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Learning Plans for Learning Communities: Adaptive Management applied in the Urban Planning Context 2008

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Learn ing  Plans  for  Learn ing  Communit i e s : Adapt i v e  Management  appl i e d  in  the  Urban  Plann ing Contex t by SAMYA LUTZ B.A. ,  Weste r n  Wash ing t o n  Unive r s i t y ,  1998 A PROJECT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Schoo l  of  Communi t y  and  Regiona l  Plann i n g  We accep t  th i s  pro j e c t  as  con fo rm ing  to  the  requ i r e d s t a nd a r d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June  2007 © Samya  Lutz ,  2007 Page ii Abstrac t Over  the  pas t  few  decade s  na tu r a l  re sou r c e po l i c ymake r s  and  manage r s  have  embraced  adap t i v e managemen t  as  a  means  to  ensu r e  tha t  po l i c i e s  con t i n u e  to meet  the  goa l s  and  ob j e c t i v e s  fo r  which  they  were or i g i n a l l y  des i g n e d .  As prac t i c a l  rea l i t i e s  change  in  a s t a t i c  po l i c y  env i r o nmen t ,  po l i c y  dec i s i o n s  or i g i n a l l y in t e n d e d  fo r  one  purpo s e  can  end  up  be ing  c lumsy , ou td a t e d ,  and  impra c t i c a l .  But  in  the  dynamic  po l i c y env i r o nmen t  of  adap t i v e  managemen t  –  inc r e a s i n g l y  found in  the  na tu r a l  re s ou r c e s  f i e l d  –  ac t i v e  l e a r n i n g  i s  a gu id i n g  pr i n c i p l e ,  dec i s i o n s  ar e  vi ewed  as  expe r imen t s  in orde r  to  yi e l d  prog r e s s i v e  improvemen t  ove r  t ime ,  and mechan i sms  are  in  pl ac e  to  t r i g g e r  po l i c y  change s  in re s pon s e  to  change s  on  the  ground . Like  na tu r a l  re s ou r c e s ,  urban  soc i a l  prob l ems  change over  t ime ,  and  po l i c i e s  do  no t  a lways  keep  pace ;  they  may even  become  so  ou t  of  synch  wi th  or i g i n a l  ob j e c t i v e s  tha t they  are  a t  odds  wi th  fa c i l i t a t i n g  prac t i c a l ,  af f o r d a b l e so l u t i o n s  to  urban  soc i a l  prob l ems .  Can  knowledge  ga i n ed th r o ugh  expe r i e n c e  wi th  adap t i v e  managemen t  in  the na tu r a l  re s ou r c e  env i r o nmen t  be  app l i e d  to  the  urban soc i a l  env i r o nmen t ? Thi s  repo r t  exp l o r e s  the  app l i c a t i o n  of  adap t i v e managemen t  pr i n c i p a l s  used  wi th i n  the  na tu r a l  re s ou r c e po l i c y  f r amework  to  the  urban  soc i a l  po l i c y  f r amework .  I t i s  a l s o  an  exp l o r a t i o n  in t o  o the r  methods  of  l i n k i n g managemen t  and  po l i c ymak i n g  to  ac t i o n  in  a  dynamic  way . Page iii Fina l l y ,  in  orde r  to  i l l u s t r a t e  how the  adap t i v e managemen t  app roa ch  works  in  an  urban  con t e x t ,  i t examine s  the  imp l emen t a t i o n  of  adap t i v e  managemen t pr i n c i p a l s  in  th r e e  d i f f e r e n t  munic i p a l i t i e s . Page iv Table  of  Conten t s 1 .0  Introduc t i o n                                                                                                               .............................................................................................................1 2 .0  A Learn ing  Approach  to  Management                                                             .......................................................... 5 2.1 Adaptive Management Defined                                                                                         .......................................................................................5 2.2 Sustainable Development and Other Approaches to Adaptive Governance                     ...................8 2.3 An Adaptive Management Experiment                                                                           .........................................................................11 3 .0  Management  Tool s  for  Urban  Planner s                                                    ................................................ 16 3.1 Framework Defined for Urban Management Context                                                     ...................................................16 3.2 Urban Planning Challenges                                                                                              ............................................................................................19 3.3 Individuals as Adaptive Managers                                                                                   .................................................................................23 3.4 Summary                                                                                                                          ........................................................................................................................26 4 .0  Appl i c a t i o n :  Examples  of  Urban  Adapt i v e  Management  in Prac t i c e                                                                                                                               ........................................................................................................................... 28 4.1 Introduction                                                                                                                      ....................................................................................................................28 4.2 Housing Policies in Vancouver, BC, Canada                                                                  ................................................................30 4.3 Low Impact Development in Portland, OR, United States                                              ............................................34 4.4 Sustainable Neighbourhood Development in Ballerup, Denmark                                   .................................37 4.5 Analysis of Adaptive Management Applications                                                            ..........................................................40 5 .0  Conclu s i o n s  and  Recommendat i on s                                                              .......................................................... 45 5.1 Summary of Potential Contribution of Adaptive Management to Urban Policies         .......45 5.2 Recommendations for Policy Development                                                                    ..................................................................48 5.3 Recommendations for Further Study                                                                              ............................................................................50 Page v Table  of  Figure s Figure  2 .2 - 1 .  Goal s  of  Ecosys t em- Based  Management  ........................10 Figure  3 .3 - 2 .  Adapt i v e  management  for  the  ind iv i dua l  manager .................................................................................................................................................24 Figure  3 .3 - 3 .  Image  and  descr i p t i o n  of  manager  jugg l i n g  four bal l s  .................................................................................................................................. 25 Figure  4 .1 - 4 .  Ind i ca t o r s  guid ing  the  rev i ew  and  ass e s sment  of adapt i v e  management  s t ra t e g i e s  ...................................................................... 29 Figure  4 .4 - 5 .  In f l u en c e s  of  Egebjerggard  demonst ra t i o n  proje c t on  var i ou s  ent i t i e s ................................................................................................... 39 Figure  4 .5 - 6 .  Adapt i v e  management  appl i c a t i o n  cons i d e ra t i o n s .................................................................................................................................................43 Page vi 1 . 0 I n t r oduc t i on Land  use  pl ann i n g  has  evo l v ed  ove r  the  pas t  two cen t u r i e s  f rom  a  re s pon s e  to  urban  pub l i c  hea l t h  prob l ems to  a  high l y  complex  managemen t  sys t em  fo r  c i t i e s  and reg i o n s .  Planne r s  ar e  ca l l e d  on  to  an t i c i p a t e  and  re spond to  a  t r emendous  range  of  i s s u e s  f r om  new cons t r u c t i o n ,  to con f l i c t s  ove r  pub l i c  space ,  to  exp lod i n g  conce r n s  abou t the  env i r o nmen t .  In  add i t i o n ,  expand i n g  t e chn i c a l knowledge ,  growing  pub l i c  expec t a t i o n s ,  po l i t i c s ,  and pub l i c  op in i o n  exe r t  grea t  in f l u e n c e  on  the  work  of  urban p lanne r s .  Al l  of  the s e  fac t o r s  have  consp i r e d  to  cr ea t e  a con t empor a r y  urban  p lann i n g  env i r o nmen t  of  unpr e c ed en t e d complex i t y ,  unce r t a i n t y ,  and  change . Desp i t e  the  fac t  tha t  pl ann i n g  i s s u e s  today  are any t h i n g  bu t  s imp l e  and  s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d ,  pred i c t a b i l i t y and  ce r t a i n t y  rema in  the  cove t e d  ob j e c t i v e s  wi th i n  urban p lann i n g  of  what  has  long  been  cons i d e r e d  good managemen t .  Planne r s  of t e n  use  pre s c r i p t i v e  munic i p a l by l aws ,  codes  and  o the r  regu l a t i o n s  in  an  a t t emp t  to fo r c e  some  measu r e  of  pred i c t a b i l i t y  and  ce r t a i n t y  in t o the  inc r e a s i n g l y  complex  wor ld  of  urban  p lann i n g (Gut t e n b e r g  1993  and  2002) . More  and  more ,  fa i l e d  urban  soc i a l  po l i c i e s  ar e demons t r a t i n g  the  l im i t a t i o n s  of  th i s  t r a d i t i o n a l pre s c r i p t i v e  managemen t  app ro a ch  in  today ’ s  rap i d l y evo l v i n g  env i r o nmen t .  When  regu l a t i o n s  unde rgo  rev i ew , change s  t ake  yea r s  to  impl emen t ,  as  munic i p a l  s t a f f  i s Page 1 a l r e a d y  s t r u g g l i n g  to  keep  up  wi th  base  work lo ad ,  much l e s s  the  rewr i t i n g  of  ou tda t e d  codes  and  by laws ; bureau c r a t i c  proce s s e s  and  po l i t i c a l  in t e r e s t s  t ak e  the i r to l l ;  and  le a r n i n g  encoun t e r s  re s i s t a n c e .  Revi s i o n s happen  fa r  too  s l owl y  to  keep  up  wi th  the  ra t e  of soc i e t a l  evo l u t i o n ,  and  by  the  t ime  change s  ar e  f i n a l i z e d they  may a l r e a d y  be  obso l e t e .  Thus  the  cumber s ome  proce s s con t i n u e s . Some  in t r e p i d  pl anne r s  have  begun  to  depa r t  f r om command- and - con t r o l  s t r a t e g i e s  in  orde r  to  inco r p o r a t e inc r e a s i n g l y  d ive r s e  group s  of  s t a k e ho l d e r s  and  re s pond to  growing  th r e a t s  to  env i r o nmen t a l  hea l t h  and sus t a i n a b i l i t y .  Howeve r ,  managemen t  dec i s i o n s  con t i n u e  to suppo r t  urban  po l i c i e s  tha t  t ake  a  s t a t i c  broad - brush app ro a ch  (McMahon  2001) .  Ind i v i d u a l s  wi th i n  agenc i e s  may f i n d  ways  around  the  hurd l e s  and  shephe r d  new  idea s th r o ugh  the  bureau c r a c y  v i a  pe r s on a l  channe l s ,  bu t wi thou t  an  in s t i t u t i o n a l  champion  (o r  the  th r e a t  of l i t i g a t i o n ) ,  innova t i o n  i s  nea r l y  ce r t a i n  to  run  in t o  a dead - end . Stud i e s  in  the  f i e l d  of  na tu r a l  re s ou r c e  managemen t have  c l e a r l y  i l l um i n a t e d  how  the  pre s c r i p t i v e  app roa ch fa l l s  sho r t  of  ach i e v i n g  succe s s f u l  and  t ime l y  re s u l t s .  A 1986  examina t i o n  of  twen t y - th r e e  managed  ecosy s t ems  l ed to  the  conc l u s i o n  tha t  “any  a t t emp t  to  manage  eco l o g i c a l var i a b l e s  (e . g . ,  f i s h ,  t r e e s ,  wate r ,  ca t t l e )  inexo r a b l y l ed  to  l e s s  re s i l i e n t  ecosy s t ems ,  more  r i g i d  managemen t in s t i t u t i o n s ,  and  more  dependen t  soc i e t i e s ”  (Hol l i n g Page 2 1995 ,  6) .  These  re s u l t s  caus ed  grea t  paus e  fo r  na tu r a l re s ou r c e  manage r s ,  and  led  to  the  emergenc e  of  adap t i v e managemen t  as  an  a t t emp t  to  inc r e a s e  the  re s i l i e n c e  of ecosy s t ems  th r ough  managemen t  expe r imen t s . Adap t i v e  managemen t  of  na t u r a l  re s ou r c e s  has  proven ef f e c t i v e  and ,  a t  i t s  bes t ,  can  re s u l t  in  “an  abrup t reeva l u a t i o n  of  the  fundamen t a l  sou r c e  of  the  prob l ems ,  a red i r e c t i o n  of  po l i c y  toward  re s t o r a t i o n ,  and impl emen t a t i o n  of  a  proce s s  of  p lann i n g  and  managemen t tha t  prov i d e s  con t i n u a l l y  upda t e d  unde r s t a n d i n g  as  wel l as  economic  or  soc i a l  produc t ”  (Hol l i n g  1995 ,  3) . The  urban  soc i a l  po l i c y  a ren a  l ag s  fa r  beh i nd  the eco l og i c a l  pl ann i n g  aren a  in  t e rms  of  expe r imen t i n g  wi th adap t i v e  po l i c y  and  managemen t .  In  re s pon s e ,  th i s pro f e s s i o n a l  pro j e c t  has  been  prepa r e d  fo r  a  hypo th e t i c a l c l i e n t  such  as  the  Canad i a n  Fede r a t i o n  of  Munic i p a l i t i e s , or  some  s im i l a r  organ i z a t i o n  of  munic i p a l i t i e s .  I t s ove r a l l  ob j e c t i v e  i s  to  he lp  the  c l i e n t  organ i z a t i o n ’ s member s  unde r s t a n d  the  broad  concep t s  and  po t en t i a l re l e v a n c e  of  adap t i v e  l e a r n i n g  wi th i n  urban  p lann i n g con t e x t s .  The  more  spec i f i c  goa l s  of  th i s  repo r t  ar e : • To  rev i ew  the  bas i c  concep t s  and  syn t h e s i z e re l e v a n t  l i t e r a t u r e  on  adap t i v e  managemen t  and re l a t e d  app roa c h e s  to  ongo ing  le a r n i n g  fo r re l e v a n c e  to  urban  munic i p a l  pl ann i n g ;  and • To  use  the  above  ana l y s i s  to  exp lo r e  an  app ro a ch to  urban  po l i c y  p lann i n g  and  managemen t  in  which Page 3 l e a r n i n g  i s  cen t r a l  th r o ugh  d i s cu s s i o n  of  some cas e  example s . Thi s  repo r t  i s  organ i z e d  in  the  fo l l ow i n g  manner . Sec t i o n  2  di s c u s s e s  the  or i g i n s  and  def i n i t i o n s  of adap t i v e  managemen t ,  exp l o r e s  o the r  re l a t e d  app roa c h e s  to adap t i v e  l e a r n i n g  and  gove r n an c e ,  and  examine s  an i l l u s t r a t i v e  adap t i v e  managemen t  cas e  s tudy .  Sec t i o n  3 ou t l i n e s  the  f r amework  fo r  the  conve r g en c e  of  adap t i v e managemen t  and  urban  p lann i n g :  i t  iden t i f i e s  cur r e n t p lann i n g  i s s u e s  and  cha l l e n g e s ,  and  d i s c u s s e s  the re l e v a n c e  of  adap t i v e  managemen t  fo r  urban  p lann i n g  on ind i v i d u a l  and  agency  sca l e s .  Sec t i o n  4  l ay s  ou t ind i c a t o r s  fo r  the  rev i ew  and  as s e s smen t  of  urban adap t i v e  managemen t  s t r a t e g i e s ,  and  app l i e s  the s e ind i c a t o r s  to  th r e e  case  s tud i e s  in  urban  p lann i n g : hous i n g  in  Vancouve r ,  Canada ;  s to rmwa t e r  managemen t  in Por t l a n d ,  US;  and  ne ighbou r hood  deve l o pmen t  in  Bal l e r u p , Denmark .  Fina l l y ,  Sec t i o n  5  draws  conc l u s i o n s  abou t  the con t r i b u t i o n  of  adap t i v e  managemen t  to  urban  pl ann i n g , recommends  po l i c y  deve l o pmen t  to  suppo r t  adap t i v e l e a r n i n g ,  and  sugge s t e d  fou r  spec i f i c  ar ea s  fo r  fu r t h e r academic  re s e a r c h . . Page 4 2 . 0 A Learn ing  Approach t o  Managemen t 2 .1 Adapt i v e  Management  Def in ed In  na tu r a l  re s ou r c e  pl ann i n g ,  the  adap t i v e managemen t  app ro a ch  has  been  used  wi th  some  succe s s  ove r the  pas t  few  decade s .  In  sho r t ,  adap t i v e  managemen t  t ake s a  l e a r n i n g  app ro a ch  to  managemen t .  I t  asks ,  how can  our po l i c i e s  re f l e c t  ce r t a i n t y  i f  our  unde r s t a n d i n g  i s unce r t a i n ?  In  adap t i v e  managemen t ,  the  unce r t a i n t i e s  tha t ex i s t  ar e  made  exp l i c i t ,  and  as  knowledge  unfo l d s  ove r t ime ,  change s  ar e  made  to  managemen t  s t r a t e g i e s  tha t re s pond  to  the  new  knowledge .  Idea l l y ,  f rom  a  broad pub l i c  po l i c y  vi ewpo i n t ,  rep r e s e n t a t i v e  s t a k eho l d e r s  ar e invo l v e d  who  make  c l e a r  the i r  va lu e s  and  ob j e c t i v e s ,  and toge t h e r  d i s c u s s  the  t r a d eo f f s  nece s s a r y  to  come  up  wi th ba l an c e d  and  workab l e  managemen t  po l i c i e s  re f l e c t i n g agr e ed - upon  goa l s  tha t  spec i f i c a l l y  embrac e  l e a r n i n g . Adap t i v e  managemen t  ca l l s  fo r  dynamic  managemen t s t r a t e g i e s  tha t  a l l ow  fo r  chang i n g  prac t i c e s  (Og l e t h o r p e 2002) .  C.S .  Hol l i n g  engaged  in  th i n k i n g  in  t e rms  of adap t i v e  managemen t  in  the  1970s  when  hi s  and  hi s co l l e a g u e s ’  and  s t ud en t s ’  work  on  mode l i n g  ecosy s t ems  l ed them  to  the  concep t  (1978 ) .  The  work  has  been  fu r t h e r e d and  re f i n e d  ove r  the  yea r s ,  pr ima r i l y  th r o ugh  case s t ud i e s  invo l v i n g  la r g e - sca l e  ecosy s t ems  (Lee  1993 ; Gunder s on  e t  a l  1995 ) .  In  1990 ,  Car l  Wal t e r s  wi th  Hol l i n g drew  the  di s t i n c t i o n  be tween  ac t i v e  and  pas s i v e  adap t i v e managemen t .  In  es s en c e ,  ac t i v e  adap t i v e  managemen t Page 5 invo l v e s  the  purpos e f u l  per t u r b a t i o n  of  sys t ems  in  orde r to  sc i e n t i f i c a l l y  moni t o r  and  le a r n  f r om  the  re s pon s e s , and  subs equen t l y  adap t  managemen t  prac t i c e s  acco r d i n g l y . Pass i v e  adap t i v e  managemen t  invo l v e s  the  in f e r e n c e  of sys t em  dynamic s  in  re s pon s e  to  managemen t  prac t i c e s ,  and con t i n u e d  moni t o r i n g ,  l e a r n i n g  and  ad ju s t i n g  of  prac t i c e s ove r  t ime .  The  ana l y s i s  con t a i n e d  he r e i n  does  no t gene r a l l y  d i s t i n g u i s h  be tween  the  two ,  un l e s s  othe rw i s e s t a t e d . The  key  fea t u r e s  fo r  imp l emen t i n g  adap t i v e managemen t  s t r a t e g i e s  ar e  very  s imi l a r  to  tho s e  ou t l i n e d as  key  to  any  po l i c y  making  proce s s :  1)  Def i n e  the prob l em ;  2)  Assemble  ev id en c e ;  3)  Cons t r u c t  a l t e r n a t i v e s ; 4)  Se l e c t  cr i t e r i a  fo r  judg i n g  ou tcomes ;  5)  Pro j e c t  the ou t comes  of  a l t e r n a t i v e  s t r a t e g i e s ;  6)  Cons i d e r  the t r a d e o f f s  and  unce r t a i n t i e s ;  and  7)  Recommend  a  dec i s i o n (adap t e d  f r om  Bardach  2000) .  The  pr ima ry  di f f e r e n c e  i s tha t  l e a r n i n g  i t s e l f  becomes  an  exp l i c i t  ob j e c t i v e (McDani e l s  & Grego ry  2004) . Adap t i v e  managemen t  i s  prob l em  or  goa l - or i e n t e d . Unfo r t u n a t e l y ,  po l i t i c s ,  rou t i n e s ,  and  pub l i c  op in i o n s can  ge t  in  the  way  of  good  goa l - or i e n t e d  po l i c y deve l o pmen t .  “A  weak  unde r s t a n d i n g  of  the  goa l s  i s  ve ry prob l ema t i c ,  espec i a l l y  when  i t  comes  to  ana l y z i n g  the t r a d e o f f s  and  coming  to  a  compromi s e  so l u t i o n ” (Baske r v i l l e  1995 ,  98) .  Thi s  s i t u a t i o n  i s  a l l - too - common. When  c i t i z e n s  ar e  accu s t omed  to  pa r t i c u l a r  proce s s e s  and procedu r e s ,  the r e  i s  re s i s t a n c e  to  chang i n g  them  even Page 6 when  the  change  i s  needed  to  keep  the  proce s s  in  l i n e wi th  the  fundamen t a l  goa l s  & ob j e c t i v e s . Stakeho l d e r  pa r t i c i p a t i o n  in  managemen t  dec i s i o n - making  i s  cr i t i c a l ,  howeve r ,  espec i a l l y  a t  ea r l y  s t ag e s of  idea - fo rma t i o n .  Par t i c i p a t i o n  f rom  a  broad rep r e s e n t a t i o n  of  s t a k eho l d e r s  –  inc l u d i n g  f rom  in f o rma l ne twork s  –  i s  impor t a n t  to  inc r e a s e  the  l i k e l i h o o d  of good ,  consen s u a l  dec i s i o n s  and  long s t a n d i n g  coope r a t i o n (L igh t ,  Gunde r s o n  & Hol l i n g  1995) .  Adap t i v e  managemen t cas e  s tud i e s  have  found  tha t  in f o rma l  ne twork s  can  be  key in i t i a t o r s  of  new idea s  and  unde r s t a n d i n g s . 1 I t  i s  a l s o  impor t a n t  to  no t e  tha t  adap t i v e managemen t  has  been  sa i d  to  ju s t i f y  expe r imen t s  tha t  l e ad to  per c e i v e d  inequ i t a b l e  ga i n  fo r  one  pa r t y ’ s  in t e r e s t s (economi c  or  othe rw i s e ) . 2 I f  the  accus a t i o n  prove s accu r a t e ,  i t  i s  l i k e l y  due  to  de f i c i e n t  s t ak e ho l d e r invo l v emen t ,  or  o the r  imba l a n c e  re l a t e d  to  a  l a ck  of 1 Example s  of  coope r a t i n g  ne twork s  inc l u d e  fo rma l  ag r e emen t s  such  as memoranda  of  unde r s t a n d i n g ,  in f o rma l  shadow  ne two rk s  and  conso r t i a ,  NGOs, ad- hoc  group s ,  and  mesh ing  organ i z a t i o n s  such  as  t e c hn i c a l  over s i g h t commit t e e s . 2 For  example ,  the  Si t k a  Conse r v a t i o n  Soc i e t y  (Ala s k a )  moni t o r s  –  among o the r  th i n g s  –  ac t i v i t i e s  in  the  Tongas s  Nat i on a l  Fore s t .  A dra f t env i r o nmen t a l  impac t  s t a t emen t  fo r  a  new fo r e s t  managemen t  p lan  con t a i n s  a rub r i c  of  adap t i v e  managemen t  tha t  sh i f t s  requ i r e d  pro t e c t i o n s  fo r  a number  of  re sou r c e s  inc l u d i n g  f i s h  and  wi ld l i f e  and  ka r s t  ( l ime s t o n e  cave are a s )  to  an  appro a c h  which  pe rmi t s  the  agency  to  use  a  much  l e s s s t r i n g e n t  approa c h  (F i e l d s  2007) .  The  fe a r  i s  tha t  the  adap t i v e  managemen t appro a c h  i s  be ing  used  in  orde r  to  more  eas i l y  weaken  pro t e c t i v e  pra c t i c e s tha t  have  been  ha rd - fough t  th r o ugh  yea r s  of  po l i t i c a l  lobby i n g .  Yet  the t r u e  ques t i o n  i s  how wel l  fo r e s t  prac t i c e s  have  been  work ing  to  addr e s s env i r o nmen t a l ,  soc i a l ,  and  economic  needs  of  the  broad  communi t y ,  and whethe r  the  po l i t i c s  can  be  su f f i c i e n t l y  sh i f t e d  f r om  pos i t i o n i n g  to nego t i a t i n g  in  orde r  to  cre a t e  be t t e r  prac t i c e s .  I t  i s  no t  adap t i v e managemen t ,  per  se ,  tha t  i s  the  i s s u e ,  bu t  the  ab i l i t y  of  the  communi t y  to produc t i v e l y  nego t i a t e ,  imp l emen t ,  moni t o r ,  and  adap t  managemen t  pra c t i c e s th r ough  ongo i ng  di a l o g u e  and  expe r imen t a t i o n  amids t  a  h i s t o r y  of long s t a n d i n g  po l i t i c a l  r i f t s  and  mis t r u s t . Page 7 cons i d e r a t i o n  and  ba l an c i n g  of  rep r e s e n t a t i v e  in t e r e s t s in  the  dec i s i o n - making  app ro a ch . 2 .2 Sus ta i nab l e  Deve lopment  and  Other  Approaches  to Adapt i v e  Governance The  most  commonly - used  def i n i t i o n  of  sus t a i n a b l e deve l o pmen t  came  in  1987  wi th  the  Brund t l a n d  Commiss i o n : “Sus t a i n a b l e  deve l o pmen t  i s  deve l o pmen t  tha t  meet s  the needs  of  the  pre s e n t  wi thou t  compromi s i n g  the  ab i l i t y  of fu t u r e  gene r a t i o n s  to  meet  the i r  own  needs . ”  However , when  i t  comes  to  de f i n i n g  what  i t  means  to  ‘do ’ deve l o pmen t  sus t a i n a b l y ,  s t r a t e g i e s  va ry  wide l y  and  a t t imes  con f l i c t  (Da l e  2001) . There  i s  growing  consen s u s  tha t  sus t a i n a b l e deve l o pmen t  re f e r s  to  a  proce s s  invo l v i n g  adap t a t i o n , change ,  or  evo l u t i o n  ove r  t ime  (Ho l l i n g  2001 ;  Jok i n e n  e t a l  1998 ;  Rammel  and  Van  Den  Berg  2003) .  In s t e a d  of  a f i x e d  po in t  in  t ime  when  any  sus t a i n a b l e  deve l o pmen t  i s ‘done , ’  the r e  i s  in s t e a d  an  ongo i ng  proce s s  tha t  change s i t s  fo rm  ove r  t ime  as  human  knowledge  change s . Sus t a i n a b l e  deve l o pmen t  and  adap t i v e  managemen t  ar e arguab l y  inex t r i c a b l e  f r om  one  ano t h e r .  C.  S.  Hol l i n g re f e r s  to  sus t a i n a b l e  deve l o pmen t  as  the  goa l  of “fo s t e r i n g  adap t i v e  capab i l i t i e s  and  crea t i n g oppor t u n i t i e s ”  (2001 ) .  Learn i n g  to  manage  adap t i v e l y  i s key  to  impl emen t i n g  the  sus t a i n a b l e  goa l s  tha t  ar e  now wide l y  a r t i c u l a t e d  a t  va r i o u s  sca l e s  of  gove rn an c e . Page 8 Anothe r  way  of  re f e r r i n g  to  the  proce s s  of adap t a t i o n  in  managemen t  and  gove r n an c e  i s  the  t e rm ‘ r e f l e x i v e  gove r n an c e . ’  Ref l e x i v e  gove rn an c e  i s  the re s pon s e  of  soc i e t y  to  the  huge  complex i t y  of  today ’ s prob l ems  wi th  the i r  va ry i n g  sca l e s ,  in t e r c o n n e c t e d n e s s , and  casc ad i n g  ef f e c t s  ac ro s s  t ime  and  domain  (Knof l a c h e r and  Gig l e r  2004) .  In  the i r  exp l o r a t i o n  in t o  re f l e x i v e gove rn an c e ,  Knof l a c h e r  and  Gig l e r  po in t  ou t  “The  s tud i e s demons t r a t e  tha t  manag ing  regene r a t i o n  adap t i v e l y  enab l e s s t a k eho l d e r s  to  dea l  wi th  inhe r e n t  unce r t a i n t y  more succe s s f u l l y  and  can  con t r i b u t e  to  sus t a i n a b l e  ou t comes even  in  a  se t t i n g  where  sus t a i n a b i l i t y  i s  no t  an  exp l i c i t goa l ”  (2004 ) . Close l y  re l a t e d  to  adap t i v e  managemen t ,  ecosy s t em - based  managemen t  i s  ye t  ano t h e r  s t r a t e g y  tha t  add r e s s e s complex i t y  by  encou r ag i n g  democra t i c  and  dynamic managemen t .  Slocombe’ s  (1998 )  ecosy s t em - based  managemen t goa l s  ar e  high l i g h t e d  in  Figu r e  2 .2 - 1 . Like  adap t i v e  managemen t ,  ecosy s t em - based  managemen t i s  a  depa r t u r e  f rom  prev i o u s  command  and  con t r o l s t r a t e g i e s .  I t  i s  a l s o  a  reac t i o n  to  env i r o nmen t a l managemen t  p lan s  which  d id  no t  adequa t e l y  pro t e c t  the urban  env i r o nmen t  due  to  a  pro j e c t - by- pro j e c t  focu s  and cor r e s p o nd i n g  l a ck  of  ju r i s d i c t i o n a l  coo rd i n a t i o n (UNU/IAS  2003) . Page 9 Figure  2 .2 - 1.  Goal s  of  Ecosys t em- Based  Managemen t (S l o combe  1998 ) Normat i v e Imply  and  re f l e c t  spec i f i c va lu e s  and  l im i t s Princ i p l e d Ref l e c t  ‘h i g h e r ’  va lu e s  and e th i c a l  pr i n c i p l e s  and  ru l e s Integra t i v e Ref l e c t  the  wide  range  of in t e r e s t s ,  goa l s  and ob j e c t i v e s  tha t  ex i s t Complex Work  wi th ,  no t  ar t i f i c i a l l y reduc e ,  complex i t y Dynamic Accep t  and  recogn i z e  the  inev i t a b i l i t y  of  change Transd i s c i p l i n ary Syn the s i z e  a  wide  range  of in f o rma t i o n  and  knowledge Appl i c ab l e Be app l i c a b l e  to  a  wide  range of  ecosy s t em  type s  and cond i t i o n s Part i c i p a t o r y Invo l v e  peop l e  and  ac t o r s Unders t andab l e Be exp l a i n a b l e  and ope r a t i o n a l i z a b l e  in  a cons i s t e n t  way to  d i f f e r e n t peop l e  and  groups Adapt i v e Be evo lv i n g  as  cond i t i o n s  and  knowledge  change Othe r  model s  ex i s t ,  such  as  par t i c i p a t o r y gove rn an c e .  These  model s  do  no t  nece s s a r i l y  focu s  on  the cen t r a l  i s s u e  of  adap t a b i l i t y ,  bu t  they  do  prov i d e gu id anc e  on  inc l u s i v e  and  dynamic  fo rms  of  l e ad e r s h i p  and managemen t . With  a l l  the s e  ing r e d i e n t s  fo r  good  gove rn an c e ,  the t a s k  seems  to  be  s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d :  s imp l y  use  the  rec i p e s above  in  the  prac t i c e  of  munic i p a l  p lann i n g  and managemen t .  And  ye t ,  th i s  in t e r s e c t i o n  of  gove r n an c e  and Page 10 plann i n g  can  be  a  t r e a c h e r o u s  one .  Can  the s e  pr i n c i p a l s be  pragma t i c a l l y  app l i e d  to  loca l  pl ann i n g  prac t i c e s ? Planne r s  of t e n  do  pe r c e i v e  the i r  ro l e  as  hav i ng  the power  to  ef f e c t  change .  Ange l e s  and  Gurs t e i n  pu t  i t  th i s way:  “Like  po l i t i c i a n s  and  gove rno r s ,  p lanne r s  have  a l s o adap t e d  and  l e a r n e d  to  per f o rm  inc r e a s i n g l y  va r i e d  ro l e s as  advoca t e s ,  po l i c y  ana l y s t s ,  fac i l i t a t o r s ,  nego t i a t o r s , and  prob l em- so l v e r s ,  and  in  the  proce s s ,  have  become  more comfo r t a b l e  in  dea l i n g  wi th  power ,  and  in  acknowledg i n g and  exe r c i s i n g  the i r  own power”  (2007 ,  4) . Planne r s  work  in  se r v i c e  to  pub l i c  in t e r e s t s ,  and  “… the  ar t i c u l a t i o n ,  communica t i o n ,  and  mobi l i z a t i o n  of tho s e  pub l i c  in t e r e s t s  ar e  key  in  br i ng i n g  abou t de l i b e r a t e  and  con t r o l l e d  change s  so  as  to  keep  soc i e t i e s and  communi t i e s  on  a  s t a b l e ,  peace f u l ,  and  orde r l y cou r s e ”  (Ange l e s  and  Gurs t e i n  2007 ,  4) . The  proce s s  of  de f i n i n g  tho s e  pub l i c  in t e r e s t s  i s any t h i n g  bu t  s imp l e  and  s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d ,  and  thu s ,  the r e i s  a  s t r o n g  need  fo r  an  adap t i v e  managemen t  app ro a ch  to the  inhe r e n t  complex i t y  and  change  invo l v e d  in  the  work of  the  p lanne r . 2 .3 An Adapt i v e  Management  Exper iment Fol l ow i ng  i s  an  example  of  one  pa r t i a l l y  succe s s f u l adap t i v e  managemen t  expe r imen t  tha t  took  pl ac e  wi th  a group  in  New South  Wales ,  Aus t r a l i a .  Becaus e  a l l  of  the Page 11 re s e a r c h  exp l i c i t l y  focu s e d  on  the  imp l emen t a t i o n  of adap t i v e  managemen t  s t ems  f r om  the  na tu r a l  re s ou r c e managemen t  f i e l d ,  th i s  expe r imen t  i s  used  as  an i l l u s t r a t i v e  example  to  he l p  draw  theo r e t i c a l  pa r a l l e l s be tween  na t u r a l  re s ou r c e  managemen t  and  managemen t  in  an urban  soc i a l  con t e x t . The  ob je c t i v e s  of  the  New Sou th  Wales  pro j e c t s  were to  eva l u a t e  ce r t a i n  wate r  managemen t  pl an s  and s t r a t e g i e s .  A  pub l i s h e d  ar t i c l e  then  examined  the pro j e c t s  “ to  eva l u a t e  the  con t r i b u t i o n  of  the  adap t i v e managemen t  app ro a ch  to  wate r  cyc l e  managemen t  on  the urban  f r i n g e  in  New South  Wales”  (Gi lmou r  e t  a l  1999 ) . The  th r e e  pro j e c t s  a l l  invo l v e d  a  se r i e s  of workshop s  wi th  loca l  s t a k eho l d e r s .  The  pro j e c t s  were c l e a r l y  f r amed  in  the  con t e x t  of  expe r imen t a t i o n  and l e a r n i n g .  The i r  goa l s  were  th r e e - fo l d  (Gi lmou r  e t  a l 1999 ) : 1 . To  meet  doub t s  abou t  the  wisdom  of  adap t i v e managemen t  by  acknowledg i n g  the  d i f f i c u l t y  of manag ing  ecosy s t ems ; 2 . To  crea t e  a  pl a t f o rm  fo r  fo l l ow - th r o ugh  by  f r aming workshop - based  po l i c y  inve s t i g a t i o n s  as nego t i a t i o n s ;  and 3 . To  reduce  vu lne r a b i l i t y  to  in s t i t u t i o n a l  change  by deve l o p i n g  communi t y  owner s h i p  of  s t r a t e g i e s . The  pro j e c t  organ i z e r s  were  succe s s f u l  in  the i r f i r s t  goa l ,  l a r g e l y  th r o ugh  exp l i c i t  d i s c u s s i o n s  abou t Page 12 unce r t a i n t i e s ,  r i s k s ,  and  the  dua l  ro l e s  of  judgemen t  and sc i e n c e .  However ,  the  second  and  th i r d  goa l s  were  more cha l l e n g i n g . Each  sponso r i n g  organ i z a t i o n  chose  the  adap t i v e managemen t  app roa ch  as  po t en t i a l l y  the  bes t  way  to  choose a  so l u t i o n  wi th  broad  communi t y  suppo r t .  Yet ,  “none  of the  sponso r s  appea r e d  to  have  though t  th r o ugh  the  i s s u e s invo l v e d  in  impl emen t i n g  the  workshop  ou t comes ”  (Gi lmou r e t  a l  1999 ) .  The  organ i z e r s  would  have ,  in  re t r o s p e c t , worked  to  ge t  commi tmen t  a t  the  beg i nn i n g  f rom  sponso r i n g organ i z a t i o n s  to  imp l emen t  the  re s u l t s  of  the  workshop  i f consen s u s  was  reach ed ,  and  p la c ed  more  emphas i s  on  the workshop s  as  fo r ums  fo r  nego t i a t i o n . One  of  the  key  l e s s o n s  l e a r n e d  in  th i s  pro j e c t  had to  do  wi th  the  cr i t i c a l  ro l e  of  an  “ in s t i t u t i o n a l champion”  in  add i t i o n  to  gene r a t i n g  in s t i t u t i o n a l  buy- in . Thi s  manage r  of  a  sponso r i n g  organ i z a t i o n  would par t i c i p a t e  in  a l l  th r e e  pro j e c t  phas e s  (one  to  l ay  the groundwork  fo r  the  workshop s ,  one  to  ca r r y  ou t  the workshop s ,  and  ano t h e r  tha t  focu s e s  on  the  imp l emen t a t i o n of  workshop  recommenda t i o n s ) ,  and  he lp  to  cu l t i v a t e communi t y  pa r t i c i p a t i o n  and  buy- in .  They  found  tha t wi thou t  such  a  pe r s on ,  the  pre s s u r e  aga i n s t  con t i n u a t i o n of  the  adap t i v e  managemen t  proce s s  would  be  too  grea t , and  i t  would  no t  succe ed . In  al l  th r e e  o f  our  pro j e c t s ,  po l i t i c a l pre s s u r e s  to  crea t e  broad l y  accep t a b l e so l u t i o n s  made  a  par t i c i p a t o r y  proce s s Page 13 at t r a c t i v e  to  the  l ead  in s t i t u t i o n s .  Ye t , hav i ng  ach i e v e d  a  degre e  o f  cons en s u s ,  wi th  a re su l t i n g  reduc t i o n  in  po l i t i c a l  pre s s u r e , each  l ead  in s t i t u t i o n  sca l e d  back  the  l e v e l  of communi t y  invo l v emen t .  There  i s  a  t enden c y  to reve r t  to  fami l i a r ,  l e s s  inc l u s i v e  proce s s e s , and  th i s  works  aga in s t  the  long - te rm  needs  of ecos y s t em  managemen t  (Gi lmor e  e t  a l  1999) . Having  a  s t r o n g  in s t i t u t i o n a l  champion ,  they  fe l t , would  reduce  th i s  t endency .  They  a l s o  sugges t e d  an app ro a ch  which  inc l u d e d  bu i l d i n g  communi t y  deve l o pmen t in t o  the  s t a k eho l d e r  workshop  proce s s ,  in  orde r  to  bu i l d sk i l l s  tha t  re s u l t  in  ho ld i n g  s t a k eho l d e r s  accoun t a b l e  to one  ano t h e r  ove r  t ime . Thi s  expe r i e n c e  of  the  New Sou th  Wales  group  po in t s to  the  cr i t i c a l  ro l e  of  in s t i t u t i o n s  and  tho s e  who  l e ad them  in  orde r  to  deve l o p  widesp r e a d  suppo r t  fo r  adap t i v e managemen t  pr i n c i p l e s .  Whi l e  the  sc i e n c e ,  da t a , s t a k eho l d e r  invo l v emen t ,  and  many  othe r  fa c t o r s  ar e  ve ry impor t a n t ,  i t  i s  in  the  in s t i t u t i o n a l  rea lm  tha t  the r e seems  to  be  the  grea t e s t  gap  be tween  the  theo r y  of adap t i v e  managemen t ,  and  the  ex t en t  to  which  i t  i s ca r r i e d  ou t  on  the  ground . Thi s  gap  i s  h igh l i g h t e d  in  the  con t ex t  of  cur r e n t  US wate r  l aws  by  Neuman ,  a  pro f e s s o r  a t  Lewis  and  Cla rk Col l e g e .  Here ,  r i gh t s  fo r  wate r  a re  fo r f e i t e d  i f  no t  used wi th i n  a  pre s c r i b e d  pe r i o d  of  t ime .  Ef f i c i e n c y  ( f o r in s t a n c e ,  th r ough  cons e r v a t i o n ) ,  i s  t r umped  by  the Page 14 seeming l y  majo r  goa l s  of  pred i c t a b i l i t y  and  ce r t a i n t y .  In orde r  fo r  th i s  sys t em  to  embrace  the  pr i n c i p l e s  of adap t i v e  managemen t ,  i t  would ,  in  sho r t ,  need  to  fo l l ow ef f e c t i v e  dec i s i o n - making  gu ide l i n e s  as  ment i o n e d ea r l i e r ,  and  inco r p o r a t e  exp l i c i t  ob j e c t i v e s  tha t  inc l u d e soc i a l ,  eco l o g i c a l ,  and  economic  va l u e s  and  in f o rma t i o n (Neuman  2001) . The  New South  Wales  exampl e  pu t s  the  imp l emen t a t i o n of  adap t i v e  managemen t  pr i n c i p l e s  in  con t e x t ,  and i l l u s t r a t e s  the  impor t a n c e  of  focu s i n g  on  in s t i t u t i o n s and  tho s e  who  l e ad  them  in  orde r  to  sh i f t  po l i c y prac t i c e s  toward  adap t i v e  managemen t  in  any  subs t a n t i a l way.  Deve lop i n g  a  s t r o n g  theo r e t i c a l  pe r s p e c t i v e  on  the in t e r s e c t i o n  of  urban  soc i a l  po l i c y  and  adap t i v e managemen t  wi l l  prov i d e  a  founda t i o n  fo r  subs equen t  work look i n g  a t  po t en t i a l  ou t comes  of  impl emen t i n g  adap t i v e managemen t  pr i n c i p l e s  in  a  spec i f i c  po l i c y  area . Page 15 3 . 0 Managemen t  Too l s  f o r  Urban P l anne r s 3 .1 Framework  Def ined  for  Urban  Management  Contex t Adap t ab i l i t y ,  f l e x i b i l i t y ,  re s i l i e n c e ,  soc i a l l e a r n i n g ,  and  knowledge  sha r i n g  a re  a l l  t e rms  tha t repea t e d l y  come  up  in  di s c u s s i o n s  abou t  e f f e c t i v e managemen t  –  whethe r  the  di s c u s s i o n  i s  abou t  corpo r a t e , env i r o nmen t a l ,  or  munic i p a l  managemen t  i s s u e s .  In prac t i c e ,  the  corpo r a t e  and  env i r o nmen t a l  managemen t f i e l d s  have  t aken  the s e  t e rms  to  t a s k .  The  dr i v e  toward ef f i c i e n c y  in  managemen t  has  been  complemen t e d  ove r  the pas t  few  decade s  wi th  an  emphas i s  on  di a l o g u e  and f l e x i b i l i t y .  Thi s  i s  espec i a l l y  appa r e n t  in  the l i t e r a t u r e  on  ‘knowl edge  managemen t ’ ,  ‘o r g an i z a t i o n a l l e a r n i n g ’  and  adap t i v e  managemen t .  Unive r s a l  app roa c h e s to  prob l ems  are  no t  though t  to  be  des i r a b l e  s t r a t e g i e s ; in s t e a d ,  manage r s  recogn i z e  the  va lu e  of  app roa ch e s  tha t re s pond  to  the  pa r t i c u l a r  s t a k eho l d e r s  and  i s s u e s  wi th i n a  spec i f i c  con t e x t ,  even  when  faced  wi th  a  common prob l em (Cook  e t  a l  1997 ) . Urban  soc i a l  p lann i n g  and  managemen t  i s  f r a ugh t  wi th rap i d  change  and  unce r t a i n t y .  Though  the  high l y  ra t i o n a l and  te chn i c a l  app roa ch e s  to  p l ann i n g  have  been  cr i t i c i z e d fo r  some  t ime  ( f o r  example ,  by  Ri t t e l  and  Webber  1973 ; Sande r c o ck  1998) ,  the  p lann i n g  pro f e s s i o n ’ s  hi s t o r y  of t r y i n g  to  con t r o l  the  urban  con t ex t  th r ough  un iv e r s a l app ro a ch e s  to  in f r a s t r u c t u r e ,  pub l i c  hea l t h  and deve l o pmen t  s t i l l  pe rvade s  p lann i n g  prac t i c e  today . Page 16 His t o r i c a l  a t t emp t s  to  manage  eco l og i c a l  sys t ems have  l e ad  to  fa i l u r e  in  the  fo rm  of  l e s s  re s i l i e n c y ,  more dependen t  soc i e t i e s  and  more  r i g i d  in s t i t u t i o n s ,  dr i v i n g manage r s  to  more  adap t i v e  app roa ch e s  tha t  a t t emp t  to avo i d  the s e  fa i l u r e s  and  encou r a g e  more  re s i l i e n t  sys t ems (Hol l i n g  1995) .  Urban  p lann i n g  i s  a l s o  complex ,  and s t r u g g l e s  wi th  s t r e n g t h e n i n g  a  re s i l i e n t  urban  fab r i c , work ing  wi th  independ en t  cons t i t u e n c i e s ,  and  promot i n g f l e x i b i l i t y  wi th i n  re l a t e d  in s t i t u t i o n s . Accord i n g  to  Lee ,  l e a r n i n g  how to  sens e ,  expec t  and con t r o l  the  way  in  which  humans  impac t  the  na tu r a l  wor ld i s  the  cen t r a l  t a s k  nece s s a r y  to  cr ea t e  a  sus t a i n a b l e economy  (1995 ) .  Thi s  mus t  be  done  th r o ugh  unde r s t a n d i n g b io l o g i c a l  unce r t a i n t y  and  in s t i t u t i o n a l  complex i t y .  Lee ca l l s  soc i a l  l e a r n i n g  the  “combina t i o n  of  adap t i v e managemen t  and  po l i t i c a l  change . ”  By  th i s  he  means  tha t we  l e a r n  soc i a l l y  bo th  f rom  the  ac t i v e  expe r imen t a t i o n wi th  our  economic  use s  of  na tu r e  (h i s  de f i n i t i o n  of adap t i v e  managemen t ) ,  and  the  bounded  con f l i c t  fo rma l i z e d in  our  po l i t i c a l  proce s s e s  (po l i t i c a l  change )  (Lee  1995 , 228) . The  adap t i v e  managemen t  app roa ch  came  in  pa r t  ou t  of f r u s t r a t i o n  wi th  pos i t i o n a l  con f l i c t s  re l a t e d  to  reg i o n a l re s ou r c e  i s s u e s  ( f i s h e r i e s ,  fo r e s t s ,  e t c . ) .  Pol a r i z a t i o n bred  pub l i c  mis t r u s t  and  did  no t  he lp  the  economic  and re s ou r c e  i s s u e s  a t  s t a k e  (Ho l l i n g  1995) .  Land  and  peop l e ar e  the  es s en t i a l  re s ou r c e  of  urban  p l ann i n g . 3 Mil l i o n s 3 Humans  (and  the i r  l abou r )  can  be  vi ewed  as  a  renewab l e  re s ou r c e  ju s t  l i k e the  fo r e s t s  and  sa lmon .  Like  env i r o nmen t a l  re s ou r c e s ,  human  l abou r  has Page 17 of  pub l i c  t ax  do l l a r s  ar e  a t  s t a k e .  Dec i s i o n s  have  long - t e rm  imp l i c a t i o n s  wi th  d i r e c t  ef f e c t s  on  the  day - to - day l i v e s  of  urban  re s i d e n t s .  Conf l i c t s  ar e  a l s o long s t a n d i n g ,  wi th  pos i t i o n s  en t r e n c h e d . There  i s  a  s t r o n g  bas i s  on  which  to  bu i l d  a  more adap t i v e  app ro a ch  to  urban  p lann i n g .  In  rec en t  yea r s , urban  pl anne r s  have  done  wel l  wi th  inc l u d i n g  mul t i p l e s t a k eho l d e r  vo i c e s .  When  Sher r y  Arns t e i n  pub l i s h e d  her “Ladde r  of  Par t i c i p a t i o n ”  in  1969 ,  p l anne r s  were gene r a l l y  on ly  a l l ow i n g  token  c i t i z e n  inc l u s i o n  in p lann i n g  proce s s e s .  Since  the  fa i l u r e s  of  l a r g e - sca l e p lann i n g  in  the  1960s  and  70s  –  most  typ i f i e d  by  US Fede r a l  po l i c y  in  the  fo rm  of  the  Model  Ci t i e s  and  Urban Renewa l  prog r ams  –  p l anne r s  have  looked  to  communi t i e s  as par t n e r s  or  even  l e ad e r s  ra t h e r  than  adve r s a r i e s (F r i e dmann  1987) . Lea rn i n g  does  of  cou r s e  a l r e a d y  occu r  in  munic i p a l env i r o nmen t s ;  bo th  wi th i n  and  ac ro s s  organ i z a t i o n s .  “Many organ i z a t i o n s  tha t  have  been  on  the  l e ad i n g  edge  of knowledge  managemen t  ac t i v i t i e s  have  demons t r a t e d  the t r emendous  cos t  sav i n g s  tha t  can  be  ach i e v e d  th r ough sha r i n g  knowledge”  (Dixon  2000 ,  31) .  There  i s  fa r  more in f o rma t i o n  on  what  shou l d  be  done ,  howeve r ,  than ev id en c e  of  what  i s  be ing  done  in  th i s  rea lm  (Fo r d i s cu s s i o n  of  the s e  i s s u e s ,  see  Ackerman  e t  a l  2003 ;  Cook e t  a l  1997 ;  and  Senge  1994) . been  dr i v e n  to  grea t e r  ef f i c i e n c y  and  more  cons t a n t  supp l y . Page 18 3 .2 Urban  Plann ing  Chal l eng e s The  po l i t i c s  inhe r e n t  in  eve ry  l ev e l  of  munic i p a l managemen t  cr ea t e  a  complex  dynamic .  In  a  po l i t i c a l c l ima t e  i t  i s  ve ry  d i f f i c u l t  to  main t a i n  the  to l e r a n c e fo r  expe r imen t a t i o n  –  and  the r e f o r e  the  poss i b i l i t y  of mis t a k e s  –  tha t  i s  so  cen t r a l  to  l e a r n i n g  (Cook  e t  a l 1997 ) .  “Ra the r  than  seek i n g  the  soc i a l  wel f a r e  op t imum, the  au tho r i t y  tha t  regu l a t e s  the  sys t em  i s  re s pond i n g  to po l i t i c a l  pre s s u r e ”  (Gunde r s o n  e t  a l  2002 ,  222) . Pol i t i c a l  and  economic  fo r c e s  t end  to  main t a i n  the  s t a t u s quo ,  ra t h e r  than  encou r a g e  adap t a t i o n  ove r  t ime  (Lee 1993) . One  wide l y - recogn i z e d  example  of  a  fa i l e d ,  broad - brush  p l ann i n g  po l i c y  i s  the  1949  US Hous ing  Act  pas s ed by  Congre s s .  The  Act  prov i d e d  fede r a l  di r e c t i o n  and fund i n g  fo r  urban  renewa l .  The  l a r g e - sca l e ,  pub l i c hous i n g  pro j e c t s  tha t  re su l t e d  f rom  the  urban  renewa l s t r a t e g i e s  even t u a l l y  became  recogn i z e d  as  fa i l u r e s  of pub l i c  po l i c y .  Whi l e  the i r  fundamen t a l  goa l  was  to improve  pub l i c  hea l t h  and  sa f e t y ,  they  fa i l e d  to  do  th i s . The  dr i v e  fo r  ef f i c i e n c y  in  managemen t  and  o the r  bl i n d e r s caus ed  a  vas t  unde r e s t i m a t i o n  of  the  nega t i v e  soc i a l consequen c e s  of  the  pro j e c t s . Anothe r  example  i s  the  prac t i c e  of  s to rmwa t e r managemen t .  Pre s c r i p t i v e  curb - and - gu t t e r  s t r e e t  des i g n s t a nd a r d s  have  been  pa r t  of  the  po l i c y  norm  in  Nor t h Amer i c a  fo r  decade s .  These  s to rmwa t e r  sys t ems  prov i d e  a conven i e n t  way  to  co l l e c t  wate r  f r om  the  s t r e e t  so  i t  can Page 19 be  t r e a t e d  and  re l e a s e d  in  a  con t r o l l e d  manne r  (Webb 2006) . 4 Desp i t e  wel l - known  fa i l i n g s  of  the s e  sys t ems , change  to  the  emerg i n g  bes t  managemen t  prac t i c e  of  Low- impac t  Deve lopmen t  (LID)  has  been  s l ow .  The  LID so l u t i o n can  be  l e s s  expen s i v e ,  more  aes t h e t i c a l l y  pl ea s i n g ,  and i s  s i gn i f i c a n t l y  more  env i r o nmen t a l l y  sound  (Hinman 2005) . 5 Even  though  a  be t t e r  so l u t i o n  in  many c i r c ums t a n c e s ,  i t  i s  no t  wide l y  embrac ed . As  a  con t r a s t  in  sca l e ,  we  can  look  a t  the  example of  i s s u i n g  bu i l d i n g  pe rmi t s  wi th i n  a  munic i p a l i t y .  I f  a would - be  bu i l d i n g  deve l o p e r  fo l l ows  pre s c r i p t i v e gu id e l i n e s ,  s / h e  wi l l  rece i v e  a  pe rmi t  in  a  t ime l y fa s h i o n  and  may then  proce ed  wi th  deve l o pmen t .  I f  af t e r  a number  of  months  the  rea l i z a t i o n  occu r s  tha t  the regu l a t i o n s  ar e  re s u l t i n g  in  l e s s - than - des i r a b l e  urban fo rm ,  i t  i s  no t  easy  to  sh i f t  cou r s e  to  ach i e v e  a  more des i r a b l e  re s u l t .  I r on i c a l l y ,  deve l o p e r s  who  re s pond  to th i s  sen t imen t  and  propos e  be t t e r  deve l o pmen t  of t e n  face t r emendous  hurd l e s  becau s e  the i r  propos a l s  do  no t  f i t  the pre s c r i p t i v e  regu l a t i o n s  (McMahon  2001  and  APA 1998) . 4 These  t r a d i t i o n a l  sys t ems  co l l e c t  a l l  wate r  runo f f  f rom  a  broad  su r f a c e are a ,  requ i r i n g  la r g e  s to r a g e  bas i n s .  They  of t e n  do  not  adequa t e l y  t r e a t the  s to rmwa t e r  to  remove  po l l u t a n t s ,  and  ( i f  no t  spec i f i c a l l y  des i g n e d  to avo id  i t )  can  eas i l y  be  ove rwhe lmed  dur i n g  a  l a r g e  s to rm .  The  co l l e c t i o n proce s s  a l s o  dep r i v e s  nea r by  na tu r a l  a re a s  of  the  wate r  they  norma l l y depend  on  th r o ugh  na tu r a l  in f i l t r a t i o n  and  groundwa t e r  rech a r g e  (Hinman 2005 ) . 5 LID promote s  the  use  of  s to rmwa t e r  co l l e c t i o n  and  t r e a tmen t  tha t inc r e a s e s  groundwa t e r  recha r g e  and  prov i d e s  enhanc ed  s to rmwa t e r  t r e a tmen t th r ough  phy to r emed i a t i o n  ( t r e a tmen t  wi th  p lan t s ) .  When th i s  LID approa c h i s  used ,  no- cu rb  des i g n s  can  be  impl emen t e d  tha t  a l l ow  wate r  to  shee t  f l ow in t o  prox ima l  bio r e t e n t i o n  ar e a s  or  b io swa l e s  tha t  c l e a n s e  the  runo f f th r ough  na tu r a l  eco l o g i c a l  proce s s e s ,  a l l ow i n g  most  to  in f i l t r a t e  in t o  the so i l  and  di s p e r s i n g  the  rema ind e r  in t o  ne ighbou r i n g  na tu r a l  a re a s . Page 20 Anothe r  example  of  s t a t i c  po l i c y  on  a  de t a i l e d  sca l e i s  ce i l i n g  he igh t  regu l a t i o n s  of  homes .  Some f i x e d  t a r g e t i s  deve l o p e d  af t e r  t ak i n g  in t o  accoun t  pub l i c  hea l t h , sa f e t y  and  economic s .  Af t e r  the  app rova l  proce s s ,  th i s t a r g e t  i s  wr i t t e n  down  and  broadc a s t  th r o ugh  re l e v a n t channe l s  as  a  new  ru l e .  The  t a r g e t  nece s s a r i l y  igno r e s d i f f e r e n c e  in  human  he igh t  as  wel l  as  human  re s i l i e n c y  in t e rms  of  be i ng  f l e x i b l e  to  ce i l i n g  he igh t  var i a t i o n s  and cho i c e s .  I t  i s  mean t  to  prov i d e  ce r t a i n t y  and  ease  the burden  of  enfo r c emen t .  Yet  compe l l i n g  argumen t s  can  be made  to  re l a x  the s e  requ i r emen t s  wi th  a  re s u l t  tha t  s t i l l main t a i n s  a  ba l an c e  of  hea l t h  and  sa f e t y  needs ,  economic cos t s ,  and  soc i a l  imp l i c a t i o n s  ( s e e  Sec t i o n  4 .2  fo r  a de t a i l e d  example  of  th i s ) . The  same  so r t s  of  argumen t s  can  be  made  fo r e l e c t r i c a l  and  p lumbing  codes  and  by l aws ,  educa t i o n a l fac i l i t i e s ,  pub l i c  rec r e a t i o n a l  space ,  and  othe r s .  In each  area ,  a  fundamen t a l  goa l  of  prov i d i n g  se r v i c e s  or pro t e c t i n g  the  pub l i c  was  di s t i l l e d  in t o  po l i c i e s  tha t re f l e c t e d  ce r t a i n  rea l i t i e s  a t  a  f i x e d  po in t  in  t ime ,  and a  ba l an c e  of  va lu e s ,  which  in  tu r n  were  broken  down  in t o conc r e t e  regu l a t i o n s  ca r r i e d  ou t  on  the  ground .  How of t e n do  the  regu l a t i o n s  t r u l y  cor r e s p o nd  to  the  or i g i n a l  goa l ove r  t ime?  Regu l a t i o n s ,  po l i c i e s  and  goa l s  ar e  rev i s i t e d per i o d i c a l l y  to  see  i f  they  a re  in  check  wi th  cur r e n t needs  and  va l u e s ,  bu t  th i s  proce s s  i s  cumber s ome  and typ i c a l l y  l i n e a r ,  no t  i t e r a t i v e . Page 21 We canno t  answer  “ i t  depends  on  the  c i r c ums t a n c e s ” wheneve r  a  que ry  i s  submi t t e d  on  bu i l d i n g  a  new home .  The des i r e s  fo r  ce r t a i n t y  and  fo r  ease  of  enfo r c emen t  ar e qu i t e  va l i d .  A munic i p a l i t y ’ s  pl ann i n g  depa r tmen t  has l im i t e d  re s ou r c e s  in  t e rms  of  s t a f f  and  f i n an c e s ,  and fac e s  d i f f i c u l t  cha l l e n g e s  when  i t  comes  to  bu i l d i n g  and main t a i n i n g  suppo r t  fo r  the i r  ac t i v i t i e s  f rom  e l e c t e d bod i e s . There  ar e  demons t r a t e d  ways ,  howeve r ,  tha t  inc r e a s e d f l e x i b i l i t y  can  be  a l l owed  wi th i n  pa r ame t e r s ,  wi thou t der a i l i n g  impor t a n t  bureau c r a t i c  ac t i v i t i e s .  The incen t i v e  of  inc r e a s e d  le a r n i n g ,  improved  oper a t i o n s ,  and mos t  impor t a n t l y ,  be t t e r  c i t i e s  shou l d  be  enough  to ju s t i f y  the  sh i f t  in  ef f o r t . Urban  pl ann i n g  po l i c y  cho i c e s  have  t r emendou s impac t s  on  soc i e t y :  the  af f o r d a b i l i t y  of  hous i n g  and hous i n g  cho i c e ;  space  ava i l a b l e  fo r  pub l i c ,  pr i v a t e  and in f r a s t r u c t u r e  use ;  qua l i t y  and  quan t i t y  of  es s en t i a l se r v i c e s  such  as  hea l t h  and  educa t i o n  fac i l i t i e s ;  the ava i l a b i l i t y  and  di s t r i b u t i o n  of  do l l a r s  fo r  needed pub l i c  amen i t i e s . The  goa l s  of  democra cy  and  sus t a i n a b i l i t y  po in t toward  a  more  inc l u s i v e  s t r a t e g y  tha t  works  wi th s t a k eho l d e r s  and  in t e r e s t s  fo r  pa r t i c u l a r  s i t u a t i o n s  (one ne ighbou r hood ,  fo r  example ) ,  in s t e a d  of  the  broad - brus h app ro a ch  tha t  i s  common  today .  In  prac t i c e ,  urban p lann i n g  has  become  much  more  par t i c i p a t o r y  of  l a t e . Howeve r ,  tha t  inc l u s i v i t y  does  no t  nece s s a r i l y  f i l t e r  up Page 22 to  ef f e c t  pub l i c  po l i c y  dec i s i o n - making .  Nor  does inc l u s i v i t y  on  i t s  own  equa t e  to  an  adap t i v e  managemen t app ro a ch .  There  ar e  a  va r i e t y  of  ing r e d i e n t s  tha t toge t h e r  cr e a t e  the  se t t i n g  fo r  po t en t i a l l y  ef f e c t i v e urban  adap t i v e  managemen t  s t r a t e g i e s ,  which  are  d i s c u s s e d in  de t a i l  in  Sec t i o n  4 . 3 .3 Ind iv i dua l s  as  Adapt i v e  Managers The  ro l e  of  the  ind i v i d u a l  manage r  i s  as  impor t a n t as  the  organ i z a t i o n a l  or  in s t i t u t i o n a l  env i r o nmen t  in which  the  manage r  works .  Whi l e  we  are  pr ima r i l y  look i n g her e  a t  s t r a t e g i e s  adop t e d  ac ro s s  in s t i t u t i o n s  to  promote an  adap t i v e  managemen t  env i r o nmen t ,  i t  i s  ul t ima t e l y  up to  the  ind i v i d u a l  manage r  to  embrac e  the s e  s t r a t e g i e s  and use  them  ef f e c t i v e l y  to  manage  the i r  va r i o u s  pro j e c t s adap t i v e l y  (March  and  Hea th  1994 ;  West l e y  2002) . Franc i s  West l e y  wri t e s  in  de t a i l  abou t  the  dec i s i o n - making  con t e x t  of  an  ind i v i d u a l  manage r ,  and  compe l l i n g l y argue s  tha t  “…the  soc i a l  sys t em  tha t  the  adap t i v e  manage r seek s  to  manage  does  no t  cor r e s p o nd  to  a  s i ng l e in s t i t u t i o n  or  even  to  a  s ing l e  organ i z a t i o n .  Rathe r ,  i t i s  the  prob l em  domain ,  the  sys t em  of  ac t o r s  brough t toge t h e r  by  the i r  s t ak e  in  a  pa r t i c u l a r  prob l em ,  tha t  i s the  re l e v a n t  un i t  of  ana l y s i s ”  (2002 ,  355) .  To  th i s  end , she  see s  fou r  l e s s o n s  emerge  tha t  in f o rm  how  an ind i v i d u a l  can  manage  adap t i v e l y  (h i gh l i g h t e d  in  Figu r e 3 .3 - 1) . Page 23 Figure  3 .3 - 2.  Adap t i v e  managemen t  fo r  the  ind i v i d u a l  manage r (Wes t l e y  2002) 1 .  To manage  adap t i v e l y  requ i r e s  s t r o ng  va lu e s  as  opposed  to ra t i o n a l  ana l y s i s . 2 .  To manage  adap t i v e l y  and  re s pond  to  complex i t y ,  i t  i s nece s s a r y  to  jugg l e  mul t i p l e  s t r a t e g i e s  and  goa l s  (F i gu r e  3 .3 - 2) . 3 .  To manage  adap t i v e l y  requ i r e s  s t r o ng  con t r o l  of  emot i on s , l i t t l e  fea r  of  con f l i c t ,  and  grea t  humi l i t y . 4 .  In  orde r  to  manage  adap t i v e l y ,  the  manage r  needs  to cap i t a l i z e  on  the  ene rgy  & movemen t  of  othe r s .  The  hi s t o r i c a l moment  i s  hence  impor t a n t . The  ind i v i d u a l  manage r  mus t  be  sens i t i v e  to  the dec i s i o n  env i r o nmen t .  In  othe r  words ,  the  dec i s i o n proce s s  of  the  manage r  mus t  be  as  adap t i v e  and  va r i e d  as the  ra t e  of  change  go ing  on  in  the  env i r o nmen t  s /h e  i s a t t emp t i n g  to  manage  (March  and  Hea th  1994) . Page 24 Figure  3 .3 - 3.  Image  and  desc r i p t i o n  of  manage r  jugg l i n g  fou r ba l l s (Wes t l e y  2002 ,  338) Bal l s  jugg l e d  rep r e s e n t : • Managing  through :  commitmen t  to sc i e n t i f i c  app ro a c h ,  t r e a t i n g managemen t  in t e r v e n t i o n s  as expe r imen t s  to  l e a r n  f rom,  as opposed  to  so l u t i o n s  to  be impl emen t e d . • Managing  out :  commitmen t  to invo l v e  ex t e r n a l  group s  or s t a k e ho l d e r s  in  managemen t proce s s e s  and  dec i s i o n s . • Managing  in :  the  need  to  manage pos i t i o n  and  in f l u e n c e  wi th i n  the depa r tmen t  or  organ i z a t i o n ; main t a i n i n g  in t e r n a l  suppo r t  fo r expe r imen t s  and  ex t e r n a l s t a k e ho l d e r  ac t i v i t i e s . • Managing  up:  need  to  t ak e  in t o accoun t  the  l a r g e r  po l i t i c a l con t e x t  in  which  ca r e e r  and s t r a t e g i e s  unfo l d .  Unle s s  ac t i o n s t ak en  a t  the  communi t y , organ i z a t i o n a l ,  or  sc i e n t i f i c l ev e l  were  cons i d e r e d  f rom  the po in t  of  vi ew  of  the  l a r g e r po l i t i c a l  ar en a ,  much  exce l l e n t ef f o r t  cou l d  be  ended  wi th  the s l a s h  of  a  pen . Jugg l i n g  i s  an  ap t  metapho r  fo r  the  cha l l e n g e  of be ing  an  ef f e c t i v e  adap t i v e  manage r  ( s e e  Figu r e  3 .3 - 2) . There  ar e  many  cha l l e n g e s  to  con f r o n t ;  no t  l e a s t  of  them, the  i s s u e s  of  s t a k eho l d e r  di s empowermen t  and  bureau c r a t i c procedu r e s  tha t  can  hamper  impl emen t a t i o n  and  ac t i o n  in the  p l ann i n g  and  gove r nmen t - l ed  l e a r n i n g  env i r o nmen t (Wes t l e y  1995) .  In  add i t i o n ,  l e a r n i n g  may be  cons i d e r e d  a Page 25 ‘ l u xu r y ’  tha t  i s  po l i t i c a l l y ,  economica l l y ,  or  soc i a l l y una f f o r d a b l e  in  ce r t a i n  env i r o nmen t s  (Lee  1993) . 3 .4 Summary There  i s  a  l a ck  of  s t r u c t u r e d  l e a r n i n g  ove r  t ime  in urban  p lann i n g  and  managemen t ,  wi th  a  cor r e s p o nd i n g  need fo r  be t t e r  re s pon s e s  to  growing  pre s s u r e s  and unce r t a i n t i e s  in  the  urban  env i r o nmen t .  Adap t i v e managemen t  pr i n c i p l e s  can  prov i d e  a  too l  fo r  urban p lanne r s  as  they  s t r i v e  to  cr ea t e  good  po l i c y  in  the  face of  growing  unce r t a i n t y . There  ar e  no  sho r t a g e s  of  po l i c y  recommenda t i o n s  fo r in t e g r a t i n g  adap t i v e  managemen t  pr i n c i p l e s  in t o  natu r a l re sou r c e  managemen t .  These  recommenda t i o n s  inco r p o r a t e broad  s t a k eho l d e r  invo l v emen t  in  dec i s i o n - making , gove rn an c e  based  on  na t u r a l  (wa t e r s h e d )  bounda r i e s , exp l i c i t  d i s c u s s i o n  of  va lu e s  in  the  nego t i a t i o n  ef f o r t s of  the  s t a k eho l d e r s ,  and  the  ongo ing  ab i l i t y  to inco r p o r a t e  new  knowledge  th r o ugh  expe r imen t a t i o n  and eva l u a t i o n  of  prac t i c e s  ove r  t ime  (Neuman  2001) . There  i s  grea t  t en s i o n  be tween  a t t emp t i n g  to main t a i n  in s t i t u t i o n a l  power  and  ef f i c i e n c y ,  and inco r p o r a t i n g  the  f l e x i b i l i t y  inhe r e n t  in  the  adap t i v e managemen t  app ro a ch .  Inc r e a s i n g  f i n a n c i a l  and  popu l a t i o n pre s s u r e s  ar e  pu t t i n g  s t r a i n  on  manage r s  to  keep  up  wi th demands  amids t  ve ry  t i g h t  budge t s .  Yet  we know the r e  ar e example s  of  adap t i v e  managemen t  pr i n c i p l e s  be i ng Page 26 impl emen t e d  even  wi th i n  the  con t e x t  of  the s e  pre s s u r e s , as  wel l  as  inc r e a s i n g  incen t i v e s  to  look  toward  an adap t i v e  managemen t  app ro a ch .  Adap t i v e  managemen t  has  the po t en t i a l  to  a id  urban  p lanne r s  in  impl emen t i n g  pro j e c t s , ensu r i n g  they  are  moni t o r e d  ef f e c t i v e l y ,  and inco r p o r a t i n g  the  re su l t s  in t o  ongo ing  managemen t prac t i c e s  tha t  ar e  f l e x i b l e  and  con t r i b u t e  to  the bu i l d i n g  of  new knowledge . Page 27 4 . 0 App l i c a t i on :  Examp l e s  o f  Urban Adap t i v e  Managemen t i n  Prac t i c e 4 .1 Int roduc t i o n We do  no t  know  what  re s u l t s  can  come  f r om  adap t i v e managemen t  of  our  c i t i e s ,  as  i t  does  no t  happen  today  on a  wide - sp r e a d  bas i s .  There  ar e ,  howeve r ,  some  example s  of adap t i v e  managemen t  in  prac t i c e  ( t h ough  i t  may  no t  be re f e r r e d  to  exp l i c i t l y  as  adap t i v e  managemen t ) .  Through exp l o r a t i o n s  and  a  c lo s e  look  a t  some  of  the s e  adap t i v e managemen t  app roa ch e s ,  we can  look  a t  ways  in  which  urban p lann i n g ,  too ,  can  move  toward  be t t e r  unde r s t a n d i n g  of the  prob l ems  and  i s s u e s ,  as  wel l  as  improved  economic  and soc i a l  ou t comes . Using  the  po l i c y  ind i c a t o r s  ou t l i n e d  be low  in  Figu r e 4 .1 - 1  of  th i s  repo r t ,  I  found  a  number  of  p lann i n g  and managemen t  s t r a t e g i e s  tha t  did  indeed  re f l e c t  e l emen t s  of an  adap t i v e  managemen t  app roa ch  in  the  urban  munic i p a l p lann i n g  con t e x t .  Three  s t r a t e g i e s  a re  high l i g h t e d  be low . They  each  inco r p o r a t e  l e a r n i n g  and  as s e s smen t ,  bu t  no t one  exp l i c i t l y  se t s  ou t  as  an  adap t i v e  managemen t expe r imen t  or  even  ar t i c u l a t e s  l e a r n i n g  as  an  ob j e c t i v e of  the  managemen t  s t r a t e g y  a t  the  ou t s e t .  So ,  whi l e  no t qu in t e s s e n t i a l  adap t i v e  managemen t  expe r imen t s ,  they s t i l l  se r v e  as  use f u l  example s  tha t  can  be  bu i l t  on  in orde r  to  cr ea t e  an  e f f e c t i v e  adap t i v e  managemen t  app roa ch to  urban  po l i c y  p lann i n g . Page 28 There  ar e  undoub t e d l y  o the r  example s  of  urban managemen t  po l i c i e s  tha t  meet  the  e igh t  c r i t e r i a  se t  ou t in  Figu r e  4 .1 - 1 .  The  goa l  of  th i s  repo r t  i s  no t  to chron i c l e  eve r y  example  tha t  re f l e c t s  some  e l emen t  of adap t i v e  managemen t  in  the  urban  env i r o nmen t .  I t  i s in s t e a d  to  look  a t  some  example s  tha t  re f l e c t  a  va r i e t y of  s t r a t e g i e s  in  orde r  to  unde r s t a n d  the  brea t h  and  dep t h of  s i t u a t i o n a l  pos s i b i l i t i e s  in  which  to  cons i d e r impl emen t i n g  urban  adap t i v e  managemen t . Figure  4 .1 - 4.  Ind i c a t o r s  gu id i n g  the  rev i ew  and  as s e s smen t  of adap t i v e  managemen t  s t r a t e g i e s ( t o  de t e rm i n e  the i r  re l e v a n c e  fo r  the  urban  munic i p a l p lann i n g  env i r o nmen t  6) 1 . The  managemen t  po l i c i e s  a re  re l e v a n t  to  urban i s s u e s ,  which  are  he r e  def i n e d  as  the  prov i s i o n  of es s en t i a l  se rv i c e s ,  pub l i c  works ,  & regu l a t i o n  of pr i v a t e  ac t i v i t i e s . 2 . Pol i c i e s  acknowledge  the  key  impor t a n c e  of  ongo ing l e a r n i n g ,  make  unce r t a i n t i e s  exp l i c i t ,  and inco r p o r a t e  f l e x i b i l i t y . 3 . Pol i c i e s  ar e  app rop r i a t e  fo r  the  re l e v a n t  scope  of gove rn an c e .  They  are  ne i t h e r  too  broad - rea ch i n g  fo r the  in t e n d e d  goa l ,  nor  too  na r r ow . 6 In  con t r a s t  the  fo l l ow i n g  ind i c a t o r s  l e a d  to  qui t e  the  oppos i t e :  “… cr i s i s ,  con f l i c t ,  and  gr i d l o c k  emerge  wheneve r  the  prob l em  and  the re s pon s e  have  the  fo l l ow i n g  cha r a c t e r i s t i c s : 1 .  A s ing l e  t a r g e t  and  p i ec emea l  po l i c y . 2 .  A s ing l e  sca l e  of  focu s ,  typ i c a l l y  on  the  sho r t  t e rm  and  the  loc a l . 3 .  No rea l i z a t i o n  tha t  a l l  po l i c i e s  are  expe r imen t a l . 4 .  Rig i d  managemen t  wi th  no  pr i o r i t y  to  des i g n  in t e r v e n t i o n s  as  ways  to t e s t  hypo th e s e s  unde r l y i n g  po l i c i e s ”  (Ho l l i n g  1995 ,  9) . Page 29 4 . The  proce s s  fo r  po l i c y - making  i s  exp l i c i t l y democra t i c  and  pa r t i c i p a t o r y  in  na tu r e , inco r p o r a t i n g  app rop r i a t e  vo i c e s  fo r  the  l eve l  and scope  of  gove r n an c e .  Pol i c i e s  re f l e c t  goa l s , ob j e c t i v e s ,  va lu e s  and  r i s k s  tha t  have  been d i s cu s s e d  by  rep r e s e n t a t i v e  group ( s )  of s t a k eho l d e r s . 5 . Pol i c i e s  ar e  re l e v a n t  to  prac t i c a l  app l i c a t i o n  and managemen t  on  a  day - to - day  bas i s  ( t h e y  a re  easy  to unde r s t a n d  and  to  impl emen t ) . 6 . Pol i c i e s  encou r a g e  f i e l d  obse r v a t i o n  and expe r imen t a t i o n . 7 . Pol i c i e s  fac i l i t a t e  con t i n u e d  re l e v a n c e  ove r  t ime , i t e r a t i v e l y  l i n k i n g  back  managemen t  to  re s e a r c h  and v i s a  ve r s a . 8 . Pol i c i e s  t ak e  a  sys t ems  app ro a ch ;  they  inc l u d e t e chn i q u e s  fo r  coo rd i n a t i o n  ac ro s s  agency  sca l e s  and scope s  (a s  app rop r i a t e ) ,  as  urban  i s s u e s  ar e  ra r e l y l im i t e d  to  i so l a t e d  geog r aph i c  ar ea s  or  s i ng l e - agency  i s s u e s . 4 .2 Hous ing  Pol i c i e s  in  Vancouver ,  BC,  Canada In  Vancouve r ,  BC,  the  po l i c i e s  su r r o u nd i n g  the pre s en c e  and  l ega l i t y  of  seconda r y  su i t e s 7 can  be  vi ewed as  demons t r a t i o n  po l i c i e s .  Demons t r a t i o n  po l i c i e s  re f l e c t 7 Seconda r y  su i t e s  are  a l s o  re f e r r e d  to  as  acce s s o r y  dwel l i n g  un i t s  in  some munic i p a l i t i e s .  A seconda r y  su i t e  i s  a  re s i d e n t i a l  un i t  acce s s o r y  to  the main  re s i d e n t i a l  un i t  on  the  prope r t y ,  and  may be  a t t a c h e d  or  de t a c h e d depend i n g  on  the  gove r n i n g  regu l a t i o n s . Page 30 impor t a n t  communi t y  i s s u e s  tha t  have  unce r t a i n t i e s as soc i a t e d  wi th  them.  There  i s  no  one  c l e a r  cou r s e  of ac t i o n  tha t  wi l l  l e ad  to  re s o l u t i o n ;  the r e f o r e  some deg r e e  of  expe r imen t a t i o n  i s  he lp f u l  to  de t e rm i n e  the app rop r i a t e  cou r s e  of  ac t i o n . Vancouve r  has  been  oper a t i n g  wi th  some  so r t  of seconda r y  su i t e s  po l i c y  s i n c e  the  1920s .  The  chang i n g po l i c i e s  have  re f l e c t e d  the  l a r g e r  cu l t u r a l  and  soc i a l con t e x t  of  the  t imes .  For  example ,  in  the  1940s , re t u r n i n g  war  ve t e r a n s  in f l u e n c e d  a  change  in  po l i c y  to encou r a g e  seconda r y  su i t e s  (whi ch  were  i l l e g a l  pr i o r  to tha t  t ime ) . The  po l i c i e s  con t i n u e d  to  change ,  wi th  the  pendu l um swing i n g  back  and  fo r t h ,  a t t emp t i n g  to  f i n d  a  ba l a n c e where  hous i n g  needs ,  hea l t h  and  sa f e t y  i s s u e s ,  and ne ighbou r hood  per c ep t i o n s  cou ld  f i nd  some  common  ground . The  add i t i o n a l  hous i n g  of f e r e d  by  seconda r y  su i t e s  has long  been  recogn i z e d  by  c i t y  s t a f f  as  one  so l u t i o n  to Vancouve r ’ s  t i g h t  ren t a l  hous i n g  marke t .  However ,  the i s s u e s  of  hea l t h  and  sa f e t y  code  enfo r c emen t ,  and  a  l a ck of  pub l i c  accep t a n c e  have  been  di f f i c u l t  to  add r e s s .  For yea r s ,  the  c i t y  had  a  ‘don ’ t  ask ,  don’ t  t e l l ’  a t t i t u d e , pas s i v e l y  choos i n g  no t  to  enfo r c e  i l l e g a l  su i t e s  un l e s s compla i n t s  were  made . Ci ty  s t a f f  and  c i t y  counc i l  have  unde r t a k e n  pub l i c proce s s e s  to  invo l v e  loc a l  c i t i z e n s  in  the  seconda r y su i t e s  d i s c u s s i o n .  Survey s ,  meet i n g s ,  hea r i n g s ,  ba l l o t vo t e s ,  and  open  house  even t s  have  occu r r e d  –  pr ima r i l y Page 31 s i n c e  the  ea r l y  1990s  –  to  engage  ne ighbou r s  in  the d ia l o g u e  and  deba t e .  Dec i s i o n  maker s  have  t ak en  the pub l i c  d i s c ou r s e  in t o  cons i d e r a t i o n ,  as  wel l  as  o the r ‘pub l i c  goods ’  tha t  have  no t  been  as  wel l  rep r e s e n t e d  in d i s cu s s i o n s . 8 Even  whi l e  seconda r y  su i t e s  were  i l l e g a l ,  many thou s a nd s  of  them  ex i s t e d  th r o ughou t  the  c i t y .  These i l l e g a l  su i t e s  of t e n  had  low  ce i l i n g s  and  d id  no t  meet o the r  hea l t h  and  sa f e t y  codes .  Some of  them  were  seve r e l y subs t a n d a r d  in  the i r  cond i t i o n s .  And ye t  re s i d e n t s  of  the su i t e s  cou l d  no t  lobby  fo r  hea l t h i e r  hous i n g  when  any compla i n t  would  caus e  the  lo s s  of  the  hous i n g  en t i r e l y . Over  t ime ,  bo th  c i t y  s t a f f  and  the  c i t i z e n s  of Vancouve r  have  unde rgone  s ign i f i c a n t  l e a r n i n g  in  re l a t i o n to  th i s  i s s u e .  Cer t a i n  nega t i v e  pe r c ep t i o n s  abou t  su i t e s and  su i t e  re s i d e n t s  have  been  proven  to  be misconcep t i o n s .  The  impor t a n c e  of  su i t e s  in  the  ove r a l l ren t a l  hous i n g  and  homeowner s h i p  con t e x t s  ar e  be t t e r unde r s t o o d .  And  dec i s i o n - maker s  ar e  more  soph i s t i c a t e d wi th  rega r d  to  rev i ew i n g  zon i ng ,  bu i l d i n g ,  and  hea l t h  and sa f e t y  regu l a t i o n s  and  making  accommoda t i o n s  to  remove bar r i e r s  to  su i t e  l eg a l i z a t i o n . Beginn i n g  in  1989 ,  the  Ci ty  of  Vancouve r  re s ponded to  ne i ghbou r h ood - spec i f i c  in i t i a t i v e s  to  l eg a l i z e seconda r y  su i t e s .  I f  an  a re a  vo t ed  yes ,  an  impl emen t a t i o n prog r am  fo l l owed  to  rezone  the  ne ighbou r hood  and 8 See  ht t p : / / www. t e n a n t s . b c . c a / o t h p u b s / i mp a c t . h tm l  fo r  a  d i s c u s s i o n  by  the BC Tenan t s  Righ t s  Act i on  Coa l i t i o n  of  the  unde r r e p r e s e n t e d  vo ic e s  in  the deba t e  on  seconda r y  su i t e s . Page 32 fac i l i t a t e  l eg a l i z a t i o n  of  ex i s t i n g  su i t e s .  Three  area s were  rezoned  as  a  consequenc e  of  th i s  in i t i a t i v e . Thi s  prog r am  was  no t  as  succe s s f u l  as  the  c i t y  had hoped .   The  ob j e c t i v e  of  the  1989  po l i c i e s  was  to  br i ng more  su i t e s  in t o  l ega l  compl i a n c e  by  lega l i z i n g  su i t e s  in ar e a s  of  the  c i t y  tha t  vo t ed  to  have  them,  and  c lo s i n g su i t e s  in  othe r  ar ea s .   Homeowner s  in  l ega l  su i t e  ar e a s wi th  ex i s t i n g  non- pe rmi t t e d  su i t e s  were  a l l owed  the op t i o n  to  phase - ou t  the i r  su i t e  ove r  a  pe r i o d  of  t ime ,  or make  upgrad e s  to  l ega l i z e  the  su i t e . The  c i t y  had  hoped  tha t  the  su i t e s  dec l a r e d  as phase - ou t s  would  be  upgr ad ed  to  pe rmanen t  s t a t u s  a t  the end  of  the  phase - ou t  pe r i o d  to  main t a i n  the  ove r a l l number  of  seconda r y  su i t e s  whi l e  inc r e a s i n g  compl i a n c e . Howeve r ,  of  the  363  phase - ou t  su i t e s  tha t  came  to  the  end of  the i r  cyc l e ,  on ly  21  had  upgr ad ed  to  permanen t  s t a t u s whi l e  246  had  c lo s e d .   The  rema in i n g  phas e - ou t  su i t e s were  awa i t i n g  ac t i o n  (F r en ch  1999) .   These  sho r t c om i ng s caus ed  the  c i t y  to  re - eva l u a t e  the  prog r am . In  March  2004 ,  the  c i t y  re l a x e d  the  code  and  a l l owed fo r  the  l ega l i z a t i o n  of  su i t e s  c i t y - wide  in  a l l re s i d e n t i a l l y - zoned  area s .  Cei l i n g  he igh t  requ i r emen t s were  reduced  and  sp r i n k l e r  re t r o f i t  requ i r emen t s  were e l im i n a t e d  (Whi t l o c k  2004) .  As  a  re s u l t  of  th i s  change , app l i c a t i o n s  and  pe rmi t s  re l a t e d  to  su i t e  l ega l i z a t i o n nea r l y  doub l e d  the  fo l l ow i n g  yea r .  To  fu r t h e r  fac i l i t a t e remov ing  ba r r i e r s  to  l ega l i z a t i o n ,  in  2005  the  c i t y  aga i n re l a x e d  bu i l d i n g  code  regu l a t i o n s ;  th i s  t ime ,  e l im i n a t i n g Page 33 a  requ i r emen t  fo r  in t e r n a l  acce s s  be tween  seconda r y su i t e s  and  the  main  dwel l i n g  un i t  and  othe r  minor ad ju s tmen t s  to  by- laws  (Whi t l o c k  2005) .   Cont i n u i n g  the i r rev i ew ,  in  2006 ,  the  c i t y  ex t end ed  l eg a l i z a t i o n  of seconda r y  su i t e s  in t o  CD-1  (cu s t om i z e d )  zon ing  d i s t r i c t s which  have  (o r  cou l d  have )  s i ng l e - fami l y  homes  in  orde r to  make  the s e  d i s t r i c t s  cons i s t e n t  wi th  su r r o u nd i n g re s i d e n t i a l l y - zoned  area s  (Uyesug i  2006) .   The  c i t y con t i n u e s  to  examine  ways  to  reduce  the  ba r r i e r s  to ind i v i d u a l  owner s  wish i n g  to  make  the i r  ex i s t i n g  su i t e s l eg a l .  Vancouve r  i s  s t i l l  a  long  way  f rom  the  u l t ima t e goa l  of  hav i ng  a l l  ex i s t i n g  su i t e s  reg i s t e r e d  and l eg a l i z e d  wi th i n  the  c i t y ,  bu t  they  a re  work ing  toward tha t  goa l . Vancouve r ’ s  po l i c i e s  wi th  rega r d  to  seconda r y  su i t e s re f l e c t  a  sys t ema t i c  l e a r n i n g  proce s s  in  which  prac t i c a l cons i d e r a t i o n s ,  po l i t i c s  and  pub l i c  deba t e ,  re s e a r c h , obse r v a t i o n  and  rev i ew  are  coo rd i n a t e d  wi th  managemen t s t r a t e g i e s  to  ach i e v e  more  des i r a b l e  re s u l t s ;  a l l  whi l e rema i n i n g  focu s e d  on  the  ove r a l l  goa l  of  main t a i n i n g af f o r d a b l e  hous i n g  and  the  hea l t h  and  sa f e t y  of re s i d e n t s . 4 .3 Low Impact  Deve lopment  in  Port l and ,  OR,  Uni t ed Sta t e s Beginn i n g  in  the  mid- 1990s ,  the  Ci ty  of  Por t l a n d , Oregon  began  an  ambi t i o u s  pro j e c t  a imed  a t  reduc i n g  the Page 34 amoun t  of  s t o rmwa t e r  runo f f  en t e r i n g  the  s t o rmwa t e r sys t em .  They  began  wi th  a  demons t r a t i o n  pro j e c t  invo l v i n g abou t  522 , 000  cub i c  ya rd s  of  un t r e a t e d  runo f f  tha t  was dra i n i n g  in t o  the  Wil l ame t t e  Rive r  f r om  the  pa rk i n g  lo t of  the  Oregon  Museum of  Sc i en c e  and  Indu s t r y .  Here  i s  the s t o r y ,  in  br i e f : The  museum  agreed  to  the  cons t r u c t i o n  of  a ser i e s  of  10  vege t a t e d  swal e s  tha t  would rece i v e  runo f f  f rom  the  sur r ound i n g  park i n g lo t s .  The  runo f f  f rom  the  lo t s  i s  convey ed  to the  vege t a t e d  swa l e s  th r ough  cu t s  in  the park i n g  lo t  curb s .  As  cons t r u c t e d ,  the  swal e s had  a  foo t p r i n t  o f  13 ,980  squar e  f e e t  and  a capac i t y  of  14 ,000  cub i c  f e e t .  Thi s  exceeded the  c i t y ' s  capac i t y  requ i r emen t s  fo r  a  t r e n ch rece i v i n g  runo f f  f r om  a  ca t chmen t  area  o f equa l  s i z e .  The  use  o f  the  vege t a t e d  swa l e s over  conven t i o n a l  methods  re su l t e d  in  cos t sav i n g s  o f  $78 , 000 .  Main t e nan c e  and  upkeep  o f the  swa l e s  has  been  worked  in t o  the  regu l a r land s c ap e  budge t  fo r  the  museum,  and  has requ i r e d  s l i g h t l y  more  work  to  keep  curb  cu t s f r e e  of  debr i s . From a  phys i c a l  des i g n  s tandpo i n t ,  the  pro j e c t has  shown  tha t  i t  i s  pos s i b l e  to  ob ta i n s i gn i f i c a n t  cos t  sav i n g s  and  bene f i t s  f r om  the cons t r u c t i o n  o f  sus t a i n a b l e  managemen t  sys t em s over  conven t i o n a l  ones .  I t  has  fu r t h e r  shown Page 35 tha t  the s e  sys t ems  have  the  po t en t i a l  to surpa s s  the  per f o rmance  o f  t rad i t i o n a l prac t i c e s .  Where  shor t f a l l s  in  the  sys t em  have been  found ,  modi f i c a t i o n s  were  made  to  addre s s them .  Where  i t  was  found  tha t  the  swa l e s  cou ld have  per f o rmed  be t t e r ,  fo r  example ,  the  number o f  curb  cu t s  was  inc r e a s e d .  The  per f o rmance  of par t i c u l a r  plan t s  was  eva l ua t e d ,  and  where approp r i a t e ,  the y  were  rep l a c e d  by  be t t e r - per f o rm i ng  ones  (C i t y  of  Por t l a n d  2006) . Thi s  demons t r a t i o n  pro j e c t  became  a  mode l  fo r subs equen t  pro j e c t s  ac ro s s  the  Uni t e d  Sta t e s .  In i t i a l l y , i t s  succe s s  in f l u e n c e d  bo th  the  pl ann i n g  po l i c y  and phys i c a l  des i g n  of  a  broade r  ‘Green  St r e e t s ’  in i t i a t i v e ac ro s s  the  Ci ty  of  Por t l a n d  tha t  focu s e d  on  ‘wa t e r - qua l i t y - f r i e n d l y ’  s t r e e t s  and  park i n g  lo t s .  Lea rn i n g  f r om th i s  in i t i a t i v e  went  on  to  in s p i r e  an  ‘ I nnova t i v e  Wet Weathe r  Prog r am’  in  Por t l a n d  tha t  broaden ed  the  scope f r om  s t r e e t s  and  park i n g  lo t s  to  inc l u d e  eco - roo f s , downspou t  d i s c onne c t i o n s ,  moni t o r i n g  and  fea s i b i l i t y s t ud i e s ,  and  educa t i o n a l  ef f o r t s . The  va l u e  of  the s e  pro j e c t s  i s  moni t o r e d  ove r  t ime , and  the  accumul a t e d  knowledge  i s  used  in  an  ongo i ng manner  to  more  ef f e c t i v e l y  de t e rm i n e  s to rmwa t e r managemen t  po l i c y .  Thus ,  pro j e c t  pe r f o rmance  has  had  a d i r e c t  impac t  on  re l a t e d  regu l a t o r y  codes ,  such  as s t o rmwa t e r  managemen t  and  pa rk i n g  requ i r emen t s . Page 36 The  educa t i o n a l  e f f o r t s  re sponded  to  pub l i c  feedba ck and  add r e s s e d  misconc ep t i o n s .  In  re s pon s e  to  da t a  showing the  vas t  majo r i t y  of  re s i d e n t s  d id  no t  unde r s t a n d  the concep t  of  combined  sewer s  or  combined  sewer  ove r f l ow s , and  unde r e s t im a t e d  po l l u t i o n  coming  f r om  s to rmwa t e r ou t f l ows ,  an  exh i b i t  on  the  prob l em  of  s to rmwa t e r ove r f l ow s  opened  in  2003  a t  the  Museum  of  Sc i en c e  and Indu s t r y . Here  aga i n ,  l e a r n i n g  has  occu r r e d  ove r  t ime  as  a re s u l t  of  an  i t e r a t i v e ,  coo rd i n a t e d  proce s s  l i n k i n g  on- the - ground  prac t i c e  wi th  expe r imen t a t i o n ,  pub l i c d ia l o g u e ,  re s e a r c h ,  moni t o r i n g ,  and  managemen t s t r a t e g i e s . 4 .4 Sus ta i nab l e  Neighbourhood  Deve lopment  in Bal l e rup ,  Denmark David  van  Vle i t  unde r t o o k  a  tho r o ugh  examina t i o n  of one  demons t r a t i o n  pro j e c t  in  Bal l e r u p ,  Denmark .  His cen t r a l  ques t i o n  was :  “In  what  ways  can  demons t r a t i o n pro j e c t s  inc r e a s e  soc i a l  l e a r n i n g  of  ef f e c t i v e  p lann i n g , des i g n  and  po l i c y  a l t e r n a t i v e s  tha t  as s i s t  in  deve l o p i n g sus t a i n a b l e  urban  communi t i e s ? ”  (2000 ) .  He found  tha t  the new  Egeb j e r g g a r d  ne ighbou r h ood  in  Bal l e r u p  inc r e a s e d soc i a l  l e a r n i n g  and  he  showed  tha t  soc i a l l y  and env i r o nmen t a l l y  re s pon s i b l e  ne ighbou r hood s  can  be  pl anned and  succe s s f u l l y  imp l emen t e d  (van  Vl i e t  2001) .  He desc r i b e s  the  ne ighbou r h ood  in  the  fo l l ow i n g  way: Page 37 Egeb j e r g ga r d  i s  a  782  un i t ,  38  ha .  mixed  use , urban  ex t e n s i o n  and  ne ighbou r hood in t e n s i f i c a t i o n  pro j e c t  loca t e d  in  the munic i p a l i t y  of  Bal l e r u p  (50 , 0 0 0  popu l a t i o n ) 15  km  nor t hwes t  o f  Kobenhavn .  A  new  pa t t e r n fo r  ‘ i n t e g r a t e d  ne ighbou r hood s ’  emerged th r ough  pub l i c  deba t e ,  des i g n  compe t i t i o n , expe r imen t  and  an  innova t i v e  sys t em  of p lann i n g  gu ide l i n e s  and  regu l a t i o n . Egeb j e r g ga r d  was  the  venue  o f  an  in t e r n a t i o n a l bu i l d i n g  exh i b i t i o n  in  1996 .  Cons t r u c t i o n  o f dwel l i n g s  s t a r t e d  in  June  1988  and  by  the  end o f  1997 ,  the  p lann i n g  was  comple t e  and  al l  the hous i n g  schemes  in  the  urban  quar t e r ’ s  fou r s t ag e s  were  near l y  f i n i s h e d .  Limi t e d  se l e c t i v e in f i l l  i s  occur r i n g  on  a  f ew  s i t e s  res e r v e d fo r  commerc i a l  or  in s t i t u t i o n a l  use  (2001 ) . Innova t i o n s  occu r r e d  bo th  in  the  proce s s e s  and produc t s  of  the  ne ighbou r h ood  deve l o pmen t .  They  inc l u d e d : iden t i t y  and  cha r a c t e r ,  va r i a t i o n  in  fo rm  and  househo l d s , mixed  owner s h i p ,  af f o r d a b l e  hous i n g ,  env i r o nmen t a l l y sound  mate r i a l s  and  app ro a ch e s ,  mixed  land  use , in t e g r a t i o n  of  works  of  ar t ,  s t r e n g t h e n i n g  the  soc i a l s t r u c t u r e ,  cr ime  preven t i o n ,  and  pa r t i c i p a t i o n  of  fu t u r e inhab i t a n t s .  Many  of  the s e  have  s i n c e  been  inco r p o r a t e d in t o  the  ove r a l l  munic i p a l  p lan ,  and  in t o  o the r  pro j e c t s bo th  wi th i n  and  ou t s i d e  of  the  munic i p a l i t y  of  Bal l e r u p . Page 38 St r a t e g i e s  used  in  the  Egeb j e r g g a r d  pro j e c t  have  had fa r - reach i n g  in f l u e n c e s  tha t  s t r e t c h  beyond  the  re s i d e n t s and  loca l  ne ighbou r h ood .  These  are  ou t l i n e d  spec i f i c a l l y in  Figu r e  4 .4 - 1 .  The  pro j e c t  took  a  sys t ems  app ro a ch , inco r p o r a t i n g  coo rd i n a t i o n  ac ro s s  agency  sca l e s  and scope s ,  and  i t s  re su l t s  have  in  tu r n  in f l u e n c e d  the en t i r e  sys t em . Figure  4 .4 - 5.  In f l u e n c e s  of  Egeb j e r g g a r d  demons t r a t i o n  pro j e c t on  var i o u s  en t i t i e s The  Dani s h Mini s t r y  of Hous ing Adopted  the  f i n a n c i n g  p i l o t  pro j e c t  used in  the  ne ighbou r h ood  as  a  new procedu r e fo r  a l l  hous i n g  rec e i v i n g  pub l i c f i n a n c i n g . Large deve l op e r s Adopted  ac t i o n  plan s  and / o r  po l i c y s t a t emen t s  on  urban  eco l ogy  tha t in f l u e n c e  bus i n e s s  procedu r e s  and managemen t  s t r a t e g i e s  based  on  the deba t e  tha t  occu r r e d  wi th i n  the Egeb j e r g g a r d  hous i n g  soc i e t i e s . Munic i p a l i t y Adopted  be t t e r  coope r a t i o n  ac ro s s depa r tmen t s  due  to  the  pro f e s s i o n a l deve l o pmen t  and  inc r e a s e d  capac i t y bu i l d i n g  tha t  took  pl a c e  as  par t  of  the pro j e c t . Adop ted  mul t i p l e  cr i t e r i a  in  the  pre - qua l i f i c a t i o n  s t a g e  of  pro j e c t deve l o pmen t  rev i ew . Page 39 Broad l y Conf i rmed  the  impor t a n c e  of  in t e g r a t e d c i t i z e n  pa r t i c i p a t i o n  in  the  p lann i n g and  deve l o pmen t  proce s s  in  par t  becau s e of  the  con t r i b u t i o n s  prov i d e d  by  the c i t i z e n r y  to  th i s  pro j e c t . Adop ted  procedu r e s  tha t  inc l u d e in t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y  and  in t e r s e c t o r a l coope r a t i o n  becau s e  of  the  be t t e r pl ann i n g  and  produc t  rea l i z e d  by  the c lo s e  coope r a t i o n  and  co l l a b o r a t i o n  tha t took  p la c e  in  Egeb j e r g g a r d . 4 .5 Analys i s  of  Adapt i v e  Management  Appl i c a t i o n s These  demons t r a t i o n s  of  urban  po l i c i e s - in - ac t i o n  can se r v e  to  in f o rm  our  unde r s t a n d i n g  of  adap t i v e  managemen t app l i c a t i o n s .  In  each  of  the  above  exampl e s ,  l e a r n i n g  i s cen t r a l .  Whi le  i t  was  no t  an  exp l i c i t  ob j e c t i v e  a t  the ou t s e t ,  a t  some  po in t  in  the  proce s s ,  l e a r n i n g  d id  become an  impor t a n t  aspec t ,  as  wi tn e s s e d  th r o ugh  the  a t t e n t i o n pa id  to  rev i ew  and  ad ju s tmen t  of  po l i c i e s  as  re s u l t s unfo l d e d  ove r  t ime . Using  the  po l i c y  ind i c a t o r s  ou t l i n e d  in  Figu r e  4 .1 - 1 ,  we  can  ga in  in s i g h t  in t o  the  ways  in  which  the  case s t ud i e s  app l i e d  adap t i v e  managemen t  s t r a t e g i e s .  The  th r e e example s  h igh l i g h t e d  as  demons t r a t i o n s  a l l  occu r  wi th i n an  urban  con t ex t ,  though ,  by  des i g n ,  they  add r e s s  ve ry d i f f e r e n t  aspec t s  of  the  urban  env i r o nmen t :  hous i n g Page 40 pol i c y ,  s t o rmwa t e r  in f r a s t r u c t u r e ,  and  mixed - use ne ighbou r hood  deve l o pmen t . Demons t r a t i o n s  po l i c i e s  and  demons t r a t i o n  pro j e c t s such  as  the s e  ar e  a  s t r o n g  pa thway  to  br i dg i n g d i s conne c t i o n  be tween  po l i c y  and  ac t i o n .  “An  ef f e c t i v e demons t r a t i o n  can  be  looked  upon  as  a  so r t  of  s t a g i n g are a  and  ha l f  way  house  be tween  imp l emen t a t i o n  and gene r a l  po l i c y  making .  I t  i s  a  zone  fo r  soc i a l  and deve l o pmen t a l  l e a r n i n g ”  (van  Vl i e t  2001 ,  2) . As  an  adap t i v e  managemen t  app roa ch ,  demons t r a t i o n s have  much  promi s e  as  a  way  to  unde r t a k e  po l i c y expe r imen t s  in  a  manner  tha t  promote s  maximum  le a r n i n g and  min imiz e s  nega t i v e  consequen c e s .  Demons t r a t i o n s  a l l ow po l i c i e s  to  be  impl emen t e d  on  a  l im i t e d ,  expe r imen t a l bas i s .  Outcomes  and  behav i o u r  can  be  moni t o r e d  ove r  t ime , and  change s  and  re f i n emen t s  can  be  made  as  l e a r n i n g  t ake s p lac e .  I f  pro j e c t s  a re  succe s s f u l ,  the  re f i n e d  po l i c i e s can  then  be  ‘ma in s t r e amed ’  and  adop t e d  on  a  wide r  bas i s as  app rop r i a t e . In  the s e  example s ,  munic i p a l i t i e s  use  the demons t r a t i o n s  as  ground s  fo r  l e a r n i n g  and  re f i n emen t tha t  l e ad  to  be t t e r  po l i c y  and  the  mains t r e am i ng  of innova t i o n  ove r  t ime .  Whi l e  exp l i c i t l y  t a l k i n g  abou t  adap t i v e  managemen t app l i c a t i o n s  as  ‘expe r imen t s ’  i s  typ i c a l l y  no t po l i t i c a l l y  fea s i b l e  as  d i s cu s s e d  ea r l i e r ,  tha t  i s es s en t i a l l y  what  demons t r a t i o n s  can  be .  Each  example  he r e Page 41 beg i n s  wi th  the  in t e n t i o n  to  t r y  ou t  a  po l i c y  or  pro j e c t to  see  how wel l  i t  works .  “The  re s e a r c h  sugge s t s  the  gap be tween  ‘wha t  we know’  and  ‘wha t  we need  to  know’  can  be add r e s s e d  th r ough  a  more  expe r imen t a l  f r amework  and th r o ugh  purpo s e f u l  demons t r a t i o n - di f f u s i o n ”  (van  Vl i e t 2001 ,  2) .  These  demons t r a t i o n s  ar e  hypo t h e s e s - in - ac t i o n in  the  urban  con t e x t . The  example s  in  th i s  sec t i o n  a l l  inc l u d e d f l e x i b i l i t y ,  inco r p o r a t e d  s t ak e ho l d e r  par t i c i p a t i o n ,  and kep t  coming  back  to  the  or i g i n a l  goa l .  Moni t o r i n g  was done  ove r  t ime ,  and  the  in f o rma t i o n  ga th e r e d  in f o rmed change s ,  l i n k i n g  managemen t  back  to  prac t i c e  and  vi s a ver s a .  There  was  a l s o  excep t i o n a l  coo rd i n a t i o n  ac ro s s depa r tmen t s  or  d i s c i p l i n e s . Though  the s e  example s  show  a  remarkab l e  use  of adap t i v e  managemen t  s t r a t e g i e s ,  the r e  can  be  spec i f i c l im i t a t i o n s  to  the  use  of  demons t r a t i o n  po l i c i e s  and pro j e c t s .  I t  i s  di f f i c u l t  to  i so l a t e  caus e - and - ef f e c t  in some  case s ,  par t i c u l a r l y  when  rece s s i o n s  or  o the r  l a r g e economic  change s  occu r  wi th i n  a  c lo s e  t ime f r ame  of pro j e c t  imp l emen t a t i o n .  Time  l ag s  occu r  in  the  di f f u s i o n of  knowledge .  Dif f u s i o n  i s  l i k e l y  to  inc r e a s e  ove r  t ime ; ye t  as  t ime  pas s e s ,  i t  i s  ha rde r  to  l i n k  inc r e a s e d knowledge  and  the  use  of  succe s s f u l  innova t i o n s  back  to  a s i ng l e  po l i c y  or  pro j e c t ’ s  in f l u e n c e  (van  Vl i e t  2001) . When  pl ann i n g  or  eva l u a t i n g  the  app l i c a t i o n  of adap t i v e  managemen t ,  van  Vl i e t  sugge s t s  f i v e  impor t a n t cons i d e r a t i o n s  ( s e e  Figu r e  4 .5 - 1) .  The  app l i c a t i o n  of Page 42 adap t i v e  managemen t  does  no t  need  to  fo l l ow  a pre s c r i p t i v e  pa th .  I t  can  be  in i t i a t e d  by  an  ind i v i d u a l or  agency .  I t  can  be  in  the  fo rm  of  a  po l i c y ,  a  pro j e c t , or  o the r  s t r a t e g y .  I t  s imp ly  must  invo l v e  the  e l emen t s cen t r a l  to  the  adap t i v e  managemen t  app roa ch  ( s e e  Figu r e 4 .1 - 1)  inc l u d i n g  embrac i n g  l e a r n i n g ,  pa r t i c i p a t i o n , coo rd i n a t i o n ,  expe r imen t a t i o n  and  moni t o r i n g ;  and  l i n k i n g prac t i c e  and  managemen t  back  to  one  ano t h e r  regu l a r l y whi l e  keep i n g  s igh t  of  the  or i g i n a l  goa l s . Figure  4 .5 - 6.  Adap t i v e  managemen t  app l i c a t i o n  cons i d e r a t i o n s (van  Vl i e t  2001 ) Rela t i v e advan t a g e I s  the  app l i c a t i o n  be t t e r  than  the  s t a t u s quo ,  or  i s  i t  pe r c e i v e d  as  be t t e r  than the  s t a t u s  quo? Compat i b i l i t y  I s  the  app l i c a t i o n  a  good  f i t  fo r  the peop l e  and  env i r o nmen t  of  th i s  pl ac e  a t th i s  t ime?  How s t r o n g  migh t  the re s i s t a n c e  be?  Thi s  cha r a c t e r i s t i c  i s somewha t  s imi l a r  to  Franc i s  West l e y ’ s l e s s o n  fou r  fo r  the  ind i v i d u a l  manage r ( s e e  Sec t i o n  3 .3 ) ,  which  invo l v e s  t ak i n g advan t a g e  of  the  moment  in  t ime  when  one can  mos t  op t ima l l y  cap i t a l i z e  on  the ene rgy  and  movement  of  othe r s . Complex i t y  I s  the  app l i c a t i o n  too  di f f i c u l t  to unde r s t a n d  and  app ly ?  The  manage r s  mus t jugg l e  mul t i p l e  s t r a t e g i e s  and  goa l s  wel l and  in  tu r n  communic a t e  them  to  othe r s . Thi s  cha r a c t e r i s t i c  i s  c lo s e l y  re l a t e d  to West l e y ’ s  l e s s o n  two  fo r  the  ind i v i d u a l manage r  ( s e e  Sec t i o n  3 .3 ) . Tr i a l a b i l i t y  Can  othe r  peop l e  t r y  ou t  aspec t s  of  the po l i c y  or  pro j e c t ,  or  must  they  commi t a l l  a t  once?  Inc l u d i n g  di a l o g u e , Page 43 f l e x i b i l i t y ,  and  cho i c e  i s  impor t a n t  fo r ongo i ng  le a r n i n g  and  change  to  occu r . Obse rvab i l i t y  How vi s i b l e  and  di s c e r n a b l e  ar e  the re s u l t s  of  the  po l i c y  or  pro j e c t ? Communica t i n g  the s e  wel l  i s  key  to broaden i n g  the  accep t a n c e  and  adop t i o n  of the  po l i c y  or  pro j e c t ,  and  expand i n g le a r n i n g  beyond  i t s  bounda r i e s . Page 44 5 . 0 Conc l u s i on s  and Recommenda t i on s 5 .1 Summary of  Poten t i a l  Contr ibu t i o n  of  Adapt i v e Management  to  Urban  Pol i c i e s Adapt i v e  managemen t  shows  grea t  promi s e  fo r promot i n g  be t t e r  urban  p lann i n g .  Adap t i v e  managemen t s t r a t e g i e s  ar e  a t  p lay  in  the  urban  env i r o nmen t  as d i s cu s s e d  in  the  prev i o u s  sec t i o n ,  though  no t  in  a widesp r e a d  or  exp l i c i t  manner .  As  i s  the  cas e  in  the na tu r a l  re sou r c e s  ar ena ,  the r e  i s  ev id en c e  tha t  prac t i c a l improvemen t s  can  be  exped i t e d  th r o ugh  an  app roa c h  tha t exp l i c i t l y  embrace s  l e a r n i n g  th r ough  expe r imen t a t i o n . As  wi th  any  good  managemen t  reg ime ,  adap t i v e managemen t  t ake s  cons i d e r a b l e  re s ou r c e s  fo r  adequa t e deve l o pmen t ,  moni t o r i n g ,  and  ad ju s tmen t  ove r  t ime .  I t a l s o  requ i r e s  openne s s  to  di a l o g u e  and  nego t i a t i o n  based on  goa l s  and  pr i n c i p l e s . 9 Cont i n u e d  re l e v a n c e  ove r  t ime  of  urban  adap t i v e managemen t  po l i c i e s  i s  swayed  no t  on ly  by  managemen t  and re s e a r c h ,  bu t  a l s o  by  the  po l i t i c a l  c l ima t e .  Work ing  ou t an  ef f e c t i v e  adap t i v e  managemen t  s t r a t e g y  wi l l  look d i f f e r e n t  in  di f f e r e n t  a re a s  becau s e  of  th i s .  The po l i t i c a l  ar en a  i s  one  in  which  p l anne r s  have  worked  fo r decade s ,  howeve r .  Ef f e c t i v e  imp l emen t a t i o n s  of  adap t i v e managemen t  in  th i s  high l y  po l i t i c a l  env i r o nmen t  may re s u l t  in  s t r a t e g i e s  tha t  ar e  conve r s e l y  use f u l  in  the 9 For  an  in - dep t h  di s c u s s i o n  of  ef f e c t i v e  nego t i a t i o n  t e chn i q u e s ,  see Fish e r  and  Ury  (1991 ) . Page 45 na tu r a l  re s ou r c e s  ar ena ,  as  sc i e n c e  i s  a l s o  ra r e l y un touched  by  po l i t i c s . One  cha l l e n g e  of  adap t i v e  managemen t  in  na tu r a l re s ou r c e  managemen t  i s  tha t  the  sca l e  i s  of t e n  qu i t e l a r g e .  There  ar e  ra r e l y  mechan i sms  in  pl ac e  reg i o n a l l y tha t  fac i l i t a t e  d i s cu s s i o n  and  dec i s i o n - making  ove r  l a r g e geog r aph i c  ar ea s  and  long  t ime  hor i z o n s  (Baske r v i l l e 1995) .  Here  i s  one  po t en t i a l  advan t a g e  of  us i ng  adap t i v e managemen t  in  an  urban  con t e x t :  pro j e c t  and  po l i c y  sca l e s of t e n  eas i l y  f i t  wi th i n  the  bounda r i e s  of  a  munic i p a l i t y or  ne ighbou r hood ,  and  the  oppor t u n i t y  fo r  di a l o g u e  i s l i k e l y  pre - ex i s t i n g  in  the  fo rm  of  ne ighbou r hood  or munic i p a l  counc i l s  or  adv i s o r y  boa rd s . The  example s  given  in  Sec t i o n  4  demons t r a t e  how adap t i v e  managemen t  i s  a l r e a d y  used  wi th i n munic i p a l i t i e s .  Fol l ow i ng  are  two  hypo t h e t i c a l  s i t u a t i o n s tha t  fu r t h e r  demons t r a t e  how  adap t i v e  managemen t s t r a t e g i e s  can  con t r i b u t e  to  ef f e c t i v e  urban  pl ann i n g  in a  more  exp l i c i t  manner : Si t u a t i o n  A:  Pub l i c  space s  in  urban  are a s  ar e impor t a n t  loca t i o n s  fo r  pub l i c  engagemen t ,  re l a x a t i o n , and  rec r e a t i o n .  They  are  typ i c a l l y  sma l l ,  f i x e d geog r aph i c  ar ea s  (a  park  or  rec r e a t i o n  cen t r e ,  fo r example ) .  Adap t i v e  managemen t  expe r imen t s  cove r  bo th  the po l i c y  and  prog r amming  arena s ,  wi th  imp l emen t a t i o n , moni t o r i n g ,  as s e s smen t ,  and  change s  ove r  t ime  re su l t i n g in  be t t e r ,  more  use f u l  pub l i c  space s . Page 46 Si t u a t i o n  B:  Urban  in f i l l  i s  manda t e d  by  growth managemen t  l aws  in  many  munic i p a l i t i e s .  Pub l i c  re s i s t a n c e may  work  aga i n s t  inc r e a s e d  dens i t y .  One  ne ighbou r hood  i s wi l l i n g  to  accep t  in f i l l  in  exchange  fo r  some  needed pub l i c  amen i t i e s .  The  munic i p a l i t y  focu s e s  on  th i s ne ighbou r hood  as  a  demons t r a t i o n  s i t e  us i ng  adap t i v e managemen t ,  and  bu i l d s  on  the  expe r i e n c e  to  in f o rm  in f i l l po l i c i e s  in  o the r  ar ea s  of  the  munic i p a l i t y . With i n  any  g iven  munic i p a l i t y  or  organ i z a t i o n ,  i t  i s impor t a n t  to  prov i d e  th i s  a l l owance  fo r  l e a r n i n g . Fol l ow i ng  the  main  t ene t s  of  adap t i v e  managemen t , l e a r n i n g  mus t  be  more  than  a l l owed ,  i t  mus t  be  encou r a g e d wi th i n  the  work  env i r o nmen t  of  an  urban  p l anne r ,  and  the ove r a l l  cu l t u r e  of  the  organ i z a t i o n .  St r u c t u r a l  prob l ems wi th i n  in s t i t u t i o n s 10  ar e  ba r r i e r s  to  de t e c t i n g  and cor r e c t i n g  er r o r s  (Lev i t t  and  March  1990) .  Encour a g i n g l e a r n i n g  means  to  encou r ag e  in f o rma t i o n  f l ow  bo th  ways be tween  po l i c y  maker s  and  tho s e  who  impl emen t  po l i c i e s . In  con t r a s t ,  “main t a i n i n g  a  s t r i c t  di cho t omy  be tween po l i c y  fo rmu l a t i o n  and  impl emen t a t i o n  ac ro s s  in s t i t u t i o n s a t  di f f e r e n t  l eve l s  thwar t s  feedback  and  unde rm in e s l e a r n i n g ”  (L i gh t  e t  a l  1995 ,  156) . Inco r p o r a t i n g  adap t i v e  managemen t  –  and  the r e f o r e exp l i c i t  l e a r n i n g  –  in t o  munic i p a l  pl ann i n g  endeavou r s ca r r i e s  grea t  promi s e  on  many  leve l s .  As  di s c u s s e d her e i n ,  p l ann i n g  prac t i c e  does  no t  a lways  re spond ef f e c t i v e l y  and  in  a  t ime l y  fa sh i o n  to  on- the - ground 10 Example s  of  s t r u c t u r a l  prob l ems  inc l u d e  la ck  of  coord i n a t i o n ;  l eg a l i s t i c , in t r a n s i g e n t ,  and  o the r  s imi l a r  t r a i t s . Page 47 rea l i t i e s  (be  they  prac t i c a l ,  po l i t i c a l ,  env i r o nmen t a l  or o the rw i s e ) .  Both  pl ann i n g  prac t i t i o n e r s  and  organ i z a t i o n s can  use  adap t i v e  managemen t  t e chn i q u e s  to  improve  the deg r e e  to  which  the i r  prac t i c e  re s pond s  to  rea l i t i e s . Learn i n g  can  occu r  th r o ugh  adap t i v e  managemen t  wi th i n many  con t e x t s :  an  ind i v i d u a l  manger ,  wi th i n  a  munic i p a l organ i z a t i o n ,  wi th i n  a  munic i p a l i t y  or  othe r  geog r aph i c bounda r y ,  or  ac ro s s  munic i p a l i t i e s .  Simi l a r  concep t s app l y  in  each  of  the s e  s i t u a t i o n s .  Adap t i v e  managemen t  i s a  cr i t i c a l l y  use f u l  too l  fo r  nav i g a t i n g  the  complex  and unce r t a i n  t e r r a i n  inhe r e n t  in  munic i p a l  p lann i n g . 5 .2 Recommendat i on s  for  Pol i c y  Deve lopment There  i s  a  huge  oppor t u n i t y  to  deve l o p  and  broaden the  app l i c a t i o n  of  adap t i v e  managemen t  to  urban  po l i c i e s and  prac t i c e s .  And  ye t ,  the  founda t i o n  mus t  be  in  p la c e fo r  a l l ow i n g  le a r n i n g  and  adap t i v e  managemen t  to  occu r . Pol i c i e s  must  suppo r t  the  bu i l d i n g  of  an  open  po l i t i c a l env i r o nmen t  th r o ugh  nego t i a t i o n  and  consen s u s - bu i l d i n g tha t  se t s  the  s t a g e  fo r  adap t i v e  managemen t  (Lee  1995) . They  must  a l s o  suppo r t  open  d ia l o g u e  ac ro s s  d i s c i p l i n e s by  remov ing  ba r r i e r s  to  co l l a b o r a t i o n  wi th i n organ i z a t i o n s  (Lev i t t  and  March  1990) . Munic i p a l  manage r s  mus t  f i nd  a  way  to  c re a t e in t e r n a l  po l i c i e s  tha t  s t r e n g t h e n  and  reward  le a r n i n g among  ind i v i d u a l s  and  the  organ i z a t i o n  as  a  whole .  “ In gene r a l ,  rewa rd s  in  a  bureau c r a c y  are  grea t e r  fo r  f i nd i n g Page 48 be t t e r  ways  to  do  what  we  a l r e a d y  do  than  they  a re  fo r f i n d i n g  di f f e r e n t  (be t t e r )  th i n g s  to  do”  (Baske r v i l l e 1995 ,  100) .  Organ i z a t i o n s  can  crea t e  env i r o nmen t s  tha t encou r a g e  ques t i o n i n g  and  rev i ew  wi th  pee r s  ac ro s s d i s c i p l i n e s  in  orde r  to  l e a r n  f r om  expe r i e n c e ,  l e a r n  f rom obse r v a t i o n ,  and  to  gene r a t e  new  idea s  rega r d i n g  be t t e r impl emen t a t i o n ,  managemen t ,  and  po l i c y  (Aryg r i s  and  Schon 1978 ;  Ligh t  e t  a l  1995 ;  West l e y  2002) . A  munic i p a l  p l ann i n g  organ i z a t i o n  tha t  suppo r t s ongo ing  le a r n i n g  i s  in  a  good  pos i t i o n  to  use  the  too l s of  adap t i v e  managemen t  to  gu ide  the i r  pl ann i n g  prac t i c e . In  the  l im i t e d  ana l y s i s  con t a i n e d  he re i n ,  we can  see  tha t demons t r a t i o n s  a re  one  prac t i c a l  way  to  beg i n  adap t i v e managemen t  urban  app l i c a t i o n s .  Inc l u d i n g  wide r  use  of demons t r a t i o n  pro j e c t s  which  inco r p o r a t e  exp l i c i t adap t i v e  managemen t  pr i n c i p a l s  i s  an  obv iou s  pl ac e  to s t a r t  expand i n g  the  use  of  urban - based  adap t i v e managemen t . Othe r  oppor t u n i t i e s  ex i s t  as  wel l ,  such  as  inc l u d i n g adap t i v e  managemen t  s t r a t e g i e s  in  the  po l i c y  ana l y s i s  and recommenda t i o n s  coming  ou t  of  reg i o n a l ,  na t i o n a l  and in t e r n a t i o n a l  urban  p lann i n g  organ i z a t i o n s .  These organ i z a t i o n s  a l s o  have  the  oppor t u n i t y  to  h igh l i g h t ef f e c t i v e  adap t i v e  managemen t  prac t i c e s  in  an i l l u s t r a t i v e  manner  in  pub l i c a t i o n s  and  o the r  media . High l i g h t i n g  adap t i v e  managemen t  cas e  s tud i e s  a l s o se r v e s  to  in f o rm  the  pub l i c  of  the  ro l e  adap t i v e managemen t  can  p lay  in  an  urban  con t e x t .  I t  i s  impor t a n t , Page 49 howeve r ,  to  he lp  c i t i z e n s  unde r s t a n d  tha t  prob l ems  do  no t d i s app e a r  upon  the  cr e a t i o n  of  new  adap t i v e  managemen t po l i c y  so l u t i o n s .  Rathe r ,  ef f e c t s  of  po l i c i e s  appea r  ove r t ime  as  the  re s u l t s  unfo l d  in  reac t i o n  to  new impl emen t a t i o n  s t r a t e g i e s . 5 .3 Recommendat i on s  for  Further  Study The  ana l y s i s  con t a i n e d  in  th i s  repo r t  a ims  to exp l o r e  an  adap t i v e  managemen t  app ro a ch  to  urban  po l i c y p lann i n g  and  managemen t  in  which  l e a r n i n g  i s  cen t r a l . Very  l i t t l e  d i r e c t  re s e a r c h  ex i s t s  on  which  to  base  th i s ana l y s i s ,  though  the r e  i s  a  vas t  quan t i t y  of  re l a t i v e ad j a c e n t  re s e a r c h  ava i l a b l e . At t en t i o n  i s  on ly  now be ing  pa id  to  the  in t e r s e c t i o n of  adap t i v e  managemen t ,  l e a r n i n g  organ i z a t i o n s ,  and pub l i c  po l i c y  ana l y s i s ;  so  the r e  i s  a  grea t  dea l  of oppor t u n i t y  her e  fo r  more  in - dep th  s tudy ,  such  as : • The  ro l e s  and  re l a t i o n s h i p  be tween  the  ind i v i d u a l and  the  organ i z a t i o n .  How can  the  ro l e s  of  the in s t i t u t i o n  and  the  ind i v i d u a l  be  mutua l l y suppo r t i v e  in  manag ing  adap t i v e l y ? • Par t n e r s h i p s  be tween  re s e a r c h e r s  and  prac t i t i o n e r s to  deve l o p  prac t i c a l  so l u t i o n s  fo r  munic i p a l i t i e s . For  example ,  how  can  adap t i v e  managemen t s t r a t e g i e s  he lp  to  pl an  and  imp l emen t  be t t e r Page 50 permi t  se r v i c e  de l i v e r y  wi th i n  a  munic i p a l p lann i n g  organ i z a t i o n ? • Study  the  l e a r n i n g  proce s s  and  deve l o p  s t r a t e g i e s to  a id  in  knowledge  d i f f u s i o n  th r o ugh  adap t i v e managemen t  ac ro s s  munic i p a l i t i e s .  What  fa i l e d , what  succe ed ed ,  and  why?  How can  knowledge  sha r i n g be  ope r a t i o n a l i z e d  in  a  prac t i c a l  manner  ac ro s s munic i p a l i t i e s ? • Model  urban  adap t i v e  managemen t  po l i c i e s . St r a t e g i c  mode l i n g  and  ana l y s i s  can  look  a t  urban p lann i n g  po l i c i e s  re l a t e d  to  a  s ing l e  top i c  ar ea tha t  ex i s t s  ac ro s s  munic i p a l i t i e s  (o r  reg i o n s  or na t i o n s ) ,  and  pu l l  ou t  fea t u r e s  tha t  demons t r a t e l e a r n i n g  and  change  ove r  t ime  in  re s pon s e  to d i f f e r e n t  con t e x t s .  Even  wi th  in - dep t h  s t udy  of  the s e  and  o the r  re l a t e d i s s u e s ,  the r e  ar e  rea s on s  why  po l i c y  deve l o pmen t  may  no t re s pond  to  re s e a r c h  recommenda t i o n s .  Rap id  re s pon s e s l e ad i n g  to  change  and  adap t a t i o n  are  l i k e l y  to  be  pre s e n t in  l e s s  h ie r a r c h i c a l  organ i z a t i o n s ,  where  re l a t i v e l y un i f o rm  di s t r i b u t i o n  of  re sou r c e s  i s  pre s e n t  (Qu inn 1985) .  Most  munic i p a l i t i e s  have  some  concen t r a t i o n  of power  and  wea l t h  wi th i n  ce r t a i n  organ i z a t i o n s ,  l e ad i n g  to s t r o n g  po l i t i c a l  re s i s t a n c e  to  change  (Wes t l e y  1990) . There  i s  ev id en c e  tha t  sys t ems  and  organ i z a t i o n s wi th  a  more  equa l i z e d  di s t r i b u t i o n  of  re sou r c e s  and decen t r a l i z e d  dec i s i o n - making  s t r u c t u r e s  rep r e s e n t  a Page 51 “ l e a r n i n g ”  model  which  i s  be t t e r  ab l e  to  re s pond  to prob l ems  (Sche f f e r  e t  a l  2003 ) .  In  orde r  to  inc r e a s e  the l i k e l i h o o d  of  succe s s  and  inc r e a s e  the  pace  of  l e a r n i n g , i t  i s  app rop r i a t e  to  advance  s t r o n g  adap t i v e  managemen t po l i c y  expe r imen t s  wi th i n  sys t ems  tha t  to  some  deg r e e re f l e c t  th i s  s t r u c t u r e . Learn i n g  can  and  does  t ak e  pl ac e  eve rywhe r e , howeve r .  And  as  l e a r n i n g  i s  cen t r a l  to  the  adap t i v e managemen t  app ro a ch ,  the r e  ar e  numerous  oppor t u n i t i e s  to beg i n  in t r o d u c i n g  adap t i v e  managemen t  to  the  urban env i r o nmen t .  “Po l i t i c i a n s ,  bureau c r a t s ,  and  organ i z a t i o n s (pub l i c  and  pr i v a t e )  mus t  a l l  l e a r n ,  in  a  rep r e s e n t a t i v e democra cy  of  c i t i z e n s ,  and  they  mus t  a l l  remember  to permi t  the  evo l u t i o n  of  sus t a i n e d  po l i c y ,  which  i s nece s s a r y  to  sus t a i n a b l e  ach i e v emen t  of  any  goa l ” (Baske r v i l l e  1995 ,  99) . Page 52 Referenc e s Ackerman ,  M.S,  V.  Pipek ,  and  V.  Wulf  (ed s ) .  2003 .  Shar i n g Exper t i s e :  Beyond  Knowledge  Managemen t .  Cambr i dg e ,  MA: The  MIT Pre s s . Amer i c a n  Plann i n g  Assoc i a t i o n .  1998 .  The  Pr i n c i p l e s  of  Smar t Deve lopmen t .  Plann i n g  Advi so r y  Serv i c e  Repor t  479 .  Chicago : APA. Ange l e s ,  N.  and  P.  Gurs t e i n  (ed s ) .  2007 .  Learn i n g  Civ i l Soc i e t i e s :  Sh i f t i n g  Conte x t s  fo r  Democra t i c  Plann i ng  and Governance ;  Green  Col l e g e  Themat i c  Lec t u r e  Ser i e s .  Toron t o : Unive r s i t y  of  Toron t o  Pre s s . Argyr i s ,  C. ,  and  D.A.  Schon .  1978 .  Organ i z a t i o n a l  Learn i n g :  A Theory  o f  Act i o n  Perspe c t i v e .  Read ing ,  MA: Addi son - Wesley . Arns t e i n ,  S.R .  1969 .  A Ladde r  of  Ci t i z e n  Par t i c i p a t i o n . Jou rn a l  of  the  Amer i c a n  In s t i t u t e  of  Planne r s  35(4 ) :  216- 224 . Baske rv i l l e ,  G.L .  1995 .  The  fo r e s t r y  prob l em :  adap t i v e  lu r c h e s of  renewa l .  In  Gunde r s on ,  L.H. ,  C.S .  Hol l i n g ,  and  S.S .  Ligh t (ed s ) ,  Barr i e r s  and  Br idge s  to  the  Renewa l  o f  Ecosy s t em s  and Ins t i t u t i o n s .  New York :  Columbi a  Unive r s i t y  Pre s s . Brund t l a n d ,  G.  1987 .  Our  Common Futur e :  World  Commiss i o n  on Env i r onmen t  and  Deve lopmen t .  New York :  Oxfo rd  Unive r s i t y Pre s s . Ci ty  of  Por t l a n d ,  2006 .  Oregon  Bureau  of  Envi r o nmen t a l Serv i c e s ,  Sus t a i n a b l e  Sto rmwat e r  Prog r am .  "Oregon  Museum of Sc i en c e  and  Indus t r y  (OMSI)  Park i n g  Lot  Swale s . "  (on l i n e )  URL: h t t p : / / www.po r t l a n d o n l i n e . c om / b e s / i n d e x . c fm? c=34598 . Cook ,  J .A . ,  D.  Stan i f o r t h ,  and  J .  Stewa r t .  1997 .  The  Learn i n g Organ i z a t i o n  in  the  Publ i c  Serv i c e s .  Hampsh i r e ,  Engl and :  Gower Pub l i s h i n g  Ltd . Dale ,  A.  2001 .  At  the  Edge:  Sus t a i n a b l e  Deve l opmen t  in  the 21 s t  Cen tu r y .  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