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Promoting inter-community-school relations through the capitation grant in ghana Yoshioka, Asuka 2010-01-31

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   PROMOTING INTER-COMUNITY-SCHOL RELATIONS THROUGH THE CAPITATION GRANT IN GHANA  by  ASUKA YOSHIOKA  B.A. Honours, University of Toronto, 2004   A PROJECT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF ARTS (PLANNING)  in  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  School of Community and Regional Planning   We accept this project as conforming to the required standard   .....................................................  .....................................................  .....................................................     THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA January 2010  © Asuka Yoshioka, 2010     
  Promoting Inter-Comunity-Schol Relations Through the Capitation Grant in Ghana             “It takes a whole comunity to educate a child.”  – African proverb   
TABLE OF CONTENTS  LIST OF ACRONYMS......................................................................................................4 LIST OF FIGURES...........................................................................................................4 LIST OF TABLES.............................................................................................................4 LIST OF BOXES...............................................................................................................4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS................................................................................................5 EXECUTIVE SUMARY..................................................................................................6 1.0 INTRODUCTION: EDUCATION AND DEVELOPMENT............................................8 1.1 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: ENHANCING COMUNITY PARTICIPATION IN EDUCATION....8 1.2 BACKGROUND OF THIS PROJECT...............................................................................9 1.3 PROJECT GOALS AND OBJECTIVES..........................................................................12 1.4 METHODS OF DATA COLECTION AND ANALYSIS......................................................13 1.5 ORGANIZATION OF THIS REPORT.............................................................................16 2.0 HISTORICAL CONTEXT: APLICATION OF KEY CONCEPTS IN PLANING AND COMUNITY PARTICIPATION IN GHANA.........................................................17 2.1 COMUNITY PARTICIPATION IN EDUCATION.............................................................18 2.2 DEFINITION OF COMUNITY.....................................................................................19 2.2 PARTICIPATION AND ITS APLICATION TO EDUCATION...............................................21 3.0 EDUCATION IN GHANA..........................................................................................25 3.1 EVOLUTION OF EDUCATIONAL POLICY......................................................................25 3.2 DECENTRALIZATION OF EDUCATION IN GHANA.........................................................26 3.3 SCHOL MANAGEMENT COMITE AND PARENT EACHER ASOCIATION...............27 3.4 EVOLUTION OF COMUNITY PARTICIPATION IN EDUCATION IN GHANA.......................29 4.0 CAPITATION GRANT..............................................................................................31 4.1 OPERATIONAL MECHANISMS OF THE CAPITATION GRANT..........................................31 4.2 STRENGTHS AND CHALENGES OF CAPITATION GRANT............................................33 4.3 EFECTS OF THE CAPITATION GRANT IN GHANA.......................................................35 5.0 FINDINGS.................................................................................................................38 5.1 STAKEHOLDERS’ PERSPECTIVES ON THE SIGNIFICANCE OF COMUNITY PARTICIPATION....................................................................................................................................38 5.2 STAKEHOLDERS’ PERSPECTIVES ON COMUNITY/PARENTS’ ROLE IN SCHOLS........40 5.3 CAPITATION GRANT AND THE COMUNITY...............................................................44 5.4 CONCLUSION..........................................................................................................49 6.0 RECOMENDATIONS............................................................................................51 
BIBLIOGRAPHY............................................................................................................53 APENDIX A: SURVEY FOR PARENTS......................................................................56 APENDIX B: SAMPLE SCHOL PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT PLAN (SPIP).58 APENDIX C: UBC BEHAVIOURAL RESEARCH ETHICS BOARD APROVAL CERTIFICATE................................................................................................................59 APENDIX D: CONTACT LETER...............................................................................60 APENDIX E: CONSENT FORM...................................................................................61 

BECE Basic Education Certificate Examination EFA Education For Al FCUBE Fre Compulsory Universal Basic Education GES Ghana Education Service MDG Milenium Development Goals EO etro Education Ofice MOES Ministry of Education, Science and Sports PTA Parent Teacher Asociation SMC Schol Management Comite SPIP Schol Performance Improvement Plan 
  Figure 1: Map of Ghana and Takoradi............................................................................10
Figure 3: Regions of Ghana............................................................................................11
Figure 2: Mean Anual Income Per Capita (GH¢)..........................................................11
Figure 4: Diference betwen Rural and Urban Comunities........................................20
Figure 5: Arnstein's "Lader of Citizen Participation".....................................................21
Figure 6: Rose's Spectrum of Participation.....................................................................22
Figure 7: Proces of Designing the SPIP........................................................................32
Figure 8: Flow of Capitation Grant Funds.......................................................................33
Figure 9: Gros Enrolment Ratio after abolition of schol fes......................................34

  Table 1: Mean Anual Income Per Capita by Locality....................................................11
Table 2: Roles of the comunity analyzed using Schaefer's Seven Levels of Participation............................................................................................................42

Box 1: Schaefer's Levels of Participation in the Education Sector...............................22

List of Acronyms List of Figures List of Tables List of Boxes 

This project would not have taken of nor would it have completed without the invaluable suport of the folowing people.  Oficers and staf at the Metro Education Ofice in Takoradi, Ghana welcomed me with open arms and were pivotal in geting this project started. The Public Relations Oficer and the Asistant Director of Supervision provided me with much neded guidance in geting oriented with the local schols. The many wonderful Circuit Supervisors tok the time out of their hectic schedules to take me to the schols so that I could subsequently conduct interviews there. The head teachers, teachers, SMC and PTA chairpersons that I had the privilege of interviewing were such pleasant people, and I am also grateful to each and every parent who filed in the surveys. I would like to expres my sincere gratitude to Dr. Joseph Ghartey Ampiah at the University of Cape Coast for insights and knowledge that helped me beter understand the context and background.  Special thanks goes to the Imbeah family, without whom this project never would have materialized. Thank you Jojo, Nora, and Nana Kofi for your generous suport and asistance and for your kind hospitality. I would also like to thank Doris Anson-Yevu and Christophe Etou for being my family in Ghana and for helping me navigate the Ghanaian system. I mis you al so much and lok forward to the day we met again.  Having a wonderful supervisor and second reader made this project especialy enjoyable for me. Dr. Leonora Angeles was not simply a fantastic academic supervisor, but was my entor and a friend who somehow always made time for e when I neded it most. A heartfelt thanks is also extended to Dr. Bony Norton for her guidance over the past year.  I had the fortune of being surounded by an amazing cohort of coleagues at SCARP. I would like to especialy thank Daniele Blond Wauthy, Lucia Scodanibio, Maira de Avila, Sawngjai Dear Manityakul, for their endles suport and encouragements through this proces, and for being such fabulous friends.   Last but not least, I thank my family, for having faith in me and believing in my potential.        January 2010 


 In recognition that education is fundamental to the development of a nation, countries have made strides towards achieving the Milenium Development Goal that states that, “By 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, wil be able to complete a ful course of primary scholing.” In Ghana, as part of a wider educational policy of providing Fre Compulsory Universal Basic Education (FCUBE), the Ministry of Education, Science and Sports introduced the Capitation Grant in 205. This grant provides each schol with 3.0 Ghana cedis (aproximately $3.0 CDN) per student enroled, and aims at replacing the revenue schols have lost due to the abolition of schol fes. As parents no longer have to pay schol fes to send their children to schol, enrolment rates in schols increased.  This report examines the efect that the Capitation Grant has had on the relationship betwen schols and their surounding comunity. It is writen for the Takoradi Metro Education Ofice with the goal of providing recomendations on how to promote comunity participation in schol management and to enhance comunity-schol relations in the long run. The “counity” in this project context refers to the parents of the students, the members of the Schol Management Comite (SMC), and Parent Teacher Asociation (PTA), who compose the interest-based comunity of the schol. Comunity participation in education is considered important as it is sen to contribute to i proving aces to education and quality of education. It is also thought to have positive spin-of efects for the comunity, such as empowerment of the comunity and increased social capital.  This study was conducted in the city of Takoradi, in the Western region of Ghana, where six schols were chosen as a sample. Based on interviews with head teachers, teachers, oficers at the Takoradi Metro Education Ofice, and surveys filed in by parents, the study found that the Capitation Grant has generaly had a positive impact on comunity-schol relationships. However, there is rom for improvement and what is more, an oportunity to use the Capitation Grant to further strengthen this relationship. There is an increase in the level of interest in schol management expresed by the majority of parents/comunity, and 70% of parents desire to participate in deciding the use of the Capitation Grant. Therefore, the timing sems suitable to examine concrete ways of having the comunity participate through this grant, and through doing so promote active participation by the comunity.  To capitalize on this oportunity, the folowing recomendations are made:  • Increase transparency in the budgeting proces of the Capitation Grant at the schol level by sharing the budget draft with the comunity and encourage fedback from them.  • To increase transparency, schols ned to improve their methods of comunication with the parents and comunity members so that the information is readily available to interested comunity embers.  • Head teachers and Circuit Supervisors shal identify a person to champion the budgeting proces who can act as the bridge betwen the schol and the comunity regarding this grant. Executive Sumary 
 • If resources permit, capacity-building training for comunity members to develop budgeting and financial management skils and knowledge of god pedagogical practices that contribute to quality education can help comunities participate in a meaningful maner.  It is hoped that creating this new chanel for the comunity to voice their opinions wil provide an oportunity for the comunity to take another step towards growing into their role of being partners in the provision of education. Coperation betwen the comunity and schols can strengthen the comunity-schol relationship and enrich the education of the children. 
   Education is a fundamental building block for the sustainable development of a nation. The international comunity has emphasized the promotion of education through comitments such as Education for Al (EFA) and the Milenium Development Goals (MDG). Countries acros the globe have taken measures to “Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, wil be able to complete a ful course of primary scholing.”1 Encapsulated in this aspiration is the recognition that universal aces to quality education builds human capital. The development of human capital through education wil then contribute to the sustainable, economic and social development of the country.   The Government of Ghana has taken significant steps towards achieving this goal. Their constitutional comitment to Fre Compulsory Universal Basic Education (FCUBE) has ben reflected in several policy frameworks and expresed in government strategy papers. As a part of this efort, the government introduced the Capitation Grant in the 205/206 academic year. Initiated by the Ministry of Education, Science and Sports (MOES), the Capitation Grant is a type of formula funding scheme aimed at replacing abolished schol fes. These schol fes were levies that pupils’ parents had to pay in order to send their children to school, and were used for schol repairs, teaching and learning materials, etc.  The abolition of schol fes in Ghana has removed the financial barier that had prevented many parents from sending their children to schol. Through the Capitation Grant, each public basic schol2 now receives GH¢3.03 (aproximately $3.0CDN) per student enroled in their schol. As a result of the introduction of this grant, the enrolment rate in basic schols increased significantly.4 Though there are a multitude of ways in which this new policy could be examined and analyzed, this project takes an in-depth examination of the grant’s impact at the local, comunity level; specificaly, its impact on comunity-schol relations.  1.1 Statement of Problem: Enhancing Comunity Participation in Education  Prior to European colonization, children in Africa were taught the necesary lesons of life from elders in the comunity. With the introduction of formal state-sponsored education, teaching of children became the responsibility of the state. However, in Africa where the comunity is a fundamental component in an individual’s life5 and belonging to the colective entity is valued, the comunity’s involvement in raising their children remains important. Moreover, the role of the comunity in children’s education is considered crucial, not only in African societies but also worldwide.  

1 UNESCO, Milenium Development Goals: Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education, 21 March 209 <htp:/>. 2 “Basic Schol” in Ghana refers to 2-years of pre-schol education (4-5 years old), 6 years of primary education, and 3 years of junior high schol education. 3 The local Ghanaian curency is the Ghana cedi (GH¢). 4 UNICEF, Achieving Universal Primary Education in Ghana by 2015: A Reality or a Dream?, Working Paper (New York: Division of Policy and Planing, 207), p4. 5 Patrick Wat, Comunity Suport for Basic Education in Sub-Saharan Africa, Working Paper (Africa Region: orld Bank, 201), p1. 1.0 Introduction: Education and Development 
Acros the globe, participation of the comunity is sen to contribute to improving the aces to education (including retention of students in schols), and the quality of education.6 As comunity members know the local circumstances, their participation and input alows educational services to be tailored to suit the local context. This helps to make education not only more acesible to the local students but creates a more meaningful learning experience for them, as it would beter conect their education to their environment and suroundings, developing a stronger link betwen their schol and comunity life. Encouraging the comunity to participate also enhances the comunity’s sense of ownership over their schols. In turn, the comunity can play the role of a “watchdog” to ensure quality education is being provided, while the schol itself fels a sense of acountability towards the comunity within which it is located.  Merits of comunity participation are not limited to educational benefits. These forms of colaboration betwen the schol and comunity foster trust betwen the actors, which can cultivate comunity cohesion and build social capital. There are oportunities for capacity building, as local comunity members gain new knowledge and awarenes of their own comunity’s social, econoic, and political conditions, and develop new skils through participation. Furthermore, increased participation of the comunity can empower and inspire the local population to be a catalyst for botom-up change.7  This project focuses on the relationship betwen schols and their surounding comunity and seks to understand how the comunity-schol relationship can be beter enhanced through comunity participation. Through interviews with key stakeholders in the schols and in their surounding comunities, it atempts to analyze the various stakeholders’ understanding of the Capitation Grant, particularly its use, chalenges, as wel as their perceptions of the role of the comunity in the public education system. Based on this, this project provides recoendations on how the proces of planing the use of the Capitation Grant can be further improved to strengthen comunity-schol relations and improve the quality of public education in Ghana.  1.2 Background of this Project  In the sumer of 208, I was hired for a short-term position with a Japanese international development consultant firm working on a teacher-training project in Ghana. My four months spent as a project asistant provided me with a general understanding of the education sector in Ghana, including its key players, policies, and its chalenges. I also gained a broad understanding of the interconectednes of the political, historical, social, economic, and cultural aspects that al are inextricably linked to one another. Hoping to take advantage of my oportunity, I stayed in Ghana for an extra month to conduct further research for this masters project.  This research is a case study that focuses on one education district among the 162 schol districts that exist for basic education in Ghana. Time and resource constraints alowed for a close examination of only one schol district. Takoradi Metro Education 

6 Fusheini Adam, "Comunity Participation in Schol Development: Understanding Participation in Basic Schols Performance in the Nanumba District of Ghana," Thesis submited for MPhil degre in Public Administration and Organization Theory, University of Bergen, 2005, p3. 7 John Pryor, "Can comunity participation mobilize social capital for improvement of rural scholing? A case study from Ghana," Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education 35.2 (205): 193-203, p194. 
District was chosen as I had a contact there that could introduce me to the district education oficers and their supervisors.  Figure 1: Map of Ghana and Takoradi 
                    (Source:  Takoradi, Western Region of Ghana Takoradi is located aproximately 30km west of Acra, and is the capital of the Western Region of Ghana. Including the population of its twin city, Secondi, it is the fourth largest city of the country with a population of 30,00. Situated along the coast, it was formerly the main port in the country and stil remains a major transit hub for the southwestern area of Ghana. It is one of the fastest growing cities of Ghana with its economy based on light industrial, agricultural, and fishing enterprises. In adition, the recently discovered oil reserve of the coast is expected to bring an influx of related busineses and usher in new economic oportunities in the area, thereby intensifying this growth.  Much like the rest of Ghana, the urban dwelers of Takoradi generaly have higher literacy and income levels than people living in the rural areas. Literacy and income levels specificaly for Takoradi could not be found, but as a reference, in 205/206 almost 70% of the urban adult population of Ghana was literate, in comparison to only 40% of the rural adult population. As for income levels, the mean household income based on locality is shown in the table below. The urban areas of Takoradi fal under “other urban”, while rural areas are “Rural Coastal,” as Takoradi is a coastal city.        
Table 1: Mean Anual Income Per Capita by Locality  Locality Mean Anual Income Per Capita (GH¢) Urban 517 Acra (capital) 564 Other urban (Urban Takoradi) 494 Rural 305 Rural Coastal (Rural Takoradi) 368 Rural Forest 323 Rural Savanah 232 Ghana 397  (Source: Ghana Statistical Service, 208)  In adition, below is the income level of the Western region (in which Takoradi is located) in comparison to the rest of the country.     Figure 3: Regions of Ghana       (Source: Ghana Statistical Service, 208)  The Western region is traditionaly inhabited by the matrilineal Akan ethnic group, which includes the Fante and Ashanti sub-ethnic groups. However, the urban centres are highly heterogeneous.  Education Among the 10 regions within Ghana, the Western Region was ranked 6th in the provision of quality education in the academic year of 206/207.8 This was based on a calculated score using the percentage of trained teachers, percentage of trained female teachers, 

8 Ministry of Education, Science and Sports, "Education Sector Performance Report 207," July 207, p94.  Figure 2: Mean Anual Income Per Capita (GH¢) 
core textbok ratio, repetition ratio and percentage of students who pased the Basic Education Certificate Examination (BECE).9 In the Secondi-Takoradi Metropolitan Area, there are 105 nursery schols, 18 primary schols, 79 junior high schols, 1 senior high schols and technical schols. Takoradi is also home of Takoradi Polytechnic, one of the most reputable tertiary institutions in Ghana.  At the national level, the level of educational atainment of the population of Ghana remains low. Aproximately 31% of al adults have never atended schol, while only 38.6% have completed basic education. Only 13.6% have completed secondary education or higher.10 However, with renewed comitment to universal primary education and increased aces to basic education, statistics colected betwen 205-206 show the atendance rate of persons of schol-age at 86%.11  In this regional and national context, I tok the oportunity to met with local educational oficers, teachers, parents, and comunity members in Takoradi to discus the Capitation Grant and comunity-schol relationships in their schols.  1.3 Project Goals and Objectives  The overal goal of this study is to provide Takoradi Metro Education District with recomendations on how to promote comunity participation in schol management and to enhance comunity-schol relations in the long run. Specificaly, it wil explore how the abolishment of schol fes through the introduction of the Capitation Grant has afected this relationship, and how they may build on existing asets to strengthen it.  To achieve the project goal, the folowing objectives were pursued:  • Describe and ases the comunity’s knowledge of the Capitation Grant • Analyze how the abolition of schol fes has changed the atitude of parents, and how teachers and schol administrators perceive this change • Examine the various stakeholders’ (teachers, district education oficers, parents, local leaders) perspectives on the significance of comunity participation in education  Based on these findings, the project draws upon lesons and knowledge from academic literature, as wel as other empirical research and case studies to provide useful tols and ideas. As the local education oficers are much more knowledgeable about education and the local context, I utilize my planing background to provide an outsider’s perspective and coment on comunity engagement and participatory proceses. I also identify ways in which schols in Takoradi can further build upon existing asets in their schols and surounding comunities through maintaining and building comunity participation and suport for their local schols.  As this project wil contribute to a beter understanding of how a change to fe-fre structures can afect comunity-schol relationships, it may have broader implications such as the folowing: 

9 Basic Education Certificate Examination (BECE) is a standardized test taken in order to enter senior high schol. 10 Ghana Statistical Service, "Ghana Living Standards Survey," September 208, piv. 11 Ibid. 
 • Provide “lesons learned” for other countries with future plans to abolish schol fes, so that they can incorporate the lesons into their policy formation to ensure maintenance of comunity suport and participation in schols after education fes are removed. • Inform future policies / programs targeted at promoting educational quality, counity participation, and comunity developent, among others.  Finaly, this project wil ad to existing literature on comunity participation in education, as wel as the recently emerging literature on fe abolition.  1.4 Methods of Data Colection and Analysis  During my employment period in Ghana, I learned of the Capitation Grant. This grant aims to improve the quality of and aces to basic education by removing schol levies and esentialy making basic education fre. The Capitation Grant can be used for several diferent components, and the categories for its use are broken down into “Improving Aces”, “Provision of Teaching and Learning Materials”, “Schol Management”, “Schol Facilities”, and “Comunity and Schol Relationship.” I chose to focus y analysis on this grant to mary y two interests in education and comunity development.  A personal friend in Acra put me in touch with a Circuit Supervisor at Takoradi Metro Education Ofice (MEO). When I arived in Takoradi and met with her, she then introduced me to the Asistant Director of Supervision, and the Public Relations Oficer at the MEO. After discusing with them the general objectives of my project and gaining their coments and fedback, I revised my project proposal.  Initialy, this research was to focus on how the grant funds that are alocated to “Comunity and Schol Relationship” were being used. However, upon having discusions with MEO staf and examining the records on how the grants were being used in the schols, I learned that in fact, hardly any of the money was being alocated for this use. At that point, a shift in the research focus was necesary.  Through interactions with oficers at Takoradi MEO, it came to light that the relationship betwen schols and its local comunity had evolved since education became fre. This caught my atention and interest, and I decided to take up the topic of how the relationship had ben afected by the Capitation Grant.  A detailed project proposal and interview questions were developed to acurately capture the intention of the project. To begin to implement the project, the research proposal and interview questions were submited to the Behavior Ethics Review Board of the University of British Columbia, and was aproved after minor revisions. On the Ghanaian side, oficial contact leters that I would take to schols were signed and aproved by Takoradi MEO. These are important formalities in Ghana, as Ghanaian society often operates with the use of oficial leters.  The folowing sections elaborate on details of schol sample, interviews and focus groups, surveys, and analysis methods.   
 Schol Sample With the asistance of oficers at Takoradi MEO, I identified 6 schols that would comprise my sample. These schols were chosen taking into consideration the folowing factors to obtain a balanced sampling as much as posible.  • urban/rural • deprived/non-deprived12 • geographical location and coverage within the district • acesibility   Out of the 6 schols, 3 schols were in the urban centre of Takoradi, and 3 were in rural areas of the metro education district.  Geographicaly, the schols were spread acros 2 urban circuits (sub-districts within Takoradi Metro Education District) and 2 rural circuits. Two of the 3 rural schols were somewhat acesible by trotros13 or local buses. However, some of the trotros run so infrequently that it clearly presents an obstacle for teachers who comute to the schol. One rural schol had no trotros runing to the schol, and I had to be driven there by one of the Circuit Supervisors. Al of the urban schols were easily acesible as they were located within the urban centre of Takoradi.  It was not posible to aces data on academic performance levels of the students at the schols. However, it is expected that the levels varied widely among the 6 schols. In one of the rural schols, only 2 students out of the 25 who tok the BECE pased the exam to continue on to senior high schol.14 It is likely that the urban schols had much higher BECE pas rates.   Interviews and Focus Groups At each schol, I interviewed the folowing persons:  • Head Teacher • Teachers (minimum 1 teacher per schol) • Schol Manageent Comite (SMC) Chairman and/or Parent Teacher Asociation (PTA) Chairman  The interviews folowed a semi-structured format, and were conducted in English. As English is the oficial language in Ghana and medium of instruction in schols, most Ghanaians have functioning comand of English.15 At most schols, both the SMC chairman and PTA chairman were interviewed. As much as posible, interviews were conducted one-on-one. However, due to time constraints and dificulty in cordinating schedules, some interviews were conducted in a focus-group format.  

12 In Ghana, some schols in rural areas with fewer resources are designated as “deprived,” and are eligible for aditional suport. These districts are selected based on low performance using the folowing indicators: gender parity, enrolment, teacher quality, infrastructure, etc. There are 53 deprived districts in Ghana. 13 Some local buses however, only run when the bus fils up, which can mean that pasengers are waiting for over an hour until the bus departs. 14 Interview with Teacher, Interview conducted by author on 3 December 208 at schol. 15 This of course depends on the level of education that the person has received. Most of my interviewes had no trouble comunicating in English. 
At Takoradi MEO, I interviewed the Asistant Director, Public Relations Oficer, and conducted a focus group with 3 Circuit Supervisors. (Circuit Supervisors are responsible for overseing their asigned group of schols and act as the liaison betwen the schols and the MEO.)  In adition, I was fortunate to met with and interview Dr. Joseph Ghartey Ampiah, Lecturer, Institute of Education at the University of Cape Coast. As this was y final interview after having completed al other data colection, I shared with Dr. Ampiah my initial findings. He enriched my research with his further analysis of some of my findings and provided suplementary information that filed in some of the gaps in my research.  Surveys Surveys were also conducted to obtain coments and opinions from parents of the pupils. A copy of the survey questionaire is provided as Apendix A.  • Aproximately 40 surveys were distributed to parents of students in 4 schols (2 rural and 2 urban schols). • Surveys were only distributed to parents of children in grades 5 and 6, as these children were enroled in schol prior to the introduction of the Capitation Grant. Therefore, their parents could coment on the diference in their atitude before and after the grant was introduced. • 180 useable surveys were colected.  Some sections of the survey were talied up and analyzed using more quantitative aproaches of calculating the percentage of parents who made a certain response.  Analysis My analysis is based on the data colected from primary sources listed above and suported by secondary sources. Secondary sources include:  • Literature review on comunity participation in education in developing country contexts (many of which are on Ghana specificaly) • Policy documents and reports published by the Ministry of Education in Ghana • SMC/PTA Handbook printed by Ghana Education Service • Circuit Supervisors Handbok printed by Ghana Education Service • News articles from reputable Ghanaian and international news sources • Other relevant reports and documents  Limitations of Research Soe limitations of this research are the folowing:  • Power dynamics: When individual interviews were not posible to set up due to time constraints, focus groups with a mix of teachers and head teachers as wel as PTA and SMC chairmen were conducted. It is posible that because of the presence of their supervisor/subordinates/coleagues in the same interview, some individuals did not fel comfortable being completely honest in their replies. • Language: English is the oficial language of Ghana and most of the people I interviewed spoke it fluently. However, Ghanaian English difers slightly in use of words so I may have mised some of the subtle nuances. 
• Although I had spent 4 months in Ghana prior to begining my research, there stil may have ben inacurate asumptions based on cultural diferences that afected y research proces and data quality.  At this stage, it is dificult to ases how much the findings of this study can be aplied to other areas of Ghana. There have ben reports, however, published very recently by organizations such as the World Bank and UNICEF that sem to suport some of the findings of this project.16  1.5 Organization of this Report  This report wil continue in the folowing section with a theoretical discusion on the definitions of comunity and participation, as wel as discus research findings from recent studies that inform this project. It wil then provide an overview of decentralization of education in Ghana in section 3.0, including the policies that led to the introduction of the Capitation Grant and structures in place for comunity participation. In section 4.0, the operational features of the Capitation Grant, how similar policies have functioned in other African countries, and the curent known efects of the grant in Ghana are discused. Findings from this particular research wil be in section 5.0, folowed by recomendations in section 6.0. 

16 World Bank and UNICEF, Abolishing Schol Fes in Africa: Lesons from Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi and Mozambique, Publication (Washington: World Bank, 209), p14. This report mentioned the perceived decreased in comunity interest after the introduction of fre education (fe abolishment). 
  In the 1980s, the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) advanced neoliberal development strategies that encouraged countries to liberalize trade, privatize state enterprises and alow for fre markets. State intervention was reduced and expenditures were minimized. However, instead of having the intended economic efect, countries that adopted these policies experienced economic decline. As a result, basic services were in disaray; the education sector experienced deterioration in schol infrastructure, lack of teaching materials, and insuficient number of trained teachers, al of which led to low quality of education and even lower enrolment rates.17 Governments promoted fre universal primary education in an atempt to reverse this trend, but this only resulted in a further strain on limited resources.18 Criticisms led to policy changes in the 190s, which saw the state’s role become more complementary to the market system. It was at this time that decentralization gained focus as the structure through which poverty aleviation and democratization could be achieved.  Decentralization is “the proces of re-asigning responsibility and coresponding decision-making authority for specific functions from higher to lower levels of government and organizational units.”19 In educational decentralization, this entails the devolution of decision-making power over areas such as curiculum design, schol administration, and financial management to regional, municipal, district ofices or to the schols themselves.  Two of the most prominent arguments that suport decentralization are eficiency and efectivenes through enhanced acountability.20 As decisions wil be made at a level that is ‘closer to the people,’ this alows for beter-informed decisions based on the local context. As resource alocation wil incorporate and reflect such preferences expresed by the local comunity, this improves alocative eficiency. In adition, the service receiver is able to monitor closely and wil be in a beter position to hold the decision-makers acountable. In the schol seting, the comunity can hold the service provider acountable, which in turn can improve the quality of teaching and learning.21 Consequently, comunity participation in newly decentralized structures was sen as not only a democratic right but also a means to achieve these goals.22  Much like in the rest of the world, the government of Ghana’s initial motivation for decentralization was to improve the quality of teaching and learning in schols and to increase eficiency in the education sector by moving the locus of decision-making to the local level. At the time, however, there were also economic motivations, as 

17 World Bank and UNICEF, pxi. 18 Ibid. 19 Paqueo and Lamert in Emanuela Di Gropelo, A Comparative Analysis of Schol-Based Management in Central America, World Bank Working Paper (Washington: World Bank, 206), p1. 20 Kamiljon T. Akramov and Felix Asante, Decentralization and Local Public Services in Ghana: Do Geography and Ethnic Diversity Mater?, Paper presented at the CSAE Conference 2-24th March 209 (Oxford: St. Catherine's Colege, 209), p5 & Di Gropelo, Chapter 1. 21 Akramov and Asante, p5 & Di Gropelo, p3. 22 Pauline Rose, "Comunity Participation in Schol Policy and Practice in Malawi: balancing local knowledge, national policies and international agency priorities," Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education 3.1 (203): 47-64, p49. 2.0 Historical Context: Aplication of Key Concepts in Planing and Comunity Participation in Ghana 
decentralization originaly entailed the concept of “cost-sharing” in which along with the decision-making authority, the responsibility for fundraising was also delegated to lower levels.23 It was for these multitudes of reasons that decentralization was sen an esential component of an overal development strategy in Ghana, including the education sector.  2.1 Comunity Participation in Education  The concept of comunity participation in education was promoted for various reasons. It was clear that governments simply did not have the financial capacity to single-handedly provide social services. As a means to replace the abolished schol fes, governments turned to comunities to contribute to the “cost-sharing” of educational services. With this financial responsibility also came increased decision-making powers so as to facilitate the involvement and participation of these contributors. This was thought to encourage schols to be more acountable to the comunity and ensure cost-efectivenes in the use and management of scarce resources.24 Increased acountability can motivate teachers to work harder, and these factors can together serve to improve not only the aces to education but also its quality.  Comunity participation was also promoted based on the asumption that engaging the comunity as a stakeholder in local schols would be a positive influence. Input from the comunity in the decision-making regarding local schols would make education more responsive to local circustances, promoting a sense of local ownership and comitment, and cultivate partnership betwen the comunity and the schol. By tailoring the schols’ governance, management and curicula to their local context through acomodating the concerns and incorporating the neds of the comunity, it could also generate stronger demand and interest in education. As a result, ore parents are likely to suport the schols and ensure their children atend regularly.  There are also spin-of efects of comunity participation in education. Participants can gain skils through their involvement, thereby resulting in the capacity building of the comunity. Comunity participation can also spark a sense of empowerment in the comunity, which can be a catalyst for the comunity to tackle other local chalenges they ay be facing. It also has the potential to create a strong network of local leaders to play a leading role in such endeavors, and build social capital. At a broader level, involving a wide range of people in the decision-making proces can contribute to democratization and enhance social cohesion.  As this concept of comunity participation in education became entrenched in the literature and practice of decentralization in the educational sector, many countries underwent restructuring and reform. Ghana was no exception and its government pased legislation in 197 to decentralize education and enhance the responsibility of the district and comunity levels.  

23 Jordan P. Naido, Education Decentralization in Sub-Saharan Africa - Espoused Theories and Theories in Use, Paper presented at CIES Anual Conference March 6-9, 202 - The Social Construction of Marginality: Globalization's Impact on the Disenfranchised (Orlando: University of Central Florida, 202), p8. 24 Joseph Mankoe and Bil Maynes, "Decentralization of Educational Decision-Making in Ghana," International Journal of Educational Development 14.1 (194): 23-3, p30. 
 2.2 Definition of Comunity  In discusing comunity participation in public education, there is a ned to first examine what “comunity” means. Various conceptualizations of comunity exist grounded on sociology, psychology, and anthropology, among other disciplines. With regards to education, various scholars in the field have adopted the folowing categorization of comunities presented by Bray.25  • Geographical comunities are those in which oficial or unoficial geographical boundaries outline the comunity and those people residing within that boundary are members of. Examples of such comunicates would include vilages, towns and districts. Schols’ adinistrative boundaries are also a form of geographical comunity; however, in the case of Ghana, there are no such schol catchment boundaries for schols. Parents are able to send their children to any schol in the country, regardles of where they reside, as there are no policies that restrict students’ atendance to their district or even region.  • Identity-based comunities such as ethnic, racial and religious groups can also compose a comunity. This is especialy true for minority groups surounded by a larger majority and may have self-help suport structures in place to maintain their group cohesion. In Ghana, most rural vilages are inhabited by people of the same ethnic group. On the other hand, urban centers tend to have a diverse population, interspersed with pockets of neighborhods with higher concentration of certain ethnic groups.  • Interest-based comunities are comunities based on shared family or educational concerns. These comunities are more fluid and can expand and contract on a regular basis. For example, parents concerned with their children’s welfare form parents’ asociations, which can create a comunity, but when children leave the schols, the parents wil also leave the asociation.  The various types of comunities mentioned above may or may not be formaly organized. Features intrinsic to soe comunities ay make them ore conducive to formal organizational structure, whereas others wil exist without the establishment of a formalized decision-making structure for the comunity. For schols in Ghana, two types of formal organizations exist for comunity members, which are the Parent Teacher Asociation (PTA) and Schol Management Comite (SMC). These organizations include teachers, local leaders (including elected leaders as wel as traditional leaders), and parents of the students atending the schol.  Comunities also overlap and many layers of comunities exist. Individuals wil identify with multiple comunities at any given time, as being a member of one type of counity does not preclude them fro being a member of another type of comunity. An interest-based comunity forms naturaly around a schol through the parents of the students, and the members of this comunity are often members of the local geographic comunity. However, this can depend on the rural/urban seting. In rural areas, the 

25 Mark Bray, Decentralization of Education: Comunity Financing, Directions in Development (Washington: World Bank, 196), p1. 
geographical comunity is likely to overlap more with the interest-based comunity of the schol compared to urban setings.                    (Diagram developed by author from Bray, 196)  In rural areas, there is often a single schol in the vilage and the vilages are isolated from one another. Though some parents send their children to live in a diferent region with a relative so that their children can go to a beter schol, most children atend their local schol. Therefore, a geographicaly-defined comunity overlaps with the interest-based comunity comprised of parents of the students atending the schols and other leaders who are involved in the management of the schol. Furthermore, in most vilages,26 the residing population is predominantly of the same ethnic and/or religious background and therefore the geographical comunity also overlaps with the ethnic/religious comunity.  However, it is diferent in urban areas where there are several schols located within walking distance. Parents are more likely to be selective in chosing which schol they send their children due to the availability of options. As wel, their income levels may alow them to aford sending their children to farther schols that may have aditional costs (e.g. transportation costs). In these schols, a geographicaly-bound comunity is les aplicable to the schol unit, as the people living near the schol are not necesarily the ones sending their children to that schol, and the geographical comunity around the schol does not se the schol as something belonging to the comunity. Therefore, in urban areas, a socialy constructed, interest-based comunity overlaps litle with the geographicaly-based comunity. Moreover, the ethnic/religious comunity is also of litle relevance, as there are diverse ethnic and religious backgrounds that are inter-mixed in urban centers.  

26 However, there are also some vilages in Ghana which exist as physical geographicaly-bound entity, but because they are a setler vilage where families’ ancestors had migrated to and were not originaly from, the people have not cultivated a sense of belonging or colective comunity identify. In these vilages, a sense of geographicaly-bound comunity may be minimal among its residents. Pryor, p20. Figure 4: Diference betwen Rural and Urban Comunities 
The research methodology of this project entailed interviewing district administrators and education oficers, head teachers, teachers, PTA and SMC members (who can be a parent or a comunity member without children in the schol), and surveying parents. This reflected representatives of interest-based comunities of the schols, and did not sample members of the geographical comunity who do not belong in the interest-based comunity. Therefore, in this project, the “comunity” wil focus on parents of the students in the schols and the members of the SMC and PTA, who compose the interest-based comunity of the schol, which also includes geographical comunity members.  2.2 Participation and its Aplication to Education  Like the concept of comunity, there are various ways in which the concept of participation can be defined and categorized. The literature regarding comunity participation in education presents various conceptualizations of participation. One that is often refered to is the clasic “lader of citizen participation” developed by Arnstein.27    Figure 5: Arnstein's "Lader of Citizen Participation"  (Source: Arnstein, 1969)  Although this lader is not a perfect model representing al forms of participation, it is useful to demonstrate that “there is a critical diference betwen going through the empty ritual of participation and having the real power to afect the outcome of the proces.”28 Shaefer tok Arnstein’s lader and proposed its aplication to the education sector along seven rungs instead of eight:       

27 Shery R. Arnstein, "Lader of Citizenship Participation," Journal of American Institute of Planers July, 4 (1969), original page unknown. 28 Arnstein, original page unknown.  
 (Source: Shaefer, 194)  Notable is that the lower four rungs use the term “involvement” (with the exception of the lowest rung), whereas the higher rungs use the word “participation.” “Involvement” can be sen as a generic term that implies a pasive form of colaboration. In contrast, “participation” has the conotation of a much more active role, sugesting a form of partnership in a more genuine sense.29  Rose also provides a simplified spectrum in which she describes two extremes of participation. At one end is “pseudo-participation” in which, at best there is a consultation proces, but ultimately the decision-making powers do not rest in the hands the citizens and they are merely agreing to something that has already ben decided. It tends to be “extractive” whereby the citizens provide financial resources or provide labour for the maintenance or construction of the schol (or for other material resources neded in the clasrom). On the other end of the spectrum there is “genuine participation” in which the participants have the power to shape the outcome. This type of participation is not imposed but is voluntary and is spontaneous.          (Diagram developed by author from Rose, 2003)  These discusions on participation shed light on the various levels and ways in which comunities can participate in education. However, there is danger in simply expecting that increased participation and enhanced decision-making power delegated to the comunity wil create positive change. 

29 Sheldon Shaefer, Participation for Educational Change: A Synthesis of Experience, International Institute for Educational Planing (Paris: UNESCO, 194), p17 & Sheldon Shaefer, "Colaborating for Educational Change: The Role of Parents and the Comunity in Schol Improvement," International Journal of Educational Development 12.4 (192): 27-295, p280. 7. Participation in real decision-making at every stage – problem identification,   feasibility study, planing, implementation, and evaluation; 6. Participation as implementers of delegated powers; 5. Participation in the delivery of a service, often as a partner with other actors; 4. Involvement through consultation (or fedback) on particular isues; 3. Involvement through the contribution (or extraction) of resources, materials and    labour; 2. Involvement through atendance and the receipt of information (e.g. at parents’     metings), implying pasive aceptance; 1. Mere use of the service 
Figure 6: Rose's Spectrum of Participation Box 1: Schaefer's Levels of Participation in the Education Sector 
 In the past, there has ben over-optimism regarding the comunity’s ability to influence the improvement of teaching and learning ocuring in schols. “Development practitioners excel in perpetuating the myth that comunities are capable of anything, that al that is required is suficient mobilization (through institutions) and the latent capacities of the comunity wil be unleashed in the interests of development. The evidence does litle to suport such claims.”30 This notion of comunity participation as a panacea also prevailed in the education sector, but the traditional form of merely inserting the parents and comunity members into the schol structure was found to be inefective. Structures such as PTAs and SMCs that govern schols have the potential to be efective in engaging the comunity, but if they are organized in a way that is unrepresentative or are restricted in its decision-making ability, it severely limits the genuine participation of the comunity.31 Blindly pushing for comunity participation often leads to “pseudo-participation.”  It is not only the level of decision-making power that is delegated to the comunity, but their knowledge of the subject in which they are being asked to participate is also important. Key research findings demonstrate that comunity members ned an oportunity to develop an understanding of the factors that contribute to beter quality of education.  • In research conducted by Chapman et al in Ghana, it was found that comunity members semed to focus on “for over substance.”32 In other words, if there were no overt criticisms or complaints being made, it was asumed that the quality of education being provided in their schols was high. This sugests that comunity members do not have a wel-developed idea of what instructional and schol anagement practices are efective in providing quality education.  • Without a reason and oportunity to develop their understanding of educational proceses and the elements that contribute to efective education, comunities are inclined to depend on “conventional wisdom” of what a god schol should lok like. This “conventional wisdom” often aplied by comunities is, in most cases, not grounded on empirical fact that it wil contribute to educational quality.33 For example, a por, rural counity in which public infrastructure is scarce wil atach value to a visibly wel-maintained schol facility,34 and may be more inclined to spend funds on infrastructure upkep rather than aditional training for the teachers.  These findings are not arguments against comunity participation, but demonstrate that without the knowledge of god educational practices, comunities have limited ability to afect the learning outcomes of students.35 The prevailing consensus is that there is a 

30 Francis Cleaver, "Institutions, Agency and the Limitations of Participatory Aproaches to Development," B. Coke and U. Kothari, Participation: The New Tyrany? (London and New York: ZED Boks, 201), p46.  31 A. De Grauwe, et al., "Does decentralization lead to schol improvement? Findings and lesons from research in West-Africa," Journal of Education for International Development 1.1 (205), p5. 32 David Chapman, et al., "Do comunities know best? Testing a premise of educational decentralization: comunity members' perceptions of their local schols in Ghana," International Journal of Educational Development 2.2 (202): 181-189, p186. 33 Chapman et al, p186. 34 Wat, p20. 35 An Condy, Improving the Quality of Teaching and Learning through Comunity Participation: Achievements, Limitations and Risks: Early Lesons from the Scholing Improvement Fund in Ghana, Social Development Working Paper (London: Department for International Development, 198), p15. 
ned to provide training to alow comunity members to gain a beter understanding of what constitutes god educational practices, and an oportunity to consider what actions on their part can help suport and encourage such learning, thereby alowing them to grow into their role.  When there is a balance betwen adequate decision-making power alongside knowledge of god educational practices is when counity has the best chance of making a positive contribution. Therefore, there is a ned to provide both knowledge and power in order for comunity participation to be meaningful to the comunity, the schol, and the pupils. 
   Administratively, Ghana’s basic education is under the Ghana Education Service (GES) agency within the Ministry of Education, Science and Sports (MOES). Ghana Education Service is responsible for the delivery of basic and secondary education, as wel as other sub-sectors such as technical/vocational institutes and teacher education. With a multitude of responsibilities, GES has control over aproximately 80% of the anual expenditure on education in the public sector. Since educational reforms in 207, Ghana’s basic education now includes 2 years of kindergarten, 6 years of pri ary, and 3 years of junior high schol. These 1 years of scholing are fre and compulsory as promised under Fre Compulsory Basic Education (FCUBE).  As students complete their basic education, they must take the Basic Education Certificate Examination (BECE) in order to continue on to senior high schol. In 208, BECE pas rate was 62%, indicating that of the students who sat to write the exam, 62% pased in order to qualify to continue on to senior high schols or technical institutes.36 In the 207/208 schol year, the completion rate for primary was 8%, and 67.7% for junior high schol. Ghana’s goal is to achieve 10% completion rates for basic education by 2015.37  3.1 Evolution of Educational Policy  In 1957, Ghana was the first sub-Saharan country to gain independence in Africa. For the next 15 years, its education system was considered the best in the continent,38 and one to which other African countries loked as a god example. Ghana ofered education for fre to its citizens in the 1960s; however, economic decline led to the reversal of fe abolition, which resulted in limiting aces and deteriorating quality of education.39 The proportion of GDP alocated for education tok a dive from 6.4% in 1976 to aproximately 1.0% in 1983 and 1.7% in 1985.40 Basic teaching aterials such as textboks were unavailable, infrastructure was in disrepair, and to make maters worse, qualified teachers disatisfied with the state of education in Ghana left the country to sek a beter life in neighboring Nigeria which was experiencing growth with their newly discovered oil. Unqualified teachers then filed in the available teaching positions in Ghana, further lowering the quality of education.  In 1987, Ghana underwent significant educational reforms. As the previous system with 17-years of pre-tertiary education was heavily criticized for being ineficient and easily marginalizing the porer population, this was shortened to 12 years. In adition, schol hours were increased, and a policy to ensure al teachers are qualified was adopted. An emphasis on beter educational planing and management were agred upon. Around the same time, the international comitment to Education for Al (EFA) was adopted, further pushing the educational agenda forward.  

36 Think Ghana, Trunk News: 208 BECE Results - Best in 10 Years, 27 August 208, 15 September 209 <htp:/>. 37 UNICEF, p3.  38 World Bank in Kwame Akyeampong, Whole schol development in Ghana, Paper comisioned for the EFA Global Monitoring Report 2005 The Quality Imperative, 204, p4. 39 World Bank and UNICEF, p5. 40 orld Bank in Akyeampong, p4. 3.0 Education in Ghana 
The government of Ghana has demonstrated its comitment to improving education through policy initiatives in the past two decades. In the 192 Constitution, the government of Ghana comited to taking steps towards fre, compulsory and universal basic education, which was folowed up by the launch of FCUBE in 196. Since then, this comitment has ben continuously reflected in newer policy initiatives such as the Educational Strategic Plan (ESP) for 203-2015, Ghana Poverty Reduction Strategy (GPRS) I and I, Educational White Paper, and Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP).   With regards to comunity participation, the FCUBE policy recognized that the comunity has an important role to play in the decentralization of education, and this was the catalyst for the creation of SMCs and PTAs. Specificaly, this model of having PTA and SMC was initiated through the USAID-funded Quality Improveent in Primary Schols (QUIPS) program in 197, the year folowing the launch of FCUBE. As a component within the QUIPS program, the Comunity Schol Aliances project sought to improve the quality of education through promoting the participation of the comunity in educational services. During the 7 years of the project, the project set out to increase comunity awarenes, responsibility, and advocacy for their local education. Their main task was to strengthen and maximize comunity-based resources through enhancing local schol-suport organizations such as the PTA and SMC.  Historicaly, it had ben the comunities who initiated and established basic schols in many parts of Ghana. Comunities played a central role in the development and provision of education until education became centraly managed by the government, at which point the level of comunity involvement declined.41 Therefore, in many ways, the promotion of comunity participation is a reverse trend to put education back into the hands of the counity.   3.2 Decentralization of Education in Ghana  The proces of decentralization in Ghana was initiated with the 198 reforms, which saw the creation of 85 districts in the 10 regions of Ghana. The 192 Constitution stated, “Ghana shal have a system of local government and administration which shal, as far as practicable, be decentralized,”42 further endorsing this proces of decentralization. The Constitution created a thre-tiered sub-national governance structure in Ghana made up of the regional (Regional Cordinating Councils), district (District Asemblies), and sub-district (town councils, unit comites) levels. The Local Government Act of 193 provides the legal framework for this comitment outlined in the constitution.  Ghana Education Service (GES) began to undertake decentralization of pre-tertiary education around 198. This saw the responsibility and authority over the management of educational resources, services, and staf be devolved down to the district and schol levels. At the schol level, decentralization of educational decision-making tok the form of “Schol-Based Management (SBM)”. The concept behind SBM is that “decentralizing decision-making authority to parents and comunities fosters demand and ensures that schols provide the social and economic benefits that best reflect the priorities and 

41 Ghana Education Service, "SMC/PTA Handbook: Improving Quality Education through Comunity Participation," January 201, pi & Wat, p4. 42 Republic of Ghana, "htp:/," 192, The Constitution of the Republic of Ghana 192, 1 December 209 htp:/, Chapter 20, Article 240. 
values of those local comunities.”43 This led to the creation of PTA and SMC at each schol in Ghana. It has ben claimed that such organizations that exist to suport local education are the “basic building blocks for stronger schol and comunity colaboration.”44  3.3 Schol Management Comite and Parent Teacher Asociation  At the schol level, there are two bodies through which the comunity is involved in schol afairs. The PTA is “a mechanism for building parent suport for the schols and involving them in activities of their schols.”45 In contrast, the SMC is the body that provides a monitoring and supervisory role in the schol, to ensure that quality educational services are being provided “through eficient management and equitable alocation of resources.”46  In the SMC/PTA Handbok distributed throughout the country, the diferences in the two bodies are outlined as folows: 

43 World Bank, What is Schol-Based Management? (Washington: World Bank, 207), p1. 44 Shaefer (194), p12. 45 Grace Akukwe Nkansa and David W. Chapman, "Sustaining Comunity Participation: What remains after the money ends?," Review of Education 52 (206): 509-532, p515. 46 Ibid. 
 (Source: Ghana Education Service, 201)  Though this handbok outlines institutional diferences and provides definitions of the role of the two bodies, it also explains the intentional bluring of the roles and responsibilities of the SMC and PTA. This is to encourage joint mobilization towards achieving the overarching goal of delivering education of high quality. It also expects that through such colaborative eforts, the distinct roles for each body wil gradualy emerge.49 

47 Ghana Education Service (201), p9. 48 Ibid. 49 Ibid, p1. Schol Management Comite (SMC) Parent Teacher Asociation (PTA) The Schol Management Comite is “a schol comunity-based institution aimed at strengthening comunity participation and mobilization for education delivery.” It is “a representation of the entire schol comunity of a particular schol…the schol comunity, therefore, becomes its constituency.”47  Members • District Director of Education or representative • Head teacher • District Asembly member • Unit Comite representative • Representative apointed by the Chief of the town/vilage • Two members of teaching staf • Past pupils’ asociation representative • Representative from PTA  Powers and Functions • Control general schol policy • Report periodicaly to Director General of Education and District Education Oversight Comite through the District Director of Education • Ensure schol infrastructure is maintained in sanitary and safe condition • Asist head teacher in resolving conflicts • Refer serious disciplinary cases to the District Director for action • Negotiate for land for schol projects, e.g. schol farm, fotbal field • Refrain from encroaching upon authority of head teacher   The Parent Teacher Asociation is “an asociation of parents and teachers in a particular schol,” and is non-governmental, non-sectarian, non-partisan, and non-comercial. It is made up of “parents, guardians and teachers who are interested in children’s education.”48   Members • Chairman • Vice Chairman • Secretary (teacher) • Financial Secretary (parent) • Treasurer (parent) • 1st Comite member (parent) • 2nd Comite member (parent) • 3rd Comite member (head teacher) • Schol welfare oficer   Powers and Functions • Asist in schol maintenance and repair of infrastructure • Ensure welfare of students and teachers (e.g. provision of acomodation for teachers, procure textboks for students) • Se performance of children • Make regular visits to schols to monitor children’s performance • Asist in solving any problems at schol • Help maintain discipline by reporting latenes, etc., to schol authorities • Coperate with other organizations/agencies having comon interests regarding quality education • Refrain from encroaching upon authority of head teacher  
 A study was conducted about efectivenes and sustainability of SMC and PTA after the foreign donor’s (USAID) funding ceased in 204. This study found that the two most important elements that contributed to the sustainability of organizational structures that were put in place to promote comunity participation were local leadership and social cohesion. In comunities with a dominant leader (the oficial position that this leader ocupied varied depending on the comunity - e.g. head teacher, SMC or PTA chairman, local chief), this leader’s ability to coherently mobilize and unify both the authorities and the power of the key personel was crucial. These leaders were dynamic in their leadership, and invested their personal time and resources into advancing the agenda of schol improvement.50  Implications for this research In the course of this research project, it was dificult to measure the level of efectivenes of the SMC and PTA of the schols sampled. This was due to time and resource constraints, as wel as this level of analysis being beyond the scope of this project. It also would have ben dificult to measure the true efectivenes of the SMC and PTA without imersing oneself for a long period of time in the comunity. In a simple interview, interviewes are unlikely to openly admit or discus the weaknes or inefectivenes of their own schol’s SMC or PTA. As a general coment however, it can be said that many SMC are not fuly functional bodies.51 As Dr. Ampiah comented, “SMCs do not met very often and in many cases, they are not realy functioning.”52  3.4 Evolution of Comunity Participation in Education in Ghana  Since the provision of education was transfered to the national government, the expectations of the ways in which the comunity participates in public education has undergone some shifts. Initialy, their involvement was limited to asisting in the maintenance and provision of schol infrastructure and atendance at schol events. Some of the “traditional” forms of comunity participation in schols are the folowing:  • Participation in maintenance and provision of schol infrastructure such as toilets • Asist in searching for, or provision of acomodation for teachers • Provision of basic necesities to pupils • Provision of land for schol gardening, farming, other agricultural activities • Alowing use of other comunal resources (e.g. church facilities) for schol activities • Atendance at PTA metings, schol events such as Spech Days, Open Days  These responsibilities stil exist, as sen in the roles and responsibilities outlined in the SCM/PTA Handbok above. In comparing these forms of participation with Shaefer’s adaptation of Arnstein’s lader, their level of participation in the past was that of a lower rung, particularly rungs:  3. Involvement through the contribution (or extraction) of resources, materials and labour 

50 Nkansa and Chapman, p526. 51 Mikiko Nishimura, et al., "A Comparative Analysis of Universal Primary Education Policy in Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, and Uganda," Journal of International Coperation in Education 12.1 (209): 143-158, p153. 52 Interview with Dr. Joseph Ghartey Ampiah, Interview conducted by author on 3 December 208 at University of Cape Coast & Ministry of Education, Science and Sports, Preliminary Education Sector Performance Report 208, Report (Acra: Republic of Ghana, 208), p23. 
2. Involvement through atendance and the receipt of information (e.g. at parents’ metings), implying pasive aceptance  Since educational reforms in 1987 and the increased emphasis on (re)incorporating the comunity in education, expectations for comunity participation in education changed to include:  • Participation in the management of schols • Participation and consultation in the protection and maintenance of schol property and infrastructure • Supervision and monitoring of student atitudes and atendance at schols • Monitoring of teacher performance  This can be described as midle-range rungs betwen:  6. Participation as implementers of delegated powers 5. Participation in the delivery of a service, often as a partner with other actors 4. Involvement through consultation (or fedback) on particular isues  Therefore, there has ben a rise in the level of expected comunity participation. One study noted that the chalenge in increasing comunity participation in education is that although the expectations for their level and form of participation has increased, this has not ben paraleled by the increase in the comunity’s capacity to take on such responsibilities.53 There is a ned for increased capacity-building training to alow for the comunity to grow into their role that has expanded.54 This is taken into consideration in recomendations made in section 6.0.    

53 Chapman et al, p187. 54 Wat, pvii. 

  Despite the introduction of the 192 Constitution of Ghana and the FCUBE policy to make education fre, in reality, parents were stil paying district levies and other fes. A survey conducted in early 205 found that there were 76 diferent types of fes and levies being charged in public basic schols acros Ghana.55 Such fes were one cause of iregular atendance, as students may be able to aford schol fes for one term but not the folowing term, which then led to higher drop out rates. Moreover, these costs created a significant financial barier for many parents and children to acesing basic education. For these reasons, the abolition of schol fes was considered a key policy intervention.56 Though the policy of FCUBE had exited in Ghana since 196, it was not until the nationwide introduction of the Capitation Grant in 205 that this policy actualy tok form. Thus for almost 10 years, the idea of fe abolition existed in policy but implementation was slow to begin.  After an initial pilot year in 204/205, the Capitation Grant was introduced nation-wide in Ghana in the 205/206 academic year. For every pupil enroled, each public basic schol received GH¢3.0 (aproximately $3.0 CDN) per academic year. The grant removed the financial bariers for students to aces education while replacing the revenue schols had lost due to abolition of schol fes. The grant was the financial and administrative pilar that suported the FCUBE policy of fre education. Moreover, by epowering schols to plan and cary out activities that improve the quality of their schols (in the form of Schol Performance Improvement Plans), it further promoted decentralization of educational decision-making to the local level and encouraged local participation in schols.57  The funding for this scheme initialy came from the Highly-Indebted Por Countries (HIPC) Fund and from the Social Impact Mitigation Levy. From the folowing year onwards, the governent of Ghana incorporated these costs into their national budget.  4.1 Operational mechanisms of the Capitation Grant  At the schol level, the use of the Capitation Grant is determined through designing the Schol Performance Improvement Plan (SPIP).  Schol Performance Improvement Plan (SPIP) The SPIP is a document that outlines what each schol wil use their Capitation Grant for. It outlines al of the actions to be caried out using the Capitation Grant funds, and these activities are broken down into the folowing components:  • Improving aces: E.g. enrolment drive to encourage students to atend schol at the begining of each term, suport for children who are especialy nedy. 

55 Ministry of Education, Science and Sports, Policy Evaluation Study: Package of Policy Interventions - Capitation Grant, Schol Feding and Disadvantaged Criteria, Policy Evaluation Study (Acra: MOES, 207), p10. 56 Robert Darko Osei, et al., Efects of Capitation Grant on Education Outcomes in Ghana (Acra: Institute of Statistical Social and Economic Research, 209), p1. 57 Athena Maikish and Alec Gershberg, Targeting Education Funding to the Por: Universal Primary Education, Education Decentralization and Local Level Outcomes in Ghana, Paper comisioned for the EFA Global Monitoring Report 209 Overcoming Inequality: Why governance maters, p2. 4.0 Capitation Grant 
• Provision of teaching and learning materials: E.g. provision of textboks, pens, paper, etc. • Schol management: E.g. provision of stationary, suport for SMC/PTA, administration costs • Comunity and schol relationship: E.g. organize schol visits, organize comunal labour, efective PTA metings, provide welfare services to teachers • Schol facilities: E.g. provide desks, toilet, equipment for games  Each schol is to draw up a SPIP for the entire schol year. In adition to the activities and components listed above, the SPIP also includes information regarding who is responsible for overseing each activity, resources neded, time frame for action to take place, and who monitors the activity. A sample SPIP is atached in Apendix B.  Drawing the SPIP folows the procedure as shown in figure below.   Figure 7: Proces of Designing the SPIP 
  (Diagram developed by author from GES, n.d.)  As shown in the diagram above, the teachers and head teachers discus the neds of the schol to first draft the SPIP, then the SMC chairperson aproves the SPIP before it is submited to the District Education Ofice. If the SMC chairperson has questions or fedback, they can be shared with the teachers when the SPIP is submited for his/her aproval. If the SMC chairperson has concerns about the draft SPIP, he/she can ask the head teacher to redraft the SPIP. However, in reality, this rarely hapens and the SMC chairperson aproves of the SPIP without much discusion.  Flow of Funds Capitation Grant funds are deposited into the GES acount from the central government. From there, individual checks are isued to the District Education Ofices (Takoradi MEO is esentialy a District Education Ofice), which are deposited into an acount specificaly for the Capitation Grant. The District Director of Education and the District Acountant are the signatories to this acount. From the district education ofices, the funds are transfered to each schol’s acount based on their enrolment figures. Signatories to the schol’s acount are the head teacher and the asistant. This flow is show in the diagram below.     

Figure 8: Flow of Capitation Grant Funds 
(Diagram developed by author from GES, n.d.)58  Monitoring Each schol is to maintain documentation of al grant funds that are used, including apropriate receipts and forms. Head teachers and SMC chairman are to submit monthly and quarterly reports of expenditures and activities completed to the District/Metro Education Ofice. The Circuit Supervisor, an oficer at the District/Metro Education Ofice who is responsible for comunication betwen the District Education Ofice and individual schols, is to visit each schol twice per term. They are to check up on the implementation progres of the activities outlined on the SPIP, submision of relevant forms and reports, and the abolition of al mandatory levies in the schols.  The internal auditors of GES wil monitor schol acounts and conduct an audit of the grant twice per year. Copies of their report are submited to the SMC, District Director of Education, and Regional Director of Education.  4.2 Strengths and Chalenges of Capitation Grant  Other African countries have implemented similar policies to eliminate schol fes. Malawi was one of the first to abolish schol fes. Other countries that folowed include Lesotho, Kenya, Tanzania, and Zambia. Studies of other countries’ experiences of abolishing schol fes have found the folowing:  

58 Ghana Education Service, "Guidelines for the Distribution and Utilization of Capitation Grants to Basic Schols," (n.d.). 
• Eliminating schol fes has increased aces to education as sen through an increase in schol enrolment, especialy for disadvantaged children such as girls, orphans, and children living in rural areas.59  Figure 9: Gros Enrolment Ratio after abolition of schol fes 
         (Source: USAID, 2007)  • Abolishing schol fes however, stil does not completely fre families from the burden of paying for education. There are many other costs such as uniforms, textboks, and workboks that are borne by the families. This is not an argument against fee-abolishment, but rather a reminder that are stil significant obstacles to reach EFA goals.60  • There are also oportunity costs for families that are unacounted for.61 When a family sends a child to schol, the indirect cost of losing a helping hand around the house or the farm can be a negative impact for the family, thereby preventing parents from sending their children to schol. This is especialy the case for por families who rely significantly on the income brought in by their children.62  • A suden increase in enrolment has the danger of lowering the quality of education due to the inability of schols and teachers to absorb the new pupils.63 For example, when Malawi abolished their schol fes, the pupil-clasrom ratio shot up to 19:1, and the teacher-student ratio to 62:1.64  

59 Nishimura et al, p152 & David Plank, Schol Fes and Education for Al: Is Abolition the Answer?, Working Paper (Washington: USAID, 207), p2. 60 Plank, p3. 61 Plank, p3 & World Bank and UNICEF, p1. 62 Plank, p3. 63 World Bank and UNICEF, p4 and p12. 64 Plank, p3. 
• Observations from countries sugest that comunity involvement and suport for local education wanes after the abolition of schol fes, as comunity members interpret the elimination of schol fes as the transfer of ful financial responsibility over education to the government.65 In many cases, the relationship betwen the schol administration and parents and comunities weakened.66     • Abolishing schol fes can result in the decrease of schol revenue, as parents and comunity members are no longer making voluntary and/or compulsory contributions. In this case, the abolition of fes can put the schols in further financial crisis than before.67  • Generaly, parents and comunity members have expresed apreciation for fe-abolition, especialy its equitable nature of benefiting those who could not previously aford education.68  Though it had ben argued that schol fes present the bigest obstacle in trying to achieve EFA,69 the international comunity is just begining to understand some of the positive as wel as negative consequences of abolishing schol fes. Further research is necesary to beter devise alternatives or make modifications, to which this project hopes to contribute to.  4.3 Efects of the Capitation Grant in Ghana  In Ghana, fre basic education was initiated with the introduction of the Capitation Grant in 205. There have ben both positive efects of this grant as wel as chalenges identified. The positive impacts are the folowing:70  • There was a 16.7% overal increase in enrolment in basic schols in 205/206 schol year compared to 204/205.  • There was a 10% increase in primary schol gros enrolment, bringing the total national primary enrolment to 92.4%.  • Rise in enrolment was observed in al 10 regions of Ghana. The largest increase was sen in the Northern Region where rates were lowest.  • Enrolment of girls increased by 18.1% and boys by 15.3%.  The abolition of schol fes has also had negative unintended consequences. In Ghana, some chalenges that have ben identified so far are the folowing:  • Insuficient number of public basic schols to acomodate the increase in enrolment since the inception of the Capitation Grant. An initial asesment found that an aditional 40 public basic schols are necesary.71 

65 Plank, p5 & Nishimura et al, p153. 66 Nishimura et al, p157. 67 Ibid, p153. 68 Ibid, p155. 69 Plank, p1. 70 UNICEF, p4. 71 MOES (207), p1. 
 • There is an acute shortage of teachers, particularly in the rural areas. As a result, worsening teacher-pupil ratios can lead to lower academic performance of students.72  • The monitoring system to ensure efective use of the grant is in ned of improvement.73  • General perception of teachers, SMC and PTA members was that the Head Teacher was misusing the grant money, and that the money was not being alocated efectively.74  • SMC and PTA felt that they were unable to share in the administration and utilization of the grant, thereby making them les efective in their roles, the SPIP porly implemented, and weakening acountability.75  • Many Head Teachers expresed that the administrative procedure for the grant was cumbersome and tedious.76  • An “equalization factor” may be necesary to ensure that the deprived schols with lower enrolment are provided aditional baseline amounts so as to ensure equitable distribution of resources.77  In April 206, the Policy Research, Monitoring and Evaluation Unit within the Planing, Budgeting, Monitoring and Evaluation division of the Ministry of Education, Science and Sports in Ghana conducted an asesment of some of the policies implemented, including the Capitation Grant. This report concluded with recomendations on improvements to the design and implementation of the Capitation Grant such as:78  • Create targeting mechanisms to beter serve and reach underserved populations.  • The grant should include incentives for enhanced performance.  • Mechanisms for more eficient use of the grant should be introduced. These include removal of unecesary management practices, beter schol record management, implementation of SPIP with active involvement of the SMCs, and training Head Teachers on efective use of the grant.  • GES should work in colaboration with District Asemblies to empower the SMCs and comunities to monitor the implementation of the SPIP.  In the folowing section, the impact that the Capitation Grant has had on comunity-schol relationships wil be further discused, as per findings from field research. One research project conducted on abolition of schol fes concluded, “abolishing schol 

72 Nishimura et al, p146. 73 MOES (207), p12. 74 Ibid, p46. 75 Ibid, p2. 76 Ibid, p46. 77 Ibid. 78 Ibid, p47. 
fes without an efective strategy for replacing revenues and protecting instructional quality is likely to do more harm than god, especialy for the porest and most vulnerable children. If a policy goal is to acomplish anything more ambitious than simply increasing the number of children who enrol in schol, then a more sophisticated aproach is required.”79 The recomendations put forth in section 6.0 do not atempt to provide policy alternatives as discused in the coments above, but rather, to make improvements to the curently existing structure for comunity-schol relationships.  

79 Plank, p7. 

  This section wil first discus broader findings regarding the stakeholders’ understanding of the importance of comunity participation in schols and the value it brings to education. Then it wil take a closer lok at the comunity/parents’ response to the Capitation Grant.  5.1 Stakeholders’ Perspectives on the Significance of Comunity Participation  Through interviews and surveys, education oficers at Takoradi MEO, teachers, head teachers, SMC/PTA chairpersons, and parents were asked “Do you think the participation of the comunity/parents in schol management is important? Why or why not?” This question was important to ask in atempting to understand the various stakeholders’ views on the significance of comunity participation. Their replies can shape the future endeavors to manage comunity participation, whether that involves creating a means to increase the level of participation or to modify the mechanisms so that it is done more efectively.  Al Stakeholders An analysis of the replies to this question found that al stakeholders se the value in comunity participation. Though various explanations were given, the reason that was given most comonly by al stakeholder groups was that participation of the comunity can help to improve the management of their schol and by extension, improve the quality of education. Colaboration with comunity members and exchange of information is thought to help the schol in educating their children. Al stakeholders (counity/parents, teachers, and MEO oficers) semed to recognize that the comunity input and participation are valuable.  The top reason for comunity participation was the same for al stakeholders, but other reasons for comunity participation that were mentioned had a slightly diferent focus.  Comunity and Parents The comunity/parents, in adition to the reason stated above, comented that the comunity/parents should participate in schol management also because (in order of more to les frequently mentioned):  • Participation alows them to stay informed on the developments at schol. Being informed on what hapens in the schols is important, so that they may beter understand the chalenges that schols are facing.  • The schol is in the comunity and therefore, it belongs to them. Comunity/parents are stakeholders in the schol and thus should participate.  • Participation helps parents to stay informed on the performance of their children.  • They should play a monitoring role to ensure education of high quality is being provided at their schols.  There is notable emphasis on participating as a means to stay informed on isues surounding the schol and their children’s education. This sugests that the comunity 5.0 Findings 
ses their role as a recipient of information, stil embracing the “traditional” forms of participation as mentioned in section 3.4. But they also consider themselves to have a valid stake in the quality of education, and want to ensure this through active participation in forms of monitoring and supervision of the schols, showing signs of the comunity adopting the newer roles that were introduced since educational reforms in the late 1980s (also discused in section 3.4).  Teachers and MEO ficers The replies from schol teachers and MEO oficers were very similar to each other. They explained that comunity/parent participation in schol manageent is important because:  • “The children in the schols are coming from the comunity, so the link betwen the schol and comunity is important,” explained an MEO oficer. As the schol is located in the comunity and belongs to the comunity, the comunity/parents are important stakeholders and thus as stakeholders, they should participate.  • The schol neds a god relationship with the comunity in order to provide quality education. As one MEO oficer said, “the schol neds the suport and buy-in of the comunity, and in order to get that, regular and consistent participation of the comunity in schol management becomes important.” This comes in many forms, for example, when the comunity/parents are informed of the financial chalenges that the schol is experiencing, they are more wiling to help. Without this asistance, the schol canot overcome chalenges. These are not only limited to financial asistance by the comunity, but also in providing children with asistance outside of the schol.  • It helps the development of the comunity. It is not only for the individual children’s education, but education is, as one teacher said, “paramount to the development of any comunity. If people are not educated, development wil also sufer. If the schol is in the comunity, it is the responsibility of the counity to participate to ensure that the schol provides the pupil in the comunity with god education which wil bring about development in that comunity.”  These replies are les about informing the comunity and more about cultivating a colaborative partnership with the comunity through their participation. One educational oficer said “beter partnership means beter education.” The teachers and MEO oficers recognize that the schol and comunity provide mutual benefits to one another, and these benefits can be best achieved through coperation and colaboration.  Analysis Other than the top reason mentioned by al parties (i.e. comunity participation can help improve schol management and quality of education), there is divergence in the perspectives held by the groups regarding the significance of comunity participation. Because the comunity/parents are on the recipient side and the teachers and educational oficers on the providers’ side of educational services, these groups have an investment in and expectation of the schols that are distinct from one another. Therefore, it is understandable that they focus on diferent aspects of why the comunity should participate in schol management.  In examining the reasons for comunity participation, comparing the comunity/parents responses with that of the teachers and MEO oficers show that although the teachers 
and MEO oficers sek comunity participation as a means to develop and ensure the efectivenes of a colaborative relationship betwen the comunity and the schol, the comunity/parents stil se the receiving of information through participation as a key element, though they also include more active means of participation such as monitoring. These diferences in expected levels of participation are discused further in the folowing section regarding the role of the comunity in education. Focusing on concrete roles alows for a more tangible and concrete discusion on levels of participation.  5.2 Stakeholders’ Perspectives on Comunity/Parents’ Role in Schols  There were a wide range of responses from respondents when asked, “In your opinion, what is the role of the comunity and parents in schols? (In other words, what should the comunity/parents be doing to ensure quality education in their schols?)”.  Comunity and Parents The most comon responses from the parents and comunity members (i.e. SMC and PTA chairpersons) were the folowing:  • Regularly visit the schols. To ensure god education, to stay updated on their children’s performance, and be aware of what is hapening at the schols, parents should maintain comunication and interaction with the schol by visiting their children’s schol on a regular basis. (25 respondents)  • Atend PTA metings. Parents should atend metings held by the PTA to help teachers plan i provements to the schol and education being provided to the children. Some respondents also said parents should atend PTA metings to provide input and expres their views to enhance the beter education for children. (2 respondents)  • Provide financial suport to the schol. Parents and comunity should be suporting the schols’ finances through paying PTA levies, contributing in kind or in cash. Some parents also described their sense of responsibility to financialy contribute to their children’s education and not asign ful responsibility to the government. (2 respondents)   • Join in the decision-making. Parents and comunity members should join teachers in discusions of isues surounding the schols. Because the comunity and parents bring a breadth of information regarding the comunity and students that the teachers at schols do not necesarily have aces to, their input in the decision-making proces at schols is valuable. (17 respondents)  Other reasons raised were:  • Suport schols in delivering quality education to the students. This ranged from broad coments such as “ensure quality education,” to slightly more detailed coments such as “coperate with teachers for the welfare of the students.” (1 respondents) • Provide basic neds to the children. Parents and comunity are responsible for the provision of basic necesities such as fod, boks, uniform, and other learning equipment. (1 respondents) • Organize schol visits and comunal labour. (8 respondents) 
 Teachers In comparison, the teachers’ replies to a similar question in interviews found that teachers also placed the most emphasis on parents regularly visiting the schols.80  • Regularly visit the schols • Provide financial suport to the schol • Provide welfare to teachers (in forms of acomodation) • Provide basic neds to the children • Act as supervisor/monitor of schol quality • Supervision of students outside of schol  MEO ficers The educational oficers at Takoradi MEO, however, did not explicitly mention that the comunity/parents should frequently visit the schols, but emphasized that they serve two roles:  1. First is a supervisory role in which they are the “watchdogs” of quality education. They raised an example whereby a parent came to the MEO to submit a complaint about their child’s teacher, and coended this parent’s spirit. 2. They also spoke about a suportive role, and comented that without the suport of the comunity, the schols would not run smothly because the schols are counity-based.  Oficers expresed the value that the comunity brings, speaking about an example where certain items were stolen from the schol and it was the comunity who helped resolve the isue. They recognize that the comunity can act as the eyes and ears, loking out for the schol as wel as bringing localy specific knowledge that teachers who are often not from the locality, may not poses.  Analysis In analyzing al of these identified roles of the comunity by various actors, Shaefer’s adaptation of Arnstein’s “lader of citizen participation” becomes useful. The table below shows the role of the comunity/parents as identified by the comunity/parents, teachers/head teachers, and MEO oficers in relation to Shaefer’s seven rungs of participation in education. Not al roles that were described were mentioned; only those that were repeatedly raised were included.  Each role of the comunity/parents identified is categorized under a level of participation. Some of the roles described such as “suport schols” can be diferent levels of participation depending on the details and mechanisms by which the comunity/parents would enact this role. Therefore, it is categorized under the lowest likely rung that this role can be described as (in darker shade) and also categorized 

80 It was not posible to acurately count the number of teachers that gave each reply. This was due to the fact that not al interviews were conducted one-on-one; some interviews had up to thre teachers being interviewed at the same time. A coment made by one teacher may or may not have ben made by other teachers in the same interview had they not ben interviewed together. Thus, exact record of the number of teachers who gave certain responses canot be presented. 
under higher rungs that it may be posible to achieve depending on the specifics of that role (in lighter shade).81     Some observations are:  • Much of the roles defined by the thre groups of stakeholders are concentrated on the “involvement through contribution” (rung 3).  • Roles such as “suport schols” and “supervision of students outside of schols” mentioned by the teachers sugest that the teachers se the comunity as a partner in the provision of education. There is recognition of mutual dependency that, used efectively, can benefit the children and their education.  • Though not shown in this table, “supervise/monitor schol quality” was also mentioned by some parents. However, merely 3 parents identified this, and compared to other 

81 It would have ben particularly useful to analyze the curent actual level of overal participation of parents/comunity in schol management, and compare it to the table above to examine the diference betwen the actual roles that the comunity/parents are fulfiling versus the roles that they identify as being important. However, an analysis of the overal participation level is out of the scope of this research. It is stil useful to examine the roles identified by the comunity/parents as important in understanding their expectations and desires with regards to participation.  Table 2: Roles of the comunity analyzed using Schaefer's Seven Levels of Participation 
roles identified, it was an insignificant number and therefore did not make it on this list. Moreover, these 3 parents were al from the same schol, which sugests that this particular schol may be more advanced in the level of involvement of the parents.  • For the teachers and MEO oficers to raise “supervise/monitor schol quality” is significant, as this role can push the level of involvement from rung 4 to a higher level. Rungs 4-5 are the crucial shift betwen involvement, which is ore of a pasive means of participation, to a more active form of participation.82  Comparing the thre groups of stakeholders:  • Of the thre stakeholder groups, the comunity/parents most emphasize involvement through receiving information (rung 2). This is in line with the previous discusion about the importance of comunity participation, in which the comunity/parents raised receiving information as one of the most important aspects of comunity participation.   • Teachers and MEO oficers identified roles for the comunity that have the posibility to reach as far as rung 6 of the lader. The results in this table sugest that the teachers and MEO oficers are more inclined to identify roles of the comunity that are higher in the lader of participation.  The comunity/parents sem to place stronger emphasis on roles that entail the comunity/parents receiving information and contributing in various ways (rung 2-3), whereas the teachers and MEO ficers identify more roles that are potentialy on the higher levels (rungs 3-6).  However, there is also a sense from the comunity/parents that they are seking more than simply being on the receiving end of information. What is particularly noteworthy is that the comunity/parents themselves identified “join in decision-making” as a part of their role. The self-identification of this role is a big step in moving further along the continum towards genuine participation as described by Rose.  These responses from the comunity/parents, teachers, and MEO oficers are desirable. As Shaefer states, “in many societies, movement up these rungs – to the third or fourth rung (pasive involvement in decision-making and in consultation and fedback) – would already represent considerable progres.”83 Therefore, the fact that the comunity/parents identify roles that are on the 4th rung, and teachers and MEO oficers identifying roles that go even beyond those rungs is a positive finding that demonstrates the stakeholders’ receptivenes towards trying to reach higher levels of comunity participation.  In considering the steps ahead, it is important to kep these diferent points of view in mind. When considering how to strengthen the relationship in a way that is meaningful to everyone, a way to mary these diferent perspectives on the reasons for comunity participation is important so that participation can be enhanced in a maner that mets everyone’s neds and motives.  

82 Shaefer (194), p17. 83 Ibid. 
5.3 Capitation Grant and the Comunity  The majority of parents and comunity members expresed that the introduction of the Capitation Grant increased their level of interest in the management of schol funds.  In the survey, parents were asked whether the Capitation Grant has changed their level of interest in the management of schol funds. In their answers, they were asked to circle one of the folowing:   a. YES, it has increased my interest b. YES, it has lowered my interest c. NO, it has not changed my level of interest  From the surveys colected, almost 60% of the parents chose “a. YES, it has increased my interest.” Only 9% said that their level of interest decreased, and aproximately 30% said that their level of interest did not change at al.  Interestingly however, interviews showed that the level of parents’ interest as perceived by teachers and SMC/PTA chairpersons were diferent than what the parents have expresed through the surveys. Some teachers expresed concern with the shift in atitude of parents.  Perceived decline in Parents/Comunity interest level Several teachers and members of the SMC and PTA stated in interviews that they have observed a declining interest of parents since the Capitation Grant. Acording to some of these key players, because parents were the direct funders of schols through schol fes and PTA levies prior to the introduction of the grant, parents were more interested in schol management and in ensuring that the money was used eficiently and purposefuly. However, the administrators speculated that as parents are no longer directly paying from their pockets, they are now les interested in the runing of the schol and its use of funds. In adition, in some schols (though not al), the teachers have observed parents’ lack of wilingnes to pay for aditional schol funds (i.e. PTA levies which schols can stil colect through agrement)84 since the Capitation Grant began.   In extreme cases, teachers at one schol comented, “Now, when the schol asks for money, the parents think that teachers are cheating them or lying.” In this case, there is a sense of distrust of teachers held by parents, who now believe the teachers embezle the funds. These parents believe that schols now receive large amounts of money in lump sums and are suspicious when schols say that they do not have suficient funds. This was also mentioned in the nation-wide study conducted by Planing, Budgeting, Monitoring and Evaluation Division of the Ministry of Education in April 206.85  The teachers have observed the above negative shifts in atitude, ranging from lack of interest to distrust towards schols. Though this is not the case for al schols and al 

84 Regarding fes and levies, “subject to aproval from the district asemblies, comunities and PTAs may impose special levies or fes on their members for the purpose of raising funds for schol projects, provided that no student shal be asked to leave schol if his or her parents canot pay.” World Bank and UNICEF, p101. 85 MOES (207), p2. 
parents, it was observed in more than one schol, and mentioned by more than a few teachers and SMC and PTA chairpersons that were interviewed.  Some of the reasons for these negative atitudes are the folowing:  • Disemination of inacurate and misleading information driven by political agendas. In the fal of 208, general elections were held in Ghana. As a part of their political platform, the incumbent party placed strong emphasis on their achievement of having made education “fre.” In ralies and speches, not only did they repeatedly remind citizens that thanks to their policies, parents no longer had to pay schol fes to send their children to schol, but went further to inacurately claim that parents should not be paying any money whatsoever towards their children’s education. In reality, this is far from the truth. Parents stil must pay for their children’s exercise boks, uniform, etc., and moreover, PTA levies can stil be colected upon agrement at each schol. However, as the mesage of ‘fre education’ has ben reinforced in the minds of the parents due to political campaigning, this has made it dificult for schols to raise funds towards neds that canot be met through the Capitation Grant. 

• Lack of transparency regarding the Capitation Grant. Very few schols mentioned that they discus the SPIP at PTA metings, and those that did said they do not discus them extensively. One head teacher had writen out the SPIP on a large piece of paper and displayed it at the schol for al to se (this head teacher later stoped doing so because the late disbursement of the funds made the SPIP pointles). However, no other schols had made any similar eforts to ake the information available and acesible to parents and the wider public. This lack of transparency, in some cases, was not just to the parents and comunity members but also among the teachers. In one schol, teachers said they had never sen the SPIP because the head teacher decided everything, and therefore they had no idea how the grant money was being spent. A teacher then jokingly said that the Capitation Grant was the head teacher’s “poverty aleviation fund”, insinuating that the head teacher could be misapropriating the funds without anyone knowing. If even the other teachers are unaware of the use of the Capitation Grant, the parents are likely to be even les informed. Without the availability of information to beter inform parents on the status of schol finances, it is a chalenge to gain their suport, and oreover, without transparency in the proces and its use, it can plant a sed of doubt in the minds of the parents and comunity regarding the honesty of the schol when they are aproached for suplementary funds. 
 • Parents are not informed of the plan and use of the Capitation Grant, but they are asked to provide financial asistance when schols have no funds. Parents’ knowledge of the Capitation Grant was minimal, i.e. most parents know that education has become fre, and many also know that schols receive GH¢3.0 per student. However, most parents do not know of the SPIP, and therefore do not know how the Capitation Grant is spent, and what it can be spent on. Very few parents could identify what the grant had ben used for in the previous year. Parents are only informed of schol finances when the schol is asking them for financial asistance, as they are not involved in the decision-making proces of neither the use of the grant nor the monitoring of its use. A surprisingly high number of parents are aware that the funds from the Capitation Grant are not released to the schols in a timely maner, coroborating the inference that parents are only consulted when funds are not there or are insuficient. If parents are consulted on schol financial management only when 
the schol neds parents to provide financial suport, this then creates the perception that schols are always asking parents for money. For parents, it becomes a situation where “talk about money means that the schol wil ask us for money.” The schol’s perception of parents' disinterest could be atributed to the fact that their interaction with parents regarding finances only comes up when schols ned funds, a discusion mater which automaticaly discourages parents.  However, interviewes who raised these concerns stil explained that the positive changes in parents and comunity atitudes stil outweighed the negatives. Specificaly, positive changes brought on by the introduction of the Capitation Grant included:  • Parents and comunity members now fel compeled to send their children to schol. Before, some children would not be at schol during schol hours because their parents could not pay the schol fes. Now, if there are children roaming in the comunity during schol hours, comunity members wil aproach them and ask “why are you not in schol?” and encourage them to go because it is now fre.  • As students are no longer being sent home for not having paid schol fes, this has helped smoth over micro-level relationships betwen the parents and the teachers. This was entioned by many teachers, and many SMC and PTA chairpersons.   • Overal, there is an increased awarenes towards education now that it has become acesible to everyone. This is sen in the earlier point, where comunity members wil aproach children and ask why they are not at schol.  Therefore, though there are some negative shifts in atitudes of the comunity and parents, which are leading to lack of interest and in more extreme cases, distrust towards teachers, such extreme cases are rare. Even with the negative shifts, these were outweighed by positive changes in the comunity/parents’ atitudes.  In terms of these changes afecting the relationship betwen the comunity and its local schol, the overal impresion from interviews with teachers and comunity members/parents was a positive change brought on by the abolition of schol fes. Though there were undesirable situations in some schols where parents were now les wiling to spend money on their children’s education, when asked if this has strained the relationship betwen the schols and the local comunity, everyone explained that although there were new dificulties that the Capitation Grant has created, overal, the Capitation Grant has ben god for everyone.  In some schols, teachers and SMC/PTA chairpersons interviewed comented that the parents stil understand the ned to pay suplementary fes. As one head teacher said, when they explain to the comunity/parents the details of why their financial contribution is being sought, they are on board and are wiling to provide their suport.  Moreover, although interviews showed that some teachers and SMC/PTA chairpersons had observed a decline in the interest of some parents, this should not be overly exagerated. It must be kept in mind that only 9% of the parents said that their level of interest decreased after the introduction of the Capitation Grant. Thus, the perceived decrease in level of interest may not acurately capture the reality of the majority of the parents’ interest. Survey results show that there were stil almost 60% of parents who stated that their level of interest had increased. For those parents whose level of interest 
did in fact decrease, the isue may not be their lack of interest but rather, a lack of efective ways in which parents can chanel and expres this interest in a constructive maner.  This is suported by the next finding that parents/comunity members generaly fel that they should be participating in the decision-making proces of the Capitation Grant.  Comunity’s Interest in Participation In line with the results from the question above, when asked “Do you think the comunity/parents should participate in deciding what the Capitation Grant is used for? Why or why not?” 70% of survey respondents said that yes, comunity/parents should participate. This meant that the comunity is generaly interested in participating in deciding the use of the Capitation Grant.  The most frequently mentioned reasons raised by the parents for why the comunity/parents should participate were:  • To provide input. As the comunity/parents know the isues and problems of the local comunity and interact with the students outside of the schol environment, their expertise of the locality enables them to have valuable input into the Capitation Grant. (27 respondents)  • For comunity/parents to be beter informed on the use of the Capitation Grant. Parents expresed that they would like to know and beter understand how their children’s schol is using this grant. (24 respondents)  • To increase transparency and enhance acountability. Involving the comunity members/parents increases the flow of information regarding the Capitation Grant, thereby making the alocation and use of the Capitation Grant more transparent. Moreover, transparency alows for monitoring of the decisions ade, enhancing acountability of the schols. (14 respondents)  Though les frequently mentioned, other reasons were:  • Comunity/parents should participate because the Capitation Grant is coming from citizens’ taxes. Therefore, as citizens, they have the right to have a say in what the money is used for. (3 respondents)  • To beter suport the schols. By being involved in the decision-making proces, the comunity/parents can be aware of the shortcomings of the grant and other chalenges faced by the schol in meting financial neds, and therefore beter able to provide suport where necesary. (6 respondents)  • Comunity and parents have a responsibility over their children’s welfare. The wel-being and education of the students is not solely the responsibility of the teachers. Parents and comunity members have a large part to play, and therefore, should be involved in discusion regarding schol finances. (8 respondents)  On the other hand, the respondents who responded that “no, comunity/parents should not participate” stated the folowing reasons:  
• It is beyond the authority of the comunity and parents. As one parent wrote, “Because it is a government afair and therefore should be left to them.” Other parents also explained that as there are guidelines on how it is used, there is no ned for parents and comunity to intervene. (13 respondents)  • Schol authorities are capable of making the right decisions. One respondent said “no, management of schols is in the hands of the schol authorities. They know where they are facing dificulties and their strengths as wel.” (10 respondents) 
• There would be to many divergent opinions. Opening up discusions for parents and comunity to provide input would not only slow down the proces of decision-making as it would entail listening to multiple opinions, but if there are clashing opinions, it can even lead to conflict. (4 respondents)   The two main arguments of those who were not suportive of comunity/parents’ participation related to infringing upon the powers of the schol authorities and having faith in the schol to manage the finances apropriately.  When taking note of the urban-rural categorization, surprisingly, it was the urban schols that were more likely to have parents who are oposed to parental/comunity participation, whereas the comunity/parents of rural schols semed to have a stronger desire to participate.  There are several hypotheses for this contrast betwen the urban and rural parents. This can be atributed to any of, or a combination of the folowing factors:  • My sample of parents in rural schols was to smal to capture the parents who were oposed to participating in decision-making surounding the Capitation Grant. I had a larger sample of parents in urban schols. Had there ben more parents included in rural schols, there may have ben more people who were oposed to comunity/parent participation in the Capitation Grant.  • Urban schols generaly have more parental involvement on a regular basis. Therefore, they are more likely to have developed a relationship of trust with the schol administrators, therefore they are more inclined to entrust them with the management of the Capitation Grant without their input.  • Conversely, parents sending their children to schols in urban centers are more detached from their schols. As one head teacher explained, “In urban areas, parents drive and drop of their kids at schol, the kids leave schol right after they are done, there is les atachment to comunity and aren’t realy involved in schols.” Therefore, they do not se the ned, interest or reason for parents to participate in the management of schol finances.  More generaly, there are other reasons why parents and comunity members might fel they do not ned to have a say in the decision-making proces surounding the Capitation Grant. These are:  • The power imbalance betwen the schol staf and comunity members. If parents and comunity members perceive the teachers and schol adinistrators to have 
legitimate authority that they do not fel they can chalenge or even monitor, they may fel they have nothing to contribute to the proces.86  • The burden of participation. Participation can entail a “burden” that some parents are not wiling to take on. Parents simply may not want to be burdened with more responsibilities that would be atached to increased participation.  Further in-depth research would be necesary to identify which of the above reasons contribute to the reasoning of the parents who responded that they should not be participating. It must be noted however, that these were 30% of the respondents, with the majority 70% of parent respondents saying that parents and comunity should be participating.  To sumarize the past two points made, the majority of parents have expresed that the Capitation Grant has increased their level of interest in the management of schols. Secondly, many parents have also expresed their desire to participate in deciding the use of the Capitation Grant. This desire to participate in the decision-making regarding the use of the Capitation Grant is consistent with earlier findings about comunity participation in general. Comunity/parents identified “join in decision-making” as one of the principal roles of the counity in schol management.  5.4 Conclusion  While there have ben many definitions writen on the concept, the increasing emphasis on local participation has also made the concept of ‘participation’ something of an elusive, hard-to-achieve, transcendental concept. Increasing comunity participation on the ground can fel like an overwhelmingly monumental task. However, as it has now ben a few years since the inception of the Capitation Grant, the timing sems particularly ripe to atempt to further strengthen the comunity-schol relationship.  Though the Capitation Grant has improved the overal comunity and schol relationships, there is certainly rom for improvement and moreover, an oportunity to use the Capitation Grant to further strengthen this relationship. With the increased level of interest in schol management expresed by the majority of parents, and desire of 70% of parents to participate in deciding the use of the Capitation Grant, the timing sems suitable to examine concrete ways of incorporating the comunity/parents’ participation in this grant, and through doing so promote active participation of the comunity.  Though the ultimate goal in promoting comunity participation may be to achieve the highest rung of the participation later, this is a long proces that requires incremental steps. The interest sparked by the Capitation Grant can be a catalyst to moving towards the next step.  Curently, the alocation of Capitation Grant funds are decided through drawing the SPIP. As described in section 4.1, the curent procedure to design the SPIP is based on minimal involvement of the comunity. The SPIP is drawn up by the teachers and head teacher, then requires the aproval of the SMC chairman. There is no arena for the average parent to gain information on the SPIP and provide input prior to its aproval. 

86 Interview with Dr. Ampiah, 3 December 208 at University of Cape Coast. 
Though the SMC chairman’s aproval represents the indirect aproval of the comunity and parents, this mechanism remains tokenistic and lacks deper engagement with the comunity members on how the funds are used. In adition, in some cases, the SMC chairman does not have children in the schol, but he/she takes on the role because they are the most educated in the area. However, as they do not have a direct, personal investment in the schol, their comitment can be lacking.87 This is another god reason to open the decision-making to other parents/comunity members who have a direct stake in the use of the grant.  When asked whether they thought comunity/parents’ participation in the Capitation Grant would be helpful, one teacher said “yes – if they get to understand the amount coming and they realize its not suficient, if you ask them to contribute, it wil not pose any problems. Because they know what the money is being used for and they know GH¢3.0 is not enough, so they wil be more suportive in having to pay when funds are necesary.” As captured in this coment, comunity/parents participation can also alow for beter comunication and understanding betwen the schol and comunity, thereby fostering a stronger coperative relationship. In Malawi, there have ben observations of parents changing their once pasive atitude towards their children’s education and schols to becoming more coperative when they realized the lack of resources at the schols.88 Ghana can folow these steps to. Moreover, a report that examined the efects of fe-abolition in five countries (including Ghana) sumarized that,  Apart from providing esential financing, use of schol grants has many other positive impacts, such as promoting closer coperation betwen, and empowerment of, schols and local comunities; revitalizing schol councils; and enhancing acountability of schols in use of money and learning outcomes. These positive results, in turn, are esential ingredients of a comprehensive strategy for quality improvement. Schol grants are an efective instrument for promoting quality improvement, as they increase resources made available to schols for quality inputs and they ofer many advantages to schols and comunities from managing these resources.89  As the Capitation Grant has now reached its fifth year of implementation, MEO oficers, teachers and SMC chairpersons have become familiar with the procedures entailed in this grant. Building on this foundation, there is now an oportunity to carve a greater role for the parents/comunity in response to their increased interest in the management of schol funds and desire to participate in deciding the use of the grant.   

87 Interview with Dr. Ampiah, 3 December 208 at University of Cape Coast. 88 Nishimura et al, p153. 89 World Bank and UNICEF, p16. 

  In order to capitalize on the increased interest in schol management sparked by the inception of the Capitation Grant, and to incorporate and respond to the comunity’s desire to partake in decision-making of the use of the Capitation Grant, the folowing recomendations are made.  Increase transparency in the SPIP and encourage fedback from the comunity. Rather than simply having the SMC chairperson give a stamp of aproval when the initial draft of the SPIP is drawn up by the teachers, the SPIP should be shared with the parents and comunity in order to ilicit coments and fedback. This can be done at convening, for example, a joint SMC/PTA eting specificaly for this purpose. Or, it can also be incorporated in a discusion at a diferent meting that al parents and comunity members are invited to.  Schols ned to develop a beter comunication plan or strategy when dealing with parents and comunity members. Comunication of the meting before it takes place is important. Teachers should reind their students to comunicate the meting to their guardians, and speak with parents whenever there is face-to-face contact. (Printing leters to parents to inform them is unrealistic due to financial constraints.) In schols where parents sometimes come to pick up their children, teachers can place extra efort to make contact with these parents prior to the meting to inform them of the meting, and encourage them that this is the place where they can give input in to the management of the schol.  Simple methods of comunicating the SPIP to parents can be efective in informing and atempting to engage the parents/comunity in discusions. As mentioned before, one head teacher had writen out the SPIP on a large shet of paper for everyone to se, providing transparency to the SPIP. If the information is readily available it can reach a wider population, especialy since not al interested comunity members are able to atend metings. Making this information available comunity-wide is an esential step in inforing the comunity and encouraging their input.  Identify a leader to champion the SPIP Learning from a study90 that found that having a dominant leader is a key factor in having an efective SMC or PTA, identifying a local leader who can champion the SPIP may be a means to engage the comunity and parents. This person may or may not already hold an oficial position in the comunity or in the SMC or PTA. Head teachers and circuit supervisors can kep an eye out for such people, and such a leader can be the bridge betwen the schol and comunity/parents regarding the Capitation Grant and SPIP.  Capacity-building for the comunity Idealy, the comunity would receive training on financial management and budgeting. Such training was provided to SMC chairpersons when the Capitation Grant was initiated, but has not ben implemented since. Reaching the 5-year mark of the grant, it is a god time to re-introduce such training. Moreover, research also found that though the comunity’s responsibilities had increased, their capacity to take on such roles had 

90 Nkansa and Chapman, p526. 6.0 Recomendations 
not ben built (as mentioned in section 3.4).91 In order for the comunity to participate meaningfuly, decision-making power alongside the knowledge of god educational practices is sought.92 However, financial cost of such training is always a barier in developing country contexts, and Ghana is no exception. In such cases, increased comunication betwen teachers and comunity members can alow for flow of pedagogical knowledge from teachers to the comunity members. Increased involvement of the MEO oficers in advisory roles at the counity level may also alow for further transfer of this knowledge to the comunity members.  Adresing Other Chalenges The bigest foreseable chalenge in sustaining the engagement and interest of the comunity in the long-term through the Capitation Grant is the late disbursement of the funds. The funds are disbursed from the central government to the district level, and then to each schol’s own bank acount. However, this amount consistently does not come in time, and no one semed to know why and where the delay is caused. When I conducted my interviews in November, the schols were finaly just receiving funds that were expected back in April.  The late disbursement of funds creates a chalenge as it can render the SPIP useles. The SPIP outlines what and when the funds are to be used for. If the budget execution is imposible due to late funds, a predictable criticism is that it would negate the purpose of having the comunity participate if the SPIP canot even be folowed through. If the comunity participates in drawing up the SPIP but it canot be caried out anyway, this could lead to disapointment of the comunity, and create disincentives for future participation. This is a plausible scenario, however, the district and schol-level personel (to whom this report is writen for) have very litle they can do about the late arival of funds. It is an external factor that is beyond their control, thus it is more fruitful to discus how this chalenge can be overcome.  Mechanisms to counter this expected latenes are neded. Including the parents and wider comunity in discusions about how to deal with the late disbursement may be one method. Seking their advice can reasure the comunity and parents that their input maters and help to maintain their interest. For example, if a schol is planing to use soe of their Capitation Grant for a cultural activity but the grant does not come in time, engaging the comunity in discusion about what can be done instead, or how the activity can stil be implemented is a meaningful way for them to participate. This alows the comunity to stil contribute to the decision-making proces, while encouraging the schol and comunity to work together to overcome a chalenge.  It is hoped that creating this new chanel for the comunity to voice their opinions wil provide an oportunity for the comunity to take another step towards growing into their role of being partners in education provision. Coperation betwen the comunity and the schols can strengthen the comunity-schol relationship and enrich the education of the children. 

91 Chapman et al, p187. 92 Condy, p15. 

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   Survey  2. What do you know about the use of last year’s Capitation Grant in your child’s schol?       3. Do you think the comunity/parents should participate in deciding what the Capitation Grant is used for? Why or why not?          4. Has your atitude/expectations towards your child’s schol and education changed since the introduction of the Capitation Grant? If yes, how did it change?       5. Has the Capitation Grant changed your level of interest in the management of schol funds? (Please circle one)  a. YES, it has increased my interest b. YES, it has lowered my interest c. NO, it has not changed my level of interest. Apendix A: Survey for Parents Dear Parent / Guardian,  This is a survey for a study about comunity-schol relationships and the Capitation Grant. The Capitation Grant is an initiative of the Government of Ghana to provide GH¢3.0 per student enroled in schol. A Master’s student fro Canada, Asuka Yoshioka, is conducting a study at several schols.  Please fil in the survey as much as you can, and have your child take it to schol tomorow and submit it to the teacher. Thank you for your coperation.  

6. In your opinion, what is the role of the comunity/parents in schols? (In other words, what should the comunity/parents be doing to ensure quality education in their schols?)     7. Do you think the participation of the comunity/parents in schol management is important? Why or why not?      8. The folowing 5 components are the components for which the Capitation Grant can be used.  Components Improving Access (includes funds for enrolment drive, suport for nedy pupils) Provision of Teaching and Learning Materials (includes funds for adequate textboks, cardboard, pens, strings, crayons, etc.) School Management (includes provision of stationery, funds for efective administration, efective SMC/PTA) Community and School Relationship (includes organizing schol visits, comunal labour, provide welfare services to teachers) School Facilities (includes repair desks and chairs, maintenance of toilet and urinal, etc.)   In your opinion, which components are most important in providing god education to your child? Please rank the above 5 components in order of highest to lowest priority.  1.   2.   3.   4.   5.    9. Other coments:   Thank you for your participation in this survey. (Highest Priority) (Lowest Priority) 
   SCHOOL CAPITATION GRANTS  SCHOL PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT PLAN  Name of Schol: Takoradi Metro Primary Schol Schol Performance Improvement Plan for 207/208 Academic Year  COMPONENT/ TARGET ACTION TO BE TAKEN WHO IS RESPONSIBLE RESOURCES NEDED TIME FRAME WHO MONITORES 1. Improve teaching and learning  Providing teaching and learning materials Head Teacher GH¢45.0 Sept 07 – Aug 08 Circuit Supervisor 2. Schol management Provision of stationary Asistant Head Teacher GH¢90.0 Sept 07 – Aug 08 Head Teacher 3. Examinations Printing of examinations Asistant Head Teacher GH¢80.0 Sept 07 – Aug 08 Head Teacher 4. In-service training for teachers to upgrade their skils Organize schol-based in-service training for teachers Head Teacher GH¢60.0 Oct 07 – July 08 Circuit Supervisor 5. Sports Organize schol games and sports festival Sport Secretary (teacher) GH¢30.0 Sept – Dec 07 Asistant Head Teacher 6. Culture Organize cultural activities / carols Culture Cordinator GH¢150.0 Dec 07 – July 08 Asistant Head Teacher 7. Minor Repairs Repair broken tables, chairs, desks Head Teacher GH¢90.0 Sept 07 – Aug 08 SMC Chairman 8. Sanitation and heath Procure materials for first aid kit Asistant Head Teacher GH¢40.0 Sept 07 – Aug 08 Head Teacher   Total GH¢1575.0      Prepared by Head Teacher   Endorsed by SMC Chairman  Name_________   Name_________   Signature_______   Signature_______           Aproved by Metro Director of Education    Name______________    Signature_____________ Apendix B: Sample Schol Performance Improvement Plan (SPIP) 
  The University of British Columbia Ofice of Research Services Behavioural Research Ethics Board Suite 102, 6190 Agronomy Road, Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z3 CERTIFICATE OF APROVAL - MINIMAL RISK PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: INSTITUTION / DEPARTMENT: UBC BREB NUMBER: Leonora Angeles UBC/Colege for Interdisciplinary Studies/Comunity & Regional Planing H08-02384 INSTITUTION(S) WHERE RESEARCH WIL BE CARIED OUT: Institution Site N/A N/A Other locations where the research wil be conducted: Two public elementary schols in the district of Takoradi, in Ghana. Interviews with teachers and parents wil mostly be conducted in the clasroms of the schols. Some interviews may take place at the district education ofice, or at the interviewe's work place, or elsewhere that the participant and interviewer fel comfortable.  CO-INVESTIGATOR(S): Asuka Yoshioka  SPONSORING AGENCIES: N/A PROJECT TITLE: Promoting Inter-Comunity-Schol Relations Through the Capitation Grant in Ghana CERTIFICATE EXPIRY DATE: November 19, 209 DOCUMENTS INCLUDED IN THIS APROVAL: DATE APROVED:  November 19, 208 Document Name Version Date Protocol: Profesional Project Research Proposal N/A October 21, 208 Consent Forms: Consent Form (revised) N/A November 12, 208 Questionaire, Questionaire Cover Leter, Tests: Interview Questions N/A October 23, 208 Leter of Initial Contact: Contact Leter N/A October 21, 208   The aplication for ethical review and the document(s) listed above have ben reviewed and the procedures were found to be aceptable on ethical grounds for research involving human subjects.  Aproval is isued on behalf of the Behavioural Research Ethics Board and signed electronicaly by one of the folowing:  Dr. M. Judith Lynam, Chair Dr. Ken Craig, Chair Dr. Jim Rupert, Asociate Chair Dr. Laurie Ford, Asociate Chair Dr. Daniel Salhani, Asociate Chair Dr. Anita Ho, Asociate Chair 
Apendix C: UBC Behavioural Research Ethics Board Aproval Certificate 
  SCHOL OF COMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANING Centre for Human Setlements 193 West Mal, 2nd Flor, Rm 242 Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z2 Phone 604-822-5254 Fax 604-822-6164      64 

University of British Columbia, Colege of Interdisciplinary Studies Schol of Comunity and Regional Planing, Master’s Profesional Project  Dear Sir / Madam,  I am writing to invite you to participate in an interview as part of my research towards my Master’s Profesional Project “Promoting Inter-Comunity-Schol Relations through the Capitation Grant in Ghana.” As you are involved directly or indirectly in the management of the Capitation Grant, I am interested in interviewing you for aproximately 30 minutes to learn about your views and experiences with the Capitation Grant and inter-comunity-schol relations.  To provide you with some background information, I am a second year Master’s student studying at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada. I am enroled in the Schol of Comunity and Regional Planing, with a focus on Comparative Development Planing. I have spent the last 3 months in Ghana as an intern for an in-service teacher training project within the Teacher Education Division at Ghana Education Service. During that time, I learned of the Capitation Grant and became interested in how it is being used to promote relations betwen schols and the comunity in which it is located. Upon completion of my internship, I hope to conduct research towards my Master’s project regarding this topic.  My research wil sek to understand the curent use of the Capitation Grant as wel as the proces being undertaken to decide how the grant wil be used. I would also like to gain a grasp of the various stakeholders’ views on the role of the comunity in the public education system. The overal objective of the research is to enable schol administrators, educators and other stakeholders in making beter-informed decisions about the budget planing and use of the Capitation Grants to strengthen comunity-schol relations and further improve the quality of public education in Ghana.  Thank you very much for considering this invitation. If you have any questions, please contact me through Madame Imbeah at the District Education Ofice in Takoradi (024-997-7482), or contact me directly with the below email adres or phone number.  Warm Regards,  Asuka Yoshioka M.A. Candidate, University of British Columbia obile Number: 024-904-2431 Email: 
Apendix D: Contact Leter 

  SCHOL OF COMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANING Centre for Human Setlements 193 West Mal, 2nd Flor, Rm 242 Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z2 Phone 604-822-5254 Fax 604-822-6164      64  
 SUBJECT CONSENT FOR PARTICIPATION IN A RESEARCH PROJECT  Promoting Inter-Community-School Relations through the Capitation Grant in Ghana  Principal Investigator: Leonora Angeles, Associate Professor School of Community and Regional Planning, University of British Columbia Tel: 1-604-822-9312, Fax: 1-604-822-6164; Email:  Co-Investigator: Asuka Yoshioka, M.A. Candidate School of Community and Regional Planning, University of British Columbia Tel: 024-904-2431 (1-604-724-0427 in Canada); Email:  This research is being conducted as a Professional Project for the student’s Master’s degree.  Purpose: The purpose of this research is to understand the process of determining the use the Capitation Grant. It seeks to understand the perceptions held by stakeholders of the role of the community in the public education system, and how this may be affecting the use of the Capitation Grant. You are being invited to take part in this research because you are involved directly or indirectly in the management of the Capitation Grant.   Study Procedures:  The study will involve an interview of up to 30 minutes in length. The interview can take place at the school that the participant’s child attends, or the participant’s place of work, home, or other location where he or she will be comfortable. With the consent of the participant, the interview will be tape-recorded. If tape-recording causes any discomfort to the respondent, the interviewer will only type notes on a laptop computer instead.    THE
Apendix E: Consent Form 
Confidentiality:  The identities of people interviewed for this research study will be kept strictly confidential. No direct quotations will be used in the final version of the study.   The audio tape recordings of interviews will be available only to the principal and co-investigator. In order to ensure confidentiality, all documents and audio tapes will be identified by code numbers and kept in a locked filing cabinet.    Contact:  If I have any questions or would like further information about this study, I may contact any of the principal or co-investigators using the contact numbers or email addresses above.  If I have any concerns about my treatment or rights as a research subject I may call the Research Subject Information Line in the UBC Office of Research Services at 1-604-822-8598. Or, I may also contact Nora Imbeah at Takoradi District Education Office at 024-372-2333.  Consent:  I confirm that this document has been translated to me and that I understand its contents.  I understand that my participation in this study is entirely voluntary and that I may refuse to participate or withdraw from the study at any time without jeopardy.  I also understand that I do not waive any of my legal rights by signing this consent form.  I have received a copy of this consent form for my own records.   I consent to participate in this study.      Participant Signature       Date     Printed Name of Participant   



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