
  of	
  business	
  uses	
  in	
  the	
  study	
  areas	
  as	
  part	
  of	
  the	
  analysis	
  of	
  occupancy	
  data.	
  It	
   also	
  informs	
  the	
  idea	
  of	
  local	
  retail	
  profile	
  completeness,	
  which	
  describes	
  a	
  mix	
  of	
  shops	
  and	
   services	
  that	
  optimally	
  serves	
  the	
  population	
  residing	
  within	
  walking	
  distance.	
   The	
  Contextual	
  Review	
  discusses	
  key	
  planning	
  and	
  development	
  contexts	
  of	
  Vancouver’s	
   neighbourhood	
  retail	
  development,	
  including	
  the	
  history	
  of	
  commercial	
  arterial	
  streets,	
  commercial	
   zoning	
  and	
  the	
  city's	
  Business	
  Improvement	
  Area	
  program.	
  The	
  ongoing	
  CityPlan	
  initiative,	
   involving	
  the	
  participatory	
  identification	
  and	
  planning	
  of	
  mixed-­‐use	
  "neighbourhood	
  centres"	
   targets	
  single-­‐family	
  areas	
  and	
  their	
  locally-­‐serving	
  shopping	
  streets.	
  	
   The	
  Contextual	
  Review	
  concludes	
  by	
  introducing	
  the	
  five	
  points	
  for	
  which	
  data	
  was	
  collected	
  (1955,	
   1970,	
  1985,	
  1998	
  and	
  2010),	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  selection	
  criteria	
  for	
  the	
  three	
  case	
  study	
  areas.	
  The	
  three	
   case	
  study	
  areas	
  are	
  as	
  follows:	
   •  The	
  Dunbar	
  Centre	
  Shopping	
  Area,	
  a	
  District	
  Centre,	
  is	
  the	
  largest	
  of	
  the	
  case	
  study	
  areas	
   and	
  serves	
  the	
  high-­‐income	
  and	
  slow-­‐growing	
  Dunbar-­‐Southlands	
  local	
  area.	
  The	
  retail	
  area	
   was	
  developed	
  around	
  a	
  streetcar	
  line	
  in	
  the	
  1930s.	
  	
    •  The	
  Rupert	
  and	
  22nd	
  Shopping	
  Area	
  is	
  a	
  small	
  Local	
  Centre	
  and	
  serves	
  the	
  Renfrew-­‐ Collingwood	
  local	
  area.	
  Developed	
  in	
  the	
  1940s	
  and	
  1950s	
  ,	
  it	
  includes	
  a	
  higher	
  proportion	
   of	
  automobile-­‐oriented	
  design	
  than	
  the	
  other	
  case	
  study	
  areas.	
    •  The	
  Nanaimo	
  and	
  Charles	
  Shopping	
  Area	
  is	
  a	
  small	
  Local	
  Centre	
  located	
  on	
  the	
  border	
  of	
   the	
  Grandview-­‐Woodlands	
  and	
  Hastings-­‐Sunrise	
  local	
  areas,	
  whose	
  populations	
  are	
   demographically	
  diverse.	
  This	
  retail	
  area	
  developed	
  around	
  a	
  streetcar	
  line	
  in	
  the	
  1930s,	
   and	
  was	
  reduced	
  in	
  extent	
  following	
  the	
  closure	
  of	
  a	
  Safeway	
  supermarket	
  in	
  1988.	
    	
   	
   Methods	
  and	
  Analysis	
   As	
  described	
  in	
  the	
  Methods	
  section,	
  study	
  area	
  occupancy	
  data	
  were	
  collected	
  from	
  the	
  Vancouver	
   City	
  Directory	
  and	
  from	
  field	
  surveys.	
  Data	
  were	
  coded	
  based	
  on	
  the	
  type	
  of	
  business	
  located	
  at	
   each	
  address.	
  Ground	
  codes,	
  based	
  on	
  a	
  set	
  developed	
  by	
  Vancouver-­‐based	
  retail	
  consultant	
  Lewis	
   Silberberg,	
  allow	
  quantitative	
  analysis	
  of	
  the	
  types	
  of	
  businesses	
  offered	
  within	
  the	
  case	
  study	
  areas	
   over	
  time.	
  Coded	
  data	
  were	
  sorted	
  into	
  three	
  broad	
  categories	
  (Convenience	
  Goods	
  and	
  Services,	
   Shopping	
  Goods	
  and	
  Services,	
  and	
  Office/Professional/Business	
  Supply	
  Uses)	
  to	
  facilitate	
  analysis	
   of	
  retail	
  mix.	
  Also	
  discussed	
  in	
  this	
  section	
  are	
  gaps	
  and	
  limitations	
  of	
  available	
  data	
  and	
  of	
  the	
    	
   iii	
    research	
  methods.	
  Foremost	
  among	
  these	
  limitations	
  is	
  that	
  historical	
  occupancy	
  data	
  record	
  only	
   business	
  names	
  without	
  other	
  relevant	
  information	
  such	
  as	
  the	
  size	
  or	
  character	
  of	
  the	
  businesses.	
   The	
  Analysis	
  section	
  of	
  this	
  report	
  describes	
  patterns	
  of	
  change	
  revealed	
  in	
  the	
  case	
  study	
  area	
   occupancy	
  data	
  in	
  three	
  ways:	
   •  The	
  overall	
  number	
  of	
  businesses	
  located	
  in	
  the	
  study	
  areas	
    •  The	
  proportion	
  of	
  businesses	
  within	
  each	
  study	
  area	
  belonging	
  to	
  three	
  broad	
  categories:	
   (Convenience	
  Goods	
  and	
  Services,	
  Shopping	
  Goods	
  and	
  Services,	
  and	
   Office/Professional/Business	
  Supply	
  Uses)	
    •  The	
  number	
  of	
  businesses	
  falling	
  within	
  specific	
  use	
  subcategories	
  (e.g.	
  grocers,)	
  that	
  have	
   changed	
  significantly	
  in	
  prominence	
  over	
  the	
  study	
  period,	
  or	
  that	
  are	
  critical	
  to	
  serving	
  the	
   everyday	
  needs	
  of	
  nearby	
  residents.	
    Key	
  findings	
  include	
  the	
  following:	
   •  In	
  all	
  three	
  case	
  study	
  areas,	
  the	
  total	
  numbers	
  of	
  shops	
  and	
  services	
  display	
  a	
  clear	
  pattern	
   of	
  change	
  over	
  time.	
  A	
  dramatic	
  decline	
  in	
  the	
  overall	
  number	
  of	
  businesses	
  took	
  place	
   between	
  the	
  first	
  two	
  data	
  points	
  of	
  1955	
  and	
  1970,	
  and	
  was	
  followed	
  by	
  a	
  more	
  gradual	
   resurgence.	
  Between	
  1998	
  and	
  2010,	
  numbers	
  of	
  businesses	
  increased	
  across	
  all	
  study	
   areas,	
  returning	
  to	
  approximately	
  80%	
  of	
  1955	
  levels	
  in	
  two	
  of	
  the	
  study	
  areas	
  and	
   surpassing	
  1955	
  levels	
  in	
  the	
  third	
  area.	
    •  Over	
  the	
  study	
  period,	
  the	
  more	
  widely-­‐serving	
  District	
  Centre	
  study	
  area	
  (Dunbar	
  Centre)	
   consistently	
  offered	
  a	
  greater	
  proportion	
  of	
  higher-­‐order	
  shopping	
  goods	
  and	
  services	
  than	
   the	
  two	
  Local	
  Centres	
  did.	
  	
  However,	
  businesses	
  offering	
  shopping	
  goods	
  and	
  services	
  made	
   up	
  a	
  shrinking	
  proportion	
  of	
  businesses	
  in	
  Dunbar	
  Centre	
  since	
  1970,	
  with	
  lower-­‐order	
   convenience	
  goods	
  and	
  services	
  rising	
  in	
  prominence.	
  	
    •  Numbers	
  of	
  dining	
  establishments	
  increased	
  significantly	
  over	
  time	
  in	
  two	
  of	
  the	
  three	
   study	
  areas,	
  which	
  may	
  be	
  related	
  to	
  generally	
  declining	
  numbers	
  of	
  small	
  grocery	
  stores,	
   reflecting	
  changing	
  lifestyles.	
  	
    •  The	
  number	
  of	
  automobile	
  service	
  stations	
  declined	
  steadily	
  over	
  the	
  study	
  period,	
   resulting	
  in	
  several	
  sites	
  within	
  the	
  case	
  study	
  areas	
  that	
  were	
  subsequently	
  redeveloped	
   for	
  other,	
  more	
  pedestrian-­‐oriented	
  retail	
  uses.	
    	
   iv	
    Implications	
  and	
  Recommendations	
   The	
  implications	
  of	
  this	
  research	
  are	
  twofold:	
  it	
  offers	
  insight	
  into	
  general	
  patterns	
  and	
  trends	
  that	
   have	
  shaped	
  neighbourhood-­‐serving	
  retail	
  areas	
  in	
  Vancouver	
  since	
  the	
  1950s,	
  and	
  it	
  informs	
   recommendations	
  for	
  future	
  planning	
  and	
  policy	
  directions.	
   Findings	
  outline	
  a	
  narrative	
  about	
  the	
  changing	
  face	
  of	
  neighbourhood-­‐oriented	
  retail	
  in	
  Vancouver	
   since	
  the	
  1950s.	
  The	
  story	
  begins	
  with	
  a	
  period	
  of	
  decline	
  in	
  local	
  shopping	
  areas	
  leading	
  up	
  to	
  the	
   1970s,	
  a	
  time	
  of	
  increasing	
  automobile	
  dependence.	
  A	
  subsequent	
  resurgence	
  in	
  numbers	
  of	
   businesses,	
  particularly	
  those	
  offering	
  convenience	
  goods	
  and	
  services,	
  suggests	
  positive	
   implications	
  for	
  the	
  future	
  of	
  Vancouver’s	
  neighbourhood	
  retail	
  areas.	
  However,	
  the	
  roles	
  of	
  these	
   areas	
  may	
  have	
  shifted	
  over	
  time.	
  As	
  suggested	
  by	
  the	
  reduced	
  importance	
  of	
  shoppers’	
  goods	
  and	
   services	
  in	
  Dunbar	
  Centre,	
  higher-­‐order	
  functions	
  may	
  be	
  increasingly	
  dominated	
  by	
  regionally-­‐ serving	
  shops	
  outside	
  the	
  neighbourhood	
  retail	
  areas.1	
   Current	
  city-­‐wide	
  planning	
  policies	
  in	
  the	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver	
  are	
  generally	
  supportive	
  of	
   neighbourhood-­‐serving	
  retail	
  in	
  an	
  indirect	
  way,	
  by	
  calling	
  for	
  gentle	
  densification	
  and	
  increased	
   housing	
  options	
  in	
  traditional	
  single-­‐family	
  areas.	
  However,	
  planning	
  strategies	
  for	
  specific	
   neighbourhoods	
  and	
  shopping	
  areas	
  are	
  developed	
  in	
  the	
  absence	
  of	
  clear	
  city-­‐wide	
  policy	
   supporting	
  local	
  retail	
  and	
  calling	
  for	
  the	
  preservation	
  of	
  retail	
  use	
  potential	
  in	
  historic	
   neighbourhood-­‐serving	
  shopping	
  areas.	
  Therefore,	
  this	
  report	
  recommends	
  the	
  development	
  of	
  a	
   city-­‐wide	
  policy	
  outlining	
  specific	
  strategies	
  for	
  preserving	
  and	
  supporting	
  neighbourhood-­‐serving	
   retail.	
  To	
  inform	
  this	
  policy	
  work,	
  an	
  update	
  of	
  the	
  1971	
  Suburban	
  Commercial	
  Study,	
  perhaps	
   building	
  on	
  the	
  present	
  research,	
  may	
  be	
  required.	
  The	
  comprehensive	
  Greenest	
  City	
  Action	
  Plan,	
   currently	
  in	
  development,	
  could	
  provide	
  an	
  opportunity	
  to	
  set	
  targets	
  and	
  identify	
  actions	
  related	
   to	
  addressing	
  GHG	
  reduction	
  and	
  community	
  resilience	
  through	
  robust	
  and	
  complete	
  local	
  retail	
   areas.	
  Incremental	
  strategies	
  could	
  also	
  be	
  employed,	
  such	
  as	
  supporting	
  the	
  analysis	
  of	
  retail	
  mix	
   profiles	
  through	
  the	
  existing	
  Business	
  Improvement	
  Area	
  program.  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
   1	
  	
  Richard	
  Wozny,	
  Peter	
  Hume,	
  and	
  Lewis	
  Silberberg,	
  Retail	
  Impact	
  Study:	
  Proposed	
  Wal-­‐Mart	
  and	
  Ancillary	
   Space,	
  86	
  S.E.	
  Marine	
  Drive,	
  Vancouver,	
  B.C.	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver,	
  2002)	
  76,	
  July	
  7,	
  2010.	
   	
   v	
    FULL	
  REPORT	
   	
    	
    1.0	
  	
    INTRODUCTION	
    In	
  the	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver,	
  recent	
  municipal	
  planning	
  and	
  policy	
  direction	
  has	
  prioritized	
  livability	
   and	
  sustainability,	
  particularly	
  in	
  terms	
  of	
  providing	
  housing	
  and	
  amenities	
  near	
  jobs.	
  However,	
   neighbourhood-­‐serving	
  retail	
  outside	
  the	
  downtown	
  core	
  has	
  not	
  been	
  the	
  subject	
  of	
  recent	
   coordinated	
  assessment	
  or	
  intervention.	
  The	
  stability,	
  composition	
  and	
  accessibility	
  of	
  locally-­‐ serving	
  retail	
  are	
  critical	
  components	
  of	
  social	
  and	
  economic	
  resilience.	
  Due	
  to	
  their	
  walkability,	
   orientation	
  to	
  public	
  transit	
  and	
  proximity	
  to	
  housing,	
  historical	
  shopping	
  areas	
  along	
  Vancouver’s	
   arterial	
  streets	
  may	
  contribute	
  to	
  high	
  levels	
  of	
  resilience	
  within	
  the	
  city’s	
  local	
  areas.	
   International	
  planning	
  research	
  presents	
  a	
  narrative	
  of	
  widespread	
  decline	
  in	
  neighbourhood-­‐ serving	
  inner-­‐city	
  retail,	
  and	
  describes	
  its	
  overshadowing	
  by	
  automobile-­‐oriented,	
  regionally-­‐ serving	
  alternatives.	
  Meanwhile,	
  an	
  emerging	
  body	
  of	
  literature	
  spanning	
  disciplines	
  of	
  economics,	
   resource	
  management	
  and	
  planning,	
  calls	
  for	
  cities	
  to	
  adapt	
  to	
  an	
  emerging	
  reality	
  of	
  resource	
   scarcity	
  through	
  re-­‐localization.	
  This	
  report	
  addresses	
  the	
  question	
  of	
  whether	
  the	
  basic	
  functions	
   of	
  Vancouver’s	
  neighbourhood	
  shopping	
  streets	
  have	
  shifted	
  or	
  remained	
  stable	
  since	
  the	
  end	
  of	
   Vancouver’s	
  first	
  streetcar	
  era	
  in	
  the	
  1950s,	
  and	
  through	
  the	
  era	
  of	
  automobile	
  dominance.	
  	
   Following	
  a	
  review	
  of	
  background	
  literature	
  relating	
  to	
  urban	
  sustainability,	
  neighbourhood	
   planning	
  and	
  commercial	
  retail	
  development,	
  and	
  an	
  overview	
  of	
  Vancouver	
  development	
  history	
   and	
  planning	
  policy,	
  three	
  case	
  study	
  shopping	
  areas	
  are	
  introduced:	
   •  Dunbar	
  St.	
  (25th	
  Ave.	
  to	
  30th	
  Ave.)	
  	
    •  Rupert	
  St.	
  (intersection	
  with	
  E.	
  22nd	
  Ave.	
  and	
  south	
  to	
  E.	
  23rd	
  Ave.)	
    •  Nanaimo	
  St.	
  (Graveley	
  St.	
  to	
  Kitchener	
  St.)	
  	
    Occupancy	
  data	
  from	
  these	
  areas	
  forms	
  the	
  basis	
  for	
  analysis,	
  with	
  some	
  significant	
  limitations.	
   Historical	
  datasets	
  are	
  not	
  perfectly	
  complete.	
  In	
  addition,	
  occupancy	
  data	
  does	
  not	
  reveal	
  any	
   complex	
  information	
  about	
  the	
  size	
  or	
  character	
  of	
  historical	
  businesses,	
  the	
  affordability	
  of	
  goods	
   and	
  services	
  offered	
  there,	
  or	
  how	
  they	
  were	
  used.	
  Nonetheless,	
  clear	
  patterns	
  emerge.	
  Findings	
   concern	
  the	
  mix	
  of	
  goods	
  and	
  services	
  historically	
  offered	
  within	
  Vancouver’s	
  neighbourhood-­‐ serving	
  retail	
  areas	
  and	
  the	
  changing	
  functions	
  of	
  these	
  areas	
  over	
  time.	
  They	
  are	
  offered	
  to	
  help	
   inform	
  the	
  development	
  of	
  future	
  planning	
  programs	
  and	
  policy	
  to	
  promote	
  robust,	
  walkable	
  and	
   functional	
  local	
  retail	
  landscapes	
  in	
  the	
  city.	
  	
    	
   1	
    2.0	
  	
   LITERATURE	
  REVIEW	
   Because	
  the	
  range	
  of	
  goods	
  and	
  services	
  available	
  in	
  local	
  shopping	
  centres	
  impact	
  residents’	
  social	
   experiences,	
  daily	
  patterns	
  of	
  transportation,	
  how	
  they	
  define	
  their	
  neighbourhoods	
  and	
  even	
  how	
   well	
  they	
  eat,	
  literature	
  on	
  urban	
  sustainability	
  informs	
  the	
  purpose	
  and	
  direction	
  of	
  this	
  research.	
   The	
  first	
  part	
  of	
  this	
  literature	
  review	
  examines	
  links	
  between	
  neighbourhood-­‐serving	
  urban	
  retail	
   and	
  post-­‐carbon	
  resilience,	
  active	
  transportation,	
  public	
  health	
  and	
  social	
  cohesion.	
  The	
  second	
   section	
  outlines	
  and	
  assesses	
  the	
  applicability	
  of	
  key	
  concepts	
  and	
  trends	
  from	
  the	
  fields	
  of	
   neighbourhood	
  planning	
  and	
  commercial	
  retail	
  development.	
  Finally,	
  this	
  review	
  briefly	
  explores	
   the	
  idea	
  of	
  local	
  retail	
  profile	
  completeness,	
  and	
  applies	
  it	
  to	
  the	
  question	
  of	
  what	
  kinds	
  of	
  goods	
  and	
   services	
  should	
  be	
  offered	
  in	
  a	
  functional	
  neighbourhood-­‐oriented	
  shopping	
  area.	
   	
    2.1	
  	
    Sustainability	
  Literature	
    Implications	
  for	
  Greenhouse	
  Gas	
  Reduction	
  and	
  Post-­‐Carbon	
  Resilience	
   A	
  persuasive	
  body	
  of	
  literature,	
  currently	
  emerging	
  from	
  multiple	
  disciplines	
  including	
  economics,	
   resource	
  management	
  and	
  planning,	
  calls	
  for	
  cities	
  and	
  societies	
  to	
  adapt	
  to	
  imminent	
  resource	
   scarcity.	
  Related	
  exigencies	
  include	
  mitigating	
  externalities	
  of	
  petroleum	
  dependence	
  such	
  as	
   climate	
  change	
  and	
  political	
  instability.	
  The	
  anticipated	
  consequences	
  of	
  a	
  peak	
  in	
  worldwide	
   petroleum	
  production2	
  in	
  particular	
  has	
  sparked	
  an	
  explosion	
  of	
  writing	
  about	
  how	
  adaptations	
  in	
   urban	
  design,3	
  transportation	
  policy,4	
  and	
  everyday	
  lifestyles5	
  are	
  needed	
  to	
  bring	
  increased	
   resilience	
  to	
  a	
  necessarily	
  relocalized	
  future.	
  In	
  his	
  2009	
  book	
  Why	
  Your	
  World	
  is	
  About	
  to	
  Get	
  a	
   Whole	
  Lot	
  Smaller,	
  economist	
  Jeff	
  Rubin	
  argues	
  that	
  city-­‐dwellers	
  necessarily	
  face	
  futures	
  in	
   “smaller-­‐scaled,	
  walkable	
  neighbourhoods…	
  built	
  (or	
  rebuilt)	
  to	
  suit	
  the	
  small	
  new	
  world.”6	
  	
   Everyday	
  convenience	
  services	
  offered	
  within	
  walkable	
  urban	
  neighbourhoods	
  is	
  linked	
  to	
  post-­‐ carbon	
  resilience.7	
  By	
  providing	
  accessible	
  alternatives	
  to	
  some	
  car-­‐oriented	
  regionally	
  serving	
   businesses,	
  functioning	
  local	
  retail	
  can	
  contribute	
  to	
  greenhouse	
  gas	
  reduction.	
  Lest	
  the	
  potential	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
   2	
  	
  Terry	
  Macalister,	
  "US	
  military	
  warns	
  oil	
  output	
  may	
  dip	
  causing	
  massive	
  shortages	
  by	
  2015,"	
  Guardian	
  UK	
    April	
  11	
  2010,.	
   3	
  	
  Patrick	
  M.	
  Condon,	
  Seven	
  Rules	
  for	
  Sustainable	
  Communities:	
  Design	
  Strategies	
  for	
  the	
  Post	
  Carbon	
  World	
   (Washington	
  D.C.:	
  Island	
  Press,	
  2010).	
   4	
  	
  Anthony	
  Perl,	
  "From	
  the	
  Guest	
  Editor,"	
  Journal	
  of	
  Urban	
  Technology	
  14.2	
  (2007):	
  1.	
   5	
  	
  Jeff	
  Rubin,	
  Why	
  Your	
  World	
  Is	
  About	
  to	
  Get	
  a	
  Whole	
  Lot	
  Smaller	
  (Toronto,	
  Canada:	
  Random	
  House	
  of	
   Canada,	
  2009).	
   6	
  	
  Rubin,	
  248.	
   7	
  	
  Anthony	
  Perl	
  and	
  Richard	
  Gilbert,	
  Energy	
  and	
  Transport	
  Futures	
  University	
  of	
  Calgary,	
  2005)	
  60.	
    	
   2	
    contributions	
  of	
  small-­‐scale	
  neighbourhood	
  shops	
  seem	
  trivial,	
  UK	
  researcher	
  Michael	
  Carley	
   estimates	
  that	
  	
  “[e]ven	
  a	
  modest	
  superstore”	
  generates	
  1.5	
  million	
  vehicle	
  movements	
  per	
  year.8	
   	
   Active	
  Transportation	
  and	
  Public	
  Health	
   The	
  sustainability	
  implications	
  of	
  accessible	
  local	
  retail	
  services,	
  especially	
  those	
  offering	
  groceries	
   and	
  dining	
  options,	
  extend	
  to	
  improved	
  public	
  health.	
  In	
  a	
  2009	
  study	
  based	
  in	
  New	
  York	
  City,	
   researchers	
  found	
  that	
  access	
  to	
  healthy	
  food	
  stores	
  correlated	
  negatively	
  with	
  rates	
  of	
  obesity.9	
  	
   Access	
  to	
  local	
  grocery	
  stores	
  and	
  restaurants	
  not	
  only	
  improves	
  access	
  to	
  healthy	
  food	
  but	
  also	
   offers	
  health	
  benefits	
  through	
  increased	
  levels	
  of	
  walking.	
  For	
  many	
  decades,	
  transportation	
   planning	
  research	
  has	
  overlooked	
  shopping	
  trips	
  in	
  favour	
  of	
  a	
  focus	
  on	
  counting	
  journey-­‐to-­‐work	
   trips.10	
  However,	
  nonwork	
  trips	
  represent	
  eighty	
  percent	
  of	
  all	
  trips.11	
  Therefore,	
  when	
  active	
   transportation	
  is	
  used	
  for	
  “running	
  errands”	
  in	
  local	
  shops,	
  residents'	
  activity	
  levels	
  are	
   significantly	
  impacted.	
  	
   Health	
  impacts	
  of	
  accessing	
  goods	
  and	
  services	
  through	
  active	
  transportation	
  are	
  quantified	
  in	
   recent	
  studies	
  that	
  investigating	
  links	
  between	
  accessible	
  retail	
  destinations	
  and	
  active	
   transportation.	
  In	
  a	
  2006	
  study	
  from	
  King	
  County,	
  WA	
  seeking	
  to	
  identify	
  measurable	
  attributes	
   and	
  thresholds	
  of	
  walkable	
  neighbourhoods,	
  Moudon	
  et	
  al.	
  found	
  that:	
   "popular	
  walking	
  destinations,	
  based	
  on	
  the	
  proportion	
  of	
  respondents	
  who	
  reported	
   walking	
  to	
  them	
  on	
  a	
  weekly	
  basis,	
  included	
  grocery	
  stores	
  (45.9%),	
  non-­‐fast	
  food	
   restaurants	
  (23.0%),	
  drug	
  stores	
  (19.2%),	
  convenience	
  stores	
  (16.3%),	
  banks	
  (15.8%),	
   cafés/coffee	
  shops	
  (15.0%),	
  and	
  post	
  offices	
  (12.8%)"12	
  	
   These	
  types	
  of	
  destinations	
  are	
  all	
  typical	
  tenants	
  of	
  neighbourhood-­‐oriented	
  retail	
  centres.	
   Likewise,	
  a	
  2007	
  study	
  by	
  Cerin	
  et	
  al.	
  used	
  Australian	
  and	
  American	
  data	
  to	
  demonstrate	
  that	
   residents’	
  access	
  to	
  certain	
  retail	
  destinations	
  (including	
  food	
  stores,	
  retail	
  stores,	
  post	
  offices	
  and	
   cafes)	
  strongly	
  determined	
  their	
  levels	
  of	
  "transport-­‐related	
  walking."	
  They	
  found	
  that	
  the	
    	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
   8	
  	
  Carley	
  M,	
  Kirk	
  K,	
  McIntosh	
  S,	
  Retailing,	
  Sustainability	
  and	
  Neighbourhood	
  Regeneration	
  (York,	
  UK:	
  Joseph	
    Rowntree	
  Foundation,	
  2001)	
  8.	
   9	
  	
  A.	
  Rundle,	
  et	
  al,	
  "Neighborhood	
  food	
  environment	
  and	
  walkability	
  predict	
  obesity	
  in	
  New	
  York	
  City,"	
   Environmental	
  health	
  perspectives	
  117.3	
  (2009):	
  442.	
   10	
  	
  Robin	
  Law,	
  "Beyond	
  'women	
  and	
  transport':	
  towards	
  new	
  geographies	
  of	
  gender	
  and	
  daily	
  mobility,"	
   Progress	
  in	
  Human	
  Geography	
  23.4	
  (1999):	
  570.	
   11	
  	
  Surface	
  Transportation	
  Policy	
  Project,	
  Census	
  Journey	
  to	
  Work,	
  2002)	
  1.	
   12	
  	
  A.	
  V.	
  Moudon,	
  et	
  al,	
  "Operational	
  definitions	
  of	
  walkable	
  neighborhood:	
  theoretical	
  and	
  empirical	
  insights,"	
   Journal	
  of	
  Physical	
  Activity	
  and	
  Health	
  3	
  (2006):	
  104.	
    	
   3	
    importance	
  of	
  accessible	
  retail	
  destinations	
  far	
  exceeded	
  the	
  importance	
  of	
  access	
  to	
  recreational	
   facilities	
  in	
  influencing	
  levels	
  of	
  transport-­‐related	
  walking.13	
   	
   Social	
  Cohesion	
  and	
  Neighbourhood	
  Identity	
   Because	
  a	
  comfortable	
  walking	
  distance	
  for	
  daily	
  errands	
  is	
  so	
  small	
  (typically	
  estimated	
  at	
  400	
  –	
   500	
  meters),	
  a	
  neighbourhood’s	
  walkability	
  is	
  intimately	
  linked	
  to	
  its	
  social	
  experience	
  and	
  identity.	
   Moudon	
  et	
  al.	
  found	
  that,	
  among	
  the	
  American	
  populations	
  they	
  studied	
  “[p]erception	
  measures…	
   pointed	
  to	
  a	
  small	
  (less	
  than	
  1	
  km)	
  neighborhood	
  geographic	
  extent.”14	
  This	
  suggests	
  that	
  people	
   most	
  strongly	
  identity	
  with	
  a	
  neighbourhood	
  they	
  can	
  traverse	
  on	
  foot.	
   The	
  importance	
  of	
  neighbourhood-­‐serving	
  retail	
  for	
  social	
  cohesion	
  and	
  equity	
  is	
  addressed	
  in	
  a	
   2001	
  UK-­‐based	
  study	
  by	
  Michael	
  Carley	
  et	
  al.	
  After	
  examining	
  several	
  retail	
  area	
  case	
  studies,	
  the	
   authors	
  recommend	
  a	
  range	
  of	
  planning	
  and	
  policy	
  solutions	
  to	
  strengthen	
  local	
  retail	
  centres,	
   including	
  neighbourhood-­‐level	
  retail	
  strategies.	
  The	
  authors	
  note	
  the	
  special	
  value	
  of	
  local	
  walkable	
   retail	
  for	
  elders,	
  children,	
  the	
  infirm	
  and	
  low-­‐income	
  residents	
  without	
  access	
  to	
  cars.15	
  One	
  of	
  the	
   principal	
  contributions	
  of	
  this	
  publication	
  is	
  its	
  insistence	
  that	
  local	
  retail	
  is	
  often	
  experienced	
  by	
   residents	
  of	
  all	
  ages	
  and	
  abilities	
  as	
  “the	
  physical	
  and	
  social	
  heart	
  of	
  their	
  neighbourhood.”16	
  The	
   authors	
  further	
  insist	
  that	
  healthy	
  and	
  functional	
  neighbourhoods,	
  in	
  turn,	
  lie	
  at	
  the	
  heart	
  of	
   sustainable	
  cities.	
  	
   A	
  related	
  argument	
  is	
  presented	
  by	
  the	
  American	
  non-­‐profit	
  Project	
  for	
  Public	
  Spaces	
  (PPS).	
   Addressing	
  a	
  target	
  readership	
  of	
  "do-­‐it-­‐yourself	
  placemakers"	
  the	
  PPS	
  cites	
  writer	
  Rob	
  Gurwitt's	
   passionate	
  argument	
  that:	
   "real-­‐life	
  stores…help	
  define	
  their	
  neighborhoods,	
  which	
  is	
  why	
  the	
  changes	
  buffeting	
   traditional	
  retailers	
  are	
  not	
  solely	
  fodder	
  for	
  the	
  business	
  pages….	
  [T]he	
  quality	
  of	
  our	
  daily	
   lives	
  and	
  of	
  the	
  places	
  we	
  choose	
  to	
  live	
  is	
  up	
  for	
  grabs	
  as	
  well."17	
   In	
  response,	
  the	
  PPS	
  calls	
  upon	
  residents	
  to	
  patronize	
  local	
  establishments	
  in	
  order	
  to	
  support	
   neighbourhood	
  retail	
  and	
  its	
  community-­‐building	
  functions.18	
  Urban	
  sociologist	
  Ray	
  Oldenburg	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
   13	
  	
  E.	
  Cerin,	
  et	
  al,	
  "Destinations	
  that	
  matter:	
  associations	
  with	
  walking	
  for	
  transport,"	
  Health	
  &	
  place	
  13.3	
    (2007):	
  721.	
   14	
  Moudon,	
  et	
  al,	
  114.	
   	
   15	
  Ibid.	
   16	
  	
  Carley	
  M,	
  Kirk	
  K,	
  McIntosh	
  S,	
  1.	
   17	
  	
  Rob	
  Gurwitt,	
  "Light	
  in	
  Oxford,"	
  Mother	
  Jones	
  May/June	
  2000:	
  April	
  25,	
  2010.	
  as	
  quoted	
  in	
  Jay	
  Walljasper,	
   The	
  Great	
  Neighborhood	
  Book:	
  A	
  Do-­‐it-­‐Yourself	
  Guide	
  to	
  Placemaking	
  (Gabriola	
  Island,	
  BC,	
  Canada:	
  New	
   Society	
  Publishers,	
  2007)	
  103.	
   18	
  	
  Walljasper,	
  102.	
    	
   4	
    used	
  the	
  term	
  "third	
  places"	
  to	
  describe	
  neutral	
  spaces	
  outside	
  home	
  and	
  work	
  where	
  community	
   members	
  meet,	
  socialize	
  and	
  share	
  information.	
  In	
  his	
  book	
  "The	
  Great	
  Good	
  Place:	
  Cafes,	
  Coffee	
   Shops,	
  Community	
  Centers,	
  Beauty	
  Parlors,	
  General	
  Stores,	
  Bars,	
  Hangouts,	
  and	
  How	
  They	
  Get	
  You	
   through	
  the	
  Day",	
  he	
  argues	
  that	
  successful	
  third	
  places	
  are	
  essential	
  to	
  social	
  well-­‐being	
  and	
  even	
   democracy,	
  and	
  that	
  their	
  success	
  depends	
  on	
  their	
  easy	
  accessibility	
  to	
  local	
  pedestrians.19	
   	
   Portland	
  Example:	
  The	
  “Twenty-­‐Minute	
  Neighbourhood”	
  Planning	
  Concept	
   The	
  City	
  of	
  Portland,	
  Oregon	
  defines	
  well-­‐functioning	
  local	
  retail	
  as	
  a	
  critical	
  aspect	
  of	
  sustainable	
   communities.	
  The	
  ongoing	
  development	
  of	
  its	
  long-­‐range	
  development	
  plan	
  will	
  draw	
  on	
  the	
   concept	
  of	
  "twenty-­‐minute	
  neighbourhoods"	
  to	
  guide	
  policy	
  decisions.20	
  The	
  idea	
  of	
  twenty-­‐minute	
   neighbourhoods	
  prioritizes:	
   	
  "convenient,	
  safe,	
  and	
  pedestrian-­‐oriented	
  access	
  to	
  the	
  places	
  people	
  need	
  to	
  go	
  to	
  and	
  the	
   services	
  people	
  use	
  nearly	
  every	
  day:	
  transit,	
  shopping,	
  quality	
  food,	
  school,	
  parks,	
  and	
   social	
  activities,	
  that	
  are	
  near	
  and	
  adjacent	
  to	
  housing."21	
  	
   Special	
  value	
  is	
  placed	
  on	
  providing	
  “destinations”,	
  the	
  "'hot'	
  focal	
  points'	
  of	
  a	
  neighbourhood",22	
   which	
  include	
  "grocery	
  stores,	
  restaurants,	
  retail"23	
  and	
  public	
  facilities.	
  	
   A	
  2009	
  study	
  by	
  the	
  City	
  of	
  Portland's	
  Department	
  of	
  Planning	
  and	
  Sustainability	
  analyzed	
  all	
  of	
  the	
   City's	
  residential	
  areas	
  to	
  measure	
  the	
  three	
  principal	
  criteria	
  of	
  the	
  twenty-­‐minute	
  neighbourhood	
   concept:	
  distance,	
  destinations,	
  and	
  density.	
  The	
  study	
  found	
  that	
  the	
  overwhelming	
  majority	
  of	
   residential	
  areas	
  required	
  significant	
  improvement	
  in	
  order	
  to	
  meet	
  the	
  basic	
  criteria	
  of	
  twenty-­‐ minute	
  neighbourhoods.	
  Notably,	
  the	
  most	
  successful	
  areas	
  were	
  located	
  "in	
  the	
  older,	
  streetcar-­‐era	
   parts	
  of	
  the	
  city,	
  where	
  the	
  elements	
  of	
  a	
  walkable	
  neighborhood	
  were	
  already	
  reflected	
  when	
  the	
   neighborhoods	
  were	
  created".24	
  This	
  supports	
  a	
  suggestion	
  made	
  by	
  Vancouver-­‐based	
  planner	
   Larry	
  Beasley,	
  that	
  modern	
  city-­‐building	
  may	
  not	
  sufficiently	
  understand	
  how	
  to	
  create	
  complete,	
   walkable	
  communities	
  that	
  include	
  accessible	
  local	
  retail	
  services.25	
   	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
   19	
  	
  Ray	
  Oldenburg,	
  The	
  Great	
  Good	
  Place:	
  Cafes,	
  Coffee	
  Shops,	
  Community	
  Centers,	
  Beauty	
  Parlors,	
  General	
    Stores,	
  Bars,	
  Hangouts,	
  and	
  How	
  They	
  Get	
  You	
  through	
  the	
  Day	
  (New	
  York:	
  Paragon	
  House,	
  1991).	
   20	
  	
  City	
  of	
  Portland	
  Bureau	
  of	
  Planning	
  and	
  Sustainability,	
  Status	
  Report:	
  Twenty-­‐Minute	
  Neighborhoods,	
   2009)	
  1.	
   21	
  	
  City	
  of	
  Portland	
  Bureau	
  of	
  Planning	
  and	
  Sustainability,	
  2.	
   22	
  	
  City	
  of	
  Portland	
  Bureau	
  of	
  Planning	
  and	
  Sustainability,	
  6.	
   23	
  	
  City	
  of	
  Portland	
  Bureau	
  of	
  Planning	
  and	
  Sustainability,	
  4.	
   24	
  	
  City	
  of	
  Portland	
  Bureau	
  of	
  Planning	
  and	
  Sustainability,	
  6.	
   25	
  	
  Larry	
  Beasley,	
  Interview	
  (Former	
  Co-­‐Director	
  of	
  Planning,	
  Retired:	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver,	
  2010).	
    	
   5	
    2.2	
    Neighbourhood	
  Planning	
  Literature	
  	
    Analytical	
  planning	
  approaches	
  to	
  neighbourhood-­‐level	
  commercial	
  development	
  have	
  been	
  rare.26	
   As	
  a	
  result,	
  how	
  local	
  retail	
  areas	
  function	
  within	
  urban	
  neighbourhoods	
  is	
  not	
  well	
  established.	
   Likewise,	
  the	
  evolution	
  of	
  these	
  retail	
  centres’	
  roles	
  over	
  time	
  or	
  with	
  demographic	
  changes	
  in	
  the	
   surrounding	
  community	
  is	
  not	
  well	
  understood.	
   While	
  locally-­‐oriented	
  retail	
  in	
  the	
  Canadian	
  urban	
  context	
  has	
  not	
  been	
  the	
  subject	
  of	
  much	
   dedicated	
  study,	
  literature	
  from	
  the	
  UK	
  and	
  US	
  presents	
  a	
  general	
  narrative	
  of	
  the	
  decline	
  of	
  inner-­‐ city,	
  locally-­‐oriented	
  retail	
  since	
  the	
  mid-­‐20th	
  century	
  in	
  favour	
  of	
  more	
  dispersed	
  and	
  larger-­‐format	
   regional	
  oriented	
  shops.27,28	
  Describing	
  the	
  huge	
  extent	
  of	
  these	
  ongoing	
  changes	
  in	
  the	
  UK’s	
  retail	
   landscape,	
  Michael	
  Carley	
  notes	
  that:	
   The	
  advent	
  of	
  large	
  superstores	
  and	
  shopping	
  malls,	
  the	
  consolidation	
  of	
  70	
  per	
  cent	
  of	
   retail	
  food	
  spend	
  by	
  large	
  multiple	
  retailers	
  and	
  preference	
  for	
  car-­‐based	
  shopping	
  have	
   meant	
  that	
  more	
  than	
  60,000	
  small	
  shops	
  disappear	
  every	
  decade.29	
   Since	
  the	
  advent	
  of	
  car-­‐oriented	
  suburban	
  shopping	
  malls,	
  urban	
  retail	
  systems	
  were	
  dramatically	
   restructured	
  as	
  "[r]etail	
  capital…	
  had	
  begun	
  rapidly	
  to	
  flow	
  out	
  of	
  the	
  traditional	
  centres	
  of	
  the	
   inner	
  city".30	
  A	
  1998	
  staff	
  report	
  to	
  Vancouver	
  City	
  Council	
  observed	
  that,	
  since	
  1980	
   “supermarkets	
  [had]	
  ‘thinned	
  out’,	
  with	
  stores	
  farther	
  apart,	
  particularly	
  on	
  the	
  east	
  side.”	
  In	
   addition,	
  	
  new	
  supermarkets	
  have	
  tended	
  to	
  be	
  larger,	
  with	
  the	
  greatest	
  reductions	
  in	
  small	
  and	
   medium-­‐sized	
  stores.31	
  American	
  researcher	
  Stacy	
  Mitchell	
  notes	
  that,	
  in	
  2010,	
  "the	
  average	
  trip	
  to	
   a	
  store	
  [in	
  the	
  USA]	
  is	
  now	
  about	
  three	
  miles	
  longer	
  than	
  it	
  was	
  in	
  1990."32	
   Despite	
  reports	
  of	
  the	
  demise	
  of	
  local	
  retail,	
  a	
  relocalization	
  movement	
  is	
  also	
  underway,	
  informed	
   by	
  recent	
  warnings	
  of	
  scarce	
  resources	
  and	
  the	
  end	
  of	
  the	
  automobile	
  era.	
  Making	
  the	
  case	
  that	
  "[a]l	
   great	
  neighbourhoods…function	
  as	
  villages”33	
  advocates	
  like	
  the	
  Project	
  for	
  Public	
  Spaces	
  herald	
  a	
   trend	
  towards	
  "the	
  resurrection	
  of	
  local	
  shopping	
  districts."34	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
   26	
  	
  C.	
  Theodore	
  Koebel,	
  Analyzing	
  Neighborhood	
  Retail	
  and	
  Service	
  Change	
  in	
  Six	
  Cities	
  (Virginia	
  Polytechnic	
    Institute	
  and	
  State	
  University:	
  Center	
  for	
  Housing	
  Research,	
  1999)	
  5.	
   27	
  Carley	
  M,	
  Kirk	
  K,	
  McIntosh	
  S,	
  	
   28	
  	
  Koebel.	
   29	
  	
  Carley	
  M,	
  Kirk	
  K,	
  McIntosh	
  S,	
  v.	
   30	
  	
  N.	
  Wrigley	
  and	
  MS	
  Lowe,	
  "Reading	
  retail:	
  a	
  geographical	
  perspective	
  on	
  retailing	
  and	
  consumption	
  spaces,"	
   (2002):	
  136.	
   31	
  	
  Patricia	
  French	
  and	
  Cathy	
  Buckham,	
  Supermarkets	
  in	
  Vancouver	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver,	
  1998).	
   32	
  	
  Stacy	
  Mitchell,	
  "Miles	
  Driven	
  for	
  Shopping	
  Continues	
  to	
  Climb,	
  But	
  Pace	
  Slows,"	
  New	
  Rules	
  Project	
  May	
  6,	
   2010	
  2010:	
  June	
  27,	
  2010.	
   33	
  	
  Walljasper,	
  86.	
   34	
  	
  Walljasper,	
  96.	
    	
   6	
    Retail	
  Revitalization	
  Literature	
   In	
  response	
  to	
  the	
  declining	
  fortunes	
  of	
  many	
  local	
  retail	
  districts,	
  a	
  rich	
  literature	
  specializes	
  in	
   strategies	
  for	
  revitalizing	
  severely	
  troubled	
  retail	
  centres.	
  Typical	
  retail	
  revitalization	
  programs	
   include	
  aesthetic	
  improvements	
  to	
  streetscapes	
  and	
  storefronts,	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  forming	
  Business	
   Improvement	
  Associations	
  to	
  engage	
  retailers	
  in	
  cooperative	
  branding,	
  marketing	
  and	
  planning.	
  A	
   1975	
  guidebook	
  for	
  The	
  Revitalization	
  of	
  Retail	
  Districts	
  prepared	
  by	
  the	
  Toronto-­‐based	
  ‘Project:	
   “Saving	
  Small	
  Business”‘	
  exemplifies	
  this	
  approach:	
  “Perceptions	
  of	
  the	
  [retail]	
  strip	
  as	
  dull,	
   outdated	
  and	
  inefficient	
  must	
  be	
  overcome	
  by	
  programs	
  of	
  revitalization	
  through	
  cooperation	
  and	
   selfawareness.”35,36	
  	
   The	
  majority	
  of	
  Vancouver’s	
  neighbourhood	
  retail	
  centres	
  outside	
  the	
  downtown	
  do	
  not	
  currently	
   appear	
  to	
  suffer	
  the	
  same	
  degree	
  of	
  dysfunction	
  as	
  typical	
  subjects	
  of	
  retail	
  regeneration	
  literature.	
   For	
  instance,	
  Michael	
  Carley	
  describes	
  “near-­‐derelict	
  precincts	
  or	
  high	
  streets,	
  with	
  boarded-­‐up	
   shops,	
  which	
  become	
  the	
  focus	
  of	
  anti-­‐social	
  activity.“37	
  Therefore,	
  while	
  the	
  retail	
  regeneration	
   literature	
  does	
  offer	
  strategies	
  for	
  maintaining	
  the	
  health	
  of	
  local	
  retail	
  centres,	
  its	
  applicability	
  to	
   the	
  present	
  research	
  is	
  somewhat	
  limited	
  because	
  of	
  its	
  focus	
  on	
  failing	
  areas	
  where	
  simply	
  keeping	
   shops	
  open	
  must	
  be	
  the	
  first	
  priority.	
  A	
  more	
  pressing	
  question	
  in	
  Vancouver’s	
  neighbourhoods	
  is,	
   rather,	
  whether	
  local	
  retail	
  areas	
  offer	
  the	
  range	
  of	
  high-­‐frequency	
  goods	
  and	
  services	
  that	
  local	
   residents	
  need.	
  Alternately,	
  might	
  their	
  evident	
  viability	
  reflect	
  a	
  strategy	
  of	
  attracting	
  regional	
   business	
  through	
  over-­‐specialization?	
   	
    2.3	
    Retail	
  Planning	
  Concepts	
    Neighbourhood-­‐oriented	
  urban	
  retail	
  is	
  not	
  widely	
  studied	
  or	
  even	
  well-­‐defined	
  in	
  planning	
   literature.	
  However,	
  many	
  helpful	
  concepts	
  can	
  be	
  found	
  in	
  the	
  related	
  fields	
  of	
  economic	
   development	
  and	
  commercial	
  real	
  estate	
  development.	
  While	
  these	
  fields	
  approach	
  the	
  topic	
  from	
  a	
   different	
  perspective	
  (examining,	
  for	
  instance,	
  the	
  location	
  decisions	
  of	
  individual	
  retailers	
  or	
   property	
  developers)	
  they	
  offer	
  rich	
  sources	
  of	
  information.	
  Five	
  selected	
  concepts	
  used	
  in	
  retail	
   and	
  economic	
  development	
  literatures	
  are	
  defined	
  below.	
  They	
  provide	
  a	
  useful	
  framework	
  for	
   exploring	
  the	
  role	
  of	
  a	
  successful	
  local	
  retail	
  area	
  in	
  providing	
  the	
  host	
  of	
  benefits	
  identified	
  in	
  the	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
   35	
  	
  Ted	
  Silberberg,	
  et	
  al,	
  A	
  guide	
  for...	
  The	
  Revitalization	
  of	
  Retail	
  Districts	
  (Toronto,	
  Canada:	
  Project:	
  Saving	
    Small	
  Business,	
  1976).	
   36	
  Business	
  Improvement	
  Areas	
  exist	
  in	
  some	
  of	
  Vancouver’s	
  neighbourhood	
  retail	
  areas;	
  their	
  roles	
  are	
   briefly	
  explored	
  as	
  part	
  of	
  the	
  Contextual	
  Review.	
   37	
  	
  Carley	
  M,	
  Kirk	
  K,	
  McIntosh	
  S,	
  v.	
    	
   7	
    sustainability	
  literature,	
  and	
  for	
  approaching	
  the	
  critical	
  question:	
  “What	
  mix	
  of	
  business	
  uses	
   enables	
  a	
  neighbourhood	
  shopping	
  area	
  to	
  successfully	
  fill	
  its	
  critical	
  functions?”	
  	
   	
   Hierarchy/Levels	
  of	
  Retail	
   Stemming	
  from	
  Walter	
  Christaller's	
  central	
  place	
  theory,	
  the	
  concept	
  of	
  an	
  intra-­‐urban	
  hierarchy	
  of	
   retail	
  functions	
  was	
  developed	
  by	
  British-­‐American	
  human	
  geographer	
  Brian	
  Berry	
  in	
  the	
  1960s.	
   Cities’	
  retail	
  functions	
  are	
  classified	
  in	
  a	
  theoretical	
  hierarchy	
  that	
  extends	
  from	
  the	
  highest-­‐order	
   retail	
  function	
  (specialty	
  retail	
  within	
  the	
  Central	
  Business	
  District)	
  through	
  major	
  district	
  and	
   suburban	
  centres,	
  down	
  to	
  the	
  lowest-­‐order	
  functions	
  (convenience	
  goods	
  sold	
  in	
  corner	
  stores	
  or	
   local	
  retail	
  areas).	
  38	
   City	
  of	
  Vancouver	
  policy	
  recognizes	
  a	
  hierarchy	
  of	
  five	
  levels	
  of	
  commercial	
  districts,	
  of	
  which	
  the	
   lowest	
  and	
  third	
  levels	
  are	
  neighbourhood-­‐serving.	
  Their	
  descriptions,	
  from	
  a	
  1987	
  Review	
  of	
   Commercial	
  Zoning	
  Districts,	
  are	
  summarized	
  as	
  follows:	
   1)	
  Local	
  Centres	
  "provide	
  convenience	
  goods	
  and	
  services	
  required	
  by	
  nearby	
  residents	
  on	
   a	
  day-­‐to-­‐day	
  basis.	
  The	
  major	
  components	
  are	
  usually	
  a	
  grocery	
  store	
  or	
  medium-­‐sized	
   supermarket,	
  a	
  drug	
  store,	
  beauty	
  or	
  barber	
  shop,	
  drycleaners	
  and	
  a	
  service	
  station.	
  Over	
  75	
   percent	
  of	
  a	
  local	
  centre's	
  floor	
  area	
  is	
  devoted	
  to	
  the	
  sale	
  of	
  convenience	
  goods	
  and	
   services	
  (food,	
  drugs,	
  beauty	
  needs,	
  etc.	
  )	
  and	
  the	
  remainder	
  to	
  shopping	
  goods	
  (apparel,	
   appliances,	
  etc.)”39	
   2)	
  General	
  Business	
  Areas	
  	
  (auto-­‐oriented	
  mix	
  of	
  retail,	
  service,	
  office	
  and	
  general	
   commercial	
  components	
  strung	
  out	
  along	
  major	
  arterials)	
   3)	
  District	
  Centres	
  "offer	
  a	
  larger	
  variety	
  of	
  goods	
  and	
  services,	
  in	
  addition	
  to	
  those	
   provided	
  in	
  local	
  centres,	
  and	
  function	
  as	
  the	
  retail	
  and	
  service	
  centre	
  of	
  a	
  whole	
  residential	
   district.	
  The	
  major	
  components	
  are	
  usually	
  a	
  large	
  supermarket,	
  large	
  variety	
  or	
  discount	
   store,	
  other	
  apparel	
  and	
  appliance	
  stores,	
  and	
  some	
  professional	
  offices.	
  In	
  addition,	
  district	
   centres	
  are	
  usually	
  the	
  recreational,	
  cultural	
  and	
  civic	
  centres	
  for	
  the	
  City's	
  residential	
   districts.	
  Most	
  district	
  centres	
  tend	
  to	
  contain	
  a	
  post	
  office,	
  library,	
  community	
  centre,	
  arena	
    	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
   38	
  	
  D.	
  Waugh,	
  Geography:	
  an	
  integrated	
  approach	
  Nelson	
  Thornes,	
  2000).  	
    39	
  Appendix	
  A:	
  Review	
  of	
  Commercial	
  Zoning	
  Districts	
  Planning	
  Department,	
  Commercial	
  Zoning:	
  C-­‐2,	
  C-­‐3B,	
    C-­‐2C	
  and	
  C-­‐2C1	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver,	
  1987)	
  1.	
    	
   8	
    or	
  theatre.	
  Approximately	
  50	
  percent	
  of	
  the	
  floor	
  area	
  is	
  devoted	
  to	
  shopping	
  goods	
  and	
  50	
   percent	
  to	
  convenience	
  goods	
  and	
  services"40	
   4)	
  Regional	
  Centres	
  (focal	
  points	
  of	
  specialized	
  shopping,	
  usually	
  containing	
  a	
  large	
   department	
  store)	
   5)	
  Central	
  Business	
  District	
  (the	
  regional	
  downtown:	
  the	
  principal	
  office,	
  financial	
  and	
   entertainment	
  centre	
  for	
  the	
  metropolitan	
  area).	
   	
   Convenience	
  vs.	
  Shopping	
  Goods	
  and	
  Services	
   	
   The	
  retail	
  economics	
  literature	
  distinguishes	
  between	
  two	
  general	
  types	
  of	
  retail	
  functions	
  whose	
   presence	
  or	
  absence	
  can	
  indicate	
  an	
  area’s	
  level	
  in	
  the	
  retail	
  hierarchy:	
   	
   Convenience	
  Goods	
  and	
  Services:	
    	
   Shoppers’	
  (a.k.a	
  “Comparison”)	
  	
   Goods	
  and	
  Services	
    Retail	
  located	
  in	
  local	
  centres	
  can	
  be	
  expected	
  to	
  sell	
   low-­‐order	
  goods	
  and	
  services	
  which	
  are	
  purchased	
   frequently.	
  This	
  includes	
  perishables	
  and	
  other	
  daily	
   needs;	
  the	
  corner	
  grocery	
  store,	
  barber	
  shop	
  and	
  7-­‐ 11	
  are	
  classic	
  examples.	
   	
    Retail	
  outlets	
  located	
  in	
  higher-­‐level	
   centres,	
  in	
  addition	
  to	
  offering	
  convenience	
  goods	
   and	
  services,	
  offer	
  goods	
  and	
  services	
  which	
  are	
   purchased	
  more	
  infrequently,	
  including	
  those	
  for	
   which	
  customers	
  are	
  likely	
  to	
  do	
  comparison	
   shopping.	
  Furniture	
  and	
  electronics	
  are	
  examples.41	
    	
   	
   Threshold	
  Population	
   The	
  term	
  "threshold	
  population"	
  describes	
  the	
  minimum	
  population	
  needed	
  to	
  support	
  any	
  given	
   retail	
  function.	
  Convenience	
  stores	
  tend	
  to	
  have	
  very	
  low	
  threshold	
  populations,	
  while	
  specialty	
   stores	
  and	
  shops	
  selling	
  comparison	
  goods	
  require	
  much	
  higher	
  threshold	
  populations	
  in	
  order	
  to	
   stay	
  in	
  business.42	
    	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
   40	
  Ibid.	
   41	
  	
  Center	
  for	
  Urban	
  Economic	
  Development	
  (UICUED),	
  Retail	
  Market	
  Analysis:	
  A	
  Manual	
  for	
  Preliminary	
    Analysis	
  of	
  Neighborhood	
  Retail	
  Opportunities	
  in	
  Chicago,	
  Revised:	
  April,	
  1986	
  ed.	
  (The	
  University	
  of	
  Illinois	
   at	
  Chicago:	
  School	
  of	
  Urban	
  Planning	
  and	
  Policy,	
  1980)	
  28.	
   42	
  	
  Waugh.	
    	
   9	
    Trade	
  Areas/	
  Catchment	
  	
   Related	
  to	
  the	
  idea	
  of	
  a	
  threshold	
  population,	
  a	
  trade	
  area	
  (or	
  catchment)	
  is	
  the	
  geographical	
  area	
   where	
  a	
  high	
  proportion	
  of	
  the	
  customers	
  of	
  a	
  retail	
  centre	
  or	
  establishment	
  reside.	
  A	
  retail	
  centre’s	
   trade	
  area	
  is	
  defined	
  by	
  distance	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  by	
  more	
  complex	
  factors	
  such	
  as	
  perceived	
   neighbourhood	
  boundaries,	
  the	
  location	
  of	
  competing	
  uses,	
  and	
  physical	
  barriers	
  such	
  as	
  a	
  major	
   road.43	
  The	
  concepts	
  of	
  threshold	
  populations	
  and	
  catchment	
  areas	
  are	
  related	
  to	
  the	
  assumption	
   often	
  made	
  in	
  Vancouver	
  planning	
  policy	
  that	
  residential	
  density	
  correlates	
  strongly	
  with	
  the	
   diversity	
  and	
  function	
  of	
  local	
  retail	
  services.	
    	
    2.4	
  	
    Local	
  Retail	
  Profile	
  Completeness	
    A	
  local	
  retail	
  profile	
  describes	
  the	
  mix	
  of	
  goods	
  and	
  services	
  offered	
  in	
  a	
  shopping	
  area	
  at	
  a	
  given	
   point	
  in	
  time.	
  Over	
  time,	
  businesses	
  close	
  or	
  change	
  hands,	
  new	
  enterprises	
  set	
  up	
  shop,	
  and	
  sites	
   are	
  redeveloped.	
  Nonetheless,	
  the	
  mix	
  of	
  goods	
  and	
  services	
  available	
  within	
  a	
  shopping	
  area	
   reflects	
  a	
  legacy	
  of	
  social,	
  economic	
  and	
  built	
  capital.	
  Following	
  this	
  premise,	
  a	
  well-­‐balanced	
  profile	
   of	
  critical	
  services	
  today	
  bodes	
  well	
  for	
  the	
  future	
  of	
  the	
  shopping	
  area	
  and	
  the	
  surrounding	
   neighbourhood.	
  	
   What	
  mix	
  of	
  business	
  uses	
  enables	
  a	
  neighbourhood	
  shopping	
  area	
  to	
  successfully	
  fill	
  its	
  critical	
   functions?	
  Within	
  the	
  retail	
  planning	
  and	
  economic	
  development	
  literatures,	
  researchers	
  have	
   suggested	
  specific	
  kinds	
  of	
  businesses	
  that	
  are	
  often	
  found	
  in	
  well-­‐functioning	
  local	
  retail	
  centres;	
   foremost	
  among	
  these	
  businesses	
  is	
  a	
  grocery	
  store.	
  Three	
  such	
  lists	
  are	
  compiled	
  in	
  Table	
  1,	
  as	
   well	
  as	
  the	
  list	
  of	
  typical	
  uses	
  found	
  in	
  Vancouver’s	
  Local	
  Centres,	
  from	
  a	
  1987	
  planning	
  report.44	
   While	
  Table	
  1	
  shows	
  significant	
  agreement	
  regarding	
  what	
  categories	
  of	
  retail	
  are	
  typical	
  of	
  locally	
   oriented	
  neighbourhood	
  retail	
  among	
  four	
  North	
  American	
  sources	
  spanning	
  nearly	
  thirty	
  years,	
  it	
   is	
  important	
  to	
  allow	
  that	
  the	
  daily	
  needs	
  of	
  the	
  residents	
  in	
  a	
  neighbourhood	
  are,	
  to	
  some	
  degree,	
   contextually	
  dependent	
  on	
  needs	
  and	
  desires	
  that	
  evolve	
  over	
  time	
  and	
  vary	
  with	
  the	
  demographics	
   of	
  local	
  residents.	
  	
   Among	
  the	
  sources	
  compiled	
  in	
  Table	
  1:	
  Retail	
  Categories	
  Characteristic	
  of	
  Local	
  Centres,	
  only	
  a	
   study	
  from	
  1980	
  lists	
  Shoe	
  Repair	
  and	
  Laundromat	
  as	
  critical	
  convenience	
  goods.	
  Since	
  then,	
  it	
   seems	
  that	
  social	
  norms	
  regarding	
  repairing	
  instead	
  of	
  replacing	
  shoes	
  may	
  have	
  changed.	
  Access	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
   43	
  	
  Center	
  for	
  Urban	
  Economic	
  Development	
  (UICUED),	
  7.  	
    44	
  	
  Planning	
  Department.	
    	
   10	
    to	
  in-­‐home	
  laundry	
  machines	
  may	
  have	
  changed	
  as	
  well;	
  certainly	
  Laundromats	
  are	
  more	
  in	
   demand	
  in	
  some	
  neighbourhoods	
  than	
  in	
  others.	
  The	
  Project	
  for	
  Public	
  Spaces	
  points	
  out	
  that	
  the	
   values	
  of	
  some	
  local	
  convenience	
  services	
  are	
  culturally	
  determined;	
  they	
  cite	
  the	
  traditional	
  role	
  of	
   barbershops	
  and	
  beauty	
  parlors	
  as	
  social	
  hubs	
  in	
  African-­‐American	
  neighbourhoods,	
  and	
  the	
   similar	
  role	
  of	
  cafés	
  in	
  Paris.45	
   Since	
  no	
  agreed-­‐upon	
  term	
  has	
  been	
  found	
  in	
  the	
  retail	
  development	
  or	
  planning	
  literature	
  to	
   describe	
  the	
  mix	
  of	
  businesses	
  in	
  a	
  local	
  retail	
  centre	
  that	
  best	
  meets	
  the	
  daily	
  needs	
  of	
  the	
   population	
  living	
  within	
  walking	
  distance,	
  the	
  present	
  study	
  proposes	
  the	
  term	
  local	
  retail	
  profile	
   completeness.	
  It	
  draws	
  on	
  the	
  concept	
  of	
  “completeness”	
  that	
  is	
  applied	
  to	
  the	
  similarly	
  complex	
   phenomena	
  of	
  “complete	
  streets”46	
  and	
  “complete	
  communities.”47	
   	
   	
  	
   	
   	
    	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
   45	
  	
  Walljasper,	
  102	
    46	
  	
  Complete	
  Streets,	
  April	
  21	
  2010,	
  Wordpress.org,	
  April	
  25	
  2010	
  <http://www.completestreets.org/>.  	
    47	
  	
  Complete	
  Communities,	
  2007,	
  April	
  25	
  2010	
  <http://www.communityenergy.bc.ca/community-­‐energy-­‐  benefits-­‐introduction/complete-­‐communities>.	
    	
   11	
    	
   Table	
  1:	
  Retail	
  Categories	
  Characteristic	
  of	
  Local	
  Centres	
    	
   12	
    3.0	
  	
   CONTEXTUAL	
  REVIEW	
  	
   This	
  section	
  presents	
  a	
  condensed	
  historic	
  overview	
  of	
  key	
  planning	
  and	
  development	
  contexts	
  of	
   neighbourhood	
  retail	
  development	
  in	
  Vancouver,	
  and	
  introduces	
  the	
  case	
  study	
  areas.	
  Key	
  policy	
   contexts	
  of	
  local	
  retail	
  development	
  have	
  included	
  zoning,	
  the	
  CityPlan	
  community	
  planning	
   program,	
  and	
  the	
  idea	
  of	
  neighbourhood	
  retail	
  as	
  a	
  community	
  amenity.	
  Historical	
  contexts	
  include	
   the	
  streetcar	
  lines	
  that	
  once	
  shaped	
  much	
  of	
  Vancouver’s	
  neighbourhood	
  retail	
  development	
  along	
   arterial	
  corridors.	
  The	
  final	
  part	
  of	
  this	
  section	
  discusses	
  the	
  method	
  of	
  case	
  study	
  area	
  selection,	
   contextualizes	
  the	
  years	
  selected	
  as	
  data	
  points,	
  and	
  introduces	
  the	
  three	
  case	
  study	
  areas.	
   	
    3.1	
  	
    City	
  of	
  Vancouver	
  Policy	
    In	
  recent	
  decades,	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver	
  planning	
  policies	
  have	
  both	
  responded	
  to	
  and	
  shaped	
  retail	
   change	
  and	
  development.	
  However,	
  uncertainty	
  has	
  surrounded	
  the	
  principle	
  of	
  how	
  or	
  whether	
   the	
  City	
  should	
  act	
  to	
  influence	
  market	
  retail.	
  	
   A	
  1971	
  "Suburban	
  Commercial	
  Study"	
  conducted	
  by	
  the	
  City	
  identified	
  issues	
  of	
  physical	
  blight	
  and	
   increasing	
  auto-­‐orientation	
  in	
  the	
  commercial	
  areas	
  outside	
  the	
  downtown.	
  It	
  determined	
  that	
  high	
   commercial	
  vacancy	
  rates	
  and	
  breaks	
  in	
  retail	
  continuity	
  were	
  the	
  result	
  of	
  a	
  surplus	
  of	
  areas	
  with	
   commercial	
  zoning.48	
  Therefore,	
  it	
  recommended	
  “elimination	
  of	
  the	
  over-­‐abundant	
  number	
  of	
  C-­‐1	
   zones	
  on	
  the	
  East	
  side	
  of	
  the	
  City.”49	
  The	
  issue	
  of	
  whether	
  the	
  City	
  should	
  take	
  action	
  regarding	
  a	
   perceived	
  surplus	
  of	
  retail	
  space	
  was	
  addressed	
  in	
  a	
  1985	
  Council	
  Report,	
  where:	
   [t]he	
  underlying	
  issue	
  that	
  caused	
  the	
  most	
  debate…	
  concern[ed]…the	
  question	
  of	
  whether	
   the	
  City	
  had	
  any	
  right	
  or	
  obligation	
  to	
  intervene	
  in	
  the	
  retail	
  sector	
  at	
  all.50	
   At	
  that	
  time,	
  City	
  Council	
  decided	
  that	
  the	
  municipality	
  does	
  have	
  a	
  responsibility	
  to	
  shape	
  retail,	
   but	
  only	
  for	
  specific	
  ends.	
  These	
  include	
  protecting	
  public	
  investment	
  and	
  minimizing	
  public	
   expenditures	
  by	
  promoting	
  efficient	
  use	
  of	
  existing	
  infrastructure	
  and	
  preventing	
  decline	
  which	
   could	
  lead	
  to	
  the	
  physical	
  deterioration	
  of	
  retail	
  areas.	
  The	
  city	
  has	
  an	
  additional	
  responsibility	
  “to	
   ensure	
  that	
  [retail]	
  change	
  improves,	
  and	
  does	
  not	
  reduce,	
  retail	
  access	
  for	
  residents.”51	
  	
  	
   The	
  Business	
  Improvement	
  Area	
  program	
  now	
  comprises	
  a	
  key	
  part	
  of	
  the	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver’s	
   involvement	
  with	
  local	
  retail.	
  Since	
  1989,	
  the	
  City	
  has	
  helped	
  groups	
  of	
  merchants	
  to	
  establish	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
   48	
  	
  Planning	
  Department.	
  	
   49	
  	
  Planning	
  Department,	
  Appendix	
  A,	
  p2.	
   50	
  	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver,	
  City	
  Role	
  in	
  Retail	
  Development	
  Planning	
  Report	
  to	
  Council,	
  1985)	
  1.	
   51	
  Ibid,	
  p	
  5-­‐6.	
   	
   13	
    Business	
  Improvement	
  Areas	
  (BIAs)	
  and	
  provides	
  assistance	
  with	
  budgetary	
  monitoring	
  and	
   liaising	
  with	
  City	
  departments.	
  The	
  BIAs	
  are	
  largely	
  self-­‐managed	
  and	
  are	
  self-­‐funded	
  by	
  annual	
   property	
  tax	
  levies,	
  which	
  enable	
  them	
  to	
  coordinate	
  area	
  maintenance,	
  improvement	
  and	
   marketing	
  programs.52	
   	
    	
    Retail	
  as	
  Amenity	
   Because	
  retail	
  shops	
  and	
  services	
  are	
  provided	
  on	
  the	
  open	
  market,	
  it	
  is	
  not	
  a	
  straightforward	
  task	
   for	
  the	
  municipality	
  to	
  fulfill	
  its	
  responsibility	
  to	
  improve	
  retail	
  access	
  for	
  residents.	
  However,	
  the	
   contemporary	
  planning	
  goal	
  of	
  expanding	
  housing	
  capacity	
  to	
  accommodate	
  a	
  growing	
  population	
   is	
  often	
  understood	
  and	
  represented	
  as	
  aligned	
  with	
  improving	
  retail	
  access	
  through	
  providing	
  a	
   more	
  robust	
  market	
  to	
  support	
  locally-­‐oriented	
  retail.	
  While	
  increasing	
  residential	
  density	
  is	
   sometimes	
  perceived	
  by	
  community	
  residents	
  as	
  a	
  bitter	
  pill	
  to	
  swallow,	
  the	
  related	
  prospect	
  of	
   fostering	
  higher-­‐quality	
  local	
  retail	
  services	
  is	
  a	
  more	
  widely	
  attractive	
  proposition.	
   The	
  link	
  between	
  local	
  residential	
  density	
  and	
  thriving,	
  diverse	
  local	
  retail	
  services	
  is	
  emphasized	
   in	
  recent	
  planning	
  and	
  policy	
  documents,	
  in	
  which	
  retail	
  services	
  are	
  framed	
  as	
  a	
  public	
  amenity	
   that	
  may	
  be	
  achieved	
  through	
  redevelopment.	
  For	
  instance,	
  the	
  Community	
  Vision	
  document	
  for	
   Renfrew-­‐Collingwood	
  (2004),	
  notes	
  that	
  “new	
  housing	
  should	
  be	
  added	
  to	
  help	
  support	
  the	
   shopping	
  areas.”53	
  City-­‐wide,	
  the	
  2008	
  EcoDensity	
  Project	
  addresses	
  the	
  inefficiencies	
  of	
  dedicating	
   half	
  of	
  the	
  municipality’s	
  land	
  base	
  to	
  single-­‐family	
  housing,	
  noting	
  that	
  “[h]igher	
  densities	
  can	
   create	
  many	
  urban	
  benefits	
  –	
  more	
  population	
  can	
  support	
  a	
  broad	
  range	
  of	
  retail	
  choices.”54	
  These	
   types	
  of	
  initiatives	
  promoting	
  housing	
  choice	
  in	
  neighbourhood	
  centres,	
  multifamily	
  housing	
  along	
   arterials	
  and	
  “gentle	
  density”	
  in	
  secondary	
  suites	
  or	
  laneway	
  houses	
  can	
  be	
  understood	
  as	
  the	
  most	
   significant	
  ways	
  in	
  which	
  current	
  City	
  policy	
  nurtures	
  local	
  retail.	
  	
   	
    	
    CityPlan	
  and	
  Neighbourhood	
  Centres	
   An	
  ongoing	
  participatory	
  community	
  planning	
  initiative,	
  CityPlan	
  was	
  adopted	
  in	
  1995	
  to	
  develop	
  a	
   broad	
  vision	
  for	
  shaping	
  future	
  policy,	
  and	
  to	
  foster	
  Vancouver’s	
  development	
  as	
  "a	
  city	
  of	
   neighbourhoods,	
  each	
  with	
  its	
  own	
  identity."55	
  Beginning	
  in	
  the	
  1970s,	
  Vancouver	
  benefited	
  from	
  a	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
   52	
  	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver,	
  Business	
  Improvement	
  Areas	
  Program	
  Pamphlet,	
  2008).	
   53	
  	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver,	
  Renfrew-­‐Collingwood	
  Community	
  Vision,	
  2004)	
  3.	
   54	
  	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver,	
  EcoDensity	
  Project	
  Summary:	
  How	
  Density,	
  Design,	
  and	
  Land	
  Use	
  will	
  Contribute	
  to	
   Environmental	
  Sustainability,	
  Affordability,	
  and	
  Livability,	
  2008)	
  13,	
  September	
  11,	
  2010.	
   55	
  	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver,	
  "Summary	
  Document:	
  CityPlan-­‐	
  Directions	
  for	
  Vancouver,"	
  (2001).	
   	
   14	
    robust	
  neighbourhood	
  planning	
  process	
  characterized	
  by	
  engagement	
  through	
  dedicated	
   storefronts	
  and	
  coordination	
  with	
  streetscape	
  beautification	
  programs,	
  particularly	
  in	
  older	
  ring	
   neighbourhoods	
  such	
  as	
  Grandview-­‐Woodlands	
  and	
  Kitsilano.56	
  Prior	
  to	
  CityPlan,	
  however,	
  some	
   single-­‐family	
  areas	
  and	
  their	
  locally-­‐serving	
  retail	
  had	
  never	
  been	
  the	
  subject	
  of	
  local	
  planning.57	
   As	
  part	
  of	
  CityPlan,	
  neighbourhood-­‐specific	
  Community	
  Vision	
  processes	
  engage	
  local	
  communities	
   to	
  identify	
  potential	
  “neighbourhood	
  centres”	
  and	
  to	
  earmark	
  these	
  areas	
  for	
  future	
   implementation	
  work:	
   	
   “Neighbourhood	
  centres,	
  usually	
  developed	
  from	
  existing	
  shopping	
  streets,	
  will	
  provide	
  a	
   "heart"	
  for	
  each	
  neighbourhood…	
  Here,	
  people	
  will	
  find	
  shops,	
  jobs,	
  neighbourhood-­‐based	
   services,	
  public	
  places	
  that	
  are	
  safe	
  and	
  inviting,	
  and	
  a	
  place	
  to	
  meet	
  with	
  neighbours	
  and	
   join	
  in	
  community	
  life.…	
  Centres	
  will	
  help	
  the	
  environment	
  by	
  reducing	
  the	
  need	
  to	
  travel	
   long	
  distances	
  from	
  home	
  to	
  jobs	
  and	
  services.”58	
   	
   While	
  the	
  ten	
  Community	
  Visions	
  adopted	
  to	
  date	
  have	
  identified	
  eighteen	
  future	
  neighbourhood	
   centres59	
  only	
  two	
  Neighbourhood	
  Centre	
  planning	
  processes	
  have	
  been	
  undertaken	
  so	
  far,	
   comprising	
  integrated	
  retail	
  area	
  and	
  housing	
  initiatives.	
   	
   Zoning	
   Most	
  of	
  Vancouver’s	
  neighbourhood-­‐serving	
  and	
  locally-­‐serving	
  shopping	
  areas	
  fall	
  into	
  one	
  of	
  two	
   commercial	
  zoning	
  designations:	
  C-­‐1	
  and	
  C-­‐2.	
  These	
  two	
  zones	
  permit	
  similar	
  forms	
  and	
  uses,	
   generally	
  requiring	
  retail	
  uses	
  at	
  the	
  ground	
  level	
  and	
  permitting	
  residential	
  or	
  commercial	
  uses	
   above.	
  The	
  main	
  difference	
  between	
  them	
  is	
  of	
  scale	
  and	
  position	
  in	
  the	
  hierarchy	
  of	
  retail.	
  The	
   current	
  Zoning	
  Map	
  describes	
  them	
  as	
  follows:	
   	
    C-­1	
  Commercial	
  District	
   The	
  intent	
  is	
  to	
  provide	
  small-­‐scale	
  convenience	
  commercial	
  establishments,	
  catering	
   typically	
  to	
  the	
  needs	
  of	
  a	
  local	
  neighbourhood	
  and	
  consisting	
  primarily	
  of	
  retail	
  sales	
  and	
   certain	
  limited	
  service	
  functions,	
  and	
  to	
  provide	
  for	
  dwelling	
  uses	
  designed	
  compatibly	
  with	
   commercial	
  uses.	
   	
    	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
   56	
  Peter	
  Vaisbord,	
  Interview	
  (Coordinator,	
  Business	
  Improvement	
  Areas	
  Program:	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver,	
  2010).	
   57	
  	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver,	
  Neighbourhood	
  Centre	
  Delivery	
  Program	
  Terms	
  of	
  Reference	
  City	
  Plans,	
  Community	
   Services	
  Group,	
  2002)	
  2.	
   58	
  	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver,	
  CityPlan:	
  Directions	
  for	
  Vancouver,	
  1995),	
  September	
  11,	
  2010.	
   59	
  	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver,	
  Identified	
  Local	
  Area	
  Planning	
  Needs.	
  2010.	
   	
   15	
    C-­2	
  Commercial	
  District	
   The	
  intent	
  is	
  to	
  provide	
  for	
  a	
  wide	
  range	
  of	
  commercial	
  uses	
  serving	
  both	
  local	
  and	
  city-­‐ wide	
  needs,	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  residential	
  uses,	
  along	
  arterial	
  streets.	
  Emphasis	
  is	
  on	
  building	
  design	
   that	
  furthers	
  compatibility	
  among	
  uses,	
  ensures	
  livability,	
  limits	
  impact	
  on	
  adjacent	
   residential	
  sites,	
  and	
  contributes	
  to	
  pedestrian	
  interest	
  and	
  amenity.60	
   As	
  these	
  definitions	
  suggest,	
  C-­‐1	
  and	
  C-­‐2	
  zones	
  correspond	
  roughly	
  to	
  “Local	
  Centres”	
  and	
  “District	
   Centres”	
  in	
  Vancouver’s	
  urban	
  retail	
  hierarchy,	
  respectively.	
  	
   According	
  to	
  the	
  zoning	
  schedule,	
  C-­‐1	
  zoned	
  areas	
  are	
  intended	
  to	
  be	
  very	
  locally-­‐serving,	
  with	
  “all	
   office,	
  retail	
  and	
  services	
  uses	
  [catering]	
  to	
  the	
  day-­‐to-­‐day	
  needs	
  of	
  residents	
  of	
  the	
  local	
   neighbourhood.”61	
  Appropriate	
  uses	
  are	
  defined	
  in	
  the	
  C-­‐1	
  District	
  Schedule	
  as	
  Outright	
  Approval	
   Uses	
  (including	
  retail,	
  grocery	
  stores	
  and	
  general	
  office	
  space)	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  Conditional	
  Approval	
  Uses	
   (including	
  dwellings).	
  	
   Conversely,	
  C-­‐2	
  zoned	
  areas	
  are	
  intended	
  to	
  serve	
  a	
  larger	
  district,	
  without	
  serving	
  the	
  entire	
   region.	
  Many	
  of	
  the	
  Neighbourhood	
  Centres	
  identified	
  through	
  CityPlan	
  encompass	
  C-­‐2	
  zones.	
   Appropriate	
  uses	
  are	
  defined	
  in	
  the	
  C-­‐2	
  District	
  Schedule	
  as	
  Outright	
  Approval	
  Uses	
  (including	
   retail,	
  service,	
  cultural	
  and	
  recreational	
  uses)	
  and	
  Conditional	
  Approval	
  Uses	
  (including	
  dwellings.)	
   Corresponding	
  to	
  its	
  broader	
  significance,	
  C-­‐2	
  zoning	
  permits	
  higher	
  outright	
  building	
  heights	
  and	
   floor	
  space	
  ratios	
  than	
  C-­‐1	
  (4	
  stories	
  instead	
  of	
  2	
  or	
  3).	
  For	
  a	
  complete	
  list	
  of	
  approved	
  uses	
  in	
  C-­‐1	
   and	
  C-­‐2	
  zones,	
  see	
  the	
  District	
  Schedules	
  in	
  Appendix	
  E.	
   Vancouver’s	
  commercial	
  zones	
  have	
  been	
  increasingly	
  mixed-­‐use	
  in	
  character	
  since	
  1989,	
  when	
   disincentives	
  were	
  removed	
  for	
  developing	
  housing	
  on	
  the	
  upper	
  storeys	
  of	
  buildings	
  with	
  retail	
   uses	
  at	
  grade.	
  At	
  the	
  time,	
  planners	
  estimated	
  that	
  an	
  “additional	
  5,500	
  units	
  could	
  be	
  created	
  in	
   commercial	
  districts	
  outside	
  the	
  downtown,	
  where	
  impacts	
  on	
  established	
  residential	
   neighbourhoods	
  would	
  be	
  minimized”.62	
  These	
  commercial	
  zones	
  continue	
  to	
  provide	
  “a	
  large	
   portion	
  of	
  the	
  City’s	
  future	
  housing	
  capacity,”63	
  and	
  remain	
  a	
  “main	
  means	
  of	
  providing	
  low-­‐rise	
   apartment	
  units	
  in	
  single-­‐family	
  neighbourhoods.”64	
  	
   	
   	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
   60	
  	
  Zoning	
  and	
  Development	
  By-­‐law,	
  January	
  15	
  2007,	
  July	
  14	
  2010	
   <http://vancouver.ca/commsvcs/PLANNING/ZONING.HTM>.	
   61	
  	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver,	
  C-­‐1	
  District	
  Schedules,	
  Zoning	
  and	
  Development	
  By-­‐Law,	
  2009)	
  2.3.2.	
   62	
  Manager’s	
  Report	
  to	
  Council	
  on	
  the	
  proposed	
  text	
  amendments,	
  May	
  2,	
  1989,	
  as	
  cited	
  in	
  Neale	
  Staniszkis	
   Doll	
  Architects,	
  C-­‐1	
  &	
  C-­‐2	
  Zoning	
  Study	
  for	
  the	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver	
  (Vancouver	
  BC:,	
  1991).	
   63	
  	
  Director	
  of	
  City	
  Plans,	
  C-­‐2	
  Zoning	
  Review	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver,	
  2000)	
  3.	
   64	
  	
  John	
  Punter,	
  The	
  Vancouver	
  Achievement:	
  Urban	
  Planning	
  and	
  Design	
  (Vancouver:	
  UBC	
  Press,	
  2003)	
  176.  	
    	
   16	
    3.2	
    City	
  of	
  Vancouver	
  Retail	
  Development	
  History	
    Many	
  of	
  Vancouver’s	
  commercial	
  arterial	
  streets	
  evolved	
  along	
  historic	
  streetcar	
  and	
  interurban	
   rail	
  lines.	
  Several	
  inner-­‐city	
  neighbourhoods	
  such	
  as	
  Grandview	
  and	
  Kitsilano	
  once	
  functioned	
  as	
   "separate	
  and	
  distinct	
  villages	
  [centred]	
  around	
  the	
  street	
  car	
  stations.”65	
  The	
  backbones	
  of	
  these	
   suburbs	
  were	
  moderate-­‐density,	
  mixed-­‐use	
  and	
  transit-­‐served	
  commercial	
  corridors.	
  Their	
   inherently	
  walkable	
  forms	
  evolved	
  prior	
  to	
  widespread	
  automobile	
  ownership	
  and	
  remain	
  a	
  legacy	
   of	
  Vancouver’s	
  transit-­‐oriented	
  past.	
  Owing	
  to	
  this	
  walkability,	
  orientation	
  around	
  contemporary	
   electric	
  transit	
  (the	
  trolley	
  busses	
  which	
  replaced	
  most	
  streetcar	
  routes)	
  and	
  convenience	
  to	
   surrounding	
  housing,	
  ongoing	
  neighbourhood	
  retail	
  presence	
  along	
  these	
  arterial	
  streets	
  likely	
   contributes	
  to	
  a	
  high	
  level	
  of	
  resilience	
  in	
  Vancouver’s	
  neighbourhoods.	
   Vancouver’s	
  streetcar	
  and	
  interurban	
  rail	
  lines	
  were	
  replaced	
  by	
  trolley	
  and	
  diesel	
  bus	
  routes	
  in	
  the	
   1950s.	
  The	
  North	
  America-­‐wide	
  trend	
  of	
  replacing	
  fixed-­‐rail	
  transit	
  with	
  rubber-­‐tired	
  busses	
   corresponded	
  with	
  the	
  dawning	
  of	
  the	
  era	
  of	
  the	
  private	
  automobile.	
  A	
  minority	
  of	
  Vancouver	
   neighbourhoods	
  such	
  as	
  Renfrew	
  in	
  the	
  southeast	
  and	
  Oakridge	
  in	
  the	
  southwest	
  saw	
  significant	
   new	
  residential	
  development	
  during	
  the	
  automobile	
  era,	
  but	
  even	
  these	
  areas	
  largely	
  retained	
  the	
   street	
  grid	
  of	
  the	
  older	
  streetcar	
  city.	
  Many	
  of	
  the	
  old	
  walkable	
  neighbourhood	
  shopping	
  areas	
  have	
   been	
  retained,	
  although	
  instances	
  of	
  auto-­‐oriented	
  retail	
  such	
  as	
  strip	
  malls	
  and	
  small	
  shopping	
   malls	
  punctuate	
  their	
  lengths.	
  	
   Large-­‐format	
  auto-­‐oriented	
  retail	
  located	
  outside	
  neighbourhood	
  shopping	
  areas	
  	
  provided	
   competition	
  that,	
  in	
  some	
  cases,	
  threatened	
  the	
  viability	
  of	
  nearby	
  neighbourhood	
  retail.	
  When	
  the	
   Oakridge	
  shopping	
  mall	
  (1959)	
  was	
  built,	
  attracting	
  customers	
  from	
  a	
  wide	
  catchment	
  area,	
   surrounding	
  retail	
  suffered	
  some	
  decline.66	
  More	
  recently,	
  the	
  development	
  of	
  regional-­‐serving	
  “big	
   box”	
  format	
  retail	
  developments	
  along	
  Southwest	
  Marine	
  Drive,	
  Grandview	
  Highway,	
  and	
  outside	
   the	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver's	
  boundaries	
  has	
  impacted	
  shopping	
  patterns	
  in	
  locally-­‐serving	
  retail	
  areas.	
   Retail	
  planning	
  consultant	
  Lewis	
  Silberberg	
  et	
  al.	
  writes	
  that	
  “years	
  of	
  competition	
  [with	
  large-­‐ format	
  retail]…	
  has	
  reduced	
  the	
  type	
  of	
  stores	
  in	
  [neighbourhood]	
  shopping	
  areas	
  and	
  forced	
  them	
   to	
  focus	
  on	
  their	
  strengths,	
  such	
  as	
  convenience	
  goods	
  and	
  services,	
  and	
  avoid	
  direct	
  competition	
   with	
  large	
  malls.”67	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
   65	
  	
  Bruce	
  Macdonald,	
  "Vancouver	
  Neighbourhoods,"	
  The	
  Greater	
  Vancouver	
  Book,	
  ed.	
  Chuck	
  Davis	
  (Surrey	
  BC:	
   Linkman	
  Press,	
  1997)	
  77.	
   66	
  	
  Michael	
  Kluckner,	
  "Oakridge,"	
  The	
  Greater	
  Vancouver	
  Book,	
  ed.	
  Chuck	
  Davis	
  (Surrey	
  BC:	
  Linkman	
  Press,	
   1997)	
  96.	
   67	
  	
  Silberberg,	
  et	
  al,	
  53	
   	
   17	
    3.3	
    Case	
  Study	
  Analysis	
  Periods	
    Analysis	
  of	
  the	
  three	
  case	
  study	
  areas	
  will	
  use	
  data	
  that	
  captures	
  each	
  area’s	
  mix	
  of	
  retail	
  shops	
  and	
   services	
  at	
  five	
  points	
  in	
  Vancouver’s	
  recent	
  history,	
  at	
  intervals	
  of	
  roughly	
  15	
  years.	
  For	
  all	
  three	
   case	
  study	
  areas,	
  the	
  data	
  collection	
  years	
  are	
  1955,	
  1970,	
  1985,	
  1998	
  and	
  2010.	
  	
   1955	
  -­	
  The	
  earliest	
  data	
  point	
  analyzed	
  in	
  this	
  study	
  roughly	
  coincides	
  with	
  the	
  end	
  of	
   Vancouver’s	
  first	
  streetcar	
  era	
  and	
  the	
  rise	
  of	
  the	
  private	
  car.	
  	
   1970	
  –	
  The	
  second	
  data	
  point	
  coincides	
  with	
  a	
  brief	
  downward	
  trend	
  in	
  the	
  city’s	
   population	
  as	
  the	
  local	
  economy	
  endured	
  a	
  shift	
  to	
  post-­‐industrialism.	
  The	
  1971	
  Suburban	
   Commercial	
  Study	
  identifies	
  physical	
  blight	
  and	
  high	
  vacancy	
  rates	
  in	
  retail	
  areas,	
   concluding	
  that	
  Vancouver	
  had	
  a	
  surplus	
  of	
  commercial	
  zones.	
   1985	
  –	
  The	
  third	
  data	
  point	
  captures	
  a	
  city	
  recovering	
  from	
  a	
  local	
  recession	
  in	
  the	
  early	
   1980s	
  and	
  poised	
  on	
  the	
  cusp	
  of	
  a	
  real	
  estate	
  and	
  immigration	
  boom	
  fueled	
  by	
  Expo	
  1986.	
   This	
  point	
  also	
  shows	
  a	
  city	
  shaped	
  by	
  the	
  Greater	
  Vancouver	
  Regional	
  District’s	
  first	
   regional	
  growth	
  strategy,	
  the	
  Livable	
  Region	
  Plan	
  (1975).	
  	
   1998	
  –	
  The	
  fourth	
  data	
  point	
  will	
  reflect	
  Vancouver’s	
  transformation	
  by	
  increased	
   international	
  connectivity	
  and	
  shifted	
  demographics	
  following	
  the	
  previous	
  decade's	
  influx	
   of	
  investment	
  and	
  skilled	
  immigration	
  that	
  led	
  up	
  to	
  Hong	
  Kong's	
  return	
  to	
  the	
  People's	
   Republic	
  of	
  China	
  in	
  1997.68	
   2010	
  –	
  The	
  final	
  data	
  point	
  captures	
  the	
  present	
  day,	
  when	
  Vancouver	
  has	
  just	
  hosted	
  the	
   2010	
  Olympics.	
  In	
  municipal	
  planning,	
  implementation	
  work	
  has	
  begun	
  on	
  the	
  first	
   Neighbourhood	
  Centre	
  plans	
  arising	
  from	
  the	
  CityPlan	
  program.	
   These	
  points	
  were	
  identified	
  for	
  data	
  collection	
  based	
  on	
  their	
  relationship	
  to	
  historical	
  events	
  and	
   trends	
  that	
  broadly	
  shaped	
  development	
  and	
  lifestyles	
  in	
  Vancouver.	
  Their	
  selection	
  also	
  attempted	
   to	
  avoid	
  periods	
  when	
  major	
  construction	
  projects	
  were	
  underway	
  (and	
  therefore	
  large	
  areas	
  were	
   vacant)	
  in	
  any	
  of	
  the	
  study	
  areas.	
  	
   	
    	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
   68	
  	
  Trevor	
  Barnes,	
  et	
  al,	
  "Vancouver:	
  Restructuring	
  Narratives	
  in	
  the	
  Transnational	
  Metropolis,"	
  Canadian	
    Cities,	
  ed.	
  Tom	
  Hutton,	
  in	
  press).	
    	
   18	
    3.4	
    Case	
  Study	
  Area	
  Selection	
  Criteria	
    In	
  order	
  to	
  inform	
  some	
  analytical	
  generalization	
  from	
  findings,	
  this	
  research	
  bases	
  analysis	
  on	
   three	
  case	
  study	
  areas.	
  The	
  areas	
  were	
  selected	
  from	
  among	
  Vancouver’s	
  many	
  retail	
  districts	
   outside	
  the	
  downtown	
  on	
  the	
  basis	
  of	
  several	
  criteria,	
  including	
  the	
  following:	
    	
    •  each	
  area	
  should	
  be	
  500m	
  or	
  less	
  in	
  extent,	
  reflecting	
  a	
  walkable	
  scale	
    •  each	
  area	
  should	
  be	
  home	
  to	
  at	
  least	
  one	
  grocery	
  store	
  in	
  2010	
    •  no	
  area	
  should	
  be	
  under	
  major	
  construction	
  or	
  redevelopment	
  (in	
  2010)	
    •  considered	
  together,	
  the	
  study	
  areas	
  should	
  reflect	
  diverse	
  historical	
  and	
  socioeconomic	
   contexts,	
  including	
  both	
  east-­‐	
  and	
  west-­‐side	
  areas	
  	
    •  considered	
  within	
  the	
  hierarchy	
  of	
  retail	
  areas,	
  the	
  study	
  areas	
  should	
  represent	
  two	
   local	
  centres	
  and	
  one	
  district	
  centre;	
  none	
  should	
  be	
  predominantly	
  regionally-­‐serving.	
    Case	
  study	
  areas	
  are	
  delineated	
  around	
  continuous	
  retail	
  areas,	
  with	
  boundaries	
  set	
  at	
  the	
  furthest	
   extent	
  of	
  continuous	
  commercial	
  use	
  since	
  the	
  earliest	
  data	
  point	
  in	
  1955.	
   An	
  alternative	
  method	
  of	
  case	
  study	
  area	
  selection	
  was	
  initially	
  considered,	
  based	
  on	
  choosing	
  case	
   study	
  areas	
  that	
  similar	
  in	
  every	
  criteria	
  except	
  for	
  one	
  control	
  variable.	
  For	
  instance,	
  case	
  study	
   areas	
  could	
  have	
  been	
  sought	
  exhibiting	
  similar	
  numbers	
  and	
  mean	
  frontage	
  length	
  of	
  shops,	
  urban	
   design	
  features,	
  levels	
  of	
  public	
  transit	
  service,	
  traffic	
  flows,	
  and	
  demographic	
  characteristics	
  such	
   as	
  income	
  and	
  language	
  profiles,	
  but	
  with	
  different	
  population	
  densities	
  over	
  time.	
  In	
  treating	
  most	
   relevant	
  characteristics	
  as	
  control	
  variables,	
  this	
  approach	
  would	
  have	
  allowed	
  for	
  analysis	
  of	
  one	
   independent	
  variable	
  (e.g.	
  population	
  density)	
  and	
  its	
  relationship	
  to	
  retail	
  area	
  function.	
  A	
   preliminary	
  overview	
  of	
  Vancouver’s	
  retail	
  areas	
  and	
  their	
  current	
  socioeconomic	
  contexts	
  (see	
   Appendix	
  A	
  for	
  a	
  summary)	
  revealed	
  such	
  diversity	
  across	
  many	
  variables	
  that	
  characterizing	
  any	
   two	
  areas	
  as	
  comparable	
  would	
  have	
  involved	
  significant	
  compromises.	
  Therefore,	
  this	
  approach	
   was	
  discarded.	
    	
   19	
    3.5	
    Introduction	
  to	
  the	
  Case	
  Study	
  Areas	
    One	
  district	
  retail	
  centre	
  on	
  the	
  west	
  side	
  of	
  the	
  city	
  and	
  two	
  local	
  retail	
  centres	
  on	
  the	
  east	
  side	
   were	
  selected	
  for	
  analysis.	
  The	
  communities	
  served	
  by	
  all	
  three	
  retail	
  areas	
  are	
  predominantly	
   single	
  family	
  in	
  character.	
  Each	
  clustered	
  around	
  a	
  transit-­‐served	
  arterial	
  corridor,	
  the	
  areas	
  range	
   in	
  extent	
  from	
  140	
  to	
  500m.	
  The	
  case	
  study	
  area	
  locations	
  are	
  at:	
   •  Dunbar	
  Street	
  between	
  West	
  25th	
  to	
  West	
  30th	
  Avenues	
  	
  (500m	
  in	
  length)	
    •  Rupert	
  Street	
  at	
  East	
  22nd	
  Avenue	
  (140	
  m	
  in	
  length)	
    •  Nanaimo	
  Street	
  between	
  William	
  and	
  Kitchener	
  (210	
  m	
  in	
  length)	
    Figure	
  1	
  below	
  shows	
  the	
  three	
  case	
  study	
  area	
  locations	
  in	
  Vancouver	
  relative	
  to	
  the	
  city’s	
  local	
   areas.	
  The	
  retail	
  areas	
  are	
  introduced	
  below	
  in	
  terms	
  of	
  their	
  positions	
  in	
  the	
  hierarchy	
  of	
  retail,	
   retail	
  development	
  histories,	
  recent	
  planning	
  and	
  development,	
  and	
  local	
  demographics	
  of	
  the	
   residential	
  areas	
  that	
  they	
  serve.	
   	
   Figure	
  1	
  -­‐	
  Map	
  of	
  Case	
  Study	
  Areas	
  and	
  Vancouver	
  Neighbourhood	
  Contexts	
    	
    	
   20	
    Dunbar	
  Centre	
  Shopping	
  Area	
   (Dunbar	
  Street	
  between	
  W.	
  25th	
  Av.	
  and	
  W.	
  30th	
  Av.)	
   	
   Identified	
  in	
  the	
  1998	
  Dunbar	
  Community	
  Vision	
  as	
  the	
  "Dunbar	
  Centre	
  Shopping	
  Area"69	
  and	
  in	
   The	
  Story	
  of	
  Dunbar	
  as	
  “Dunbar	
  Heights”70,	
  the	
  retail	
  corridor	
  along	
  Dunbar	
  Street	
  between	
  25th	
   and	
  30th	
  Avenues	
  provides	
  the	
  widest	
  variety	
  of	
  shops	
  in	
  the	
  Dunbar-­‐Southlands	
  neighbourhood.71	
  	
   While	
  Dunbar	
  Centre	
  is	
  the	
  most	
  widely-­‐serving,	
  the	
  Dunbar-­‐Southlands	
  neighbourhood	
  is	
  home	
  to	
   several	
  commercial	
  nodes	
  of	
  varying	
  sizes	
  and	
  importance.	
  A	
  1979	
  report	
  produced	
  for	
  the	
  City	
  of	
   Vancouver	
  Planning	
  Department	
  notes	
  that:	
   The	
  commercial	
  core	
  between	
  26th	
  Avenue	
  and	
  30th	
  Avenue	
  is	
  classified	
  as	
  a	
  district	
  centre,	
   while	
  the	
  other	
  two	
  at	
  16th	
  Avenue	
  and	
  41st	
  Avenue	
  are	
  classified	
  as	
  local	
  centres…	
  [Dunbar	
   Centre]	
  offers	
  a	
  large	
  variety	
  of	
  shopping	
  goods	
  in	
  addition	
  to	
  the	
  convenience	
  goods	
  and	
   services	
  provided	
  by	
  the	
  local	
  centres.	
  While	
  the	
  local	
  centre	
  takes	
  care	
  of	
  the	
  day-­‐to-­‐day	
   needs	
  of	
  the	
  nearby	
  residents,	
  the	
  district	
  centre	
  functions	
  as	
  the	
  retail	
  and	
  service	
  centre	
   for	
  the	
  entire	
  residential	
  district.72	
   The	
  Dunbar	
  Community	
  Vision	
  (1998)	
  describes	
  a	
  relationship	
  between	
  the	
  neighbourhood’s	
   commercial	
  areas	
  that	
  remains	
  basically	
  unchanged	
  since	
  1979.	
  Befitting	
  its	
  district-­‐serving	
   function,	
  the	
  Dunbar	
  Centre	
  commercial	
  area	
  is	
  zoned	
  C-­‐2.	
   	
    	
    Figure	
  2:	
  Map	
  of	
  Dunbar	
  Centre	
  Shopping	
  Area	
    	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
   69	
  	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver,	
  Dunbar	
  Community	
  Vision,	
  1998)	
  12.	
   70	
  	
  Larry	
  Moore,	
  "Commercial	
  Development	
  through	
  the	
  Decades,"	
  The	
  Story	
  of	
  Dunbar:	
  Voices	
  of	
  a	
  Vancouver	
   Neighbourhood,	
  ed.	
  Peggy	
  Schofield	
  (Ronsdale	
  Press,	
  China:	
  Dunbar	
  Residents'	
  Association,	
  2007)	
  110.	
   71	
  	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver.	
   72	
  	
  Eunice	
  Mak	
  and	
  Lidio	
  Daneluzzi,	
  Dunbar	
  Southlands	
  Community	
  Profile	
  -­‐	
  A	
  Technical	
  Report	
  Prepared	
  for	
    the	
  Vancouver	
  City	
  Planning	
  Department,	
  1979)	
  13.	
    	
   21	
    Local	
  Area	
  Statistics	
   The	
  residential	
  areas	
  surrounding	
  Dunbar	
  Centre	
  are	
  relatively	
  lower	
  density	
  and	
  higher-­‐income	
   than	
  the	
  city	
  average.73	
  The	
  2006	
  median	
  household	
  income	
  in	
  this	
  local	
  area	
  was	
  84%	
  higher	
  than	
   the	
  city-­‐wide	
  median74,	
  an	
  income	
  level	
  that	
  likely	
  influences	
  the	
  numbers	
  and	
  types	
  of	
  businesses	
   that	
  the	
  area	
  can	
  support.75	
  A	
  large	
  majority	
  of	
  Dunbar-­‐Southlands	
  residents	
  speak	
  English	
  as	
  their	
   first	
  language	
  (68%,	
  compared	
  to	
  49%	
  city-­‐wide)76.	
  The	
  population	
  of	
  Dunbar-­‐Southlands	
  has	
  a	
   similar	
  proportion	
  of	
  seniors	
  over	
  65	
  to	
  the	
  population	
  of	
  the	
  city	
  as	
  a	
  whole,	
  but	
  has	
  a	
  significantly	
   higher	
  proportion	
  of	
  children	
  and	
  youth	
  under	
  19	
  than	
  the	
  city-­‐wide	
  population.77	
  	
   Dunbar-­‐Southlands	
  has	
  experienced	
  a	
  lower	
  rate	
  of	
  population	
  increase	
  than	
  the	
  city	
  as	
  a	
  whole;	
   since	
  1971	
  (the	
  earliest	
  available	
  data	
  point	
  for	
  the	
  area)	
  the	
  local	
  area	
  population	
  increased	
  by	
   9.4%78,	
  while	
  the	
  population	
  of	
  the	
  city	
  as	
  a	
  whole	
  increased	
  by	
  35.6%79.	
  The	
  slow	
  rate	
  of	
   population	
  change	
  in	
  Dunbar-­‐Southlands	
  may	
  be	
  related	
  to	
  local	
  residents'	
  low	
  mobility;	
  between	
   the	
  2001	
  and	
  2006	
  census,	
  50%	
  of	
  all	
  Vancouver	
  households	
  changed	
  their	
  place	
  of	
  residence,	
   compared	
  to	
  only	
  36%	
  of	
  Dunbar-­‐Southlands	
  residents80.	
   	
   Retail	
  Development	
  History	
   Streetcar	
  service	
  began	
  on	
  Dunbar	
  Street	
  in	
  1912,	
  establishing	
  the	
  community	
  as	
  a	
  streetcar	
   suburb.81	
  The	
  district’s	
  first	
  store	
  followed	
  in	
  1922,	
  located	
  at	
  Dunbar	
  St.	
  and	
  W	
  29th	
  Avenue	
  as	
   pictured	
  in	
  Figure	
  3.82	
  The	
  Dunbar	
  Centre	
  commercial	
  area	
  developed	
  around	
  this	
  historic	
  streetcar	
   line,	
  attaining	
  its	
  basic	
  extent	
  in	
  the	
  1930s,	
  as	
  shown	
  in	
  Figure	
  4.	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
   73	
  	
  Dunbar	
  Village	
  Neighbourhood	
  Profile,	
  2008,	
  July	
  25	
  2010	
  <http://www.bizmapbc.com/neighbourhood-­‐  profiles/dunbar-­‐neighbourhood.pdf>.	
   74	
  	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver	
  Statistics	
  (2006	
  Census	
  Data):	
  Local	
  Area	
  Statistics,	
  September	
  10	
  2009,	
  September	
  9	
   2010	
  <http://vancouver.ca/commsvcs/planning/census/2006/localareas/>.	
   75	
  1962	
  data	
  from	
  Chicago,	
  IL	
  show	
  that	
  higher	
  income	
  areas	
  supported	
  a	
  greater	
  number	
  and	
  variety	
  of	
   businesses	
  than	
  lower	
  income	
  areas.	
  Brian	
  J.	
  L.	
  Berry,	
  et	
  al,	
  Commercial	
  Structure	
  and	
  Commercial	
  Blight:	
   Retail	
  Patterns	
  and	
  Processes	
  in	
  the	
  City	
  of	
  Chicago	
  (Ilinois:	
  University	
  of	
  Chicago,	
  1963)	
  60-­‐61.	
   76	
  	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver.	
   77	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver.	
   78	
  	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver,	
  Total	
  Population,	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver	
  Local	
  Areas,	
  1971-­‐2006	
  Data	
  source:	
  Statistics	
   Canada,	
  2006),	
  September	
  11,	
  2010.	
   79	
  	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver's	
  Population	
  Change:	
  1961	
  to	
  2006,	
  2006,	
  September	
  11	
  2010	
   <http://vancouver.ca/commsvcs/planning/stats/poptrends/index.htm>.	
   80	
  	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver.	
   81	
  	
  Angus	
  McIntyre,	
  "Transportation	
  in	
  a	
  Classic	
  Streetcar	
  Suburb,"	
  The	
  Story	
  of	
  Dunbar:	
  Voices	
  of	
  a	
   Vancouver	
  Neighbourhood,	
  ed.	
  Peggy	
  Schofield	
  (Ronsdale	
  Press,	
  China:	
  Dunbar	
  Residents'	
  Association,	
  2007)	
   123.	
   82	
  	
  Moore,	
  83.	
    	
   22	
    While	
  the	
  surrounding	
  land	
  was	
  built	
  out	
  with	
  single	
  family	
  houses	
  on	
  generous	
  lots,	
  the	
  number	
   and	
  variety	
  of	
  shops	
  in	
  Dunbar	
  Centre	
  increased	
  to	
  serve	
  the	
  new	
  residents.83	
  However,	
  according	
   to	
  a	
  local	
  history	
  book	
  published	
  by	
  the	
  Dunbar	
  Residents’	
  Association,	
  the	
  number	
  of	
  businesses	
   along	
  Dunbar	
  has	
  gradually	
  declined	
  since	
  the	
  1950s.84	
  	
  The	
  authors	
  of	
  The	
  Story	
  of	
  Dunbar	
   attribute	
  this	
  trend	
  to	
  several	
  factors,	
  including:	
   •  A	
  trend	
  towards	
  consolidation	
  of	
  small	
  businesses	
    •  The	
  increased	
  accessibility	
  of	
  more	
  distant,	
  regionally-­‐serving	
  destinations,	
  due	
  to	
   higher	
  levels	
  of	
  automobile	
  ownership	
    •  Demographic	
  changes,	
  including:	
   o  A	
  larger	
  ethnic	
  Chinese	
  population	
  whose	
  appetite	
  for	
  ethnic	
  foods	
  and	
  other	
   specialty	
  goods	
  is	
  better	
  accommodated	
  at	
  regional	
  centres	
  than	
  in	
  Dunbar’s	
   neighbourhood	
  shops85	
    o  The	
  neighbourhood’s	
  increased	
  affluence,	
  which	
  has	
  made	
  housing	
  near	
  Dunbar	
   unaffordable	
  for	
  local	
  shopkeepers.86	
    Despite	
  these	
  challenges,	
  the	
  composition	
  of	
  businesses	
  within	
  the	
  Dunbar	
  Centre	
  retail	
  area	
   reflects	
  the	
  neighbourhood’s	
  remarkable	
  stability.	
  The	
  Story	
  of	
  Dunbar	
  offers	
  with	
  pride	
  a	
  list	
  of	
   “survivors”,	
  local	
  businesses	
  that	
  have	
  served	
  the	
  community	
  for	
  many	
  decades.87	
   	
   	
   	
    	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
   83	
  	
  Moore,	
  93.	
   84	
  	
  Moore,	
  104.	
   85	
  Chang,	
  Ruth,	
  as	
  quoted	
  in	
  Moore,	
  106	
   86	
  	
  Moore,	
  105-­‐108.	
   87	
  	
  Moore,	
  110.	
   	
   23	
    	
   Figure	
  3:	
  Photo	
  of	
  Scott's	
  Grocery,	
  Dunbar	
  Centre	
   (1923)	
    The	
  first	
  shop	
  in	
  Dunbar	
  Centre,	
  was	
  established	
  in	
   1922	
  at	
  W.	
  29th	
  Av.	
  and	
  Dunbar	
  St.	
   	
   	
   Common	
  Domain	
  photo	
  from	
  the	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver	
   Archives,	
  item	
  number	
  LP	
  241.	
   	
    	
    	
   	
   	
    Figure	
  4:	
  Photo	
  of	
  Dunbar	
  Centre,	
  1932	
    By	
  the	
  1930s,	
  Dunbar	
  Centre	
  offered	
  a	
  wide	
  variety	
   of	
  shops.	
  This	
  photo	
  shows	
  Dunbar	
  St.	
  at	
  W.	
  26th	
   Av.,	
  looking	
  south.	
   	
   Common	
  Domain	
  photo	
  no.	
  99-­‐4110	
  from	
  the	
  City	
   of	
  Vancouver	
  Archives.	
  Photographer	
  S.	
  Thomson	
  	
  	
    	
    Recent	
  Local	
  Planning	
  and	
  Development	
   As	
  part	
  of	
  the	
  development	
  of	
  the	
  Dunbar	
  Community	
  Vision	
  (1998),	
  changes	
  were	
  considered	
  to	
   extend	
  the	
  Dunbar	
  Centre	
  commercial	
  area	
  an	
  additional	
  block	
  south	
  to	
  the	
  community	
  centre	
  at	
   31st	
  Avenue,	
  and	
  to	
  reduce	
  the	
  size	
  of	
  the	
  two	
  smaller	
  commercial	
  nodes	
  at	
  16th	
  and	
  41st	
  Avenues.	
   However,	
  neither	
  consideration	
  was	
  approved	
  by	
  neighbourhood	
  residents.88	
  Increased	
  variety	
  and	
   density	
  of	
  housing	
  were	
  also	
  considered	
  as	
  tools	
  to	
  support	
  local	
  retail,	
  however,	
  the	
  approved	
   Dunbar	
  Community	
  Vision	
  calls	
  for	
  new	
  types	
  of	
  low-­‐rise	
  housing	
  to	
  be	
  focused	
  only	
  along	
  selected	
   arterial	
  streets,	
  and	
  not	
  to	
  be	
  permitted	
  in	
  the	
  residential	
  areas	
  surrounding	
  arterial	
  corridors.89	
  	
   Altogether,	
  within	
  the	
  Dunbar	
  Community	
  Vision,	
  directions	
  for	
  Dunbar	
  Centre	
  did	
  not	
  herald	
   significant	
  change	
  for	
  the	
  area.	
  Approved	
  directions	
  include	
  pedestrian	
  improvements,	
   encouragement	
  of	
  small	
  local	
  shops,	
  retention	
  of	
  grocery	
  stores,	
  and	
  retention	
  of	
  existing	
  parking.	
   Conservative	
  values	
  regarding	
  increased	
  density	
  and	
  neighbourhood	
  change	
  are	
  likewise	
  reflected	
   in	
  critiques	
  within	
  the	
  Story	
  of	
  Dunbar	
  that	
  existing	
  four-­‐storey	
  mixed-­‐use	
  developments	
  built	
   under	
  Dunbar	
  Centre’s	
  current	
  C-­‐2	
  zoning	
  are	
  out	
  of	
  place	
  among	
  the	
  smaller,	
  more	
  traditional	
   shops.	
  	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
   88	
  	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver,	
  4.	
   89	
  	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver,	
  12-­‐13.	
   	
   24	
    Rupert	
  and	
  22nd	
  Shopping	
  Area	
  	
   (Intersection	
  of	
  Rupert	
  Street	
  and	
  E	
  22nd	
  Av)	
   The	
  Renfrew-­‐Collingwood	
  Community	
  Vision	
  (2004)	
  identifies	
  the	
  Rupert	
  and	
  22nd	
  Shopping	
  Area	
   as	
  a	
  locally	
  serving	
  "mini-­‐node"	
  and	
  a	
  potential	
  neighbourhood	
  centre	
  area.90	
  Within	
  the	
  Renfrew-­‐ Collingwood	
  neighbourhood,	
  two	
  more	
  widely-­‐serving,	
  district-­‐level	
  retail	
  centres	
  are	
  located	
  along	
   Kingsway	
  Street,	
  at	
  the	
  Joyce-­‐Collingwood	
  and	
  Norquay	
  Village	
  shopping	
  areas.	
   Reflecting	
  its	
  relatively	
  small	
  extent	
  and	
  locally-­‐serving	
  function,	
  the	
  Rupert	
  St.	
  and	
  E.	
  22nd	
  Ave.	
   Shopping	
  Area	
  is	
  zoned	
  C-­‐1.	
  However,	
  its	
  two	
  auto-­‐oriented	
  strip	
  malls	
  do	
  appear	
  to	
  attract	
   customers	
  from	
  a	
  wider	
  catchment	
  area,	
  most	
  notably	
  by	
  offering	
  specialty	
  Chinese	
  foods	
  at	
  the	
   Chong	
  Lee	
  Market	
  and	
  Golden	
  Oscar	
  Restaurant.	
  	
   	
    nd  Figure	
  5:	
  Map	
  of	
  Rupert	
  and	
  22 	
  Shopping	
  Area	
    	
   	
   Local	
  Area	
  Statistics	
   This	
  shopping	
  area	
  is	
  located	
  within	
  the	
  Renfrew-­‐Collingwood	
  neighbourhood,	
  which	
  is	
  typical	
  of	
   Vancouver	
  as	
  a	
  whole	
  in	
  terms	
  of	
  median	
  household	
  income.91	
  However,	
  the	
  linguistic	
  profile	
  of	
   Renfrew-­‐Collingwood	
  differs	
  significantly	
  from	
  the	
  city	
  as	
  a	
  whole;	
  English	
  is	
  the	
  first	
  language	
  of	
   49%	
  of	
  Vancouver	
  residents,	
  but	
  only	
  26%	
  of	
  Renfrew-­‐Collingwood	
  residents	
  speak	
  English	
  as	
  their	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
   90	
  	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver,	
  48.	
   91	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver	
  Statistics,	
  September	
  10	
  2009	
    <http://vancouver.ca/commsvcs/planning/census/2006/localareas/>.	
    	
   25	
    first	
  language.	
  A	
  concentration	
  of	
  Chinese-­‐speaking	
  residents	
  (making	
  up	
  43%	
  of	
  local	
  area	
   residents	
  in	
  2006)	
  is	
  likely	
  reflected	
  in	
  the	
  mix	
  of	
  goods	
  and	
  services	
  offered	
  within	
  the	
  Rupert	
  and	
   22nd	
  Shopping	
  Area.92	
   The	
  population	
  of	
  Renfrew-­‐Collingwood	
  has	
  a	
  slightly	
  higher	
  proportion	
  of	
  seniors	
  over	
  65	
  than	
  the	
   city	
  as	
  a	
  whole,	
  and	
  a	
  higher	
  proportion	
  of	
  children	
  and	
  youth	
  under	
  19.	
  At	
  the	
  1996,	
  2001	
  and	
   2006	
  censuses,	
  Renfrew-­‐Collingwood	
  exhibited	
  a	
  greater	
  rate	
  of	
  population	
  growth93	
  than	
  the	
  city	
   as	
  a	
  whole.94	
  Nonetheless,	
  residents	
  have	
  a	
  lower	
  than	
  average	
  mobility;	
  between	
  the	
  2001	
  and	
   2006	
  census,	
  50%	
  of	
  all	
  Vancouver	
  households	
  changed	
  their	
  place	
  of	
  residence,	
  compared	
  to	
  only	
   43%	
  of	
  Renfrew-­‐Collingwood	
  residents.95	
   	
   Retail	
  Development	
  History	
   When	
  Renfrew	
  School	
  (1928)	
  was	
  built	
  at	
  the	
  northeast	
  corner	
  of	
  the	
  intersection	
  of	
  what	
  are	
  today	
   Rupert	
  St.	
  and	
  E.	
  22nd	
  Av.,	
  a	
  single	
  shop	
  on	
  the	
  southwest	
  corner	
  offered	
  the	
  only	
  commercial	
   services	
  within	
  a	
  kilometer.	
  The	
  area	
  was	
  located	
  within	
  the	
  municipality	
  of	
  South	
  Vancouver,	
   which	
  would	
  amalgamate	
  with	
  Vancouver	
  the	
  following	
  year.	
  	
   By	
  the	
  early	
  1940s,	
  a	
  small	
  commercial	
  site	
  had	
  been	
  added	
  on	
  the	
  southeast	
  corner	
  of	
  the	
   intersection.96	
  In	
  the	
  development	
  boom	
  following	
  World	
  War	
  II,	
  the	
  surrounding	
  residential	
  area	
   was	
  built	
  out	
  with	
  single	
  family	
  houses,	
  including	
  the	
  “Renfrew	
  Heights”	
  subdivision	
  (1948),	
   designed	
  to	
  accommodate	
  returning	
  World	
  War	
  II	
  veterans.	
  The	
  Rupert	
  and	
  22nd	
  shopping	
  area	
  had	
   most	
  of	
  its	
  current	
  retail	
  area	
  by	
  this	
  study’s	
  first	
  data	
  collection	
  point	
  in	
  1955,	
  although	
  it	
  was	
  not	
   built	
  out	
  to	
  its	
  full	
  present	
  extent	
  until	
  1959.	
   Its	
  post-­‐war	
  development	
  makes	
  the	
  Rupert	
  and	
  22nd	
  Shopping	
  Area	
  somewhat	
  unusual	
  within	
   Vancouver,	
  where	
  many	
  local	
  shopping	
  areas	
  evolved	
  in	
  the	
  early	
  20th	
  century	
  along	
  streetcar	
   lines.	
  Since	
  1959,	
  auto-­‐oriented	
  strip	
  malls	
  have	
  occupied	
  the	
  northwest	
  and	
  southeast	
  corners	
  of	
   this	
  shopping	
  area,	
  perhaps	
  reflecting	
  increasing	
  levels	
  of	
  automobile	
  ownership	
  at	
  the	
  time	
  of	
  its	
   development.	
   	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
   92	
  Ibid.	
   93	
  Ibid.	
   94	
  Ibid.	
   95	
  Ibid.	
   96	
  	
  Bruce	
  Macdonald,	
  Vancouver:	
  A	
  Visual	
  History	
  (Vancouver	
  BC:	
  Talonbooks,	
  1992).	
   	
   26	
    Recent	
  Local	
  planning	
  and	
  Development	
   Within	
  the	
  past	
  25	
  years,	
  big-­‐box	
  stores	
  including	
  a	
  very	
  large	
  regionally-­‐oriented	
  supermarket,	
  the	
   Real	
  Canadian	
  Superstore97	
  (1990)	
  have	
  opened	
  in	
  the	
  Grandview	
  Boundary	
  Industrial	
  Area,	
  just	
   one	
  kilometre	
  from	
  the	
  intersection	
  of	
  Rupert	
  St.	
  and	
  E.	
  22nd	
  Ave.	
  It	
  is	
  unclear	
  how	
  or	
  whether	
  the	
   retail	
  composition	
  of	
  the	
  Rupert	
  and	
  22nd	
  Shopping	
  Area	
  has	
  been	
  affected	
  by	
  these	
  developments.	
   The	
  Renfrew-­‐Collingwood	
  Community	
  Vision	
  document	
  does	
  note	
  that	
  the	
  Rupert	
  and	
  22nd	
   Shopping	
  Area	
  would	
  benefit	
  from	
  a	
  medium-­‐sized	
  supermarket	
  to	
  serve	
  as	
  an	
  anchor	
  for	
   neighbourhood	
  shops.98	
   The	
  Renfrew-­‐Collingwood	
  Community	
  Vision	
  suggests	
  strategies	
  for	
  strengthening	
  the	
  Rupert	
  and	
   22nd	
  Shopping	
  Area	
  "as	
  [a]	
  neighbourhood	
  shopping	
  area…	
  and	
  special	
  community	
  place".99	
   Supported	
  directions	
  include	
  discouraging	
  auto-­‐oriented	
  uses,	
  encouraging	
  continuous	
  ground-­‐ floor	
  retail	
  frontages,	
  and	
  adding	
  multifamily	
  housing	
  nearby	
  to	
  strengthen	
  retail	
  uses.100	
  While	
   some	
  community	
  members	
  noted	
  that	
  local	
  "commercial	
  areas	
  are	
  struggling,"101	
  community	
   outlook	
  for	
  this	
  shopping	
  area	
  seems	
  bright:	
  the	
  Vision	
  approved	
  "limited	
  expansion"	
  of	
  the	
   commercial	
  area.102	
   	
   	
    	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
   97	
  The	
  Real	
  Canadian	
  Superstore	
  is	
  located	
  at	
  3185	
  Grandview	
  Highway,	
  1.1	
  kilometers	
  from	
  the	
  intersection	
   of	
  Rupert	
  St.	
  and	
  E	
  22nd	
  Av.	
  Other	
  regionally-­‐oriented	
  retail	
  services	
  currently	
  located	
  along	
  this	
  area	
  of	
  the	
   Grandview	
  Highway	
  include	
  a	
  big-­‐box	
  hardware	
  store,	
  a	
  discount	
  department	
  store,	
  a	
  warehouse	
  club	
   retailer,	
  and	
  a	
  large-­‐scale	
  furniture	
  retailer.	
   98	
  	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver,	
  57.	
   99	
  	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver,	
  56.	
   100	
  	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver,	
  56-­‐57.	
   101	
  	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver,	
  56.	
   102	
  	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver,	
  56.	
    	
   27	
    Nanaimo	
  and	
  Charles	
  Shopping	
  Area	
  	
   (Nanaimo	
  St.,	
  from	
  William	
  St.	
  to	
  Kitchener	
  St.)	
   The	
  Nanaimo	
  and	
  Charles	
  retail	
  area	
  is	
  small	
  and	
  locally-­‐serving,	
  without	
  major	
  anchors.	
  Formerly	
   zoned	
  C-­‐2,	
  it	
  is	
  presently	
  zoned	
  C-­‐1,	
  reflecting	
  its	
  small	
  size	
  and	
  local	
  function.	
  	
   Nanaimo	
  Street	
  forms	
  the	
  boundary	
  between	
  the	
  Hastings-­‐Sunrise	
  neighbourhood	
  to	
  the	
  east	
  and	
   the	
  Grandview-­‐Woodlands	
  neighbourhood	
  to	
  the	
  west.	
  District-­‐serving	
  retail	
  areas	
  are	
  located	
  in	
   both	
  neighbourhoods	
  along	
  Hastings	
  Street,	
  and	
  along	
  Commercial	
  Drive	
  in	
  Grandview-­‐Woodlands,	
   and	
  are	
  complimented	
  by	
  other	
  local	
  retail	
  centres.	
  Of	
  the	
  two	
  neighbourhoods	
  served	
  by	
  the	
   Nanaimo	
  and	
  Charles	
  retail	
  centre,	
  only	
  Hastings-­‐Sunrise	
  has	
  been	
  included	
  in	
  the	
  Community	
   Visions	
  process.	
  (Grandview-­‐Woodlands	
  did	
  have	
  a	
  neighbourhood	
  plan	
  prior	
  to	
  the	
  CityPlan	
   program,	
  as	
  did	
  other	
  neighbourhoods.)	
  Within	
  the	
  Hastings-­‐Sunrise	
  Community	
  Vision	
  (2004),	
  the	
   Nanaimo	
  and	
  Charles	
  retail	
  area	
  is	
  included	
  in	
  maps	
  of	
  commercial	
  zones	
  but	
  no	
  explicit	
  directions	
   for	
  its	
  future	
  development	
  are	
  considered.	
  	
   	
   Figure	
  6:	
  Map	
  of	
  Nanaimo	
  and	
  Charles	
  Shopping	
  Area	
    	
   	
   Local	
  Area	
  Statistics	
   At	
  the	
  Nanaimo	
  and	
  Charles	
  Shopping	
  Area,	
  Nanaimo	
  Street	
  forms	
  the	
  boundary	
  between	
  two	
  local	
   areas—Grandview-­‐Woodlands	
  to	
  the	
  west,	
  and	
  Hastings-­‐Sunrise	
  to	
  the	
  east.	
  Therefore,	
  available	
    	
   28	
    statistics	
  for	
  surrounding	
  residential	
  areas	
  describe	
  large	
  areas	
  on	
  either	
  side	
  of	
  Nanaimo	
  Street.	
  To	
   make	
  generalization	
  more	
  difficult,	
  the	
  two	
  local	
  areas'	
  populations	
  are	
  quite	
  different.	
  For	
   instance,	
  within	
  Grandview-­‐Woodlands	
  in	
  2006,	
  median	
  household	
  incomes	
  were	
  25%	
  below	
  the	
   city-­‐wide	
  median,	
  while	
  in	
  Hastings-­‐Sunrise,	
  median	
  household	
  incomes	
  were	
  5%	
  above	
  the	
  city-­‐ wide	
  median.103	
  This	
  difference	
  may	
  reflect	
  a	
  greater	
  proportion	
  of	
  older	
  multifamily	
  dwellings	
  in	
   Grandview-­‐Woodlands.	
  	
  	
   The	
  majority	
  of	
  households	
  within	
  Grandview-­‐Woodlands	
  (62%)	
  speak	
  English	
  as	
  a	
  first	
  language,	
   compared	
  to	
  49%	
  city-­‐wide.	
  In	
  Hastings-­‐Sunrise,	
  Chinese	
  (40%)	
  and	
  English	
  (37%)	
  are	
  the	
   principal	
  first	
  languages	
  spoken.	
  The	
  population	
  of	
  Grandview-­‐Woodlands	
  has	
  lower	
  proportions	
  of	
   seniors	
  over	
  65	
  and	
  of	
  children	
  and	
  youth	
  under	
  19	
  than	
  Vancouver	
  as	
  a	
  whole.	
  The	
  population	
  of	
   Hastings-­‐Sunrise,	
  however,	
  has	
  higher	
  proportions	
  of	
  both	
  youth	
  and	
  seniors	
  than	
  the	
  city	
  as	
  a	
   whole,	
  and	
  has	
  a	
  lower	
  mobility.	
  Between	
  2001	
  and	
  2006,	
  50%	
  of	
  all	
  Vancouver	
  households	
   changed	
  their	
  place	
  of	
  residence,	
  compared	
  to	
  52%	
  of	
  Grandview-­‐Woodlands	
  residents,	
  and	
  only	
   39%	
  of	
  Hastings-­‐Sunrise	
  residents.	
  Between	
  2001	
  and	
  2006,	
  neither	
  local	
  area	
  matched	
  the	
  city-­‐ wide	
  rate	
  of	
  population	
  growth.	
  In	
  Grandview-­‐Woodlands,	
  the	
  population	
  has	
  actually	
  decreased	
  by	
   3.5%	
  since	
  1996.	
  Over	
  the	
  same	
  period,	
  the	
  population	
  of	
  Hastings-­‐Sunrise	
  has	
  increased	
  by	
   6.5%104,	
  compared	
  to	
  12.5%	
  for	
  the	
  city	
  as	
  a	
  whole105.	
   	
   Retail	
  Development	
  History	
   Before	
  the	
  Hastings	
  Townsite	
  merged	
  with	
  the	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver	
  in	
  1911,	
  Nanaimo	
  St.	
  formed	
  the	
   boundary	
  between	
  the	
  two	
  municipalities.106	
  The	
  corridor	
  was	
  mostly	
  rural	
  in	
  character	
  until	
  a	
   streetcar	
  line	
  was	
  built	
  along	
  Nanaimo	
  Street	
  from	
  Hastings	
  to	
  Broadway	
  in	
  the	
  1910s.	
  Single-­‐ family	
  houses	
  developed	
  around	
  the	
  streetcar	
  line.	
   By	
  the	
  1930s,	
  commercial	
  storefronts	
  filled	
  the	
  east	
  side	
  of	
  the	
  block	
  between	
  Kitchener	
  and	
   Charles	
  Streets.	
  By	
  the	
  1940s,	
  storefronts	
  extended	
  further	
  up	
  the	
  East	
  and	
  West	
  sides	
  of	
  Nanaimo	
   between	
  Charles	
  and	
  William	
  Streets.	
  This	
  extent	
  of	
  retail	
  uses	
  remained	
  in	
  place	
  through	
  the	
   1970s.	
  In	
  the	
  1980s,	
  the	
  retail	
  area	
  reduced	
  in	
  size	
  as	
  the	
  east	
  side	
  of	
  the	
  block	
  between	
  Charles	
  St.	
   and	
  William	
  St	
  changed	
  to	
  residential	
  use.	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
   103	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver	
  Statistics,	
  September	
  10	
  2009	
   <http://vancouver.ca/commsvcs/planning/census/2006/localareas/>.	
   104	
  	
  Ibid.	
  	
   105	
  	
  Ibid.	
   106	
  	
  Macdonald,	
  35	
    	
   29	
    Recent	
  Local	
  Planning	
  and	
  Development	
   The	
  loss	
  of	
  commercial	
  space	
  in	
  this	
  area	
  during	
  the	
  1980s	
  (as	
  described	
  in	
  the	
  Detailed	
  Narrative	
   box	
  that	
  follows)	
  reflects	
  not	
  only	
  contemporary	
  local	
  circumstances,	
  but	
  also	
  contemporary	
  City	
   policy.	
  The	
  1985	
  Hastings-­‐Sunrise	
  Plan	
  called	
  for	
  future	
  planning	
  to:	
   •  Retain	
  C-­‐1	
  zoned	
  properties	
  in	
  Hastings-­‐Sunrise	
  as	
  necessary	
  to	
  serve	
  the	
  day-­‐to-­‐ day	
  needs	
  of	
  the	
  local	
  neighbourhood,	
  reducing	
  the	
  amount	
  of	
  C-­‐1	
  zoning	
  in	
   locations	
  where	
  demand	
  no	
  longer	
  exists….	
  [and	
  to]	
    •  Encourage	
  owners	
  of	
  surplus	
  C-­‐1	
  zoned	
  land	
  to	
  initiate	
  rezoning…	
  [to]	
  allow	
   additional	
  residential	
  potential.107	
    This	
  policy	
  was	
  based	
  on	
  an	
  understanding	
  that	
  surrounding	
  residential	
  communities	
  could	
  not	
   support	
  the	
  same	
  extent	
  of	
  locally	
  serving	
  commercial	
  services	
  that	
  they	
  had	
  in	
  the	
  past.	
   Further	
  shrinkage	
  of	
  the	
  Nanaimo-­‐Charles	
  retail	
  area	
  remains	
  a	
  distinct	
  possibility,	
  depending	
  on	
   the	
  economic	
  viability	
  of	
  its	
  businesses.	
  In	
  this	
  respect,	
  the	
  Hastings-­‐Sunrise	
  Community	
  Vision108	
   (2004)	
  reflects	
  similar	
  ideas	
  to	
  the	
  1985	
  Hastings-­‐Sunrise	
  Plan.	
  For	
  many	
  of	
  the	
  neighbourhood’s	
   “small	
  commercially	
  zoned	
  sites”	
  currently	
  zoned	
  C	
  –	
  1,	
  the	
  Vision	
  document	
  notes	
  that	
  “businesses	
   are	
  not	
  doing	
  well.”109	
  For	
  such	
  areas,	
  community	
  direction	
  regarding	
  whether	
  the	
  City	
  should	
   consider	
  residential-­‐only	
  development	
  was	
  uncertain.	
  The	
  Vision	
  concludes	
  that	
  on	
  “these	
  sites…	
   future	
  residential	
  proposals	
  will	
  be	
  considered	
  on	
  a	
  site	
  by	
  site	
  basis,	
  provided	
  that	
  the	
  existing	
   commercial	
  use	
  is	
  struggling”.110	
  	
  	
   The	
  Hastings-­‐Sunrise	
  Community	
  Vision	
  does	
  note	
  that	
  “additional	
  population	
  in	
  the	
  new	
  housing	
   would	
  help	
  support	
  local	
  shops	
  and	
  services,”111	
  however	
  a	
  map	
  illustrating	
  areas	
  where	
  such	
  new	
   housing	
  is	
  considered	
  highlights	
  only	
  the	
  larger	
  retail	
  corridors	
  and	
  nodes	
  within	
  the	
   neighbourhood.	
  This	
  may	
  reflect	
  reluctance	
  within	
  the	
  community	
  to	
  consider	
  increased	
  density;	
  an	
   approved	
  direction	
  of	
  the	
  Vision	
  states	
  that	
  “most	
  of	
  the	
  area	
  that	
  is	
  now	
  single	
  family…	
  should	
  be	
   kept	
  that	
  way.”112	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
   107	
  As	
  cited	
  in	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver,	
  Director	
  of	
  Planning,	
  Text	
  Amendment:	
  CD-­‐1	
  Bylaw,	
  NO	
  4828	
  -­‐	
  1260	
   Nanaimo	
  Street	
  To	
  the	
  Standing	
  Committee	
  of	
  Planning	
  and	
  Environment,	
  1991)	
  1-­‐2.	
   108	
  While	
  Nanaimo	
  Street	
  forms	
  the	
  border	
  between	
  the	
  Hastings-­‐Sunrise	
  and	
  Grandview-­‐Woodland	
   neighbourhoods,	
  both	
  sides	
  of	
  the	
  retail	
  area	
  are	
  included	
  within	
  the	
  scope	
  of	
  the	
  Hastings-­‐Sunrise	
   Community	
  Vision	
  document	
  prepared	
  as	
  part	
  of	
  the	
  CityPlan	
  program.	
  	
   109	
  	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver,	
  Director	
  of	
  Planning,	
  62.	
   110	
  	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver,	
  Director	
  of	
  Planning,	
  63.	
   111	
  	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver,	
  Director	
  of	
  Planning,	
  43.	
   112	
  	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver,	
  Director	
  of	
  Planning,	
  28.	
    	
   30	
    Detailed	
  Narrative:	
  Loss	
  of	
  Retail	
  Space	
  at	
  1260	
  Nanaimo	
   A	
  Safeway	
  grocery	
  store	
  occupied	
  the	
  east	
  side	
  of	
  the	
  block	
  between	
  Charles	
  Street	
  and	
  William	
   Street	
  from	
  1960	
  to	
  1988,	
  when	
  it	
  moved	
  to	
  larger	
  premises	
  at	
  E	
  1st	
  Avenue	
  and	
  Renfrew	
   Street.	
  Previously	
  zoned	
  C-­‐2,	
  the	
  site	
  had	
  been	
  rezoned	
  to	
  CD-­‐1	
  in	
  1974	
  in	
  response	
  to	
   neighbourhood	
  concerns	
  about	
  the	
  Safeway	
  store’s	
  potential	
  future	
  expansion.	
  	
   When	
  Canada	
  Safeway	
  sold	
  the	
  site	
  in	
  1988,	
  it	
  placed	
  a	
  covenant	
  on	
  title,	
  intended	
  to	
  limit	
   competition	
  for	
  nearby	
  Safeway	
  stores,	
  disallowing	
  supermarket	
  uses	
  on	
  the	
  site.113	
   (Community	
  Visions	
  have	
  since	
  approved	
  directions	
  for	
  the	
  City	
  to	
  discourage	
  such	
  covenants	
   in	
  order	
  to	
  “keep…	
  supermarket	
  opportunities	
  open.”114)	
  Written	
  while	
  the	
  site	
  was	
  vacant,	
  a	
   City	
  of	
  Vancouver	
  planning	
  report	
  (1989)	
  noted	
  that	
  “[w]hile	
  there	
  is	
  some	
  neighbourhood	
   support	
  for	
  a	
  small	
  store	
  or	
  service	
  establishment,	
  there	
  seems	
  little	
  need	
  for	
  such	
  uses,	
  given	
   the	
  site’s	
  location	
  with	
  respect	
  to	
  adjacent	
  C-­‐1	
  development.”115	
  	
  The	
  site	
  was	
  therefore	
   considered	
  as	
  an	
  opportunity	
  to	
  provide	
  multifamily	
  dwellings,	
  otherwise	
  lacking	
  in	
  the	
   Hastings-­‐Sunrise	
  neighbourhood.	
   An	
  organized	
  community	
  of	
  local	
  residents	
  opposed	
  any	
  residential	
  option	
  on	
  the	
  site	
  except	
   single-­‐family	
  houses,	
  citing	
  incompatibility	
  with	
  surrounding	
  single-­‐family	
  contexts.	
  In	
  1991,	
   responding	
  to	
  this	
  neighbourhood	
  opposition,	
  Council	
  rejected	
  a	
  mixed-­‐use	
  proposal	
  that	
   would	
  have	
  brought	
  new	
  commercial	
  uses	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  19	
  multifamily	
  residential	
  units	
  to	
  the	
  site.	
   In	
  1993,	
  the	
  portion	
  of	
  the	
  site	
  facing	
  onto	
  Nanaimo	
  was	
  finally	
  rezoned	
  for	
  the	
  development	
  of	
   front-­‐to-­‐back,	
  two-­‐family	
  dwellings.	
  The	
  rear	
  portion	
  of	
  the	
  site	
  (formerly	
  the	
  Safeway	
  parking	
   lot)	
  had	
  already	
  been	
  developed	
  as	
  single-­‐family	
  houses	
  in	
  1990.	
  	
   A	
  1998	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver	
  staff	
  report	
  notes	
  that	
  “[t]his	
  site	
  is	
  effectively	
  removed	
  from	
   potential	
  commercial	
  development.”116	
   	
    	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
   113	
  	
  French	
  and	
  Buckham.	
   114	
  	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver,	
  50.	
    115	
  	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver,	
  Director	
  of	
  Planning,	
  1260	
  Nanaimo	
  Street	
  -­‐	
  Recommendation	
  To	
  the	
  City	
  Manager	
  (for	
    Council),	
  1989)	
  4.	
   116	
  	
  French	
  and	
  Buckham.	
    	
   31	
    4.0	
  	
   METHODS	
   4.1	
    Data	
  Collection	
  	
    Use	
  data	
  for	
  the	
  study	
  areas	
  in	
  1955,	
  1970,	
  1985	
  and	
  1998	
  was	
  collected	
  from	
  the	
  Vancouver	
  City	
   Directory,	
  which	
  published	
  the	
  names	
  of	
  commercial	
  tenants	
  and	
  individual	
  residents	
  at	
  every	
   address	
  within	
  the	
  city.	
  Data	
  recorded	
  in	
  the	
  City	
  Directory	
  was	
  gathered	
  through	
  a	
  canvass	
  and	
   published	
  annually	
  by	
  BC	
  Directories	
  Ltd.	
  Because	
  the	
  City	
  Directory	
  was	
  discontinued	
  in	
  2001,	
   data	
  for	
  2010	
  was	
  gathered	
  through	
  a	
  field	
  survey	
  in	
  July,	
  2010.	
  Microsoft	
  Excel	
  was	
  used	
  for	
  all	
   sorting	
  and	
  quantitative	
  analysis	
  of	
  data.	
   	
    4.2	
    Analytical	
  Methods	
  and	
  Limitations	
    Each	
  business	
  name	
  listed	
  in	
  the	
  raw	
  occupancy	
  data	
  was	
  assigned	
  a	
  numerical	
  “ground	
  code”	
   according	
  to	
  the	
  principal	
  type	
  of	
  goods	
  or	
  services	
  offered.	
  Where	
  the	
  Directory	
  indicates	
  multiple	
  	
   businesses	
  operating	
  from	
  a	
  single	
  address,	
  the	
  co-­‐located	
  businesses	
  were	
  often	
  closely	
  related.	
   Dunbar	
  Power	
  Tool	
  Rentals	
  and	
  Vancouver	
  Power	
  Tool	
  Rentals,	
  both	
  operating	
  from	
  4531	
  Dunbar	
   in	
  1955,	
  are	
  examples.	
  In	
  such	
  cases,	
  a	
  single	
  ground	
  code	
  was	
  applied.	
  However,	
  where	
  different	
   uses	
  shared	
  an	
  address,	
  they	
  were	
  coded	
  separately	
  in	
  order	
  to	
  represent	
  the	
  full	
  range	
  of	
  uses.	
  For	
   instance,	
  Dunbar	
  Home	
  Furnishings	
  and	
  BC	
  Motel	
  Supply	
  operated	
  at	
  4335	
  Dunbar	
  in	
  1970.	
   A	
  set	
  of	
  ground	
  codes	
  developed	
  by	
  Lewis	
  Silberberg,	
  a	
  Vancouver-­‐based	
  retail	
  consultant,	
  are	
   gratefully	
  used	
  with	
  permission	
  as	
  a	
  basis	
  for	
  coding	
  occupancy	
  data.	
  Minor	
  amendments	
  were	
   made	
  to	
  categorical	
  definitions	
  within	
  the	
  original	
  set	
  of	
  ground	
  codes	
  to	
  reflect	
  the	
  range	
  of	
   current	
  and	
  historical	
  uses	
  in	
  the	
  study	
  areas.	
  Two	
  new	
  codes	
  were	
  added	
  for	
  services	
  related	
  to	
   research	
  and	
  design,	
  and	
  for	
  unknown	
  uses	
  (such	
  as	
  “Store	
  No.	
  611”,	
  located	
  at	
  4202	
  Dunbar	
  St.	
  in	
   1970).	
  For	
  the	
  complete	
  list	
  of	
  ground	
  codes	
  used	
  to	
  classify	
  the	
  data,	
  please	
  see	
  Appendix	
  B.	
  	
  	
   Once	
  ground	
  codes	
  had	
  been	
  assigned,	
  data	
  for	
  each	
  study	
  area	
  was	
  further	
  sorted	
  into	
  three	
  broad	
   categories,	
  each	
  representing	
  a	
  set	
  of	
  ground	
  codes,	
  in	
  order	
  to	
  facilitate	
  assessment	
  of	
  retail	
  mix.	
   These	
  broad	
  categories	
  are	
  based	
  on	
  the	
  generally	
  accepted	
  definitions	
  of	
  “Convenience”	
  and	
   “Shopping”	
  goods	
  and	
  services,	
  with	
  a	
  third	
  category	
  to	
  represent	
  office	
  uses	
  and	
  business	
  supply	
   and	
  services,	
  as	
  shown	
  in	
  Table	
  2.	
  While	
  these	
  categories	
  are	
  very	
  useful	
  for	
  sorting	
  and	
  counting	
   types	
  of	
  businesses,	
  this	
  method	
  falls	
  short	
  of	
  capturing	
  the	
  rich	
  array	
  of	
  niches	
  filled	
  by	
  real-­‐life	
   businesses.	
  For	
  instance,	
  some	
  convenience	
  food	
  stores	
  sell	
  healthy	
  food	
  while	
  others	
  do	
  not.	
  	
   	
    	
   32	
    Table	
  2:	
  Broad	
  Categories	
  for	
  Assessment	
  of	
  Retail	
  Mix	
    	
    	
   For	
  each	
  study	
  area	
  and	
  at	
  each	
  data	
  point,	
  the	
  number	
  of	
  businesses	
  falling	
  into	
  each	
  retail	
  mix	
   sub-­‐category	
  were	
  counted.	
  Because	
  of	
  the	
  special	
  importance	
  of	
  convenience	
  services	
  within	
   locally-­‐serving	
  retail	
  areas,	
  similar	
  calculations	
  were	
  performed	
  to	
  indicate	
  the	
  number	
  of	
   businesses	
  of	
  specific	
  types	
  (such	
  as	
  shoe	
  repair	
  or	
  video	
  rental)	
  within	
  this	
  subcategory.	
  A	
  small	
   number	
  of	
  unknown	
  uses	
  were	
  excluded	
  from	
  retail	
  mix	
  analysis,	
  but	
  were	
  included	
  in	
  the	
  total	
   count	
  of	
  all	
  business	
  uses	
  within	
  each	
  area.	
  The	
  complete	
  relationship	
  between	
  the	
  broad	
   categories	
  of	
  uses,	
  the	
  retail	
  mix	
  sub-­‐categories,	
  and	
  specific	
  ground	
  codes	
  is	
  shown	
  in	
  Appendix	
  C.	
   Categorical	
  count	
  data	
  for	
  each	
  case	
  study	
  area	
  showing	
  the	
  numbers	
  of	
  businesses	
  in	
  each	
  sub-­‐ category	
  is	
  displayed	
  in	
  Appendix	
  D,	
  following	
  the	
  coded	
  occupancy	
  data	
  for	
  each	
  study	
  area.	
  	
    	
   33	
    4.3	
    Limitations	
  of	
  data	
    Because	
  the	
  City	
  Directories	
  were	
  created	
  for	
  a	
  specific	
  historical	
  purpose	
  (largely	
  for	
  the	
  use	
  of	
   advertisers	
  and	
  salespeople)	
  the	
  data	
  is	
  not	
  perfectly	
  reliable.	
  Some	
  businesses	
  opted	
  out	
  of	
  being	
   listed,	
  perhaps	
  to	
  limit	
  telephone	
  calls.	
  The	
  Canada	
  Safeway	
  supermarket	
  located	
  in	
  the	
  Nanaimo	
   and	
  Charles	
  Shopping	
  Area	
  from	
  1960	
  to	
  1988	
  is	
  not	
  included	
  in	
  the	
  City	
  Directory	
  for	
  either	
  1970	
   or	
  1985.	
  Any	
  other	
  unlisted	
  businesses	
  located	
  in	
  the	
  case	
  study	
  areas	
  are	
  missing	
  from	
  this	
   analysis.	
  Because	
  of	
  the	
  natural	
  evolution	
  of	
  shopping	
  areas	
  over	
  time,	
  it	
  is	
  not	
  always	
  possible	
  to	
   identify	
  gaps	
  in	
  the	
  address-­‐based	
  data	
  where	
  historical	
  businesses	
  are	
  missing	
  from	
  the	
  record.	
  	
   In	
  selecting	
  case	
  study	
  areas	
  and	
  data	
  point	
  years,	
  efforts	
  were	
  made	
  to	
  avoid	
  data	
  points	
  where	
   large	
  redevelopments	
  could	
  have	
  potentially	
  caused	
  temporary	
  vacancies.	
  However,	
  in	
  the	
  two	
   smaller	
  study	
  areas	
  on	
  Nanaimo	
  and	
  Rupert	
  Streets,	
  any	
  empty	
  or	
  unlisted	
  retail	
  project	
  represents	
   a	
  significant	
  proportion	
  of	
  the	
  area’s	
  uses.	
  The	
  three	
  most	
  problematic	
  gaps	
  in	
  the	
  occupancy	
  data	
   and	
  potential	
  explanations	
  are	
  as	
  follows:	
  	
   1.	
  	
  No	
  1970	
  occupancy	
  data	
  is	
  listed	
  for	
  the	
  east	
  side	
  of	
  Rupert	
  St	
  between	
  E	
  22nd	
  and	
  23rd	
   Avenues.	
  The	
  building	
  comprising	
  this	
  entire	
  frontage	
  was	
  built	
  in	
  1959,	
  was	
  occupied	
  by	
  a	
   single	
  supermarket	
  in	
  1985,	
  and	
  remains	
  standing	
  today.	
  Most	
  likely,	
  the	
  1970	
  occupants	
  of	
   this	
  space	
  declined	
  inclusion	
  in	
  the	
  City	
  Directory.	
  This	
  suggestion	
  is	
  supported	
  by	
  the	
   complete	
  absence	
  of	
  recorded	
  occupants	
  for	
  this	
  site’s	
  possible	
  addresses	
  on	
  Rupert	
  Street	
   and	
  East	
  22nd	
  Avenue	
  in	
  directories	
  for	
  all	
  years	
  between	
  1965	
  and	
  1975.	
  	
  While	
  it	
  is	
   impossible	
  to	
  know	
  the	
  nature	
  of	
  the	
  business	
  or	
  businesses	
  that	
  may	
  have	
  been	
  located	
   here	
  in	
  1970,	
  it	
  is	
  unlikely	
  to	
  have	
  been	
  a	
  supermarket;	
  Stong's	
  supermarket	
  was	
  located	
  at	
   the	
  northwest	
  corner	
  of	
  the	
  intersection	
  for	
  several	
  years	
  before	
  and	
  after	
  this	
  data	
  point.	
   2.	
  	
  No	
  1998	
  occupancy	
  data	
  is	
  listed	
  for	
  the	
  site	
  at	
  the	
  northwest	
  corner	
  of	
  Charles	
  St.	
  and	
   Nanaimo	
  St.	
  The	
  mixed-­‐use	
  project	
  currently	
  occupying	
  this	
  site	
  was	
  constructed	
  in	
  2004.	
   Its	
  previous	
  two	
  recorded	
  uses	
  (in	
  1970	
  and	
  1985)	
  were	
  for	
  gas	
  stations,	
  which	
  suggests	
   that,	
  in	
  1998,	
  the	
  site	
  may	
  have	
  been	
  vacant	
  and	
  undergoing	
  soil	
  remediation.	
  Data	
  from	
   1996	
  and	
  1999	
  also	
  show	
  this	
  part	
  of	
  the	
  block	
  as	
  vacant.	
   3.	
  	
  No	
  1955	
  occupancy	
  data	
  is	
  listed	
  for	
  the	
  northwest	
  corner	
  of	
  Rupert	
  St.	
  The	
  building	
   presently	
  occupying	
  this	
  site	
  was	
  built	
  in	
  1956,	
  and	
  replaced	
  single-­‐family	
  residential	
  uses	
   (evident	
  in	
  the	
  address	
  listings	
  of	
  the	
  1954	
  directory).	
  By	
  1957,	
  the	
  site	
  had	
  a	
  single	
   supermarket	
  tenant,	
  Shop-­‐Easy	
  Groceries	
  and	
  Meats.	
    	
   34	
    Vacant	
  premises	
  are	
  rarely	
  noted	
  in	
  the	
  City	
  Directory.	
  If	
  most	
  vacant	
  addresses	
  were	
  simply	
  not	
   recorded,	
  this	
  would	
  help	
  to	
  explain	
  various	
  small	
  gaps	
  in	
  the	
  available	
  data.	
  Since	
  no	
  reliable	
   record	
  of	
  vacancies	
  is	
  available,	
  an	
  analysis	
  of	
  the	
  number	
  of	
  vacant	
  storefronts	
  over	
  time	
  cannot	
  be	
   supported	
  by	
  the	
  data.	
  Likewise,	
  an	
  analysis	
  of	
  changes	
  in	
  the	
  number	
  of	
  residents	
  living	
  above	
  or	
   behind	
  shops	
  is	
  not	
  supported	
  due	
  to	
  the	
  patchy	
  nature	
  of	
  residential	
  data.	
  Therefore,	
  residential	
   data	
  was	
  excluded	
  from	
  the	
  analysis.	
   Finally,	
  occupancy	
  data	
  collected	
  for	
  the	
  present	
  study	
  offers	
  valuable	
  information	
  on	
  the	
  number	
   and	
  type	
  of	
  businesses	
  within	
  a	
  given	
  retail	
  area	
  at	
  specific	
  points	
  in	
  time.	
  A	
  great	
  deal	
  information	
   of	
  is	
  missing	
  that	
  would	
  be	
  relevant	
  to	
  a	
  broader	
  assessment	
  of	
  how	
  well	
  a	
  shopping	
  area	
  has	
   served	
  its	
  nearby	
  residents,	
  such	
  as	
  the	
  size	
  of	
  each	
  business	
  (floor	
  area	
  or	
  front	
  footage)	
  and	
  the	
   quality	
  and	
  affordability	
  of	
  goods	
  and	
  services	
  that	
  it	
  offered.	
  Therefore,	
  in	
  using	
  this	
  data	
  set	
  to	
   asses	
  the	
  relative	
  resilience	
  of	
  a	
  neighbourhood-­‐serving	
  retail	
  area	
  and	
  its	
  utility	
  to	
  nearby	
   residents,	
  the	
  number	
  and	
  mix	
  of	
  businesses	
  becomes	
  a	
  rough	
  proxy.	
  It	
  stands	
  for	
  the	
  variety	
  of	
   goods	
  and	
  services	
  accessible	
  to	
  these	
  residents	
  and,	
  more	
  broadly,	
  for	
  the	
  other	
  social	
  and	
   environmental	
  benefits	
  that	
  this	
  kind	
  of	
  access	
  can	
  bring.	
   	
    	
    5.0	
   ANALYSIS	
  AND	
  FINDINGS	
   This	
  section	
  draws	
  on	
  categorical	
  occupancy	
  data	
  from	
  the	
  three	
  case	
  study	
  areas	
  to	
  assess	
  trends	
   in	
  the	
  numbers	
  and	
  mix	
  of	
  businesses	
  over	
  the	
  study	
  period.	
  Findings	
  reveal	
  patterns	
  of	
  change	
  in:	
   	
    -­‐	
  The	
  overall	
  number	
  of	
  businesses	
  located	
  in	
  the	
  study	
  areas	
   -­‐	
  The	
  proportion	
  of	
  businesses	
  within	
  each	
  study	
  area	
  belonging	
  to	
  three	
  broad	
  categories:	
   convenience;	
  shopping;	
  and	
  office/professional/business	
  supply	
  uses.	
  	
   -­‐	
  The	
  number	
  of	
  businesses	
  falling	
  within	
  specific	
  use	
  subcategories	
  that	
  have	
  changed	
   significantly	
  in	
  prominence	
  over	
  the	
  study	
  period,	
  or	
  that	
  are	
  critical	
  to	
  serving	
  the	
   everyday	
  needs	
  of	
  the	
  surrounding	
  residential	
  community	
  (e.g.	
  grocers).	
    Because	
  the	
  three	
  case	
  study	
  areas	
  were	
  selected	
  to	
  inform	
  generalizations	
  about	
  trends	
  affecting	
   neighbourhood-­‐serving	
  retail	
  areas	
  in	
  Vancouver’s	
  residential	
  communities	
  outside	
  the	
  downtown,	
   and	
  due	
  to	
  the	
  limited	
  scope	
  of	
  the	
  present	
  study,	
  patterns	
  and	
  trends	
  from	
  all	
  three	
  case	
  study	
   areas	
  are	
  assessed	
  together.	
   	
    	
   35	
    5.1	
    Overall	
  Numbers	
  of	
  Businesses	
    Count	
  data	
  for	
  all	
  business	
  uses	
  within	
  the	
  three	
  study	
  areas	
  reveal	
  a	
  clear	
  overall	
  pattern.	
  A	
   dramatic	
  decline	
  in	
  the	
  overall	
  number	
  of	
  shops	
  and	
  services	
  took	
  place	
  between	
  the	
  first	
  two	
  data	
   points	
  of	
  1955	
  and	
  1970,	
  and	
  was	
  followed	
  by	
  a	
  more	
  gradual	
  resurgence.	
  This	
  pattern	
  can	
  be	
  seen	
   in	
  Figure	
  7	
  below,	
  which	
  graphs	
  the	
  number	
  of	
  businesses	
  within	
  each	
  retail	
  area	
  over	
  time.	
  Figure	
   8	
  illustrates	
  the	
  percentage	
  change	
  over	
  time	
  in	
  the	
  number	
  of	
  businesses	
  within	
  each	
  study	
  area,	
   as	
  well	
  as	
  the	
  average	
  change	
  among	
  all	
  study	
  areas,	
  expressed	
  as	
  an	
  annual	
  mean.	
  Adjusting	
  for	
  the	
   irregular	
  periods	
  between	
  data	
  points	
  reveals	
  the	
  same	
  basic	
  pattern—an	
  initial,	
  dramatic	
  decline	
   in	
  numbers	
  of	
  businesses	
  across	
  all	
  study	
  areas	
  (-­‐2.3%	
  annually	
  between	
  1955	
  and	
  1970),	
  followed	
   by	
  a	
  gradual	
  increase.	
  The	
  dramatic	
  average	
  rate	
  of	
  increase	
  shown	
  between	
  1998	
  and	
  2010	
   (+3.6%	
  annually)	
  is	
  probably	
  not	
  typical	
  of	
  all	
  neighbourhood-­‐serving	
  retail	
  areas	
  in	
  the	
  city,	
  since	
   the	
  number	
  of	
  businesses	
  in	
  the	
  Nanaimo	
  and	
  Charles	
  Shopping	
  Area	
  doubled	
  over	
  this	
  period.	
   	
   Figure	
  7:	
  Number	
  of	
  Businesses	
  Over	
  Time	
  by	
  Case	
  Study	
  Area	
  (Chart)	
    	
    	
   36	
    Figure	
  8:	
  Annual	
  Percentage	
  Change	
  in	
  Number	
  of	
  Businesses	
  over	
  Time	
  (Chart)	
    	
    	
    For	
  the	
  Dunbar	
  Centre	
  and	
  Rupert	
  and	
  22nd	
  Shopping	
  Areas,	
  overall	
  numbers	
  of	
  businesses	
  began	
   to	
  increase	
  between	
  1970	
  and	
  1985.	
  However,	
  the	
  Nanaimo	
  and	
  Charles	
  shopping	
  area	
  continued	
   to	
  display	
  declining	
  numbers	
  of	
  businesses	
  for	
  each	
  successive	
  data	
  point	
  until	
  1998.	
  Between	
  1998	
   and	
  2010,	
  numbers	
  of	
  businesses	
  increased	
  across	
  all	
  study	
  areas.	
  In	
  the	
  Dunbar	
  Centre	
  and	
   Nanaimo	
  and	
  Charles	
  areas,	
  this	
  most	
  recent	
  increase	
  was	
  significant,	
  representing	
  13	
  and	
  11	
  new	
   businesses	
  respectively—increases	
  of	
  19%	
  and	
  100%	
  for	
  these	
  areas	
  from	
  1998	
  levels.	
  Today,	
  in	
   2010,	
  the	
  overall	
  number	
  of	
  businesses	
  within	
  the	
  Dunbar	
  and	
  Nanaimo	
  study	
  areas	
  has	
  reached	
   approximately	
  80%	
  of	
  1955	
  levels.	
  	
   Due	
  to	
  its	
  unique	
  history	
  among	
  the	
  case	
  study	
  areas,	
  the	
  Rupert	
  and	
  22nd	
  Shopping	
  Area	
  now	
   supports	
  nearly	
  double	
  the	
  number	
  of	
  businesses	
  that	
  it	
  did	
  in	
  1955.	
  Two	
  main	
  factors	
  contribute	
   to	
  the	
  atypical	
  increase	
  in	
  this	
  area.	
  First,	
  it	
  was	
  not	
  built	
  out	
  to	
  its	
  current	
  extent	
  until	
  1959,	
  so	
  the	
   1955	
  data	
  reflect	
  a	
  smaller	
  area.	
  Secondly,	
  two	
  large	
  retail	
  storefronts,	
  built	
  during	
  the	
  1950s,	
  were	
   converted	
  to	
  seven	
  smaller	
  storefronts	
  between	
  1985	
  and	
  1998.	
  As	
  described	
  in	
  the	
  Detailed	
   Narrative	
  box	
  that	
  follows,	
  this	
  particular	
  piece	
  of	
  local	
  history	
  may	
  illuminate	
  one	
  cause	
  of	
  the	
   apparent	
  general	
  increase	
  in	
  the	
  number	
  of	
  shops	
  occupying	
  neighbourhood-­‐serving	
  retail	
  areas	
   after	
  1970.	
    	
   37	
    	
   Detailed	
  Narrative:	
  	
   Increasing	
  Numbers	
  of	
  Shops	
  in	
  the	
  Rupert	
  and	
  22nd	
  Retail	
  Area	
  (1970-­1998)	
   Between	
  1985	
  and	
  1998,	
  the	
  Rupert	
  and	
  22nd	
  Shopping	
  Area	
  experienced	
  a	
  significant	
  increase	
  in	
   numbers	
  and	
  variety	
  of	
  retail	
  shops,	
  without	
  increasing	
  its	
  land	
  base.	
  The	
  specific	
  mechanisms	
  by	
   which	
  this	
  occurred	
  may	
  help	
  to	
  explain	
  patterns	
  in	
  other	
  areas.	
  To	
  follow	
  the	
  evolution	
  of	
  two	
   particular	
  sites	
  in	
  this	
  area,	
  it	
  is	
  helpful	
  to	
  first	
  understand	
  that	
  Stong’s	
  Markets	
  occupied	
  the	
   northwest	
  corner	
  of	
  the	
  intersection	
  of	
  Rupert	
  St.	
  and	
  E	
  22nd	
  Ave.	
  from	
  the	
  1960s	
  until	
  the	
  late	
   1970s	
  or	
  early	
  1980s,	
  then	
  relocated	
  to	
  the	
  southeast	
  corner	
  of	
  the	
  same	
  intersection,	
  where	
  it	
   remained	
  until	
  at	
  least	
  1985.	
   The	
  southeast	
  corner	
  of	
  Rupert	
  St.	
  and	
  E	
  22nd	
  Ave.	
  is	
  the	
  site	
  of	
  a	
  large	
  retail	
  building	
  built	
  in	
  1959	
   which	
  extends	
  along	
  Rupert	
  Street	
  for	
  the	
  entire	
  length	
  of	
  the	
  block.	
  The	
  site’s	
  evolution	
  since	
  1955	
   provides	
  an	
  example	
  of	
  the	
  trend,	
  leading	
  up	
  to	
  1970,	
  	
  towards	
  fewer,	
  larger,	
  more	
  auto-­‐oriented	
   shops	
  in	
  neighbourhood-­‐serving	
  retail	
  areas,	
  followed	
  by	
  the	
  re-­‐introduction	
  of	
  more	
  and	
  smaller	
   shops.	
  In	
  1955,	
  prior	
  to	
  redevelopment,	
  this	
  site	
  accommodated	
  4	
  uses:	
  a	
  restaurant,	
  a	
  beauty	
  salon,	
   a	
  barber	
  shop,	
  and	
  a	
  children’s	
  store.	
  These	
  were	
  likely	
  accommodated	
  in	
  pedestrian-­‐oriented	
   shops	
  fronting	
  onto	
  Rupert	
  Street,	
  much	
  like	
  the	
  older	
  shop	
  fronts	
  still	
  remaining	
  across	
  the	
  road.	
   After	
  the	
  1959	
  redevelopment,	
  the	
  site	
  accommodated	
  a	
  single	
  auto-­‐oriented	
  business	
  facing	
  E	
  22nd	
   Ave,	
  with	
  a	
  long	
  blank	
  wall	
  along	
  the	
  Rupert	
  St.	
  frontage.	
  No	
  data	
  are	
  available	
  for	
  1970,	
  but	
  in	
   1985,	
  this	
  site	
  accommodated	
  a	
  large	
  Stong’s	
  Supermarket,	
  as	
  shown	
  on	
  the	
  left	
  of	
  the	
  photo	
  in	
   Figure	
  9.	
  Renovations	
  in	
  the	
  late	
  1980s	
  or	
  early	
  1990s	
  subdivided	
  the	
  building	
  into	
  five	
  smaller	
   addresses,	
  including	
  a	
  smaller	
  auto-­‐oriented	
  supermarket	
  (Chong	
  Lee	
  Market),	
  which	
  can	
  be	
  seen	
   in	
  Figure	
  10.	
  The	
  formerly	
  blank	
  wall	
  facing	
  Rupert	
  Street	
  now	
  accommodates	
  a	
  beauty	
  salon	
  and	
  a	
   health	
  clinic	
  in	
  shallow	
  storefronts.	
   The	
  northwest	
  corner	
  of	
  Rupert	
  St.	
  and	
  E	
  22nd	
  Ave.	
  is	
  the	
  site	
  of	
  a	
  mid-­‐sized	
  retail	
  development,	
   built	
  in	
  1956,	
  whose	
  evolution	
  likewise	
  demonstrates	
  the	
  trend	
  towards	
  more	
  and	
  smaller	
  uses.	
   Shown	
  in	
  Figure	
  11	
  during	
  the	
  1970s,	
  it	
  accommodated	
  a	
  single	
  business,	
  Stong’s	
  Market.	
  Bryant’s	
   Used	
  Store	
  Equipment	
  Ltd.	
  was	
  its	
  sole	
  occupant	
  in	
  1985.	
  Renovations	
  between	
  1985	
  and	
  1998	
   subdivided	
  the	
  large	
  storefront	
  into	
  four	
  smaller	
  shops	
  oriented	
  towards	
  the	
  south	
  instead	
  of	
  to	
  the	
   east.	
  While	
  the	
  site	
  is	
  still	
  car-­‐oriented,	
  it	
  now	
  offers	
  a	
  variety	
  of	
  convenience	
  goods	
  and	
  services.	
  As	
   shown	
  in	
  Figure	
  12,	
  current	
  uses	
  on	
  site	
  are	
  a	
  convenience	
  store,	
  a	
  bakery,	
  a	
  beauty	
  salon	
  and	
  a	
   café.  	
   38	
    	
    	
    	
   	
   	
    Figure	
  9:	
  Photo	
  -­‐	
  SE	
  Corner	
  of	
  Rupert	
  St.	
  and	
  E.	
  22nd	
   Ave.	
  (1980s	
  or	
  1990s)	
    Figure	
  10:	
  Photo	
  -­‐	
  SE	
  Corner	
  of	
  Rupert	
  St.	
  and	
  E.	
  22nd	
   Ave.	
  (2010)	
    The	
  southeast	
  corner	
  of	
  Rupert	
  St.	
  and	
  E.	
  22nd	
  Ave.	
   (on	
  the	
  left)	
  is	
  seen	
  here	
  in	
  the	
  1980s	
  or	
  1990s.	
  A	
   single	
  shop	
  faces	
  north,	
  with	
  a	
  blank	
  wall	
  along	
   Rupert	
  St.	
  In	
  1985,	
  Stong’s	
  Market	
  was	
  the	
  tenant.	
   	
   Thanks	
  to	
  the	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver	
  Archive	
  for	
  this	
   photo,	
  dated	
  between	
  1980	
  and	
  1997,	
  catalogue	
   number	
  CVA	
  772-­‐1326.	
  	
   	
   	
    	
    The	
  southeast	
  corner	
  of	
  Rupert	
  St.	
  and	
  E	
  22nd	
  Ave.,	
   seen	
  in	
  2010.	
  The	
  wall	
  on	
  Rupert	
  St.	
  accommodates	
   two	
  shallow	
  storefronts	
  (awnings	
  just	
  visible	
  in	
   lower	
  right).	
  A	
  small	
  supermarket	
  occupies	
  the	
   north-­‐facing	
  E.	
  22nd	
  Av	
  frontage,	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  a	
  pizza	
   parlour	
  and	
  a	
  restaurant.	
   	
   Photo	
  by	
  author,	
  2010.	
  	
    	
    	
   	
   	
    Figure	
  11:	
  Photo	
  -­‐	
  NW	
  Corner	
  of	
  Rupert	
  St.	
  and	
  E.	
  22nd	
   Ave.	
  (1970s)	
    Figure	
  12:	
  Photo	
  -­‐	
  NW	
  Corner	
  of	
  Rupert	
  St.	
  and	
  E.	
  22nd	
   Ave.	
  (2010)	
    The	
  northwest	
  corner	
  of	
  Rupert	
  St.	
  and	
  E.	
  22nd	
   Ave.,	
  as	
  seen	
  in	
  the	
  1970s.	
  A	
  single	
  storefront	
   (Stong’s	
  Market)	
  is	
  accommodated,	
  facing	
  east.	
   	
   Undated	
  photo	
  thanks	
  to	
  the	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver	
   Planning	
  Department	
  Archives.	
  	
   	
    The	
  northwest	
  corner	
  of	
  Rupert	
  St.	
  and	
  E	
  22nd	
  Ave.	
   in	
  2010.	
  Storefronts	
  are	
  now	
  oriented	
  along	
  the	
   long	
  edge	
  of	
  the	
  building	
  (facing	
  south	
  instead	
  of	
   east),	
  accommodating	
  four	
  shops.	
   	
   Photo	
  by	
  author,	
  2010.	
  	
    	
    39	
    5.2	
    Retail	
  Mix	
  Profile:	
  Broad	
  Categories	
    As	
  discussed	
  in	
  Section	
  2.3	
  of	
  this	
  report,	
  the	
  relative	
  proportions	
  of	
  “convenience”	
  and	
  “shoppers’”	
   goods	
  and	
  services	
  offered	
  within	
  a	
  retail	
  area	
  help	
  to	
  define	
  its	
  role	
  and	
  position	
  within	
  the	
   regional	
  retail	
  hierarchy.	
  To	
  facilitate	
  an	
  analysis	
  of	
  the	
  position	
  of	
  each	
  of	
  the	
  case	
  study	
  areas	
   within	
  Vancouver’s	
  regional	
  retail	
  hierarchy	
  over	
  time,	
  occupancy	
  data	
  were	
  sorted	
  into	
  three	
   broad	
  categories:	
   	
    -­‐	
  Convenience	
  Goods	
  and	
  Services	
    	
    -­‐	
  Shoppers'	
  Goods	
  and	
  Services	
    	
    -­‐	
  Offices,	
  Professional	
  Services	
  and	
  Business	
  Supplies	
    An	
  Information	
  Report	
  to	
  Vancouver	
  City	
  Council	
  on	
  Commercial	
  Zoning	
  (1987)	
  explains	
  that	
  Local	
   Centres	
  typically	
  offer	
  convenience	
  goods	
  and	
  services	
  with	
  over	
  75	
  percent	
  of	
  their	
  floor	
  area.	
  In	
   contrast,	
  District	
  Centres	
  devote	
  approximately	
  50	
  percent	
  of	
  their	
  floor	
  area	
  to	
  shopping	
  uses.117	
   Although	
  floor	
  area	
  data	
  are	
  not	
  available	
  for	
  the	
  case	
  study	
  areas,	
  occupancy	
  data	
  for	
  Dunbar	
   Centre	
  show	
  a	
  historical	
  range	
  of	
  between	
  32	
  and	
  52	
  percent	
  of	
  businesses	
  dedicated	
  to	
  shopping	
   uses.	
  Within	
  the	
  two	
  Local	
  Centres,	
  between	
  60	
  and	
  90	
  percent	
  of	
  businesses	
  were	
  dedicated	
  to	
   convenience	
  uses	
  over	
  the	
  study	
  period.	
   Occupancy	
  data	
  from	
  the	
  three	
  case	
  study	
  areas	
  confirm	
  expectations	
  that	
  the	
  more	
  widely-­‐serving	
   District	
  Centre	
  has	
  consistently	
  offered	
  a	
  greater	
  proportion	
  of	
  shopping	
  goods	
  and	
  services	
  than	
   the	
  two	
  Local	
  Centres.	
  This	
  suggests	
  that	
  the	
  functional	
  difference	
  between	
  district	
  and	
  local	
   centres	
  has	
  not	
  changed	
  significantly	
  since	
  the	
  1980s.	
  However,	
  as	
  illustrated	
  in	
  Figure	
  13,	
   shopping	
  goods	
  and	
  services	
  have	
  made	
  up	
  a	
  shrinking	
  proportion	
  of	
  all	
  businesses	
  located	
  in	
   Dunbar	
  Centre	
  since	
  1970.	
  Indeed,	
  if	
  the	
  19	
  per	
  cent	
  rise	
  in	
  the	
  overall	
  number	
  of	
  businesses	
  within	
   that	
  area	
  between	
  1998	
  and	
  2010	
  is	
  broken	
  down	
  into	
  categorical	
  components,	
  this	
  overall	
   increase	
  is	
  seen	
  to	
  be	
  driven	
  entirely	
  by	
  the	
  convenience	
  component.	
  The	
  number	
  of	
  businesses	
   specializing	
  in	
  shoppers'	
  goods	
  and	
  services	
  actually	
  fell	
  by	
  4	
  (a	
  13%	
  decline),	
  while	
  the	
  number	
   offering	
  convenience	
  goods	
  and	
  services	
  rose	
  by	
  19	
  (a	
  59%	
  increase).	
   	
    	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
   117	
  Appendix	
  A:	
  Review	
  of	
  Commercial	
  Zoning	
  Districts,	
  Planning	
  Department	
  (1987).	
   	
    40	
    Figure	
  13:	
  Dunbar	
  Centre	
  -­‐	
  Mix	
  of	
  Business	
  Use	
  Categories	
  over	
  Time	
    	
   	
   Figure	
  14:	
  Rupert	
  and	
  22nd	
  -­‐	
  Mix	
  of	
  Business	
  Use	
  Categories	
  over	
  Time	
    	
   	
   Figure	
  15	
  -­‐	
  Nanaimo	
  and	
  Charles	
  -­‐	
  Mix	
  of	
  Business	
  Use	
  Categories	
  over	
  Time	
    	
    	
    41	
    As	
  shown	
  in	
  Figure	
  14,	
  the	
  Rupert	
  and	
  22nd	
  Shopping	
  Area	
  experienced	
  a	
  modest	
  increase	
  in	
  the	
   proportion	
  of	
  businesses	
  offering	
  convenience	
  goods	
  and	
  services	
  over	
  the	
  study	
  period.	
   Conversely,	
  in	
  the	
  Nanaimo	
  and	
  Charles	
  Shopping	
  Area,	
  the	
  proportion	
  of	
  businesses	
  offering	
   convenience	
  goods	
  and	
  services	
  remained	
  more	
  or	
  less	
  unchanged	
  throughout	
  the	
  study	
  period,	
  as	
   shown	
  in	
  Figure	
  15.	
  Further	
  research	
  encompassing	
  a	
  greater	
  number	
  of	
  study	
  areas	
  would	
  be	
   needed	
  to	
  support	
  a	
  possible	
  conclusion	
  that	
  shoppers’	
  goods	
  and	
  services	
  have	
  declined	
   significantly	
  in	
  importance	
  within	
  District	
  Centres,	
  and	
  have	
  remained	
  unchanged	
  or	
  declined	
   slightly	
  in	
  Local	
  Centres.	
   Although	
  considered	
  a	
  component	
  of	
  District	
  Centres	
  and	
  auto-­‐oriented	
  “General	
  Business	
  Areas”	
   within	
  the	
  1987	
  “Commercial	
  Zoning”	
  report,	
  office	
  uses	
  are	
  not	
  included	
  within	
  that	
  report’s	
   descriptions	
  of	
  Local	
  Centres.	
  Nonetheless,	
  study	
  area	
  occupancy	
  data	
  indicate	
  that	
  office,	
   professional	
  and	
  business	
  supply	
  uses	
  form	
  a	
  small	
  but	
  established	
  proportion	
  of	
  businesses	
  within	
   neighbourhood-­‐serving	
  retail	
  areas	
  at	
  both	
  the	
  Local	
  and	
  District	
  Centre	
  levels,	
  ranging	
  from	
  0	
  to	
   25	
  percent	
  of	
  all	
  non-­‐residential	
  uses	
  over	
  the	
  study	
  period.	
  	
   Some	
  office	
  uses,	
  such	
  as	
  tax	
  accountants	
  and	
  lawyers,	
  do	
  serve	
  local	
  residents;	
  however	
  most	
  office	
   and	
  professional	
  uses	
  such	
  as	
  architects,	
  web	
  designers	
  and	
  business	
  administration,	
  tend	
  to	
  serve	
   a	
  regional	
  or	
  even	
  international	
  clientele.	
  Business	
  supply	
  operations,	
  included	
  in	
  this	
  category,	
   principally	
  serve	
  other	
  businesses	
  instead	
  of	
  local	
  residents.	
  For	
  office	
  and	
  business	
  supply	
  uses	
   that	
  do	
  not	
  serve	
  local	
  residents,	
  location	
  in	
  a	
  neighbourhood-­‐oriented	
  retail	
  area	
  may	
  offer	
  less	
   exposure,	
  prestige,	
  and	
  inter-­‐regional	
  accessibility	
  than	
  a	
  location	
  within	
  the	
  CBD	
  or	
  other	
  major	
   office	
  centre,	
  but	
  it	
  also	
  offers	
  cheaper	
  rent.	
  For	
  nearby	
  residents,	
  these	
  types	
  of	
  uses	
  are	
  often	
  well	
   situated	
  on	
  the	
  second	
  floor	
  of	
  retail	
  buildings,	
  or	
  fronting	
  onto	
  side	
  streets.	
  The	
  goods	
  or	
  services	
   are	
  available	
  if	
  needed,	
  but	
  do	
  not	
  occupy	
  prime	
  retail	
  space	
  at	
  grade.	
  These	
  types	
  of	
  uses	
  may	
  fill	
  a	
   special	
  niche	
  during	
  downturns	
  in	
  demand	
  for	
  more	
  traditional	
  retail	
  uses;	
  they	
  could	
  occupy	
  retail	
   building	
  stock	
  while	
  preserving	
  its	
  viability	
  for	
  traditional	
  retail	
  uses	
  in	
  the	
  future.	
   In	
  2010	
  field	
  surveys	
  of	
  the	
  study	
  areas,	
  the	
  Nanaimo	
  and	
  Charles	
  Shopping	
  Area	
  stood	
  out	
  as	
   having	
  a	
  great	
  deal	
  of	
  prime	
  ground-­‐floor	
  frontage	
  devoted	
  to	
  uses	
  offering	
  limited	
  utility	
  to	
  local	
   residents.	
  At	
  present,	
  three	
  uses	
  in	
  the	
  area	
  fall	
  into	
  the	
  category	
  of	
  Offices,	
  Professional	
  Services	
   and	
  Business	
  Supplies;	
  all	
  occupy	
  ground-­‐floor	
  storefronts.	
  Figure	
  16	
  and	
  Figure	
  17	
  show	
  the	
   offices	
  of	
  the	
  Gateway	
  Appraisal	
  &	
  Consulting	
  Corporation,	
  which	
  occupies	
  a	
  significant	
  frontage	
  of	
   retail	
  space	
  along	
  Nanaimo	
  St.,	
  and	
  L3	
  Design	
  &	
  Core	
  Information	
  Technologies,	
  which	
  fronts	
  onto	
    	
    42	
    Charles	
  St.	
  It	
  is	
  obvious	
  from	
  the	
  blank	
  windows	
  that	
  these	
  businesses	
  do	
  not	
  hope	
  to	
  attract	
   pedestrian	
  shoppers.	
  Despite	
  this	
  appearance,	
  occupancy	
  data	
  for	
  this	
  area	
  indicate	
  only	
  a	
  modest	
   proportion	
  of	
  office	
  uses.	
   	
    	
    	
    	
    Figure	
  16	
  -­‐	
  Photo:	
  Storefront	
  of	
  Gateway	
  Appraisal,	
   Nanaimo	
  Street	
  (2010)	
    Figure	
  17	
  -­‐	
  Photo:	
  Storefront	
  of	
  L3	
  Design,	
  Nanaimo	
   Street	
  (2010)	
    Storefront	
  of	
  a	
  professional/office	
  use	
  at	
  1263	
   Nanaimo	
  St.	
   	
   Photo	
  by	
  author,	
  2010	
  	
   	
    Storefront	
  of	
  a	
  professional/office	
  use	
  at	
  2410	
   Charles	
  St.	
   	
   Photo	
  by	
  author,	
  2010.	
  	
    The	
  amount	
  and	
  quality	
  of	
  street-­‐level	
  frontage	
  that	
  is	
  devoted	
  to	
  different	
  use	
  categories	
  makes	
  an	
   enormous	
  difference	
  in	
  the	
  impacts	
  of	
  offices	
  or	
  business	
  supply	
  stores	
  in	
  locally	
  serving	
  retail	
   areas.	
  The	
  1985	
  and	
  1998	
  location	
  of	
  “Davidson	
  Enterprises	
  Ltd.”	
  on	
  the	
  second	
  floor	
  above	
  the	
   bank	
  at	
  3596	
  W	
  27th	
  Av.	
  in	
  Dunbar	
  Centre	
  likely	
  had	
  no	
  impact	
  on	
  the	
  effectiveness	
  or	
  vibrancy	
  of	
   the	
  retail	
  area	
  as	
  a	
  whole.	
  However,	
  the	
  1970	
  location	
  of	
  “Bryant	
  Used	
  Store	
  Equipment	
  Ltd.”	
  in	
  the	
   large,	
  ground-­‐floor	
  site	
  at	
  3745	
  Rupert	
  St.	
  would	
  have	
  eliminated	
  any	
  reason	
  for	
  most	
  pedestrian	
   shoppers	
  to	
  visit	
  the	
  northwest	
  corner	
  of	
  Rupert	
  St.	
  and	
  E	
  22nd	
  Avenue.	
  Considering	
  the	
  category	
  of	
   Offices,	
  Professional	
  Services	
  and	
  Business	
  Supplies	
  highlights	
  a	
  shortcoming	
  of	
  the	
  present	
  study’s	
   analytical	
  methods	
  in	
  assessing	
  a	
  shopping	
  area’s	
  utility	
  for	
  residents:	
  these	
  data	
  do	
  not	
  reflect	
   business	
  frontage,	
  urban	
  design,	
  or	
  the	
  specific	
  locational	
  distribution	
  of	
  uses	
  within	
  each	
  area.	
  	
   In	
  part	
  because	
  so	
  many	
  neighbourhood-­‐serving	
  commercial	
  areas	
  in	
  Vancouver	
  developed	
  around	
   historical	
  streetcar	
  lines,	
  District	
  Centres,	
  often	
  comprising	
  long	
  stretches	
  of	
  commercial	
  uses	
  along	
   arterial	
  streets,	
  form	
  the	
  backbone	
  of	
  local	
  shopping	
  amenities	
  in	
  many	
  neighbourhoods.	
  As	
  data	
   from	
  Dunbar	
  Centre	
  demonstrates,	
  these	
  centres	
  accommodate	
  both	
  shopping	
  and	
  convenience	
   uses	
  in	
  an	
  ever-­‐changing	
  balance.	
  Further	
  research	
  investigating	
  the	
  evolving	
  makeup	
  of	
  selected	
    	
    43	
    District	
  Centres	
  in	
  Vancouver	
  could	
  contribute	
  to	
  an	
  improved	
  understanding	
  of	
  the	
  distribution	
  of	
   uses	
  along	
  long	
  commercial	
  strips,	
  including	
  clusters	
  of	
  convenience	
  uses	
  and	
  specialized	
  use	
   clusters,	
  such	
  as	
  "Antique	
  Row"	
  on	
  a	
  section	
  of	
  Main	
  Street.	
  Such	
  findings	
  could	
  inform	
  the	
  work	
  of	
   the	
  Business	
  Improvement	
  Area	
  program	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  the	
  development	
  of	
  future	
  city-­‐wide	
  policy.118	
   	
    5.3	
    Retail	
  Mix	
  Profile:	
  Selected	
  Specific	
  Uses	
    Supermarkets	
  and	
  Grocery	
  Retail	
   Classified	
  as	
  convenience	
  retail,	
  supermarkets	
  and	
  grocery	
  stores	
  epitomize	
  the	
  role	
  of	
  this	
   category	
  of	
  shops	
  in	
  their	
  function	
  of	
  meeting	
  local	
  residents'	
  everyday	
  needs.	
  Perishables	
  and	
   other	
  groceries	
  are	
  foremost	
  among	
  the	
  goods	
  and	
  services	
  required	
  by	
  residents	
  on	
  a	
  daily	
  basis.	
  	
   Because	
  supermarkets	
  serve	
  larger	
  catchment	
  areas	
  than	
  the	
  other	
  kinds	
  of	
  businesses	
  that	
   typically	
  locate	
  in	
  neighbourhood-­‐serving	
  retail	
  areas,	
  the	
  three	
  case	
  study	
  areas	
  represent	
  too	
   small	
  a	
  sample	
  size	
  to	
  inform	
  robust	
  conclusions	
  about	
  trends	
  in	
  supermarket	
  location	
  throughout	
   Vancouver.	
  Nonetheless,	
  the	
  data	
  suggest	
  that,	
  between	
  1955	
  and	
  1970,	
  medium-­‐sized	
   supermarkets	
  became	
  increasingly	
  common	
  in	
  neighbourhood	
  retail	
  areas	
  while	
  smaller,	
  more	
   specialized	
  grocery	
  stores	
  (especially	
  dairies	
  and	
  meat	
  markets)	
  became	
  markedly	
  less	
  prevalent.	
   For	
  instance,	
  in	
  1955,	
  the	
  Dunbar	
  Centre	
  retail	
  area	
  had	
  one	
  small	
  supermarket	
  and	
  nineteen	
   produce	
  stores,	
  bakeries,	
  butcher	
  shops,	
  and	
  other	
  small	
  grocery	
  stores.	
  By	
  1970,	
  the	
  area	
  had	
  a	
   single	
  larger	
  supermarket	
  (located	
  in	
  the	
  present-­‐day	
  Shopper’s	
  Drug	
  Mart	
  building)	
  and	
  only	
  three	
   other	
  grocery	
  stores.	
   Within	
  neighbourhood-­‐serving	
  retail	
  areas,	
  supermarkets	
  can	
  act	
  as	
  retail	
  anchors,	
  attracting	
   customers	
  who	
  support	
  the	
  other	
  shops	
  in	
  the	
  area.	
  Therefore,	
  I	
  had	
  anticipated	
  to	
  find	
  that	
   occupancy	
  data	
  for	
  the	
  Nanaimo	
  and	
  Charles	
  Shopping	
  Area	
  would	
  show	
  a	
  significant	
  decrease	
  in	
   the	
  number	
  and	
  variety	
  of	
  businesses	
  following	
  the	
  closure	
  of	
  the	
  Safeway	
  store	
  in	
  1988.	
  However,	
   the	
  occupancy	
  data	
  suggest	
  no	
  such	
  drastic	
  effect.	
  The	
  closing	
  of	
  the	
  Nanaimo	
  and	
  William	
  Safeway	
   store	
  may	
  represent	
  a	
  contemporary	
  trend	
  of	
  expanding	
  the	
  catchment	
  areas	
  of	
  individual	
   supermarkets,	
  while	
  larger,	
  regionally-­‐serving	
  supermarkets	
  attracted	
  growing	
  market	
  shares.	
   	
    	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
   118	
  Peter	
  Vaisbord,	
  Interview	
  (Coordinator,	
  Business	
  Improvement	
  Areas	
  Program:	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver,	
  2010).	
   	
    44	
    Dining	
  Retail	
  	
   Some	
  restaurants	
  serve	
  mostly	
  local	
  clientele	
  while	
  others	
  attract	
  diners	
  from	
  around	
  the	
  region.	
   However,	
  for	
  consistency,	
  all	
  dining	
  establishments	
  are	
  categorized	
  as	
  convenience	
  uses.	
   Considering	
  all	
  study	
  areas	
  together,	
  data	
  indicate	
  a	
  significant	
  general	
  increase	
  in	
  numbers	
  of	
   restaurants	
  and	
  cafes	
  since	
  1970,	
  from	
  four	
  dining	
  establishments	
  in	
  1970	
  to	
  twenty	
  in	
  2010.	
  The	
   number	
  of	
  restaurants	
  in	
  neighbourhood-­‐serving	
  retail	
  areas	
  are	
  likely	
  influenced	
  by	
  changing	
   demographics	
  and	
  lifestyles.	
  Rising	
  numbers	
  of	
  dining	
  establishments	
  since	
  1955	
  may	
  be	
  related	
  to	
   the	
  overall	
  decline	
  in	
  numbers	
  of	
  small	
  grocery	
  stores,	
  butchers	
  and	
  bakeries	
  during	
  the	
  same	
   period.	
  These	
  two	
  trends	
  may	
  reflect	
  the	
  changing	
  demands	
  of	
  a	
  population	
  that	
  eats	
  out	
  more	
   often,	
  having	
  smaller	
  households	
  with	
  fewer	
  children	
  and	
  more	
  women	
  employed	
  outside	
  the	
   home.	
  Rising	
  household	
  incomes,	
  particularly	
  in	
  the	
  Dunbar-­‐Southlands	
  neighbourhood	
  could	
  also	
   help	
  to	
  explain	
  the	
  burgeoning	
  numbers	
  of	
  restaurants.	
  Further	
  research	
  involving	
  access	
  to	
   localized	
  data	
  about	
  demographics	
  and	
  income	
  could	
  explore	
  these	
  possible	
  connections	
  further.	
   The	
  Nanaimo	
  and	
  Charles	
  Shopping	
  Area	
  is	
  the	
  only	
  case	
  study	
  area	
  whose	
  occupancy	
  data	
  do	
  not	
   show	
  an	
  increased	
  number	
  of	
  dining	
  establishments	
  since	
  1970.	
  	
  Throughout	
  the	
  study	
  period,	
  the	
   number	
  of	
  restaurants	
  and	
  coffee	
  shops	
  in	
  this	
  area	
  has	
  not	
  surpassed	
  two.	
  This	
  may	
  be	
  because	
   other	
  retail	
  areas	
  nearby	
  provide	
  specialty	
  dining	
  options;	
  a	
  wide	
  variety	
  of	
  restaurants	
  are	
   currently	
  available	
  along	
  Hastings	
  Street,	
  at	
  Nanaimo	
  and	
  Broadway,	
  and	
  along	
  Commercial	
  Drive,	
   all	
  located	
  approximately	
  one	
  kilometre	
  from	
  this	
  study	
  area.	
   Cafes	
  and	
  restaurants	
  often	
  make	
  important	
  contributions	
  to	
  the	
  social	
  cohesion	
  of	
  a	
  community	
  by	
   providing	
  a	
  neutral	
  "third	
  place"	
  where	
  local	
  residents	
  can	
  meet.	
  However,	
  the	
  present	
  dataset	
  does	
   not	
  permit	
  conclusions	
  about	
  whether	
  the	
  case	
  study	
  areas	
  have	
  provided	
  functional	
  third	
  places.	
   Many	
  different	
  types	
  of	
  businesses	
  can	
  act	
  in	
  this	
  capacity,	
  depending	
  on	
  local	
  culture	
  and	
  how	
  they	
   are	
  used,	
  which	
  makes	
  it	
  impossible	
  to	
  identify	
  a	
  functioning	
  “third	
  place”	
  from	
  occupancy	
  data	
   alone.	
  A	
  hair	
  salon	
  or	
  cafe	
  can	
  be	
  a	
  utilitarian	
  place	
  for	
  getting	
  a	
  haircut	
  or	
  a	
  sandwich,	
  or	
  it	
  can	
  also	
   be	
  a	
  meeting	
  place	
  and	
  conversation	
  centre.	
  Qualitative	
  research	
  involving	
  interviews	
  or	
  a	
  survey	
  of	
   local	
  residents	
  could	
  inform	
  a	
  better	
  understanding	
  of	
  whether	
  residents	
  make	
  use	
  of	
  third	
  places	
   within	
  Vancouver’s	
  neighbourhood-­‐serving	
  retail	
  areas,	
  and	
  which	
  businesses	
  fill	
  this	
  role.	
   	
   Health	
   Health	
  clinics,	
  drugstores	
  and	
  pharmacies	
  fill	
  an	
  important	
  role	
  in	
  neighbourhood	
  retail	
  areas,	
   especially	
  for	
  elderly	
  residents	
  and	
  others	
  who	
  require	
  frequent	
  medical	
  care.	
  On	
  the	
  other	
  hand,	
    	
    45	
    ground-­‐floor	
  medical	
  offices	
  can	
  mean	
  relatively	
  inactive	
  storefronts	
  in	
  shopping	
  areas.	
  As	
  the	
   proportion	
  of	
  the	
  city's	
  population	
  aged	
  65	
  and	
  over	
  is	
  expected	
  to	
  rise	
  from	
  12.4%	
  in	
  2006	
  to	
   20.3%	
  in	
  2031,	
  demand	
  for	
  locally-­‐serving	
  	
  doctors	
  and	
  pharmacies	
  is	
  likely	
  to	
  remain	
  strong.	
  119	
  	
   Overall,	
  case	
  study	
  area	
  data	
  illustrate	
  a	
  dramatic	
  increase	
  in	
  numbers	
  of	
  health	
  services	
  (including	
   medical	
  offices,	
  pharmacies	
  and	
  drugstores)	
  offered	
  locally	
  since	
  1970.	
  Both	
  of	
  the	
  Local	
  Centres	
   demonstrated	
  a	
  gradual	
  increase	
  in	
  numbers	
  of	
  health	
  service	
  businesses	
  since	
  1955.	
  In	
  1955	
  and	
   1970,	
  both	
  areas	
  had	
  a	
  drugstore	
  as	
  their	
  single	
  health-­‐related	
  use.	
  By	
  2010,	
  the	
  Rupert	
  and	
  22nd	
   Shopping	
  Area	
  had	
  a	
  doctor's	
  office,	
  a	
  dentist's	
  office	
  and	
  a	
  denturist;	
  the	
  Nanaimo	
  and	
  Charles	
   Shopping	
  Area	
  had	
  a	
  doctor's	
  office,	
  a	
  dental	
  office,	
  a	
  chiropractic	
  clinic	
  and	
  a	
  pharmacy.	
  	
   Health	
  services	
  located	
  in	
  the	
  larger	
  Dunbar	
  Centre	
  area	
  experienced	
  a	
  somewhat	
  different	
  pattern	
   in	
  the	
  early	
  part	
  of	
  the	
  study	
  period.	
  The	
  10	
  health-­‐related	
  businesses	
  located	
  in	
  the	
  area	
  in	
  1955	
   were	
  drastically	
  decreased	
  by	
  1970.	
  A	
  gradual	
  increase	
  in	
  numbers	
  of	
  health-­‐related	
  businesses	
   followed	
  until	
  1998.	
  Between	
  1998	
  and	
  2010,	
  the	
  number	
  increased	
  threefold	
  from	
  4	
  to	
  12	
  uses.	
  A	
   single	
  mixed-­‐use	
  development	
  built	
  in	
  1999	
  on	
  the	
  east	
  side	
  of	
  Dunbar	
  Street	
  between	
  25th	
  and	
   26th	
  Avenues	
  contains	
  five	
  different	
  health-­‐related	
  uses,	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  other	
  assorted	
  retail	
  and	
  35	
   residential	
  units	
  on	
  upper	
  floors.	
   	
   Convenience	
  Services	
   Businesses	
  in	
  the	
  "convenience	
  services"	
  subcategory	
  are	
  widespread	
  in	
  neighbourhood-­‐serving	
   retail	
  areas.	
  They	
  to	
  offer	
  basic	
  services	
  which	
  people	
  need	
  frequently.	
  Case	
  study	
  data	
  suggest	
  that	
   the	
  number	
  of	
  businesses	
  offering	
  convenience	
  services	
  in	
  Vancouver’s	
  neighbourhood-­‐serving	
   retail	
  areas	
  has	
  generally	
  increased	
  over	
  the	
  study	
  period,	
  following	
  an	
  initial	
  decline	
  between	
  1955	
   and	
  1970.	
  	
  Specific	
  uses	
  within	
  the	
  "convenience	
  services"	
  subcategory,	
  however,	
  reveal	
  significant	
   fluctuations	
  in	
  numbers	
  over	
  time.	
  Figure	
  18	
  illustrates	
  changes	
  in	
  the	
  number	
  of	
  specific	
  types	
  of	
   convenience	
  services	
  across	
  all	
  case	
  study	
  areas	
  combined.	
  	
   Culture	
  and	
  lifestyle	
  are	
  seen	
  to	
  significantly	
  impact	
  the	
  mix	
  of	
  convenience	
  services	
  demanded	
  by	
   local	
  consumers;	
  shoe	
  repair	
  was	
  a	
  widely	
  available	
  use	
  in	
  1955	
  but	
  has	
  not	
  been	
  common	
  since,	
   perhaps	
  reflecting	
  a	
  tendency	
  to	
  discard	
  instead	
  of	
  repair	
  old	
  shoes.	
  Changing	
  technology	
  has	
  also	
   strongly	
  influenced	
  the	
  prevalence	
  of	
  particular	
  convenience	
  services;	
  for	
  instance,	
  the	
  highest	
   number	
  of	
  video	
  rental	
  shops	
  across	
  all	
  study	
  areas	
  was	
  recorded	
  in	
  1998,	
  before	
  the	
  widespread	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
   119	
  	
  Percent	
  of	
  Total	
  Population	
  that	
  is	
  Aged	
  65	
  and	
  Over,	
  June	
  2006,	
  Service	
  BC,	
  Ministry	
  of	
  Labour	
  and	
   Citizens'	
  Services,	
  Government	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia,	
  September	
  9	
  2010.	
   	
    46	
    availability	
  of	
  online	
  movie	
  downloads.	
  Figure	
  18	
  also	
  reveals	
  a	
  surprising	
  increase	
  in	
  the	
  number	
   of	
  establishments	
  offering	
  services	
  relating	
  to	
  hairdressing	
  and	
  beauty;	
  the	
  ground	
  code	
   encompassing	
  barbers,	
  hairdressers,	
  beauty	
  salons	
  and	
  spas	
  accounted	
  for	
  60%	
  of	
  convenience	
   service	
  businesses	
  in	
  2010,	
  up	
  from	
  39%	
  in	
  1955.	
  This	
  shift	
  can	
  be	
  interpreted	
  in	
  two	
  ways:	
  it	
  may	
   reflect	
  a	
  simple	
  increase	
  in	
  demand	
  for	
  haircutting	
  and	
  beauty	
  services,	
  or	
  it	
  may	
  indicate	
  a	
   problematic	
  concentration	
  of	
  services	
  beyond	
  what	
  can	
  be	
  explained	
  by	
  local	
  demand,	
  instead	
   reflecting	
  low	
  rents	
  and	
  decreasing	
  vibrancy	
  of	
  the	
  shopping	
  area.120	
  	
   	
   Figure	
  18:	
  Convenience	
  Services	
  by	
  Type	
  over	
  Time	
    	
   	
   Transportation	
   The	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver’s	
  Suburban	
  Commercial	
  Study	
  (1971)	
  defines	
  automobile	
  service	
  stations	
  as	
   key	
  elements	
  within	
  locally	
  retail	
  centres.	
  However,	
  the	
  number	
  of	
  auto	
  service	
  and	
  gas	
  stations	
   within	
  the	
  neighbourhood-­‐serving	
  retail	
  case	
  study	
  areas	
  has	
  declined	
  dramatically	
  since	
  1955,	
   from	
  eight	
  in	
  1955	
  to	
  just	
  one	
  in	
  1998	
  and	
  2010.	
  New	
  technology	
  is	
  almost	
  a	
  certainly	
  a	
  factor	
  in	
   this	
  decline,	
  since	
  recently	
  manufactured	
  cars	
  tend	
  to	
  require	
  less	
  frequent	
  servicing.	
  Reduced	
   automobile	
  dependence	
  in	
  the	
  city	
  is	
  likely	
  not	
  a	
  significant	
  factor,	
  since	
  the	
  decline	
  has	
  been	
   ongoing	
  throughout	
  the	
  study	
  period.	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
   120	
  Peter	
  Vaisbord,	
  Interview	
  (Coordinator,	
  Business	
  Improvement	
  Areas	
  Program:	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver,	
  2010).	
   	
    47	
    Within	
  the	
  two	
  case	
  study	
  areas	
  that	
  had	
  auto	
  service	
  stations	
  prior	
  to	
  1985,	
  these	
  stations	
  tended	
   to	
  be	
  located	
  on	
  corners,	
  towards	
  the	
  outer	
  edges	
  of	
  the	
  retail	
  areas.	
  One	
  result	
  of	
  the	
  reduced	
   prevalence	
  of	
  automobile	
  service	
  stations	
  is	
  that	
  these	
  sites	
  have	
  since	
  become	
  available	
  for	
  other,	
   more	
  pedestrian-­‐oriented	
  retail	
  uses.	
  For	
  instance,	
  on	
  the	
  sites	
  of	
  two	
  former	
  gas	
  stations	
  in	
  the	
   Nanaimo	
  and	
  Charles	
  Shopping	
  Area	
  now	
  operate	
  a	
  pharmacy,	
  a	
  hair	
  salon,	
  two	
  health	
  clinics,	
  a	
  real	
   estate	
  office,	
  a	
  pizza	
  parlour	
  and	
  a	
  Montessori	
  school.	
  	
   	
    	
    	
    6.0	
   IMPLICATIONS	
   6.1	
    	
   A	
  Story	
  of	
  Neighbourhood	
  Retail	
  	
    While	
  each	
  case	
  study	
  area	
  followed	
  a	
  unique	
  trajectory	
  of	
  retail	
  development	
  from	
  1955	
  to	
  2010,	
   data	
  from	
  all	
  three	
  areas	
  taken	
  together	
  suggest	
  the	
  outlines	
  of	
  a	
  story	
  about	
  the	
  changing	
  face	
  of	
   neighbourhood-­‐oriented	
  retail	
  in	
  Vancouver.	
  Perhaps	
  the	
  most	
  salient	
  characteristic	
  of	
  this	
  broader	
   narrative	
  is	
  a	
  dramatic	
  drop	
  in	
  the	
  number	
  of	
  businesses	
  across	
  all	
  categories	
  between	
  1955	
  and	
   1970	
  (evident	
  in	
  all	
  case	
  study	
  areas),	
  followed	
  by	
  a	
  subsequent	
  gradual	
  resurgence.	
  	
   Several	
  explanations	
  could	
  be	
  considered	
  for	
  the	
  decline	
  in	
  the	
  number	
  of	
  business	
  uses	
  located	
  in	
   neighbourhood-­‐serving	
  retail	
  areas	
  between	
  1955	
  and	
  1970.	
  Many	
  neighbourhood-­‐serving	
  retail	
   businesses	
  could	
  simply	
  have	
  gone	
  out	
  of	
  business,	
  resulting	
  in	
  fewer	
  shops	
  and	
  high	
  levels	
  of	
   vacancies.	
  The	
  consolidation	
  of	
  many	
  small	
  shops	
  into	
  fewer	
  large	
  shops	
  provides	
  an	
  alternate	
   explanation.	
  Both	
  of	
  these	
  factors	
  were	
  likely	
  at	
  play	
  to	
  some	
  degree.	
  The	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver’s	
   contemporary	
  “Suburban	
  Commercial	
  Study”	
  (1971)	
  notes	
  high	
  vacancy	
  levels	
  in	
  the	
  city’s	
   neighborhood	
  retail	
  areas,	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  significant	
  physical	
  blight.	
  This	
  period	
  of	
  decline	
  in	
   Vancouver’s	
  neighbourhood-­‐serving	
  retail	
  was	
  consistent	
  with	
  broader	
  North	
  American	
  trends.	
   Contemporary	
  American	
  planning	
  literature	
  describes	
  an	
  “increasing	
  scale	
  of	
  retailing,”121	
  –	
  fewer	
   and	
  larger	
  shops	
  –	
  combined	
  with	
  an	
  “increasing	
  tendency	
  [for	
  consumers]…	
  to	
  make	
  all	
  shopping	
   trips	
  by	
  automobile”122	
  Indeed,	
  in	
  the	
  ten	
  years	
  leading	
  up	
  to	
  1961,	
  the	
  proportion	
  of	
  Vancouver	
   households	
  that	
  owned	
  or	
  leased	
  a	
  private	
  car	
  increased	
  from	
  42%123	
  to	
  63%.124	
    	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
   121	
  	
  Berry,	
  et	
  al,	
  166.	
   122	
  	
  Berry,	
  et	
  al,	
  199.	
   123	
  	
  Dominion	
  Bureau	
  of	
  Statistics,	
  Table	
  42:	
  Occupied	
  dwellings	
  by	
  tenure	
  showing	
  specified	
  living	
    convenience	
  s,	
  for	
  incorporated	
  cities,	
  towns,	
  and	
  villages	
  of	
  10,000	
  population	
  and	
  over,	
  1951,	
  1953.	
    	
    48	
    The	
  number	
  of	
  businesses	
  located	
  in	
  the	
  case	
  study	
  areas	
  has	
  been	
  rebounding	
  since	
  1970,	
  albeit	
  at	
   a	
  lower	
  rate	
  than	
  the	
  earlier	
  decline.	
  This	
  likely	
  reflects,	
  in	
  part,	
  a	
  trend	
  towards	
  the	
  replacement	
  of	
   large	
  storefronts	
  by	
  a	
  larger	
  number	
  of	
  smaller	
  storefronts.	
  In	
  2010,	
  the	
  number	
  of	
  businesses	
  in	
   each	
  of	
  the	
  three	
  case	
  study	
  areas	
  has	
  returned	
  to	
  at	
  least	
  80%	
  of	
  1955	
  levels.	
  This	
  resurgence	
   suggests	
  positive	
  implications	
  for	
  the	
  resilience	
  of	
  the	
  study	
  areas,	
  and	
  may	
  also	
  inform	
  optimism	
   about	
  Vancouver’s	
  neighbourhood-­‐serving	
  retail	
  areas	
  in	
  general.	
  Robust,	
  walkable,	
  transit-­‐served	
   local	
  retail	
  areas	
  offer	
  broad	
  access	
  to	
  goods	
  and	
  services	
  and	
  may	
  contribute	
  to	
  social	
  cohesion.	
   The	
  evolving	
  mix	
  of	
  uses	
  found	
  within	
  each	
  case	
  study	
  area	
  over	
  time	
  recounts	
  a	
  more	
  subtle	
  sub-­‐ narrative	
  of	
  	
  Vancouver’s	
  neighbourhood	
  retail	
  story.	
  	
  Shifts	
  in	
  the	
  kinds	
  of	
  shops	
  or	
  services	
  that	
   are	
  represented	
  reflect	
  changes	
  in	
  the	
  types	
  of	
  goods	
  and	
  services	
  that	
  local	
  households	
  have	
   demanded;	
  these	
  demands	
  in	
  turn	
  reflect	
  changing	
  demographics	
  and	
  lifestyles.	
  For	
  instance,	
   increased	
  demand	
  for	
  dining	
  options	
  and	
  decreased	
  demand	
  for	
  bakeries	
  and	
  butchers	
  seem	
  to	
   correlate	
  with	
  households	
  having	
  fewer	
  children	
  and	
  fewer	
  full-­‐time	
  homemakers.	
   Other	
  changes	
  in	
  the	
  mix	
  of	
  uses	
  within	
  neighbourhood	
  retail	
  areas	
  reflect	
  a	
  broader	
  shift	
  in	
  the	
   role	
  of	
  locally-­‐oriented	
  retail	
  within	
  the	
  regional	
  hierarchy.	
  In	
  each	
  of	
  the	
  study	
  areas,	
  convenience	
   goods	
  and	
  services	
  have	
  made	
  up	
  an	
  increasing	
  proportion	
  of	
  local	
  businesses	
  over	
  time,	
  with	
   specialty	
  and	
  shopping	
  uses	
  decreasing	
  in	
  importance.	
  This	
  finding	
  supports	
  the	
  assertion	
  by	
   Vancouver-­‐based	
  retail	
  consultant	
  Lewis	
  Silberberg	
  and	
  others	
  that	
  "most	
  [neighbourhood	
  retail]	
   areas	
  have…	
  been	
  forced	
  to	
  evolve	
  to	
  serve	
  a	
  role	
  and	
  experience	
  that	
  is	
  complementary	
  to	
  the	
   malls	
  and	
  large	
  format	
  retailers."125	
   	
    6.2	
    Policy	
  Implications	
  and	
  Recommendations	
    Current	
  city-­‐wide	
  policy	
  direction	
  to	
  accommodate	
  population	
  growth	
  by	
  increasing	
  density	
  and	
   housing	
  options	
  in	
  traditional	
  single-­‐family	
  neighbourhoods126	
  is	
  likely	
  over	
  time	
  to	
  positively	
   affect	
  the	
  viability	
  of	
  neighbourhood	
  retail	
  areas	
  (as	
  recognized	
  in	
  the	
  EcoDensity	
  summary	
   report).127	
  Increased	
  density	
  and	
  housing	
  choice	
  are,	
  in	
  turn,	
  likely	
  to	
  support	
  increased	
  diversity	
  of	
   retail	
  uses	
  within	
  local	
  areas.	
  However,	
  as	
  in	
  the	
  case	
  of	
  the	
  former	
  Safeway	
  site	
  in	
  the	
  Nanaimo	
  and	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
   124	
  	
  Dominion	
  Bureau	
  of	
  Statistics,	
  Table	
  37.	
  Occupied	
  dwellings	
  by	
  specified	
  living	
  conveniences,	
  for	
    incporporated	
  cities,	
  towns	
  and	
  villages	
  of	
  5,000	
  population	
  and	
  over,	
  and	
  other	
  municipal	
  subdivisions	
  of	
   10,000	
  population	
  and	
  over,	
  1961,	
  1963).	
  Comparable	
  data	
  was	
  not	
  collected	
  in	
  1971.	
   125	
  	
  Wozny,	
  Hume,	
  and	
  Silberberg,	
  76.	
   126	
  	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver.	
   127	
  	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver,	
  13.	
    	
    49	
    Charles	
  Shopping	
  Area,	
  once	
  a	
  site	
  has	
  been	
  redeveloped	
  with	
  typical	
  residential	
  dwellings,	
  its	
   potential	
  for	
  commercial	
  use	
  is	
  eliminated	
  for	
  a	
  long	
  time.	
  Retail	
  potential	
  can	
  also	
  be	
  constrained	
   within	
  mixed-­‐use	
  buildings	
  by	
  design	
  that	
  fails	
  in	
  adaptability	
  to	
  uses	
  other	
  than	
  the	
  originally-­‐ intended	
  retail	
  or	
  office	
  use.	
  In	
  the	
  absence	
  of	
  a	
  guiding	
  city-­‐wide	
  strategy	
  or	
  policy	
  statement	
  for	
   local	
  retail,	
  strategies	
  affecting	
  local	
  retail	
  are	
  now	
  developed	
  on	
  a	
  case-­‐by-­‐case	
  basis	
  in	
   neighbourhood	
  plans.	
  For	
  example,	
  the	
  Hastings-­‐Sunrise	
  Community	
  Vision	
  contemplates	
  releasing	
   commercial	
  sites	
  to	
  exclusive	
  residential	
  use	
  when	
  existing	
  commercial	
  uses	
  are	
  struggling.128	
  	
   A	
  city-­‐wide	
  statement	
  of	
  policy	
  regarding	
  neighbourhood-­‐serving	
  retail	
  could	
  inform	
  diverse	
  future	
   planning	
  work	
  impacting	
  retail	
  areas.	
  It	
  could	
  explicitly	
  outline	
  available	
  strategies	
  for	
  retaining	
   retail	
  use	
  options	
  in	
  appropriate	
  neighbourhood-­‐serving	
  commercial	
  areas.	
  It	
  might	
  also	
  address	
   the	
  related	
  issue	
  of	
  preserving	
  options	
  for	
  corner	
  stores	
  and	
  other	
  scattered	
  retail	
  uses	
  in	
   residential	
  areas,	
  likely	
  through	
  zoning	
  changes	
  to	
  permit	
  such	
  locations	
  to	
  regain	
  their	
  former	
  uses	
   or	
  to	
  remove	
  the	
  non-­‐conforming	
  status	
  of	
  existing	
  operations.	
  The	
  ongoing	
  resurgence	
  in	
  the	
   numbers	
  of	
  businesses	
  within	
  the	
  case	
  study	
  areas	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  their	
  evolving	
  mix	
  of	
  uses	
  suggest	
  that	
   an	
  update	
  of	
  the	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver’s	
  1971	
  Suburban	
  Commercial	
  Study	
  may	
  be	
  overdue.	
  A	
  city-­‐wide	
   neighbourhood	
  retail	
  policy	
  could	
  be	
  informed	
  by	
  an	
  updated	
  study	
  of	
  Vancouver’s	
  neighbourhood-­‐ serving	
  retail	
  areas,	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  by	
  other	
  current	
  policies.	
   Whether	
  or	
  not	
  a	
  comprehensive	
  neighbourhood	
  retail	
  policy	
  is	
  developed	
  for	
  Vancouver,	
   incremental	
  strategies	
  could	
  also	
  be	
  considered	
  to	
  support	
  neighbourhood	
  retail.	
  Design	
  guidelines	
   that	
  ensure	
  the	
  flexibility	
  of	
  the	
  retail	
  components	
  of	
  mixed-­‐use	
  buildings	
  are	
  one	
  example.	
  A	
   second	
  example	
  would	
  be	
  to	
  extend	
  the	
  concept	
  of	
  clustering	
  frequently	
  needed	
  goods	
  and	
  services	
   in	
  neighbourhood	
  retail	
  areas	
  to	
  include	
  non-­‐market	
  services	
  such	
  as	
  libraries	
  and	
  childcare	
   facilities.	
  Policymakers	
  could	
  adopt	
  the	
  potential	
  to	
  support	
  or	
  anchor	
  neighbourhood-­‐serving	
   retail	
  areas	
  as	
  a	
  consideration	
  for	
  these	
  facility	
  location	
  decisions.	
  The	
  comprehensive	
  10-­‐year	
   action	
  plan	
  currently	
  in	
  development	
  by	
  the	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver's	
  Greenest	
  City	
  Team 129	
  	
  could	
  also	
   provide	
  an	
  opportunity	
  to	
  set	
  targets	
  and	
  identify	
  actions	
  relevant	
  to	
  supporting	
  walkable	
   neighbourhood-­‐serving	
  retail	
  areas	
  that	
  supply	
  local	
  residents'	
  daily	
  needs.	
   Ongoing	
  analysis	
  of	
  neighbourhood	
  shopping	
  areas’	
  retail	
  profiles	
  and	
  the	
  “completeness”	
  of	
   individual	
  retail	
  areas	
  could	
  be	
  supported	
  through	
  Vancouver’s	
  existing	
  Business	
  Improvement	
   Area	
  program.	
  Business	
  Improvement	
  Areas	
  that	
  encompass	
  neighbourhood-­‐serving	
  retail	
  could	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
    	
   	
  	
  Greenest	
  City	
  -­‐	
  Objectives,	
  2009,	
  September	
  11	
  2010	
  <http://vancouver.ca/greenestcity/objectives.htm>.	
    128	
  	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver,	
  Director	
  of	
  Planning,	
  63. 129  	
    50	
    use	
  this	
  type	
  of	
  analysis	
  to	
  encourage	
  a	
  diverse	
  and	
  complete	
  neighbourhood	
  retail	
  profile	
  by	
   informing	
  business	
  location	
  or	
  specialization	
  decisions.	
  If	
  this	
  analysis	
  could	
  help	
  to	
  create	
  a	
  mix	
  of	
   businesses	
  that	
  best	
  meets	
  the	
  daily	
  needs	
  of	
  the	
  population	
  living	
  within	
  walking	
  distance	
  of	
  a	
   local	
  retail	
  centre,	
  increased	
  economic	
  viability	
  for	
  local	
  businesses	
  would	
  result,	
  along	
  with	
  better	
   service	
  for	
  and	
  increased	
  resilience	
  of	
  the	
  surrounding	
  residential	
  community.	
   	
    7.0	
   CONCLUSION	
   	
   Commercial	
  retail	
  development,	
  neighbourhood	
  planning	
  and	
  sustainability	
  literatures,	
  both	
   describe	
  the	
  “hollowing	
  out”	
  of	
  many	
  inner-­‐city	
  shopping	
  districts	
  in	
  favour	
  of	
  auto-­‐oriented	
   regional	
  retail,	
  and	
  herald	
  a	
  nascent	
  trend	
  towards	
  revitalized	
  local	
  retail.	
  Through	
  an	
  analysis	
  of	
   historical	
  occupancy	
  data	
  from	
  three	
  of	
  Vancouver’s	
  neighbourhood-­‐serving	
  shopping	
  areas,	
  this	
   study	
  offers	
  findings	
  about	
  the	
  changing	
  roles	
  and	
  composition	
  of	
  neighbourhood-­‐serving	
  retail	
   since	
  the	
  1950s.	
  While	
  the	
  data	
  and	
  methods	
  used	
  in	
  this	
  study	
  have	
  limitations,	
  including	
  the	
   imperfect	
  reliability	
  of	
  historical	
  data,	
  and	
  the	
  lack	
  of	
  complex	
  information	
  about	
  the	
  size	
  of	
   historical	
  businesses,	
  the	
  affordability	
  of	
  goods	
  and	
  services,	
  or	
  how	
  local	
  establishments	
  have	
  been	
   used,	
  clear	
  patterns	
  nonetheless	
  emerge	
  from	
  analysis.	
  	
   The	
  data	
  indicate	
  that,	
  overall,	
  Vancouver’s	
  Local	
  and	
  District	
  shopping	
  centres	
  have	
  experienced	
   both	
  a	
  mid-­‐century	
  decline	
  in	
  numbers	
  of	
  locally-­‐oriented	
  shops	
  and	
  specific	
  types	
  of	
  businesses,	
   and	
  a	
  more	
  recent,	
  ongoing	
  resurgence	
  in	
  numbers	
  of	
  shops,	
  particularly	
  those	
  offering	
  lower-­‐order	
   convenience	
  goods	
  and	
  services.	
  Neighbourhood-­‐serving	
  urban	
  shopping	
  areas	
  foster	
  community	
   resilience,	
  support	
  public	
  health	
  and	
  increase	
  social	
  cohesion	
  and	
  well-­‐being.	
  Therefore,	
  the	
   findings	
  of	
  this	
  study	
  are	
  offered	
  to	
  help	
  inform	
  the	
  development	
  of	
  planning	
  programs	
  and	
  policy	
   that	
  support	
  well-­‐functioning	
  and	
  walkable	
  neighbourhood-­‐serving	
  shopping	
  areas	
  in	
  Vancouver,	
   with	
  similar	
  potential	
  applications	
  for	
  other	
  cities	
  and	
  for	
  suburban	
  centres.	
  	
   	
   	
    	
    51	
    GLOSSARY	
  OF	
  TERMS	
   	
   Convenience	
  Goods	
  and	
  Services	
  -­‐	
  Low-­‐order	
  goods	
  and	
  services	
  which	
  are	
  purchased	
  frequently,	
   generally	
  found	
  in	
  locally-­‐serving	
  shopping	
  areas.	
   District	
  Centre	
  -­‐	
  In	
  the	
  hierarchy	
  of	
  five	
  levels	
  of	
  commercial	
  districts	
  recognized	
  within	
  City	
  of	
   Vancouver	
  policy,	
  District	
  Centres	
  serve	
  an	
  entire	
  residential	
  district.	
  They	
  generally	
  contain	
  a	
   supermarket	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  offering	
  convenience	
  and	
  shopping	
  goods	
  and	
  services.	
   Local	
  Centre	
  -­	
  In	
  the	
  hierarchy	
  of	
  five	
  levels	
  of	
  commercial	
  districts	
  recognized	
  within	
  City	
  of	
   Vancouver	
  policy,	
  Local	
  Centres	
  serve	
  nearby	
  residents,	
  and	
  principally	
  offer	
  convenience	
  goods	
   and	
  services.	
   Post	
  Carbon	
  -­‐	
  This	
  term	
  anticipates	
  a	
  future	
  situation	
  in	
  which	
  fossil	
  fuels	
  will	
  be	
  less	
  readily	
   available	
  than	
  they	
  are	
  at	
  present.	
   Relocalization	
  -­	
  A	
  strategy	
  of	
  social	
  change	
  based	
  on	
  returning	
  to	
  a	
  greater	
  degree	
  of	
  reliance	
  on	
   local	
  sources	
  of	
  food	
  and	
  energy	
  and	
  on	
  local	
  social	
  and	
  economic	
  networks.	
   Resilience	
  -­‐	
  "Resilience"	
  generally	
  refers	
  to	
  a	
  system's	
  capacity	
  to	
  absorb	
  and	
  recover	
  from	
  shocks	
   while	
  maintaining	
  functionality.	
  In	
  the	
  event	
  of	
  a	
  shock	
  such	
  as	
  an	
  earthquake	
  or	
  petroleum	
   shortage,	
  walkable	
  and	
  well-­‐functioning	
  neighbourhood-­‐serving	
  retail	
  areas	
  may	
  enhance	
   community	
  resilience	
  by	
  allowing	
  access	
  to	
  critical	
  everyday	
  goods	
  and	
  services,	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  by	
   promoting	
  strong	
  local	
  social	
  support	
  networks.	
  	
   Shoppers'	
  Goods	
  and	
  Services	
  (a.k.a.	
  Comparison,	
  or	
  Shopping	
  Goods	
  and	
  Services)	
  -­‐	
  High-­‐order	
   goods	
  and	
  services	
  which	
  are	
  purchased	
  less	
  frequently	
  than	
  convenience	
  goods	
  and	
  services,	
  and	
   for	
  which	
  consumers	
  are	
  likely	
  to	
  do	
  comparison	
  shopping.	
  	
   Social	
  Cohesion	
  -­‐	
  Social	
  Cohesion	
  is	
  used	
  in	
  the	
  context	
  of	
  this	
  report	
  to	
  describe	
  the	
  local	
  support	
   network	
  and	
  sense	
  of	
  community	
  experienced	
  by	
  the	
  residents	
  of	
  a	
  neighbourhood.	
   Third	
  place	
  –	
  A	
  term	
  coined	
  by	
  urban	
  sociologist	
  Ray	
  Oldenburg	
  to	
  refer	
  to	
  neutral	
  spaces	
  outside	
   home	
  and	
  work,	
  often	
  including	
  cafes,	
  bars	
  and	
  beauty	
  parlours,	
  where	
  community	
  members	
  meet,	
   socialize	
  and	
  share	
  information.	
  	
    	
   	
    52	
    WORKS	
  CITED	
   	
   Barnes,	
  Trevor,	
  et	
  al.	
  "Vancouver:	
  Restructuring	
  Narratives	
  in	
  the	
  Transnational	
  Metropolis."	
   Canadian	
  Cities.	
  Ed.	
  Tom	
  Hutton.,	
  in	
  press.	
   BC	
  Stats.	
  "Percent	
  of	
  Total	
  Population	
  that	
  is	
  Aged	
  65	
  and	
  Over."	
  Service	
  BC,	
  Ministry	
  of	
  Labour	
  and	
   Citizens'	
  Services,	
  Government	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia.	
  June	
  2006.	
   Beasley,	
  Larry.	
  Interview.	
  Former	
  Co-­‐Director	
  of	
  Planning,	
  Retired:	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver,	
  2010.	
  	
   Berry,	
  Brian	
  J.	
  L.,	
  et	
  al.	
  Commercial	
  Structure	
  and	
  Commercial	
  Blight:	
  Retail	
  Patterns	
  and	
  Processes	
   in	
  the	
  City	
  of	
  Chicago.	
  Vol.	
  Department	
  of	
  Geography	
  Research	
  Paper	
  No	
  85.	
  Illinois:	
  University	
   of	
  Chicago,	
  1963.	
  	
   Carley	
  M,	
  Kirk	
  K,	
  McIntosh	
  S,.	
  Retailing,	
  Sustainability	
  and	
  Neighbourhood	
  Regeneration.	
  York,	
  UK:	
   Joseph	
  Rowntree	
  Foundation,	
  2001.	
  	
   Center	
  for	
  Urban	
  Economic	
  Development	
  (UICUED).	
  Retail	
  Market	
  Analysis:	
  A	
  Manual	
  for	
   Preliminary	
  Analysis	
  of	
  Neighborhood	
  Retail	
  Opportunities	
  in	
  Chicago.	
  Revised:	
  April,	
  1986	
  ed.	
   Vol.	
  Technical	
  Manual	
  Number	
  1.	
  The	
  University	
  of	
  Illinois	
  at	
  Chicago:	
  School	
  of	
  Urban	
   Planning	
  and	
  Policy,	
  1980.	
  	
   Cerin,	
  E.,	
  et	
  al.	
  "Destinations	
  that	
  Matter:	
  Associations	
  with	
  Walking	
  for	
  Transport."	
  Health	
  &	
  place	
   13.3	
  (2007):	
  713-­‐24.	
  	
   City	
  of	
  Portland	
  Bureau	
  of	
  Planning	
  and	
  Sustainability.	
  Status	
  Report:	
  Twenty-­‐Minute	
   Neighborhoods.,	
  2009.	
  	
   City	
  of	
  Vancouver.	
  C-­‐1	
  District	
  Schedules,	
  Zoning	
  and	
  Development	
  by-­‐Law.,	
  2009.	
  	
   City	
  of	
  Vancouver,	
  Director	
  of	
  Planning.	
  1260	
  Nanaimo	
  Street	
  -­‐	
  Recommendation.	
  Vol.	
  486-­‐1200.	
  To	
   the	
  City	
  Manager	
  (for	
  Council),	
  1989a.	
  	
   -­‐-­‐-­‐.	
  Text	
  Amendment:	
  CD-­‐1	
  Bylaw,	
  NO	
  4828	
  -­‐	
  1260	
  Nanaimo	
  Street.	
  Vol.	
  RZ	
  266/90.	
  To	
  the	
  Standing	
   Committee	
  of	
  Planning	
  and	
  Environment,	
  1991b.	
  	
   City	
  of	
  Vancouver.	
  Business	
  Improvement	
  Areas	
  Program.	
  Pamphlet,	
  2008a.	
  	
  	
   -­‐-­‐-­‐.	
  "City	
  of	
  Vancouver	
  Statistics	
  (2006	
  Census	
  Data):	
  Local	
  Area	
  Statistics."	
  September	
  10	
  2009b.	
   <http://vancouver.ca/commsvcs/planning/census/2006/localareas/>.	
   -­‐-­‐-­‐.	
  "City	
  of	
  Vancouver's	
  Population	
  Change:	
  1961	
  to	
  2006."	
  2006c.	
   <http://vancouver.ca/commsvcs/planning/stats/poptrends/index.htm>.	
   -­‐-­‐-­‐.	
  City	
  Role	
  in	
  Retail	
  Development.	
  Planning	
  Report	
  to	
  Council,	
  1985d.	
  	
   -­‐-­‐-­‐.	
  CityPlan:	
  Directions	
  for	
  Vancouver.,	
  1995e.	
  September	
  11,	
  2010.	
   -­‐-­‐-­‐.	
  Dunbar	
  Community	
  Vision.,	
  1998f.	
  	
   -­‐-­‐-­‐.	
  EcoDensity	
  Project	
  Summary:	
  How	
  Density,	
  Design,	
  and	
  Land	
  use	
  Will	
  Contribute	
  to	
   Environmental	
  Sustainability,	
  Affordability,	
  and	
  Livability.,	
  2008g.	
  September	
  11,	
  2010.	
   -­‐-­‐-­‐.	
  "Greenest	
  City	
  -­‐	
  Objectives."	
  2009h.	
  <http://vancouver.ca/greenestcity/objectives.htm>.	
   -­‐-­‐-­‐.	
  Identified	
  Local	
  Area	
  Planning	
  Needs.	
   <http://vancouver.ca/commsvcs/planning/neighcentres/pdf/localarea.pdf>	
  2010.	
  September	
   22,	
  2010.	
    	
    53	
    -­‐-­‐-­‐.	
  Neighbourhood	
  Centre	
  Delivery	
  Program	
  Terms	
  of	
  Reference.	
  City	
  Plans,	
  Community	
  Services	
   Group,	
  2002j.	
  	
   -­‐-­‐-­‐.	
  Renfrew-­‐Collingwood	
  Community	
  Vision.,	
  2004k.	
  	
   -­‐-­‐-­‐.	
  "Summary	
  Document:	
  CityPlan-­‐	
  Directions	
  for	
  Vancouver."	
  (2001l).	
   -­‐-­‐-­‐.	
  Total	
  Population,	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver	
  Local	
  Areas,	
  1971-­‐2006.	
  Data	
  source:	
  Statistics	
  Canada,	
   2006m.	
  September	
  11,	
  2010.	
   -­‐-­‐-­‐.	
  "Zoning	
  and	
  Development	
  By-­‐law."	
  January	
  15	
  2007n.	
   <http://vancouver.ca/commsvcs/PLANNING/ZONING.HTM>.	
   Community	
  Energy	
  Association.	
  "Complete	
  Communities."	
  2007.	
   <http://www.communityenergy.bc.ca/community-­‐energy-­‐benefits-­‐introduction/complete-­‐ communities>.	
   Condon,	
  Patrick	
  M.	
  Seven	
  Rules	
  for	
  Sustainable	
  Communities:	
  Design	
  Strategies	
  for	
  the	
  Post	
  Carbon	
   World.	
  Washington	
  D.C.:	
  Island	
  Press,	
  2010.	
  	
   Director	
  of	
  City	
  Plans.	
  C-­‐2	
  Zoning	
  Review.	
  Vol.	
  RTS	
  No.	
  01414,	
  CC	
  File	
  No.	
  5302.	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver,	
   2000.	
  	
   Dominion	
  Bureau	
  of	
  Statistics.	
  Table	
  37.	
  Occupied	
  Dwellings	
  by	
  Specified	
  Living	
  Conveniences,	
  for	
   Incorporated	
  Cities,	
  Towns	
  and	
  Villages	
  of	
  5,000	
  Population	
  and	
  Over,	
  and	
  Other	
  Municipal	
   Subdivisions	
  of	
  10,000	
  Population	
  and	
  Over,	
  1961.	
  Vol.	
  Bulletin	
  2.2	
  -­‐	
  5.,	
  1963a.	
  	
   -­‐-­‐-­‐.	
  Table	
  42:	
  Occupied	
  Dwellings	
  by	
  Tenure	
  Showing	
  Specified	
  Living	
  Convenience	
  s,	
  for	
   Incorporated	
  Cities,	
  Towns,	
  and	
  Villages	
  of	
  10,000	
  Population	
  and	
  Over,	
  1951.	
  Vol.	
  Bulletin	
  3-­‐8	
   Volume:III.,	
  1953b.	
  	
   French,	
  Patricia,	
  and	
  Cathy	
  Buckham.	
  Supermarkets	
  in	
  Vancouver.	
  Vol.	
  5340.	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver,	
   1998.	
  	
   Gurwitt,	
  Rob.	
  "Light	
  in	
  Oxford."	
  Mother	
  Jones	
  May/June	
  2000.	
  April	
  25,	
  2010.	
   Kluckner,	
  Michael.	
  "Oakridge."	
  The	
  Greater	
  Vancouver	
  Book.	
  Ed.	
  Chuck	
  Davis.	
  Surrey	
  BC:	
  Linkman	
   Press,	
  1997.	
  96.	
  	
   Koebel,	
  C.	
  Theodore.	
  Analyzing	
  Neighborhood	
  Retail	
  and	
  Service	
  Change	
  in	
  Six	
  Cities.	
  Virginia	
   Polytechnic	
  Institute	
  and	
  State	
  University:	
  Center	
  for	
  Housing	
  Research,	
  1999.	
  	
   Law,	
  Robin.	
  "Beyond	
  'Women	
  and	
  Transport':	
  Towards	
  New	
  Geographies	
  of	
  Gender	
  and	
  Daily	
   Mobility."	
  Progress	
  in	
  Human	
  Geography	
  23.4	
  (1999):	
  567-­‐588.	
  	
   Macalister,	
  Terry.	
  "US	
  Military	
  Warns	
  Oil	
  Output	
  may	
  Dip	
  Causing	
  Massive	
  Shortages	
  by	
  2015."	
   Guardian	
  UK	
  April	
  11	
  2010.	
   Macdonald,	
  Bruce.	
  "Vancouver	
  Neighbourhoods."	
  The	
  Greater	
  Vancouver	
  Book.	
  Ed.	
  Chuck	
  Davis.	
   Surrey	
  BC:	
  Linkman	
  Press,	
  1997.	
  77.	
  	
   -­‐-­‐-­‐.	
  Vancouver:	
  A	
  Visual	
  History.	
  Vancouver	
  BC:	
  Talonbooks,	
  1992.	
  	
   Mak,	
  Eunice,	
  and	
  Lidio	
  Daneluzzi.	
  Dunbar	
  Southlands	
  Community	
  Profile	
  -­‐	
  A	
  Technical	
  Report.	
  Vol.	
   L85	
  D96.	
  Prepared	
  for	
  the	
  Vancouver	
  City	
  Planning	
  Department,	
  1979.	
  	
   McIntyre,	
  Angus.	
  "Transportation	
  in	
  a	
  Classic	
  Streetcar	
  Suburb."	
  The	
  Story	
  of	
  Dunbar:	
  Voices	
  of	
  a	
   Vancouver	
  Neighbourhood.	
  Ed.	
  Peggy	
  Schofield.	
  Ronsdale	
  Press,	
  China:	
  Dunbar	
  Residents'	
   Association,	
  2007.	
  119.	
  	
    	
    54	
    Mitchell,	
  Stacy.	
  "Miles	
  Driven	
  for	
  Shopping	
  Continues	
  to	
  Climb,	
  but	
  Pace	
  Slows."	
  New	
  Rules	
  Project	
   May	
  6,	
  2010.	
  June	
  27,	
  2010.	
   Moore,	
  Larry.	
  "Commercial	
  Development	
  through	
  the	
  Decades."	
  The	
  Story	
  of	
  Dunbar:	
  Voices	
  of	
  a	
   Vancouver	
  Neighbourhood.	
  Ed.	
  Peggy	
  Schofield.	
  Ronsdale	
  Press,	
  China:	
  Dunbar	
  Residents'	
   Association,	
  2007.	
  81.	
  	
   Moudon,	
  A.	
  V.,	
  et	
  al.	
  "Operational	
  Definitions	
  of	
  Walkable	
  Neighborhood:	
  Theoretical	
  and	
  Empirical	
   Insights."	
  Journal	
  of	
  Physical	
  Activity	
  and	
  Health	
  3	
  (2006):	
  99.	
  	
   National	
  Complete	
  Streets	
  Coalition.	
  "Complete	
  Streets."	
  Wordpress.org.	
  April	
  21	
  2010.	
   <http://www.completestreets.org/>.	
   Neale	
  Staniszkis	
  Doll	
  Architects.	
  C-­‐1	
  &	
  C-­‐2	
  Zoning	
  Study	
  for	
  the	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver.	
  Vancouver	
  BC:,	
   1991.	
  	
   Oldenburg,	
  Ray.	
  The	
  Great	
  Good	
  Place:	
  Cafes,	
  Coffee	
  Shops,	
  Community	
  Centers,	
  Beauty	
  Parlors,	
   General	
  Stores,	
  Bars,	
  Hangouts,	
  and	
  how	
  they	
  Get	
  You	
  through	
  the	
  Day.	
  New	
  York:	
  Paragon	
   House,	
  1991.	
  	
   Perl,	
  Anthony,	
  and	
  Richard	
  Gilbert.	
  Energy	
  and	
  Transport	
  Futures.	
  University	
  of	
  Calgary,	
  2005.	
  	
   Perl,	
  Anthony.	
  "From	
  the	
  Guest	
  Editor."	
  Journal	
  of	
  Urban	
  Technology	
  14.2	
  (2007):	
  1.	
  	
   Planning	
  Department.	
  Commercial	
  Zoning:	
  C-­‐2,	
  C-­‐3B,	
  C-­‐2C	
  and	
  C-­‐2C1.	
  Vol.	
  C65R16.	
  City	
  of	
   Vancouver,	
  1987.	
  	
   Punter,	
  John.	
  The	
  Vancouver	
  Achievement:	
  Urban	
  Planning	
  and	
  Design.	
  Vancouver:	
  UBC	
  Press,	
   2003.	
  	
   Rubin,	
  Jeff.	
  Why	
  Your	
  World	
  is	
  about	
  to	
  Get	
  a	
  Whole	
  Lot	
  Smaller.	
  Toronto,	
  Canada:	
  Random	
  House	
   of	
  Canada,	
  2009.	
  	
   Rundle,	
  A.,	
  et	
  al.	
  "Neighborhood	
  Food	
  Environment	
  and	
  Walkability	
  Predict	
  Obesity	
  in	
  New	
  York	
   City."	
  Environmental	
  health	
  perspectives	
  117.3	
  (2009):	
  442.	
  	
   Silberberg,	
  Ted,	
  et	
  al.	
  A	
  Guide	
  for...	
  the	
  Revitalization	
  of	
  Retail	
  Districts.	
  Toronto,	
  Canada:	
  Project:	
   Saving	
  Small	
  Business,	
  1976.	
  	
   Surface	
  Transportation	
  Policy	
  Project.	
  Census	
  Journey	
  to	
  Work.	
  Vol.	
  4.,	
  2002.	
  	
   Vaisbord,	
  Peter.	
  Interview.	
  Coordinator,	
  Busines	
  Improvement	
  Areas	
  Program.	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver,	
   2010.	
  	
   Vancouver	
  Economic	
  Development	
  Commission.	
  "Dunbar	
  Village	
  Neighbourhood	
  Profile."	
  2008.	
   <http://www.bizmapbc.com/neighbourhood-­‐profiles/dunbar-­‐neighbourhood.pdf>.	
   Walljasper,	
  Jay.	
  The	
  Great	
  Neighborhood	
  Book:	
  A	
  do-­‐it-­‐Yourself	
  Guide	
  to	
  Placemaking.	
  Gabriola	
   Island,	
  BC,	
  Canada:	
  New	
  Society	
  Publishers,	
  2007.	
  	
   Waugh,	
  D.	
  Geography:	
  An	
  Integrated	
  Approach.	
  Nelson	
  Thornes,	
  2000.	
  	
   Wozny,	
  Richard,	
  Peter	
  Hume,	
  and	
  Lewis	
  Silberberg.	
  Retail	
  Impact	
  Study:	
  Proposed	
  Wal-­‐Mart	
  and	
   Ancillary	
  Space,	
  86	
  S.E.	
  Marine	
  Drive,	
  Vancouver,	
  B.C.	
  City	
  of	
  Vancouver,	
  2002.	
  July	
  7,	
  2010.	
   Wrigley,	
  N.,	
  and	
  MS	
  Lowe.	
  "Reading	
  Retail:	
  A	
  Geographical	
  Perspective	
  on	
  Retailing	
  and	
   Consumption	
  Spaces."	
  (2002).	
   	
    	
    55	
    APPENDIX	
  A Characteristics	
  of	
  Selected	
  Vancouver	
  Retail	
  Areas Local Area Statistics (2006)  Granville St.  W. 63rd Ave. to W. 71st Ave.  7  Safeway  Marpole  $41,125  19.9%  12.5%  Percentage of population with English Mother Tongue 36.5%  West Boulevard/ East Boulevard  W. 43rd Ave. to W. 49th Ave.  7  No  Arbutus Ridge  $54,199  22.9%  19.7%  Cambie St.  W. 12th Ave. to W. 19th Ave.  7  Choices  South Cambie  $61,524  20.0%  Larch St. to Maple St.  6  Small grocer only  Kerrisdale  $61,710  23.9%  5  Small grocer  Riley Park  $56,973  Stongs Small grocers Small grocer; Fruit and Vegetable store  Dunbar-Southlands  $86,885  Victoria-Fraserview  Arterial  W. 41  st  Ave  Fraser St. Dunbar St.  Approximate Extent of Retail Area (Length in blocks)  Cross-streets  W. 23rd Ave. to W. 28th Ave. th  th  4.5  Includes a Grocery Store?  Local Area  Median Household Income  Percentage of Percentage of population 19 population 65 & under & over  Business Improvement Area?  Zoning Designation  Other Comments  Marpole B.I.A.  C2  Granville is very wide, entrance to Vancouver from the south. Retail area could have regional significance. Unusual street condition with disused railway down the middle between West and East Boulevards.  45.9%  Kerrisdale B.I.A.  C2  14.4%  61.6%  Cambie Village B.I.A.  C2  Between new Canada Line stations at Broadway and King Edward Avenues.  14.6%  55.0%  Kerrisdale B.I.A.  C2  20.6%  12.4%  54.6%  N/A  C2  25.8%  13.2%  68.4%  Dunbar Village B.I.A.  C2  BIA is T-shaped. Very large number of shops. http://www.kerrisdalevillage.com/directory/ shops.php Only barely discontinuous with retail along the rest of Fraser St. Wide variety of shops  $49,499  21.9%  17.1%  25.7%  Victoria Drive B.I.A.  C2  Victoria Dr.  W. 25 Ave. to W. 30 Ave E. 47th Ave. to E. 51st Ave.  W. 10th Ave  Tolmie St. to Discovery St.  3  Safeway  Point Grey  $77,079  21.5%  14.4%  71.6%  W. 16th Ave. to W. 19th Ave. W. 39th Ave to W. 41st Ave. and east to Collingwood St.  3  No  Dunbar-Southlands  $86,885  25.8%  13.2%  68.4%  Point Grey Village B.I.A. Dunbar Village B.I.A.  C2  Dunbar St.  C2  Retail is not continuous on both sides of the street. Significant sites currently under redevelopment. New retail appears to struggle. Serves UBC students who arrive via public transit. Commercial uses are not continuous  3  Supermarket  Dunbar-Southlands  $86,885  25.8%  13.2%  68.4%  Dunbar Village B.I.A.  C2  41st is a busy street for auto traffic.  Several small markets Hastings-Sunrise  $49,907  21.4%  16.2%  36.8%  N/A  C1  "First Avenue Marketplace" at E 1st Avenue and Renfrew St is an auto-oriented, regionally-serving Asian specialty mall.  Dunbar St.  Renfrew St.  E. 41st and Knight Nanaimo St.  Gravely St. to E. 2nd Ave.  2.5  T-shaped area at intersection  2  2 small grocers  Sunset/ VictoriaFraserview  $50,405  23.3%  15.1%  25.3%  N/A  C1  Auto oriented retail. Only a few shops (spread out with parking).  Graveley St. to E. 2nd Ave.  2  No  Grandview Woodlands (west of Nanaimo)/ Hastings Sunrise (east of Nanaimo) RenfrewCollingwood  $42,625  18.8%  13.3%  49.4%  N/A  C1  $47,320  21.9%  13.8%  25.5%  N/A  C1  GrandviewWoodlands (west of Nanaimo)/ Hastings Sunrise (east of Nanaimo)  $42,625  18.8%  13.3%  49.4%  N/A  C1  40% of the local area has Chinese as mother tongue. 1side of the ST. at Gravely. NOT LOCAL mostly a few ethnic restaurants and 2 gas stations and a 7-11 serving regional traffic on E 1st 43% of local area population has Chinese mother tongue. Some walkable, some autooriented uses such as supermarket and 711. Two blocks long, with one side of the street per block. Population of GrandviewWoodlands area has shrunk since 1996.  Rupert St & 22 Ave. E. 22nd to E. 23rd Ave. and around the Tintersection Nanaimo St.  4  William St. to Charles St to Kitchener St.  1.5  1  Chong Lee Market  Small Grocery Market  Notes: Statistical data reflect the local area where each retail area is located. For local areas located along the border between two local areas, the average of the relevant data for both areas is shown. For the sake of comparison, the 2006 city-wide statistics were: 17.9% of the population was aged 19 and under 13.1% of the population was aged 65 and over 49.1% of the population spoke English as their mother tongue Mean annual household income was $47,299 All local area statistics for 2006 are from the City of Vancouver's Local Area Statistics website, at http://vancouver.ca/commsvcs/planning/census/2006/localareas/  APPENDIX	
  B Complete	
  Set	
  of	
  Ground	
  Codes	
   CATEGORY AUTOMOTIVE Automotive Automotive Automotive  Type Auto Sales Gas Station Service / Parts  Ground Code 67 64 66  FOOD & DRUG RETAIL Food & Drug Retail Bakery / Butcher Food & Drug Retail Convenience Store Food & Drug Retail Drugstore Food & Drug Retail Grocer / Produce Food & Drug Retail Other Food & Drug/ Deli Food & Drug Retail Pharmacy  7 4 9 2 3 8  Food & Drug Retail Supermarket  1  FOOD SERVICE Food Service Food Service Food Service  Coffee Shop / Café Fast food Restaurant  14 11 12  Miscellaneous Miscellaneous Miscellaneous Miscellaneous Miscellaneous Miscellaneous Miscellaneous  Bar / Nightclub/ Hall/Theatre Hotel Interior Mall / Strip Mall Office General Parkade / Parking Lot Residential Warehouse  89 91 90 88 60 100 WH  VACANCY Vacancy Vacancy  Vacant Lot Vacant Unit  86 87  MISCELLANEOUS  CATEGORY  Type  RETAIL MERCHANDISE Retail Merchandise Art / Framing Retail Merchandise Bicycle Sales and Repairs Retail Merchandise Books / Cards / Stationery Retail Merchandise Cameras / Photo Retail Merchandise Clothing/ Drygoods Retail Merchandise Department Store Retail Merchandise Dollar Store/ Variety Store Retail Merchandise Electronics / Computers / Cell Phones/ Radio & TV Retail Merchandise Florist Retail Merchandise Furniture Retail Merchandise Gifts Hardware / Houseware / Appliances / Garden Supplies/ Retail Merchandise Roofing/ Electrical/ Heating Retail Merchandise Jewellery Retail Merchandise Liquor / Beer & Wine Retail Merchandise Music, including CDs and Instruments Retail Merchandise Office Supplies/ Business Supplies/ Signs Retail Merchandise Other Retail Merchandise/ Pet Food Retail Merchandise Second Hand Merchandise/ Antiques Retail Merchandise Shoes Retail Merchandise Retail Merchandise SERVICE Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service  Ground Code 76 69 70 77 38 33 36 61 83 62 79 56 54 82 84 72 37 51 55  Sporting Goods Toys / Hobbies  68 71  Accounting / Legal Bank / Credit Union / Money Exchange Barber / Hairdresser / Beauty Salon / Spa Dry Cleaner / Laundromat / Tailor Insurance / Real estate Medical / Dental Optometrist / Optical Other Service + unclear use Printing / Copying / Internet / Post Office / Post Boxes/ Photo Development Shoe Repair Travel Agent Veterinarian, Pet Grooming Video Rental  29 28 16 20 27 26 31 25  Ground Codes developed by Lewis Silberberg and used with permission. Text in grey indicates changes from his original set of codes.  21 19 17 24 18  APPENDIX	
  C:	
  	
  	
  Ground	
  Codes	
  and	
  Retail	
  Mix	
  Categories  1  Changes to the original set of ground code definitions as developed by Lewis Silberberg are noted in grey type.  Retail Mix Sub-Categories  Silberberg Category  Silberberg Type  Ground Codes  Supermarket Grocer/Produce  1 2  Bakery/Butcher Other Food & Drug/ Deli Pharmacy Drugstore Medical/Dental Optometrist/ Optical Coffee Shop/Cafe Restaurant Fast Food Convenience Store Liquor/Beer & Wine Barber/ Hairdresser/ Beauty Salon/ Spa Dry Cleaner/ Laundromat/ Tailor Shoe Repair Video Rental Bank/ Credit Union/ Money Exchange  7 3 8 9 26 31 14 12 11 4 82 16 20 19 18 28  Bar/Nightclub/Hall/Theatre Clothing/ Drygoods Shoes Jewellery Hardware / Houseware / Appliances / Garden Supplies/ Roofing/ Electrical/ Heating Furniture Dollar Store/ Variety Store Department Store Second Hand Consumer Merchandise/ Antiques  89 38 55 54  Convenience Goods and Services Supermarket Other Grocery  Food & Drug Retail  Health  Food & Drug Retail  Dining  Food Service  Convenience Retail  Food & Drug Retail Retail Merchandise Service  Convenience Services  Shoppers' Goods and Services Social/Entertainment Clothing Retail  Miscellaneous Retail Merchandise  Housewares, Hardware, Home Repair  Retail Merchandise  General Stores  Retail Merchandise  56 62 36 33 51  APPENDIX	
  C:	
  	
  	
  Ground	
  Codes	
  and	
  Retail	
  Mix	
  Categories Changes to the original set of ground code definitions as developed by Lewis Silberberg are noted in grey type.  Leisure Supplies & Services  Retail Merchandise  Service Pet Supplies and Services Other  Transportation  Service Miscellaneous Retail Merchandise Service Automotive Retail Merchandise  Art / Framing Books / Cards / Stationary Cameras / Photo Electronics / Computers / Cell Phones/ Radio & TV  76 70 77  Florist Gifts Music, including CDs and Instruments Sporting Goods Toys / Hobbies Travel Agent  83 79 84 68 71 17  Veterinarian, Pet Grooming/ Pet Food Hotel Other Retail Merchandise Other Service/ Training Gas Station Auto Service Auto Sales Bicycle Sales and Repairs  24 91 37 25 64 66 67 69  61  Offices, Professional Services and Business Supplies Service  Insurance/ Real Estate  27 29  Retail Merchandise Miscellaneous  Accounting/ Legal Research and Design: Software, Web, Architecture, Interior Decorating Office Supplies/ Business Supplies/ Commercial Signs/Courier Office General  N/A  Nature of business unclear  101 72 88  Unknown Uses 102  2  APPENDIX	
  D:	
  	
   CODED	
  CASE	
  STUDY	
  AREA	
  OCCUPANCY	
  DATA	
   AND  BASIC	
  RETAIL	
  MIX	
  ANALYSIS	
  COUNT	
  DATA Coded Occupancy Data Dunbar Centre Shopping Area Block Locations  Past Addresses  Business Address - current Date Built addresses  # of Strata Lots  1955  1955 Ground Codes  1970  1970 Ground Codes  1985  1985 Ground Codes  1998  1998 Ground Codes  2010  2010 Ground Codes  25th to 26th Ave - WEST 3621 W 26th  1992  33  4195 Dunbar  residential- 33 units Skuse Motors Garage  66  Dunbar Shell Service  66  Dunbar Shell Service  100  residential- 33 units  100  residential- 35 units AND 4168 to 4198 Dunbar Life Chiropractic Aegis Mobility Dunbar Spinal Decompression  100 26 26 26  Chaldecott Medical Clinic Artistic Salon for Pets Esther's Alterations George's Hair Styling Pharmasave Health Centre Kari's Hair & Esthetics J'Aime Les Cheveux  26 24 20 16 8 16 16  66  25th to 26th Ave - EAST 3595 4168 4180 4182  W 26th Dunbar Dunbar Dunbar  4186 4188 4192 4196 4198 3593 3591  Dunbar Dunbar Dunbar Dunbar Dunbar W. 26th Ave W 26th Ave  1999 " " "  4184 Dunbar  35  Lovegrove Bob Service Station  64  Lovegrove Service Station  64  Lovegrove Service Station  64  " " " " " " "  26th to 27th Ave - WEST 3606 W 26th Ave  1990  4205 Dunbar  1990  4207 Dunbar  residential Stephens - Tully Florists  83  residential  4209 Dunbar 4211 Dunbar  Dunbar Appliances 4219 Dunbar  56  1928  4229 Dunbar  Canada Safeway  1  4231 Dunbar  Spotless Cleaners  20  4233 Dunbar  1926  residential - 2 residents Joanne's Apparel Ladies' Wear  100  4243 Dunbar  1935  Hamilton A S Hardware  56  4235 Dunbar  Jean Ferguson's Candies  4245 Dunbar 4253 Dunbar  1935  4255 Dunbar  38  27  Dunbar Tailors & Cleaners residential x 2  20 100  Bordo's Interiors  56  Maria's Beauty Salon Pennyrich of Canada  16 38  residential Treasure Trove Antiques Black & Lee Formal Wear Rentals International Costume Designers Ltd. Dunbar Fish & Chips  3  residential  The Flower Studio Free Enterprise Party  100 83  Terra Firma Design Ltd.  28  Dunbar Cycles Skinetics Snip-it Hair Design  69  Dunbar Cycles  69  16  Peek-A-Boo Baby Boutique  38  25 Wood JS Realty Ltd Bennett C, Lawyer Black & Lee Formal Wear Rentals residential  Snip-It Hair Innovators  27 38 100  16  Vera's  102  Beantown Coffee Place  14  Beantown Coffee Place  14  residential - 2 residents  100  residential - 2 residents  100  residential - 2 residents  100  51  Kingswood Cottage  102  Camp Comfort Casuals  38  38  Peppermintree Childrens Wear  38  Peppermintree Childrens Wear  38  Just Imagine Fun Clothing  38  61  Thomson Television  16 12 3 27  100  Splash Toy Shop  71  61  Jools Women's Clothing  38  Chancery Hairtech Group Brick Oven Pizzeria  16 12  Skinetics Brick Oven Pizzeria  16 12  71  Chloe & Angus Fashion Design Studio  38  27  Carson Books 4 Cats Arts Studio Autoplan Insurance  70 76 27  20 12  Charm Beauty Salon Sunny Market Produce  16 2  Dunbar Beauty Salon Comox Market  16 4  Black & Lee Formal Wear Rentals  38  Thomson Television Lynnette's Hair & Fashion Studio Brick Oven Pizzeria Italian Canadian Delicatessen Kartz & Mclean Insurance Agencies Ltd.  Darr-Ella Apparel  38  Champlain Design  38  A Touch of Wool Beatrice Fashions Ltd Champlain Design  MacGregor Drygoods  38  MacGregor Drygoods  38  Intercom Insurance Services  38  1939  Harriott's Hosiery The Coffee Bar MacGregor Drygoods  38 14 38  101  Royal Bank of Canada  61  Sinclair Stores Men's Furnishing  Terra Firma Design Ltd.  28  Thomson Radio & TV  1939  101  Royal Bank of Canada  61  4273 Dunbar  4295 Dunbar  Wood J S Realty  3  1937  4275 Dunbar 4293 Dunbar  83  Devon Dairy Thomson Radio & Record Shop  4263 Dunbar 4265 Dunbar  The Flower Studio  100  38  26th to 27th Ave - EAST 3590 W. 26th Ave 4200 Dunbar  1997  37  4202 Dunbar  residential- 37 units TD Canada Trust Dunbar 5 and 10-Cent Store  36  Store No. 611  Michael Beauty Salon  16  Michael Beauty Salon  102  Dunbar Cycles  69  Michel Beauty Salon  16  4210 Dunbar 4212 Dunbar  16  4220 Dunbar 4230 Dunbar  Dunbar Fish & Chips  12  4232 Dunbar  Affleck Miss J Y milliner Kalugeroff C Shoe Repair Dunbar Dairy Dunbar Market Meats Dunbar Cycles  19 3 7 69  4236 Dunbar 4238 Dunbar 4244 Dunbar LANE  4250 Dunbar  4256 Dunbar 4260 Dunbar  McTaggart Realty Carlene Beauty Salon  27 16  4264 Dunbar  Swartz C F Barber  16  4268 Dunbar  Dunbar Children's Wear  38  4288 Dunbar  1939  38  1939  Dutch Bakery  4290 Dunbar  Dairydale  4292 Dunbar  Stylemaster Tailors West & Hegler Real Estate Clokie JFA physician  4294 Dunbar 4298 Dunbar  7  Moore Bill Realty Dunbar Roofing & General Contractors  Dunbar Cycles Dunbar Meats  27  56  56  J & K Kitchen Stuffs Ltd. Dunbar Roofing & General Contractors Ltd.  69 7  Gold Star Shoe Repair Matinee Studio Dunbar Meats  19 38 7  Regent Heating Mr. Ntino's Coiffures  56 16  Regent Heating Kay's Beauty Salon Dunbar Men's Barbering & Hairstyling  56 16  McTaggart Realty McTaggart & Wotherspoon  27  Dunbar Insurance Agency Ltd.  27  Robert's Jeweller  54  Point Grey Jewellers  54  16  Clay Electric Ltd Regent Heating Ltd Kay's Beauty Salon Dunbar Men's Barbering & Hairstyling Dunbar Insurance Agency Ltd. F T Golf Research Kwozzi Golfworks Inc  20  S & K Shoe Store  55  Checkers Jr Clothing Co  38  27 26  Clokie JFA physician  26  Doctor's Office - Dr. A Musial  26  Doctor's Office - Dr. A Musial  residential  100  residential  Dr. Daisy Tang Dental Office  26  H & R Block  29  Top Cut Barber  16  Image Optometry  31  Regent Heating Vida Beautilities  56 16  56  Omega Custom Framing & Gallery Ceber Development Ltd. Dunbar Toy Store Ltd. Christmas Parties Inc.  3  100 28  100  56 16 16  Dunbar Barber  16  27  Germaine's Antiques  51  71  76 56  Wild Sushi  12  Omega Custom Framing & Gallery  76  Doctor's Office - Dr. A Musial  26  71  26  27th to 28th Ave - WEST 3600 W. 27th Ave  1927  3608 W. 27th Ave  ?  4305 Dunbar  Wascana Block Apts - 6 residents 100 Braemar Pharmacy Dunbar Lib & Gift Shop Kelowna Market and Grocer Ideal Bakery  1927  4311 Dunbar 4315 Dunbar 4321 Dunbar 4331 Dunbar  2 7  Morton & Gale Radio Ideal Bakery  4335 Dunbar 4339 Dunbar  Beaver Brand Fisheries  3  Vacant  87  residential Vancouver Driving School  1925  100  Dunbar Gift Shop  residential x 2 Nest (The) Eggs and Poultry  4341 Dunbar  1925  8 79  residential - 4 residents  3  79  residential Ashlee Cards & Gifts  61 7  Enmark Jewlers Ideal Bakery  100 100 70 54 7  residential x 2 Dunbar Distributors Dunbar Home Furnishings BC Motel Supply residential  100  residential  56 72 100  Dunbar Bargain Mart residential  100  100  residential  100  100  residential/ non office  100  residential Ashlee Cards & Gifts  100 70  Olindas Handmade Clothing Vacant  Enmark Jewlers Ideal Bakery residential Curiosities Shop  54 7 100 79  Enmark Jewlers Butter Baked Goods residential Black Mountain Books  70 87  residential  100  38  Odenza Homes  101  3  Dunbar Produce  2  54  Chris' Café  14  Cunningham Drugs Dunbar Hardware & Paints  56  Dunbar Barber Shop Nicholls Anne Ltd. Ladies' Wear B & K Econ Grocer  16  Velma's Beauty Salon  16  Budget House of Beauty  16  Sushi Q  12  Sushi Q  12  38 2  Dunbar One Hour Martinizing Bank of Montreal  20 28  Money's Martinizing Bank of Montreal  20 28  Money's Drycleaning Bank of Montreal Drs Ley & Elterman: Clinical & Forensic Psychologists  20 28  Money's Drycleaning Bank of Montreal Drs Ley & Elterman: Clinical & Forensic Psychologists  20 28  4385 Dunbar  1930  4389 Dunbar 4395 Dunbar 3641 W. 28th Ave  1986  9  residential  8  100  Fisher Pharmacy  8  Mainly Clothes  100  54 7 100  Vacant residential  38 87  Roberts' Jeweller  1931  38  residential/ non office  100  4345 Dunbar LANE 4355 Dunbar  Cloud Nine Ladies Apparel  36  100  residential  4345 Dunbar  4365 Dunbar  25  100  residential - 6 residents  Italian-Canadian Delicatessen  residential  100  26  26  27th to 28th Ave - EAST 3596 W 27th Ave  Davidson Block: 8 residents + Chernen N dentist Christensen H F physician Swetnam W J Ltd. Wholesale Lumber  1947  4306 Dunbar 4308 Dunbar  Canadian Imperial Bank Berry J Chiropractor 4316 Dunbar  26  Davidson Enterprises Ltd.  88  Davidson Enterprises Ltd.  88  26  Dr. Norman Chernen  26  Dr. Norman Chernen  26  Dunbar Acupuncture & Wellness Centre Dr. Colin Leech-Porter, Psychologist  Canadian Imperial Bank  28  Canadian Imperial Bank  28  Canadian Imperial Bank  Mountain Dance Theatre Fisher Pharmasave Drugs  89  residential - 3 residents  100  residential  8  Shoppers Drug Mart Future World Travel Inc.  9 17  88  28 26  Canadian Imperial Bank  28  100  Stong's Market  1 Maher International Distributors Inc.  4336 Dunbar 4338 4342 4344 4348  Dunbar Dunbar Dunbar Dunbar  4356 4364 4376 4392  Dunbar Dunbar Dunbar Dunbar  Masonic Halls Buttons & Bows Novelties residential Dunbar Shoe Store J K Shoe Repair Preston Home Furnishings Interior Decorator residential residential residential  26  88  1960  4326 Dunbar  26  89  Quantum Research Ltd.  101  Sweet Investments Ltd. J M & Associates Terrain Analysis Inc.  101  new residential building with 9 households  100  residential - 16 residents  100  Shopper's Drug Mart  28  9  29  71 100 55 19  56 100 100 100  28th to 29th Ave - WEST 3626 W. 28th  1985  22  4407 Dunbar 4409 Dunbar 4413 Dunbar  Jacobson A B Realty Ltd Scott T H Jeweller Len's Grocer Myers Cleaners & Weavers Rogers F Barber Sanderson G F Shoe Repair  4439 Dunbar 4441 Dunbar 4443 Dunbar  LANE  4445 Dunbar 4447 Dunbar 4451 Dunbar 4455 Dunbar  1926 1926  4465 Dunbar 4467 Dunbar  27 54 2  Golden Coin Restaurant residential Coin Laundry  20 16  Myers Cleaners  7  Quality Auto Electric  Mayfair Dairy  3  residential  56 2  Dunbar Hardware Loo M S Market  66  100 56 2  4474 Dunbar 4479 Dunbar  Exmoor Meat Market Dunbar Cleaners & Dyers  4485 Dunbar 4495 Dunbar 4497 Dunbar 3641 W 29th Ave  1980  3625 W 29th Ave  1989?  3  100  12 100 20  19  Qualitie Made Bakery  Sealey's Hardware Lee Some Market  Residential Upstairs: multiunits  7 20  B C Teachers Credit Union (UBC Branch)  residential Dunbar Hardware Lings Market Qualitie Made Bakery Ltd Dunbar Cleaners & Dressmakers  Dunbar Cleaners  20  Espresso Pizza Variety Village  12 36  Suzuki Motorcycle Centre  72  Blenheim House + 1 resident  residential  100  Nouwens Signs  residential  100  residential  100  28  100 56 2  B C Teachers Credit Union (Oakridge Branch) BC Pest Control Ltd. residential  28 25 100  Dunbar VanCity White Dove Spa  28 16  BC Pest Control Ltd. Cosy Inn Café Elements Academy of Martial Arts Starbucks Coffee  25 14 25 14  Dunbar 1 Hr EnviroSafe Dry Cleaners  20 77 83 89  Dunbar Hardware  56  20  Qualitie Made Bakery Mac's Convenience Stores Dunbar Cleaners & Dressmakers  20  67  Photo Station Sodas Diner  77 12  Photo Station Heaven & Earth Flowers The Dunbar Social House  Black & Benjamin Lawyers  29  Ivy Montessori School  25  residential/ non office  100  7  100  7  28th to 29th Ave - EAST 4408 Dunbar  Pride Cleaners 4410 Dunbar  1978  English Cottage Sweets  20 3  Dunbar Royalite M & N Distributors  88  4414 Dunbar  Dunbar Seafood Market  4418 Dunbar  Simon's Fish & Chips Le Petit Gourmand Delicatessen Ltd.  4424 Dunbar  Pyramid Pet Shop Vacant  4426 Dunbar  37 87  4428 Dunbar 4432 Dunbar  Video Plus Marvin Enterprise Corp  4442 Dunbar 4446 Dunbar  Dunbar Carpet Centre What-Knot Shop Gifts  56 79  residential  4448 Dunbar  Marcel Jewelery  54  Davies Chimney & Roofing  100 20 87  4450 Dunbar  1947  residential Apex Cleaners Vacant  4464 Dunbar  1980  Morton & Gale Radio Vacant Masonic Hall  4454 Dunbar 4458 Dunbar 4466 Dunbar 4470 Dunbar 4474 Dunbar  residential  56 100  61 87 89  4484 Dunbar 4490 Dunbar 4492 Dunbar 3804 W 29th  64 101  Macgregor Don Photography Davies Chimney & Roofing Co Ltd. residential  Superior Cleaners  29th and Dunbar Home Service Modern Decorators  12 3 18 102  20  Asianda Food Express Ltd  12  Simon's Kitchen  12  G & S Laundromat and Dry Clearning Lucky Star Best Chinese Szechuan Restaurant Simon's Kitchen Chinese Cuisine  Techno-Kids  25  Mexicali Mexican Food  12  Video Plus Valentino's Restaurant  18 12  Nightwatch Video The Shop Hair & Esthetics  18 16  Macgregor Don Photography  76  Not retail space - office? storage? For Stong's Market  88  Pizza Garden  12  Mac's Convenience Store Pacific Spirits Beer & Wine  4 82  Great Clips for Hair Subway Sandwiches & Salads  16 12  Vancouver Public Library Dunbar Power Tool Rentals Kerrisdale Equipment Rentals  25  20 12 12  100  4480 Dunbar  Williams J G Service Station Modern Decorators  3  Dunbar Laundromat & Drycleaning  25 101  76 56 100  20  residential  Old Western Pizza Inc.  100  12  Alpha Books Aetna Travel Ltd Peppermint Patti's  70 17 102  residential - 2 residents George's Hairstyling Co. Subway Sandwiches & Salads  100 16 12  Modern Decorators  101  residential  100  29th to 30th Ave - WEST 4515 Dunbar  1950  4531 Dunbar  Vancouver Public Library Dunbar Power Tool Rentals Vancouver Power Tool  25 56  Vancouver Public Library Dunbar Power Tool Rentals Vancouver Power Tool Rentals  Wyall R S Dentist  26  residential  25  Vancouver Public Library  25  Vancouver Public Library  25  56  Dunbar Power Tool Rentals  56  Vancouver Power Tools  56  residential - 2 residents  100  4533 Dunbar  1945  Arvig E Jeweler  54  Klip'n Kurl Beauty Salon  20  4543 Dunbar  1926  Patterson Florist  83  Patterson's Florist  83  4555 Dunbar  1935  Doryern Café Dunbar Theatre  14 89  Dunbar Browse-Around Dunbar Theatre  38 89  4585 Dunbar  1973  4535 Dunbar  4545 Dunbar  100  Rainbow Shoes  55  Patterson's Florist Dunbar Browse-Around Clothing Ltd. Dunbar Theatre  83  Patterson's Florist  83  Alta Vista Animal Hospital  24  38 89  Dunbar Browse-Around Dunbar Theatre  38 89  Dunbar Theatre  89  Cheshire Cheese Inn  12  Cheshire Cheese Inn Empress Bakery  12 7  Cheshire Cheese Inn Kokopelli Café  12 14  4593 Dunbar BA Service 30th and Dunbar  4595 Dunbar  64  56  residential The Clippers Edge Barber Shop  100 16  Art & Gordie's Dunbar Gulf Service  64  Color & Line  76  K & K Pet Foods  37  K & K Pet Foods  24  McDermott's Body Shop  66  McDermott's Body Shop  66  McDermott's Body Shop  66  McDermott's Body Shop  66  29th to 30th Ave - EAST  4518 4528 4534 4534 4534 4534 4538 4542  Dunbar Dunbar Dunbar Dunbar Dunbar Dunbar Dunbar Dunbar  4544 4546 4548 4554 4558  Dunbar Dunbar Dunbar Dunbar Dunbar  4508 Dunbar -  1 2 3 4  4560 Dunbar 4590 Dunbar  1952  1964  McDermott's Body Shop Dunbar Music Studio Southland Realty residential Stewart R J Dentist Dunbar Dental Lab residential Anton's Hairdressing George's Grocery  66 84 27 100 26 26 100 26 2  Wholesale Kitchenwares Dunbar School of residential residential residential residential Dunbar Garage  56 25 100 100 100 100 66  Stong's Market  1  Stong's Market  1  Stong's Market  1  Retail Mix Analysis - Dunbar Centre Shopping Area Number of Uses by Category  1955  All Business Uses  1970  1985  1998  2010  97  64  73  69  82  50  23  28  32  51  Supermarkets  1  1  1  1  1  Other Grocery  19  3  7  4  2  Health  10  2  3  4  12  Dining  4  3  3  10  13  Convenience Retail  0  1  0  0  2  16  13  14  13  21  41  33  34  30  26  2  2  2  1  2  12  8  10  8  5  8  7  6  4  2  General Stores  1  2  1  0  1  Leisure supplies & services  8  5  8  11  7  Pet supplies and services  0  0  0  0  3  Transportation  7  6  5  2  2  Other  3  3  2  4  4  Office, Business Supplies & Professional Services  6  7  7  7  5  Unknown Uses  0  1  4  0  0  Convenience Goods and Services  Convenience Services Shoppers' Goods and Services Social/ Entertainment Clothing Retail Housewares, Hardware, Home Repair  Breakdown of Convenience Services Barber/ Hairdresser/ Beauty Salon/ Spa Dry Cleaner/ Laundromat/ Tailor Shoe Repair Video Rental Bank/ Credit Union/ Money Exchange  1955  1970  1985  1998  2010  6  5  6  5  11  6 3 0  6 0 0  3 1 1  3 0 1  4 0 1  1  2  3  4  5  Coded Occupancy Data Rupert and 22nd Shopping Area Block Location  Business Address Business Address - Current -Past Addresses addresses up to 3765 - residential 3281 3285 3291 3295  E E E E  22nd 22nd 22nd 22nd  Ave. Ave Ave Ave  Date Built  1956 " " "  1955  1955 Ground Codes  Vacant  87  3745 Rupert  1970  Stong's Market  1970 Ground Codes  1  1985  1985 Ground Codes  *Bryant Used Store Equipment Ltd.  72  1998  1998 Ground Codes  H&T Video Plus Video Plus H&T Red Rose Beauty Salon Ltd. Lucky Bakery 7-11 Food Stores  18 16 7 4  2010  e.tea Bubble Tea Lovely Salon Lucky Bakery 7-11 Food Stores  2010 Ground Codes  14 16 7 4  Southwest Corner 3298 E. 22nd Ave 3815 Rupert  1920 Keller's Drugs Skidmore & Sons Grocer  3831 Rupert 3835 Rupert 3845 Rupert  1948 Model Cleaners Rupert Book Exchange Hostess Bakery 1986 residential  20 70 7 100  3855 3869 3871 3874 3874 3883  1950 Renfrew Fruit Market 1949 residential Frank's Shoe Re-Nu Frank's Retail Notions 1962 Residential  100 19 37 100  3833 Rupert  9 2  Douglas Tex Gas & Oil Inst Ltd. Keller's United Pharmacy  88 8  Douglas Tex Gas & Oil Inst Ltd. Keller's Pharmasave Drugs  88 8  Rupert Fish Market Universal Bakery  Model Cleaners & Launderers Ltd.  20  Comic Land  70  Comic Land  Totem-In Laundry  20  Burnco Enterprises Ltd  88  Pinky Laundromat Hyperlight Enterprises residential Linda's Grocery Jerry's Hairstyling  3849 Rupert Rupert Rupert Rupert Rupert Rupert Rupert  3885 Rupert 3895 Rupert  1978 Residential  3295 E 23rd Ave  1978  Southeast Corner 3808 Rupert 3810 Rupert 3850 Rupert 3858 Rupert 3868 3888 3898 3304 3308  Rupert St. Rupert St. Rupert St. E. 22nd Ave E. 22nd Ave  1959 " " " "  2  100  Bud's Grill Lucille's Beauty Salon  12 16  Brown EG barber Anne's Kiddies Shoppe  16 38  Linda Grocery residential Joy's Beauty Bar Bud's Grill Rupert Hardware Residential  2 100 16 12 56 100  Linda Grocery Jerry's Hairstyling residential M J Hairstyling Golden Fish Café Rupert Italian & Canadian Delicatessen Dr. Joseph Yick, Dentist  *Stong's Markets Ltd (Store no 3) No even numbered addresses listed in the 3800 block for 1970.  2 16 100 16 12 3 26  3 7  Rupert Fish Market Universal Bakery  3 7  70  MP Express (Media)  61  20 71 100 2 16  20 70 100 2 16 100 16  M J Hairstyling  16  Pinky Laundromat Comic Land residential Linda's Grocery Jerry's Barber Shop residential V-Na Hair Design  Golden Fish Café Rupert Italian & Canadian Delicatessen Dr. Joseph Yick, Dentist Members of the Legislative Assembley & Cnsttncy New Democrats Glen Clark  14  Kimura Sushi & Japanese Cuisine  12  3 26  Tandoori House Restaurant Dr. Joseph Yick, Dentist  12 26  88  Yong Shang Denturist & Accupuncture  26  Golden Oscar Café & Restaurant Medical Office - Dr. Leah Wong Pop Beauty Salon Little Ceasar's Pizza Chong Lee Market  12 26 16 12 1  1 Golden Oscar Café & Restaurant  12  Little Ceasar's Pizza Chong Lee Market  12 1  Retail Mix Analysis - Rupert and 22nd Shopping Area Number of Uses by Category  1955  All Business Uses  1970  1985  1998  2010  12  9  12  19  21  9  7  8  16  19  Supermarkets  0  1  1  1  1  Other Grocery  3  1  2  5  4  Health  1  1  2  1  3  Dining  1  1  1  3  5  Convenience Retail  0  0  0  1  1  Convenience Services  4  3  2  5  5  3  1  1  2  2  Social/ Entertainment  0  0  0  0  0  Clothing Retail  1  0  0  0  0  Housewares, Hardware, Home Repair  0  1  0  0  0  General Stores  0  0  0  0  0  Leisure supplies & services  1  0  1  2  2  Pet supplies and services  0  0  0  0  0  Transportation  0  0  0  0  0  Other  1  0  0  0  0  Office, Business Supplies & Professional Services  0  1  3  1  0  Unknown Uses  0  0  0  0  0  Convenience Goods and Services  Shoppers' Goods and Services  Breakdown of Convenience Services Barber/ Hairdresser/ Beauty Salon/ Spa Dry Cleaner/ Laundromat/ Tailor  1955  1970  1985  1998  2010  2  1  2  3  4  1  2  0  1  1  Shoe Repair  1  0  0  0  0  Video Rental Bank/ Credit Union/ Money Exchange  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  Coded Occupancy Data Nanaimo and Charles Shopping Area Business Address - Past Addresses  Block Location  Business Address - current addresses  # of Date Strata Built Lots  1955 Business Names  1955 Ground Codes  1970 Business Names  1970 Ground Codes  1985 Ground Codes  1998 Business Names  1998 Ground Codes  Nanaimo Street One Hour Martinizing  20  Classy Cleaner Nanaimo Street One Hour Martinizing  20  residential - 1 resident  100  Sabor Latino Bakery  Dental Clinic  26  residential - 1 resident  100  Sunnyview Dental Centre  26  Aquarian Truth Centre  25  1985 Business Names  2010 Business Names  2010 Ground Codes  West side, William to Charles (C1) 1205 Nanaimo  1967  1209 Nanaimo 1211 Nanaimo  "  1215 Nanaimo  1960  1217 Nanaimo  "  1219 Nanaimo  "  1235 Nanaimo  1945  Martin's Grocery  2  Handy Gift Shop  79  Nanaimo Street One Hour Martinizing  residential  20  100  Marine Workers & Boilermakers Industrial Union Loc No 1  88  Dato Hair Design  Studio Cleaners  20  Perfect Cleaners  20  Willchar Hairdressing Salon  16  Stylette Coiffures  16  1245 Nanaimo  Nanaimo Estates Nanaimo Shoe Renew  27 19  1283 - 9 Nanaimo  Refrigerator Refinishers & Sales  56  1285 Nanaimo  Nanaimo & Charles Service Station  64  Nanaimo & Charles Service  64  "  Jack's Fish & Chips  12  1237 Nanaimo 1243 Nanaimo  1263 Nanaimo  2004  37  7  16  residential  Vito's Texaco  Shima's Lawnmower Shop  Envirosafety Confined Space Equipment  72  Nana Pasta Bar & Grill  12  Gateway Appraisal & Consulting Corp.  27  64  22  1269 Nanaimo  Gateway Appraisal & Consulting Corp.  1273 Nanaimo  Gateway Appraisal & Consulting Corp.  1279 Nanaimo  Vancouver Wellness Chiropractic  26  1289 Nanaimo  Westcoast Family Medicine  26  1293 Nanaimo  X-Treme Image Family Hair Salon  16  1299 Nanaimo  Nanaimo Pharmacy  2389 Charles (strata) - includes shops on Nanaimo  residential  8 100  East side, William to Charles (C1) 1208 Nanaimo  Economy Hardware  1222 Nanaimo  residential - 1 resident  1224 Nanaimo  Nanaimo Grocery  1236 Nanaimo  Vacant  1238 Nanaimo  56 100 2 87  1250 Nanaimo  Alberta Estates Ltd. Reynolds Radio & Electronics  61  1252 Nanaimo  Nanaimo Barber Shop  16  1260 Nanaimo  27  Canada Safeway  1960-1988  1266 Nanaimo  residential - 1 resident  1276 Nanaimo  Irish Cleaner  20  1280 Nanaimo  Hahn J Variety Store  36  1296 Nanaimo  Rodo Lunch  12  Acklet G H Chartered Accountant  25  1212, 18, 28, 32, 38, 62, 78, 88, 98  1994  1  28 households  2475 Charles St  Charles St. West of Nanaimo3 houses - residential (2346, 2356 & 2366)  Canada Safeway  1  residential - 9 units Ernie's Disposal & Clean-Up  25  100  residential - 9 units  100  East side, Charles to Kitchener  2410 Charles St  L3 Design & Core Information Technologies  2002  2412 Charles St  Nostalgia Hair Design  16  Nanaimo Shoe Repair Eleonora Hair Style Estetica & Facial Hong May's Hair Design  Skookum Prints  76  Nanaimo Sport Bar  89  Boccoli Hair for Men & Women  16  Rex - B Pharmacy 1310 Nanaimo  2002  East End Pharmacy  8  8  101  19  16  Prince Dry Cleaners  20  Koda Klothing  38  Rexmar Beauty Bar " 1316 Nanaimo  16 "  1320 Nanaimo  Economy Meat Market 1336 Nanaimo  1930  7  Barkers Grocery  Economy Meat Market  2  Polar Refridgeration Service  1340 Nanaimo  "  Healthway Bakery  7  Nanaimo Beauty Bar  1350 Nanaimo  1930  Nanaimo Marketeria  4  residential - 1 resident  1360 Nanaimo  1930  Joe's Shoe Renew  1367 Nanaimo  "  1370 Nanaimo  1930  1386 Nanaimo  ?  19  Kitchenette Grocery  2  Bings Grocery  2  Classic Shoes Renzullo Food Market  7 56 16 100 55 2  1390 Nanaimo  1977  Bailey's D Service Station  64  Joe's Automotive Service  38 16  64  2  New York Foods Catering  3  San Marco Jewelers  54  San Marco Jewelers  54  3 88 72  Renzullo Food Market  residential - 4 residents  "  Nanaimo Grocery Market  New York Foods Inc.  Kwiki Courier Ltd.  Espresso Bar 2000  residential - 1 resident 14  16 16  2  12  A-1 Bus Line Pick-Up Ltd.  Boccoli Hair for Men & Women Sun Hut Tanning Salon  Nanaimo Food Market  Positano Pizza Renzullo Food Market  1386 Nanaimo  1394 Nanaimo  Factory To You Fashions Nanaimo Beauty Bar Wong's Food Store Ltd.  Dragon Video  San Marco Jewelers  3  Renzullo Food Market  100  2 3 54 3  Panago Pizza  12  Calypso Montessori School  25  18  Retail Mix Analysis - Nanaimo and Charles Shopping Area Number of Uses by Category  1955  All Business Uses  1970  1985  1998  2010  27  15  15  11  22  17  9  9  9  14  Supermarkets  0  1  1  0  0  Other Grocery  7  2  2  3  4  Health  1  1  1  0  4  Dining  2  0  2  0  2  Convenience Retail  1  0  0  0  0  Convenience Services  6  5  3  6  4  8  5  4  2  5  Social/ Entertainment  0  0  0  1  0  Clothing Retail Housewares, Hardware, Home Repair  0  1  2  1  2  2  1  0  0  0  General Stores  1  0  0  0  0  Leisure supplies & services  2  0  1  0  0  Pet supplies and services  0  0  0  0  0  Transportation  2  2  1  0  0  Other  1  1  0  0  3  Office, Business Supplies & Professional Services  2  1  2  0  3  Unknown Uses  0  0  0  0  0  Convenience Goods and Services  Shoppers' Goods and Services  Breakdown of Convenience Services  1955  1970  1985  1998  2010  Barber/ Hairdresser/ Beauty Salon/ Spa  2  3  2  3  3  Dry Cleaner/ Laundromat/ Tailor  2  2  1  1  1  Shoe Repair  2  0  0  1  0  Video Rental Bank/ Credit Union/ Money Exchange  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

    

Usage Statistics

Country Views Downloads
United States 48 2
Canada 31 10
China 14 41
Sweden 11 0
Estonia 10 0
Chile 7 0
Germany 6 12
Pakistan 4 0
France 3 0
Japan 3 0
Belgium 2 0
Australia 2 1
Brazil 2 0
City Views Downloads
Unknown 30 19
Buffalo 23 0
Vancouver 12 3
Ashburn 8 0
Santiago 7 0
Fuzhou 5 0
Boardman 5 0
Berlin 5 0
North Vancouver 4 0
Islamabad 4 0
Shenzhen 4 41
Kitchener 3 0
Tokyo 3 0

{[{ mDataHeader[type] }]} {[{ month[type] }]} {[{ tData[type] }]}
Download Stats

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.310.1-0102523/manifest

Comment

Related Items