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Learning Plans for Learning Communities: Adaptive Management applied in the Urban Planning Context Lutz, Samya 2008-02-06

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Learning Plans for Learning Communities: Adaptive Management applied in the Urban Planning Contextby SAMYA LUTZB.A., Western Washington University, 1998A PROJECT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTSinTHE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIESSchool of Community and Regional Planning We accept this project as conforming to the required standard.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIAJune 2007? Samya Lutz, 2007AbstractOver the past few decades natural resource policymakers and managers have embraced adaptive management as a means to ensure that policies continue to meet the goals and objectives for which they were originally designed. As practical realities change in a static policy environment, policy decisions originally intended for one purpose can end up being clumsy, outdated, and impractical. But in the dynamic policy environment of adaptive management ? increasingly found in the natural resources field ? active learning is a guiding principle, decisions are viewed as experiments in order to yield progressive improvement over time, and mechanisms are in place to trigger policy changes in response to changes on the ground. Like natural resources, urban social problems change over time, and policies do not always keep pace; they may even become so out of synch with original objectives that they are at odds with facilitating practical, affordable solutions to urban social problems. Can knowledge gained through experience with adaptive management in the natural resource environment be applied to the urban social environment?  This report explores the application of adaptive management principals used within the natural resource policy framework to the urban social policy framework. It is also an exploration into other methods of linking management and policymaking to action in a dynamic way. Finally, in order to illustrate how the adaptive management approach works in an urban context, it examines the implementation of adaptive management principals in three different municipalities. Table of Contents TOC \o "1-2" \h \z \u  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc162163122" Abstract	 PAGEREF _Toc162163122 \h ii HYPERLINK \l "_Toc162163123" Table of Contents	 PAGEREF _Toc162163123 \h iii HYPERLINK \l "_Toc162163124" Table of Figures	 PAGEREF _Toc162163124 \h iv HYPERLINK \l "_Toc162163125" 1.0	Introduction	 PAGEREF _Toc162163125 \h 1 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc162163126" 2.0	A Learning Approach to Management	 PAGEREF _Toc162163126 \h 4 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc162163127" 2.1	Adaptive Management Defined	 PAGEREF _Toc162163127 \h 4 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc162163128" 2.2	Sustainable Development and Other Approaches to Adaptive Governance	 PAGEREF _Toc162163128 \h 6 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc162163129" 2.3	An Adaptive Management Experiment	 PAGEREF _Toc162163129 \h 8 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc162163130" 3.0	Management Tools for Urban Planners	 PAGEREF _Toc162163130 \h 12 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc162163131" 3.1	Framework Defined for Urban Management Context	 PAGEREF _Toc162163131 \h 12 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc162163132" 3.2	Urban Planning Challenges	 PAGEREF _Toc162163132 \h 14 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc162163133" 3.3	Individuals as Adaptive Managers	 PAGEREF _Toc162163133 \h 16 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc162163134" 3.4	Summary	 PAGEREF _Toc162163134 \h 18 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc162163135" 4.0	Application: Examples of Urban Adaptive Management in Practice	 PAGEREF _Toc162163135 \h 20 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc162163136" 4.1	Introduction	 PAGEREF _Toc162163136 \h 20 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc162163137" 4.2	Housing Policies in Vancouver, BC, Canada	 PAGEREF _Toc162163137 \h 22 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc162163138" 4.3	Low-Impact Development in Portland, OR, United States	 PAGEREF _Toc162163138 \h 24 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc162163139" 4.4	Sustainable Neighbourhood Development in Ballerup, Denmark	 PAGEREF _Toc162163139 \h 26 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc162163140" 4.5	Analysis of Adaptive Management Applications	 PAGEREF _Toc162163140 \h 28 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc162163141" 5.0	Conclusions and Recommendations	 PAGEREF _Toc162163141 \h 31 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc162163142" 5.1	Summary of Potential Contribution of Adaptive Management to Urban Policies	 PAGEREF _Toc162163142 \h 31 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc162163143" 5.2	Recommendations for Policy Development	 PAGEREF _Toc162163143 \h 33 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc162163144" 5.3	Recommendations for Further Study	 PAGEREF _Toc162163144 \h 34 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc162163145" References	 PAGEREF _Toc162163145 \h 36Table of Figures TOC \h \z \c "Figure"  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc167808015" Figure 2.21. Goals of Ecosystem-Based Management	 PAGEREF _Toc167808015 \h 7 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc167808016" Figure 3.31. Adaptive management for the individual manager	 PAGEREF _Toc167808016 \h 17 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc167808017" Figure 3.32. Image and description of manager juggling four balls	 PAGEREF _Toc167808017 \h 18 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc167808018" Figure 4.11. Indicators guiding the review and assessment of adaptive management strategies	 PAGEREF _Toc167808018 \h 21 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc167808019" Figure 4.41. Influences of Egebjerggard demonstration project on various entities	 PAGEREF _Toc167808019 \h 27 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc167808020" Figure 4.51. Adaptive management application considerations	 PAGEREF _Toc167808020 \h 30IntroductionLand use planning has evolved over the past two centuries from a response to urban public health problems to a highly complex management system for cities and regions. Planners are called on to anticipate and respond to a tremendous range of issues from new construction, to conflicts over public space, to exploding concerns about the environment. In addition, expanding technical knowledge, growing public expectations, politics, and public opinion exert great influence on the work of urban planners. All of these factors have conspired to create a contemporary urban planning environment of unprecedented complexity, uncertainty, and change. Despite the fact that planning issues today are anything but simple and straightforward, predictability and certainty remain the coveted objectives within urban planning of what has long been considered good management. Planners often use prescriptive municipal bylaws, codes and other regulations in an attempt to force some measure of predictability and certainty into the increasingly complex world of urban planning (Guttenberg 1993 and 2002). More and more, failed urban social policies are demonstrating the limitations of this traditional prescriptive management approach in today?s rapidly evolving environment. When regulations undergo review, changes take years to implement, as municipal staff is already struggling to keep up with base workload, much less the rewriting of outdated codes and bylaws; bureaucratic processes and political interests take their toll; and learning encounters resistance. Revisions happen far too slowly to keep up with the rate of societal evolution, and by the time changes are finalized they may already be obsolete. Thus the cumbersome process continues. Some intrepid planners have begun to depart from command-and-control strategies in order to incorporate increasingly diverse groups of stakeholders and respond to growing threats to environmental health and sustainability. However, management decisions continue to support urban policies that take a static broad-brush approach (McMahon 2001). Individuals within agencies may find ways around the hurdles and shepherd new ideas through the bureaucracy via personal channels, but without an institutional champion (or the threat of litigation), innovation is nearly certain to run into a dead-end.Studies in the field of natural resource management have clearly illuminated how the prescriptive approach falls short of achieving successful and timely results. A 1986 examination of twenty-three managed ecosystems led to the conclusion that ?any attempt to manage ecological variables (e.g., fish, trees, water, cattle) inexorably led to less resilient ecosystems, more rigid management institutions, and more dependent societies? (Holling 1995, 6). These results caused great pause for natural resource managers, and led to the emergence of adaptive management as an attempt to increase the resilience of ecosystems through management experiments.Adaptive management of natural resources has proven effective and, at its best, can result in ?an abrupt reevaluation of the fundamental source of the problems, a redirection of policy toward restoration, and implementation of a process of planning and management that provides continually updated understanding as well as economic or social product? (Holling 1995, 3). The urban social policy arena lags far behind the ecological planning arena in terms of experimenting with adaptive policy and management. In response, this professional project has been prepared for a hypothetical client such as the Canadian Federation of Municipalities, or some similar organization of municipalities. Its overall objective is to help the client organization?s members understand the broad concepts and potential relevance of adaptive learning within urban planning contexts. The more specific goals of this report are: To review the basic concepts and synthesize relevant literature on adaptive management and related approaches to ongoing learning for relevance to urban municipal planning; andTo use the above analysis to explore an approach to urban policy planning and management in which learning is central through discussion of some case examples.This report is organized in the following manner. Section 2 discusses the origins and definitions of adaptive management, explores other related approaches to adaptive learning and governance, and examines an illustrative adaptive management case study. Section 3 outlines the framework for the convergence of adaptive management and urban planning: it identifies current planning issues and challenges, and discusses the relevance of adaptive management for urban planning on individual and agency scales. Section 4 lays out indicators for the review and assessment of urban adaptive management strategies, and applies these indicators to three case studies in urban planning: housing in Vancouver, Canada; stormwater management in Portland, US; and neighbourhood development in Ballerup, Denmark. Finally, Section 5 draws conclusions about the contribution of adaptive management to urban planning, recommends policy development to support adaptive learning, and suggested four specific areas for further academic research.  .A Learning Approach to ManagementAdaptive Management DefinedIn natural resource planning, the adaptive management approach has been used with some success over the past few decades. In short, adaptive management takes a learning approach to management. It asks, how can our policies reflect certainty if our understanding is uncertain? In adaptive management, the uncertainties that exist are made explicit, and as knowledge unfolds over time, changes are made to management strategies that respond to the new knowledge. Ideally, from a broad public policy viewpoint, representative stakeholders are involved who make clear their values and objectives, and together discuss the tradeoffs necessary to come up with balanced and workable management policies reflecting agreed-upon goals that specifically embrace learning. Adaptive management calls for dynamic management strategies that allow for changing practices (Oglethorpe 2002). C.S. Holling engaged in thinking in terms of adaptive management in the 1970s when his and his colleagues? and students? work on modeling ecosystems led them to the concept (1978). The work has been furthered and refined over the years, primarily through case studies involving large-scale ecosystems (Lee 1993; Gunderson et al 1995). In 1990, Carl Walters with Holling drew the distinction between active and passive adaptive management. In essence, active adaptive management involves the purposeful perturbation of systems in order to scientifically monitor and learn from the responses, and subsequently adapt management practices accordingly. Passive adaptive management involves the inference of system dynamics in response to management practices, and continued monitoring, learning and adjusting of practices over time. The analysis contained herein does not generally distinguish between the two, unless otherwise stated.The key features for implementing adaptive management strategies are very similar to those outlined as key to any policy making process: 1) Define the problem; 2) Assemble evidence; 3) Construct alternatives; 4) Select criteria for judging outcomes; 5) Project the outcomes of alternative strategies; 6) Consider the tradeoffs and uncertainties; and 7) Recommend a decision (adapted from Bardach 2000). The primary difference is that learning itself becomes an explicit objective (McDaniels & Gregory 2004). Adaptive management is problem or goal-oriented. Unfortunately, politics, routines, and public opinions can get in the way of good goal-oriented policy development. ?A weak understanding of the goals is very problematic, especially when it comes to analyzing the tradeoffs and coming to a compromise solution? (Baskerville 1995, 98). This situation is all-too-common. When citizens are accustomed to particular processes and procedures, there is resistance to changing them even when the change is needed to keep the process in line with the fundamental goals & objectives. Stakeholder participation in management decision-making is critical, however, especially at early stages of idea-formation. Participation from a broad representation of stakeholders ? including from informal networks ? is important to increase the likelihood of good, consensual decisions and longstanding cooperation (Light, Gunderson & Holling 1995). Adaptive management case studies have found that informal networks can be key initiators of new ideas and understandings.It is also important to note that adaptive management has been said to justify experiments that lead to perceived inequitable gain for one party?s interests (economic or otherwise). If the accusation proves accurate, it is likely due to deficient stakeholder involvement, or other imbalance related to a lack of consideration and balancing of representative interests in the decision-making approach. Sustainable Development and Other Approaches to Adaptive GovernanceThe most commonly-used definition of sustainable development came in 1987 with the Brundtland Commission: ?Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.? However, when it comes to defining what it means to ?do? development sustainably, strategies vary widely and at times conflict (Dale 2001). There is growing consensus that sustainable development refers to a process involving adaptation, change, or evolution over time (Holling 2001; Jokinen et al 1998; Rammel and Van Den Berg 2003). Instead of a fixed point in time when any sustainable development is ?done,? there is instead an ongoing process that changes its form over time as human knowledge changes. Sustainable development and adaptive management are arguably inextricable from one another. C. S. Holling refers to sustainable development as the goal of ?fostering adaptive capabilities and creating opportunities? (2001). Learning to manage adaptively is key to implementing the sustainable goals that are now widely articulated at various scales of governance.Another way of referring to the process of adaptation in management and governance is the term ?reflexive governance.? Reflexive governance is the response of society to the huge complexity of today?s problems with their varying scales, interconnectedness, and cascading effects across time and domain (Knoflacher and Gigler 2004). In their exploration into reflexive governance, Knoflacher and Gigler point out ?The studies demonstrate that managing regeneration adaptively enables stakeholders to deal with inherent uncertainty more successfully and can contribute to sustainable outcomes even in a setting where sustainability is not an explicit goal? (2004). Closely related to adaptive management, ecosystem-based management is yet another strategy that addresses complexity by encouraging democratic and dynamic management. Slocombe?s (1998) ecosystem-based management goals are highlighted in Figure 2.2-1. Like adaptive management, ecosystem-based management is a departure from previous command and control strategies. It is also a reaction to environmental management plans which did not adequately protect the urban environment due to a project-by-project focus and corresponding lack of jurisdictional coordination (UNU/IAS 2003).Figure  STYLEREF 2 \s 2.2 SEQ Figure \* ARABIC \s 2 1. Goals of Ecosystem-Based Management (Slocombe 1998)NormativeImply and reflect specific values and limitsPrincipledReflect ?higher? values and ethical principles and rulesIntegrativeReflect the wide range of interests, goals and objectives that existComplexWork with, not artificially reduce, complexityDynamicAccept and recognize the inevitability of changeTransdisciplinarySynthesize a wide range of information and knowledgeApplicableBe applicable to a wide range of ecosystem types and conditionsParticipatoryInvolve people and actorsUnderstandableBe explainable and operationalizable in a consistent way to different people and groups AdaptiveBe evolving as conditions and knowledge changeOther models exist, such as participatory governance. These models do not necessarily focus on the central issue of adaptability, but they do provide guidance on inclusive and dynamic forms of leadership and management. With all these ingredients for good governance, the task seems to be straightforward: simply use the recipes above in the practice of municipal planning and management. And yet, this intersection of governance and planning can be a treacherous one. Can these principals be pragmatically applied to local planning practices?  Planners often do perceive their role as having the power to effect change. Angeles and Gurstein put it this way: ?Like politicians and governors, planners have also adapted and learned to perform increasingly varied roles as advocates, policy analysts, facilitators, negotiators, and problem-solvers, and in the process, have become more comfortable in dealing with power, and in acknowledging and exercising their own power? (2007, 4).Planners work in service to public interests, and ??the articulation, communication, and mobilization of those public interests are key in bringing about deliberate and controlled changes so as to keep societies and communities on a stable, peaceful, and orderly course? (Angeles and Gurstein 2007, 4).  The process of defining those public interests is anything but simple and straightforward, and thus, there is a strong need for an adaptive management approach to the inherent complexity and change involved in the work of the planner.An Adaptive Management ExperimentFollowing is an example of one partially successful adaptive management experiment that took place with a group in New South Wales, Australia. Because all of the research explicitly focused on the implementation of adaptive management stems from the natural resource management field, this experiment is used as an illustrative example to help draw theoretical parallels between natural resource management and management in an urban social context.The objectives of the New South Wales projects were to evaluate certain water management plans and strategies. A published article then examined the projects ?to evaluate the contribution of the adaptive management approach to water cycle management on the urban fringe in New South Wales? (Gilmour et al 1999).The three projects all involved a series of workshops with local stakeholders. The projects were clearly framed in the context of experimentation and learning. Their goals were three-fold (Gilmour et al 1999):To meet doubts about the wisdom of adaptive management by acknowledging the difficulty of managing ecosystems; To create a platform for follow-through by framing workshop-based policy investigations as negotiations; and To reduce vulnerability to institutional change by developing community ownership of strategies. The project organizers were successful in their first goal, largely through explicit discussions about uncertainties, risks, and the dual roles of judgement and science. However, the second and third goals were more challenging.Each sponsoring organization chose the adaptive management approach as potentially the best way to choose a solution with broad community support. Yet, ?none of the sponsors appeared to have thought through the issues involved in implementing the workshop outcomes? (Gilmour et al 1999). The organizers would have, in retrospect, worked to get commitment at the beginning from sponsoring organizations to implement the results of the workshop if consensus was reached, and placed more emphasis on the workshops as forums for negotiation.One of the key lessons learned in this project had to do with the critical role of an ?institutional champion? in addition to generating institutional buy-in. This manager of a sponsoring organization would participate in all three project phases (one to lay the groundwork for the workshops, one to carry out the workshops, and another that focuses on the implementation of workshop recommendations), and help to cultivate community participation and buy-in. They found that without such a person, the pressure against continuation of the adaptive management process would be too great, and it would not succeed.In all three of our projects, political pressures to create broadly acceptable solutions made a participatory process attractive to the lead institutions. Yet, having achieved a degree of consensus, with a resulting reduction in political pressure, each lead institution scaled back the level of community involvement. There is a tendency to revert to familiar, less inclusive processes, and this works against the long-term needs of ecosystem management (Gilmore et al 1999).Having a strong institutional champion, they felt, would reduce this tendency. They also suggested an approach which included building community development into the stakeholder workshop process, in order to build skills that result in holding stakeholders accountable to one another over time.This experience of the New South Wales group points to the critical role of institutions and those who lead them in order to develop widespread support for adaptive management principles. While the science, data, stakeholder involvement, and many other factors are very important, it is in the institutional realm that there seems to be the greatest gap between the theory of adaptive management, and the extent to which it is carried out on the ground. This gap is highlighted in the context of current US water laws by Neuman, a professor at Lewis and Clark College. Here, rights for water are forfeited if not used within a prescribed period of time. Efficiency (for instance, through conservation), is trumped by the seemingly major goals of predictability and certainty. In order for this system to embrace the principles of adaptive management, it would, in short, need to follow effective decision-making guidelines as mentioned earlier, and incorporate explicit objectives that include social, ecological, and economic values and information (Neuman 2001).The New South Wales example puts the implementation of adaptive management principles in context, and illustrates the importance of focusing on institutions and those who lead them in order to shift policy practices toward adaptive management in any substantial way. Developing a strong theoretical perspective on the intersection of urban social policy and adaptive management will provide a foundation for subsequent work looking at potential outcomes of implementing adaptive management principles in a specific policy area. Management Tools for Urban Planners Framework Defined for Urban Management ContextAdaptability, flexibility, resilience, social learning, and knowledge sharing are all terms that repeatedly come up in discussions about effective management ? whether the discussion is about corporate, environmental, or municipal management issues. In practice, the corporate and environmental management fields have taken these terms to task. The drive toward efficiency in management has been complemented over the past few decades with an emphasis on dialogue and flexibility. This is especially apparent in the literature on ?knowledge management?, ?organizational learning? and adaptive management. Universal approaches to problems are not thought to be desirable strategies; instead, managers recognize the value of approaches that respond to the particular stakeholders and issues within a specific context, even when faced with a common problem (Cook et al 1997).Urban social planning and management is fraught with rapid change and uncertainty. Though the highly rational and technical approaches to planning have been criticized for some time (for example, by Rittel and Webber 1973; Sandercock 1998), the planning profession?s history of trying to control the urban context through universal approaches to infrastructure, public health and development still pervades planning practice today.Historical attempts to manage ecological systems have lead to failure in the form of less resiliency, more dependent societies and more rigid institutions, driving managers to more adaptive approaches that attempt to avoid these failures and encourage more resilient systems (Holling 1995). Urban planning is also complex, and struggles with strengthening a resilient urban fabric, working with independent constituencies, and promoting flexibility within related institutions.According to Lee, learning how to sense, expect and control the way in which humans impact the natural world is the central task necessary to create a sustainable economy (1995). This must be done through understanding biological uncertainty and institutional complexity. Lee calls social learning the ?combination of adaptive management and political change.? By this he means that we learn socially both from the active experimentation with our economic uses of nature (his definition of adaptive management), and the bounded conflict formalized in our political processes (political change) (Lee 1995, 228).The adaptive management approach came in part out of frustration with positional conflicts related to regional resource issues (fisheries, forests, etc.). Polarization bred public mistrust and did not help the economic and resource issues at stake (Holling 1995). Land and people are the essential resource of urban planning. Millions of public tax dollars are at stake. Decisions have long-term implications with direct effects on the day-to-day lives of urban residents. Conflicts are also longstanding, with positions entrenched. There is a strong basis on which to build a more adaptive approach to urban planning. In recent years, urban planners have done well with including multiple stakeholder voices. When Sherry Arnstein published her ?Ladder of Participation? in 1969, planners were generally only allowing token citizen inclusion in planning processes. Since the failures of large-scale planning in the 1960s and 70s ? most typified by US Federal policy in the form of the Model Cities and Urban Renewal programs ? planners have looked to communities as partners or even leaders rather than adversaries (Friedmann 1987).Learning does of course already occur in municipal environments; both within and across organizations. ?Many organizations that have been on the leading edge of knowledge management activities have demonstrated the tremendous cost savings that can be achieved through sharing knowledge? (Dixon 2000, 31). There is far more information on what should be done, however, than evidence of what is being done in this realm (For discussion of these issues, see Ackerman et al 2003; Cook et al 1997; and Senge 1994).Urban Planning ChallengesThe politics inherent in every level of municipal management create a complex dynamic. In a political climate it is very difficult to maintain the tolerance for experimentation ? and therefore the possibility of mistakes ? that is so central to learning (Cook et al 1997). ?Rather than seeking the social welfare optimum, the authority that regulates the system is responding to political pressure? (Gunderson et al 2002, 222). Political and economic forces tend to maintain the status quo, rather than encourage adaptation over time (Lee 1993).One widely-recognized example of a failed, broad-brush planning policy is the 1949 US Housing Act passed by Congress. The Act provided federal direction and funding for urban renewal. The large-scale, public housing projects that resulted from the urban renewal strategies eventually became recognized as failures of public policy. While their fundamental goal was to improve public health and safety, they failed to do this. The drive for efficiency in management and other blinders caused a vast underestimation of the negative social consequences of the projects.Another example is the practice of stormwater management. Prescriptive curb-and-gutter street design standards have been part of the policy norm in North America for decades. These stormwater systems provide a convenient way to collect water from the street so it can be treated and released in a controlled manner (Webb 2006). Despite well-known failings of these systems, change to the emerging best management practice of Low-impact Development (LID) has been slow. The LID solution can be less expensive, more aesthetically pleasing, and is significantly more environmentally sound (Hinman 2005). Even though a better solution in many circumstances, it is not widely embraced.As a contrast in scale, we can look at the example of issuing building permits within a municipality. If a would-be building developer follows prescriptive guidelines, s/he will receive a permit in a timely fashion and may then proceed with development. If after a number of months the realization occurs that the regulations are resulting in less-than-desirable urban form, it is not easy to shift course to achieve a more desirable result. Ironically, developers who respond to this sentiment and propose better development often face tremendous hurdles because their proposals do not fit the prescriptive regulations (McMahon 2001 and APA 1998). Another example of static policy on a detailed scale is ceiling height regulations of homes. Some fixed target is developed after taking into account public health, safety and economics. After the approval process, this target is written down and broadcast through relevant channels as a new rule. The target necessarily ignores difference in human height as well as human resiliency in terms of being flexible to ceiling height variations and choices. It is meant to provide certainty and ease the burden of enforcement. Yet compelling arguments can be made to relax these requirements with a result that still maintains a balance of health and safety needs, economic costs, and social implications (see Section 4.2 for a detailed example of this). The same sorts of arguments can be made for electrical and plumbing codes and bylaws, educational facilities, public recreational space, and others. In each area, a fundamental goal of providing services or protecting the public was distilled into policies that reflected certain realities at a fixed point in time, and a balance of values, which in turn were broken down into concrete regulations carried out on the ground. How often do the regulations truly correspond to the original goal over time? Regulations, policies and goals are revisited periodically to see if they are in check with current needs and values, but this process is cumbersome and typically linear, not iterative.We cannot answer ?it depends on the circumstances? whenever a query is submitted on building a new home. The desires for certainty and for ease of enforcement are quite valid. A municipality?s planning department has limited resources in terms of staff and finances, and faces difficult challenges when it comes to building and maintaining support for their activities from elected bodies. There are demonstrated ways, however, that increased flexibility can be allowed within parameters, without derailing important bureaucratic activities. The incentive of increased learning, improved operations, and most importantly, better cities should be enough to justify the shift in effort.Urban planning policy choices have tremendous impacts on society: the affordability of housing and housing choice; space available for public, private and infrastructure use; quality and quantity of essential services such as health and education facilities; the availability and distribution of dollars for needed public amenities. The goals of democracy and sustainability point toward a more inclusive strategy that works with stakeholders and interests for particular situations (one neighbourhood, for example), instead of the broad-brush approach that is common today. In practice, urban planning has become much more participatory of late. However, that inclusivity does not necessarily filter up to effect public policy decision-making. Nor does inclusivity on its own equate to an adaptive management approach. There are a variety of ingredients that together create the setting for potentially effective urban adaptive management strategies, which are discussed in detail in Section 4.Individuals as Adaptive ManagersThe role of the individual manager is as important as the organizational or institutional environment in which the manager works. While we are primarily looking here at strategies adopted across institutions to promote an adaptive management environment, it is ultimately up to the individual manager to embrace these strategies and use them effectively to manage their various projects adaptively (March and Heath 1994; Westley 2002). Francis Westley writes in detail about the decision-making context of an individual manager, and compellingly argues that ??the social system that the adaptive manager seeks to manage does not correspond to a single institution or even to a single organization. Rather, it is the problem domain, the system of actors brought together by their stake in a particular problem, that is the relevant unit of analysis? (2002, 355). To this end, she sees four lessons emerge that inform how an individual can manage adaptively (highlighted in Figure 3.3-1).  Figure  STYLEREF 2 \s 3.3 SEQ Figure \* ARABIC \s 2 1. Adaptive management for the individual manager (Westley 2002)1. To manage adaptively requires strong values as opposed to rational analysis.2. To manage adaptively and respond to complexity, it is necessary to juggle multiple strategies and goals (Figure 3.3-2).3. To manage adaptively requires strong control of emotions, little fear of conflict, and great humility.4. In order to manage adaptively, the manager needs to capitalize on the energy & movement of others. The historical moment is hence important.The individual manager must be sensitive to the decision environment. In other words, the decision process of the manager must be as adaptive and varied as the rate of change going on in the environment s/he is attempting to manage (March and Heath 1994).Figure  STYLEREF 2 \s 3.3 SEQ Figure \* ARABIC \s 2 2. Image and description of manager juggling four balls (Westley 2002, 338)Balls juggled represent: Managing through: commitment to scientific approach, treating management interventions as experiments to learn from, as opposed to solutions to be implemented.Managing out: commitment to involve external groups or stakeholders in management processes and decisions.Managing in: the need to manage position and influence within the department or organization; maintaining internal support for experiments and external stakeholder activities. Managing up: need to take into account the larger political context in which career and strategies unfold. Unless actions taken at the community, organizational, or scientific level were considered from the point of view of the larger political arena, much excellent effort could be ended with the slash of a pen.Juggling is an apt metaphor for the challenge of being an effective adaptive manager (see Figure 3.3-2). There are many challenges to confront; not least of them, the issues of stakeholder disempowerment and bureaucratic procedures that can hamper implementation and action in the planning and government-led learning environment (Westley 1995). In addition, learning may be considered a ?luxury? that is politically, economically, or socially unaffordable in certain environments (Lee 1993). SummaryThere is a lack of structured learning over time in urban planning and management, with a corresponding need for better responses to growing pressures and uncertainties in the urban environment. Adaptive management principles can provide a tool for urban planners as they strive to create good policy in the face of growing uncertainty.There are no shortages of policy recommendations for integrating adaptive management principles into natural resource management. These recommendations incorporate broad stakeholder involvement in decision-making, governance based on natural (watershed) boundaries, explicit discussion of values in the negotiation efforts of the stakeholders, and the ongoing ability to incorporate new knowledge through experimentation and evaluation of practices over time (Neuman 2001).There is great tension between attempting to maintain institutional power and efficiency, and incorporating the flexibility inherent in the adaptive management approach. Increasing financial and population pressures are putting strain on managers to keep up with demands amidst very tight budgets. Yet we know there are examples of adaptive management principles being implemented even within the context of these pressures, as well as increasing incentives to look toward an adaptive management approach. Adaptive management has the potential to aid urban planners in implementing projects, ensuring they are monitored effectively, and incorporating the results into ongoing management practices that are flexible and contribute to the building of new knowledge.Application: Examples of Urban Adaptive Management in Practice IntroductionWe do not know what results can come from adaptive management of our cities, as it does not happen today on a wide-spread basis. There are, however, some examples of adaptive management in practice (though it may not be referred to explicitly as adaptive management). Through explorations and a close look at some of these adaptive management approaches, we can look at ways in which urban planning, too, can move toward better understanding of the problems and issues, as well as improved economic and social outcomes. Using the policy indicators outlined below in Figure 4.1-1 of this report, I found a number of planning and management strategies that did indeed reflect elements of an adaptive management approach in the urban municipal planning context. Three strategies are highlighted below. They each incorporate learning and assessment, but not one explicitly sets out as an adaptive management experiment or even articulates learning as an objective of the management strategy at the outset. So, while not quintessential adaptive management experiments, they still serve as useful examples that can be built on in order to create an effective adaptive management approach to urban policy planning. There are undoubtedly other examples of urban management policies that meet the eight criteria set out in Figure 4.1-1. The goal of this report is not to chronicle every example that reflects some element of adaptive management in the urban environment. It is instead to look at some examples that reflect a variety of strategies in order to understand the breath and depth of situational possibilities in which to consider implementing urban adaptive management.Figure  STYLEREF 2 \s 4.1 SEQ Figure \* ARABIC \s 2 1. Indicators guiding the review and assessment of adaptive management strategies (to determine their relevance for the urban municipal planning environment )The management policies are relevant to urban issues, which are here defined as the provision of essential services, public works, & regulation of private activities.Policies acknowledge the key importance of ongoing learning, make uncertainties explicit, and incorporate flexibility.Policies are appropriate for the relevant scope of governance. They are neither too broad-reaching for the intended goal, nor too narrow.The process for policy-making is explicitly democratic and participatory in nature, incorporating appropriate voices for the level and scope of governance. Policies reflect goals, objectives, values and risks that have been discussed by representative group(s) of stakeholders.  Policies are relevant to practical application and management on a day-to-day basis (they are easy to understand and to implement).Policies encourage field observation and experimentation.Policies facilitate continued relevance over time, iteratively linking back management to research and visa versa.Policies take a systems approach; they include techniques for coordination across agency scales and scopes (as appropriate), as urban issues are rarely limited to isolated geographic areas or single-agency issues.Housing Policies in Vancouver, BC, CanadaIn Vancouver, BC, the policies surrounding the presence and legality of secondary suites can be viewed as demonstration policies. Demonstration policies reflect important community issues that have uncertainties associated with them. There is no one clear course of action that will lead to resolution; therefore some degree of experimentation is helpful to determine the appropriate course of action.Vancouver has been operating with some sort of secondary suites policy since the 1920s. The changing policies have reflected the larger cultural and social context of the times. For example, in the 1940s, returning war veterans influenced a change in policy to encourage secondary suites (which were illegal prior to that time). The policies continued to change, with the pendulum swinging back and forth, attempting to find a balance where housing needs, health and safety issues, and neighbourhood perceptions could find some common ground. The additional housing offered by secondary suites has long been recognized by city staff as one solution to Vancouver?s tight rental housing market. However, the issues of health and safety code enforcement, and a lack of public acceptance have been difficult to address. For years, the city had a ?don?t ask, don?t tell? attitude, passively choosing not to enforce illegal suites unless complaints were made. City staff and city council have undertaken public processes to involve local citizens in the secondary suites discussion. Surveys, meetings, hearings, ballot votes, and open house events have occurred ? primarily since the early 1990s ? to engage neighbours in the dialogue and debate. Decision makers have taken the public discourse into consideration, as well as other ?public goods? that have not been as well represented in discussions.Even while secondary suites were illegal, many thousands of them existed throughout the city. These illegal suites often had low ceilings and did not meet other health and safety codes. Some of them were severely substandard in their conditions. And yet residents of the suites could not lobby for healthier housing when any complaint would cause the loss of the housing entirely. Over time, both city staff and the citizens of Vancouver have undergone significant learning in relation to this issue. Certain negative perceptions about suites and suite residents have been proven to be misconceptions. The importance of suites in the overall rental housing and homeownership contexts are better understood. And decision-makers are more sophisticated with regard to reviewing zoning, building, and health and safety regulations and making accommodations to remove barriers to suite legalization. Beginning in 1989, the City of Vancouver responded to neighbourhood-specific initiatives to legalize secondary suites. If an area voted yes, an implementation program followed to rezone the neighbourhood and facilitate legalization of existing suites. Three areas were rezoned as a consequence of this initiative.This program was not as successful as the city had hoped.  The objective of the 1989 policies was to bring more suites into legal compliance by legalizing suites in areas of the city that voted to have them, and closing suites in other areas.  Homeowners in legal suite areas with existing non-permitted suites were allowed the option to phase-out their suite over a period of time, or make upgrades to legalize the suite.  The city had hoped that the suites declared as phase-outs would be upgraded to permanent status at the end of the phase-out period to maintain the overall number of secondary suites while increasing compliance.  However, of the 363 phase-out suites that came to the end of their cycle, only 21 had upgraded to permanent status while 246 had closed.  The remaining phase-out suites were awaiting action (French 1999).  These shortcomings caused the city to re-evaluate the program.In March 2004, the city relaxed the code and allowed for the legalization of suites city-wide in all residentially-zoned areas. Ceiling height requirements were reduced and sprinkler retrofit requirements were eliminated (Whitlock 2004). As a result of this change, applications and permits related to suite legalization nearly doubled the following year. To further facilitate removing barriers to legalization, in 2005 the city again relaxed building code regulations; this time, eliminating a requirement for internal access between secondary suites and the main dwelling unit and other minor adjustments to by-laws (Whitlock 2005).  Continuing their review, in 2006, the city extended legalization of secondary suites into CD-1 (customized) zoning districts which have (or could have) single-family homes in order to make these districts consistent with surrounding residentially-zoned areas (Uyesugi 2006).  The city continues to examine ways to reduce the barriers to individual owners wishing to make their existing suites legal. Vancouver is still a long way from the ultimate goal of having all existing suites registered and legalized within the city, but they are working toward that goal.Vancouver?s policies with regard to secondary suites reflect a systematic learning process in which practical considerations, politics and public debate, research, observation and review are coordinated with management strategies to achieve more desirable results; all while remaining focused on the overall goal of maintaining affordable housing and the health and safety of residents. Low Impact Development in Portland, OR, United StatesBeginning in the mid-1990s, the City of Portland, Oregon began an ambitious project aimed at reducing the amount of stormwater runoff entering the stormwater system. They began with a demonstration project involving about 522,000 cubic yards of untreated runoff that was draining into the Willamette River from the parking lot of the Oregon Museum of Science and Industry. Here is the story, in brief:The museum agreed to the construction of a series of 10 vegetated swales that would receive runoff from the surrounding parking lots. The runoff from the lots is conveyed to the vegetated swales through cuts in the parking lot curbs. As constructed, the swales had a footprint of 13,980 square feet and a capacity of 14,000 cubic feet. This exceeded the city's capacity requirements for a trench receiving runoff from a catchment area of equal size. The use of the vegetated swales over conventional methods resulted in cost savings of $78,000. Maintenance and upkeep of the swales has been worked into the regular landscape budget for the museum, and has required slightly more work to keep curb cuts free of debris.From a physical design standpoint, the project has shown that it is possible to obtain significant cost savings and benefits from the construction of sustainable management systems over conventional ones. It has further shown that these systems have the potential to surpass the performance of traditional practices. Where shortfalls in the system have been found, modifications were made to address them. Where it was found that the swales could have performed better, for example, the number of curb cuts was increased. The performance of particular plants was evaluated, and where appropriate, they were replaced by better-performing ones (City of Portland 2006).This demonstration project became a model for subsequent projects across the United States. Initially, its success influenced both the planning policy and physical design of a broader ?Green Streets? initiative across the City of Portland that focused on ?water-quality-friendly? streets and parking lots. Learning from this initiative went on to inspire an ?Innovative Wet Weather Program? in Portland that broadened the scope from streets and parking lots to include eco-roofs, downspout disconnections, monitoring and feasibility studies, and educational efforts.The value of these projects is monitored over time, and the accumulated knowledge is used in an ongoing manner to more effectively determine stormwater management policy. Thus, project performance has had a direct impact on related regulatory codes, such as stormwater management and parking requirements.The educational efforts responded to public feedback and addressed misconceptions. In response to data showing the vast majority of residents did not understand the concept of combined sewers or combined sewer overflows, and underestimated pollution coming from stormwater outflows, an exhibit on the problem of stormwater overflows opened in 2003 at the Museum of Science and Industry.Here again, learning has occurred over time as a result of an iterative, coordinated process linking on-the-ground practice with experimentation, public dialogue, research, monitoring, and management strategies.Sustainable Neighbourhood Development in Ballerup, DenmarkDavid van Vleit undertook a thorough examination of one demonstration project in Ballerup, Denmark. His central question was: ?In what ways can demonstration projects increase social learning of effective planning, design and policy alternatives that assist in developing sustainable urban communities?? (2000). He found that the new Egebjerggard neighbourhood in Ballerup increased social learning and he showed that socially and environmentally responsible neighbourhoods can be planned and successfully implemented (van Vliet 2001). He describes the neighbourhood in the following way:Egebjerggard is a 782 unit, 38 ha. mixed use, urban extension and neighbourhood intensification project located in the municipality of Ballerup (50,000 population) 15 km northwest of Kobenhavn. A new pattern for ?integrated neighbourhoods? emerged through public debate, design competition, experiment and an innovative system of planning guidelines and regulation. Egebjerggard was the venue of an international building exhibition in 1996. Construction of dwellings started in June 1988 and by the end of 1997, the planning was complete and all the housing schemes in the urban quarter?s four stages were nearly finished. Limited selective infill is occurring on a few sites reserved for commercial or institutional use (2001).Innovations occurred both in the processes and products of the neighbourhood development. They included: identity and character, variation in form and households, mixed ownership, affordable housing, environmentally sound materials and approaches, mixed land use, integration of works of art, strengthening the social structure, crime prevention, and participation of future inhabitants. Many of these have since been incorporated into the overall municipal plan, and into other projects both within and outside of the municipality of Ballerup. Strategies used in the Egebjerggard project have had far-reaching influences that stretch beyond the residents and local neighbourhood. These are outlined specifically in Figure 4.4-1. The project took a systems approach, incorporating coordination across agency scales and scopes, and its results have in turn influenced the entire system.Figure  STYLEREF 2 \s 4.4 SEQ Figure \* ARABIC \s 2 1. Influences of Egebjerggard demonstration project on various entitiesThe Danish Ministry of HousingAdopted the financing pilot project used in the neighbourhood as a new procedure for all housing receiving public financing.Large developersAdopted action plans and/or policy statements on urban ecology that influence business procedures and management strategies based on the debate that occurred within the Egebjerggard housing societies.MunicipalityAdopted better cooperation across departments due to the professional development and increased capacity building that took place as part of the project.Adopted multiple criteria in the pre-qualification stage of project development review.BroadlyConfirmed the importance of integrated citizen participation in the planning and development process in part because of the contributions provided by the citizenry to this project.Adopted procedures that include interdisciplinary and intersectoral cooperation because of the better planning and product realized by the close cooperation and collaboration that took place in Egebjerggard.Analysis of Adaptive Management ApplicationsThese demonstrations of urban policies-in-action can serve to inform our understanding of adaptive management applications. In each of the above examples, learning is central. While it was not an explicit objective at the outset, at some point in the process, learning did become an important aspect, as witnessed through the attention paid to review and adjustment of policies as results unfolded over time. Using the policy indicators outlined in Figure 4.1-1, we can gain insight into the ways in which the case studies applied adaptive management strategies. The three examples highlighted as demonstrations all occur within an urban context, though, by design, they address very different aspects of the urban environment: housing policy, stormwater infrastructure, and mixed-use neighbourhood development. Demonstrations policies and demonstration projects such as these are a strong pathway to bridging disconnection between policy and action. ?An effective demonstration can be looked upon as a sort of staging area and half way house between implementation and general policy making. It is a zone for social and developmental learning? (van Vliet 2001, 2).As an adaptive management approach, demonstrations have much promise as a way to undertake policy experiments in a manner that promotes maximum learning and minimizes negative consequences. Demonstrations allow policies to be implemented on a limited, experimental basis. Outcomes and behaviour can be monitored over time, and changes and refinements can be made as learning takes place. If projects are successful, the refined policies can then be ?mainstreamed? and adopted on a wider basis as appropriate. In these examples, municipalities use the demonstrations as grounds for learning and refinement that lead to better policy and the mainstreaming of innovation over time. While explicitly talking about adaptive management applications as ?experiments? is typically not politically feasible as discussed earlier, that is essentially what demonstrations can be. Each example here begins with the intention to try out a policy or project to see how well it works. ?The research suggests the gap between ?what we know? and ?what we need to know? can be addressed through a more experimental framework and through purposeful demonstration-diffusion? (van Vliet 2001, 2). These demonstrations are hypotheses-in-action in the urban context. The examples in this section all included flexibility, incorporated stakeholder participation, and kept coming back to the original goal. Monitoring was done over time, and the information gathered informed changes, linking management back to practice and visa versa. There was also exceptional coordination across departments or disciplines. Though these examples show a remarkable use of adaptive management strategies, there can be specific limitations to the use of demonstration policies and projects. It is difficult to isolate cause-and-effect in some cases, particularly when recessions or other large economic changes occur within a close timeframe of project implementation. Time lags occur in the diffusion of knowledge. Diffusion is likely to increase over time; yet as time passes, it is harder to link increased knowledge and the use of successful innovations back to a single policy or project?s influence (van Vliet 2001). When planning or evaluating the application of adaptive management, van Vliet suggests five important considerations (see Figure 4.5-1). The application of adaptive management does not need to follow a prescriptive path. It can be initiated by an individual or agency. It can be in the form of a policy, a project, or other strategy. It simply must involve the elements central to the adaptive management approach (see Figure 4.1-1) including embracing learning, participation, coordination, experimentation and monitoring; and linking practice and management back to one another regularly while keeping sight of the original goals. Figure  STYLEREF 2 \s 4.5 SEQ Figure \* ARABIC \s 2 1. Adaptive management application considerations (van Vliet 2001)Relative advantage Is the application better than the status quo, or is it perceived as better than the status quo? Compatibility Is the application a good fit for the people and environment of this place at this time? How strong might the resistance be? This characteristic is somewhat similar to Francis Westley?s lesson four for the individual manager (see Section 3.3), which involves taking advantage of the moment in time when one can most optimally capitalize on the energy and movement of others.Complexity Is the application too difficult to understand and apply? The managers must juggle multiple strategies and goals well and in turn communicate them to others. This characteristic is closely related to Westley?s lesson two for the individual manager (see Section 3.3). Trialability Can other people try out aspects of the policy or project, or must they commit all at once? Including dialogue, flexibility, and choice is important for ongoing learning and change to occur. Observability How visible and discernable are the results of the policy or project? Communicating these well is key to broadening the acceptance and adoption of the policy or project, and expanding learning beyond its boundaries. Conclusions and Recommendations Summary of Potential Contribution of Adaptive Management to Urban Policies Adaptive management shows great promise for promoting better urban planning. Adaptive management strategies are at play in the urban environment as discussed in the previous section, though not in a widespread or explicit manner. As is the case in the natural resources arena, there is evidence that practical improvements can be expedited through an approach that explicitly embraces learning through experimentation. As with any good management regime, adaptive management takes considerable resources for adequate development, monitoring, and adjustment over time. It also requires openness to dialogue and negotiation based on goals and principles. Continued relevance over time of urban adaptive management policies is swayed not only by management and research, but also by the political climate. Working out an effective adaptive management strategy will look different in different areas because of this. The political arena is one in which planners have worked for decades, however. Effective implementations of adaptive management in this highly political environment may result in strategies that are conversely useful in the natural resources arena, as science is also rarely untouched by politics.  One challenge of adaptive management in natural resource management is that the scale is often quite large. There are rarely mechanisms in place regionally that facilitate discussion and decision-making over large geographic areas and long time horizons (Baskerville 1995). Here is one potential advantage of using adaptive management in an urban context: project and policy scales often easily fit within the boundaries of a municipality or neighbourhood, and the opportunity for dialogue is likely pre-existing in the form of neighbourhood or municipal councils or advisory boards.The examples given in Section 4 demonstrate how adaptive management is already used within municipalities. Following are two hypothetical situations that further demonstrate how adaptive management strategies can contribute to effective urban planning in a more explicit manner:Situation A: Public spaces in urban areas are important locations for public engagement, relaxation, and recreation. They are typically small, fixed geographic areas (a park or recreation centre, for example). Adaptive management experiments cover both the policy and programming arenas, with implementation, monitoring, assessment, and changes over time resulting in better, more useful public spaces.Situation B: Urban infill is mandated by growth management laws in many municipalities. Public resistance may work against increased density. One neighbourhood is willing to accept infill in exchange for some needed public amenities. The municipality focuses on this neighbourhood as a demonstration site using adaptive management, and builds on the experience to inform infill policies in other areas of the municipality.Within any given municipality or organization, it is important to provide this allowance for learning. Following the main tenets of adaptive management, learning must be more than allowed, it must be encouraged within the work environment of an urban planner, and the overall culture of the organization. Structural problems within institutions are barriers to detecting and correcting errors (Levitt and March 1990). Encouraging learning means to encourage information flow both ways between policy makers and those who implement policies. In contrast, ?maintaining a strict dichotomy between policy formulation and implementation across institutions at different levels thwarts feedback and undermines learning? (Light et al 1995, 156). Incorporating adaptive management ? and therefore explicit learning ? into municipal planning endeavours carries great promise on many levels. As discussed herein, planning practice does not always respond effectively and in a timely fashion to on-the-ground realities (be they practical, political, environmental or otherwise). Both planning practitioners and organizations can use adaptive management techniques to improve the degree to which their practice responds to realities. Learning can occur through adaptive management within many contexts: an individual manger, within a municipal organization, within a municipality or other geographic boundary, or across municipalities. Similar concepts apply in each of these situations. Adaptive management is a critically useful tool for navigating the complex and uncertain terrain inherent in municipal planning. Recommendations for Policy DevelopmentThere is a huge opportunity to develop and broaden the application of adaptive management to urban policies and practices. And yet, the foundation must be in place for allowing learning and adaptive management to occur. Policies must support the building of an open political environment through negotiation and consensus-building that sets the stage for adaptive management (Lee 1995). They must also support open dialogue across disciplines by removing barriers to collaboration within organizations (Levitt and March 1990). Municipal managers must find a way to create internal policies that strengthen and reward learning among individuals and the organization as a whole. ?In general, rewards in a bureaucracy are greater for finding better ways to do what we already do than they are for finding different (better) things to do? (Baskerville 1995, 100). Organizations can create environments that encourage questioning and review with peers across disciplines in order to learn from experience, learn from observation, and to generate new ideas regarding better implementation, management, and policy (Arygris and Schon 1978; Light et al 1995; Westley 2002).A municipal planning organization that supports ongoing learning is in a good position to use the tools of adaptive management to guide their planning practice. In the limited analysis contained herein, we can see that demonstrations are one practical way to begin adaptive management urban applications. Including wider use of demonstration projects which incorporate explicit adaptive management principals is an obvious place to start expanding the use of urban-based adaptive management. Other opportunities exist as well, such as including adaptive management strategies in the policy analysis and recommendations coming out of regional, national and international urban planning organizations. These organizations also have the opportunity to highlight effective adaptive management practices in an illustrative manner in publications and other media.  Highlighting adaptive management case studies also serves to inform the public of the role adaptive management can play in an urban context. It is important, however, to help citizens understand that problems do not disappear upon the creation of new adaptive management policy solutions. Rather, effects of policies appear over time as the results unfold in reaction to new implementation strategies. Recommendations for Further Study The analysis contained in this report aims to explore an adaptive management approach to urban policy planning and management in which learning is central. Very little direct research exists on which to base this analysis, though there is a vast quantity of relative adjacent research available. Attention is only now being paid to the intersection of adaptive management, learning organizations, and public policy analysis; so there is a great deal of opportunity here for more in-depth study, such as:The roles and relationship between the individual and the organization. How can the roles of the institution and the individual be mutually supportive in managing adaptively? Partnerships between researchers and practitioners to develop practical solutions for municipalities. For example, how can adaptive management strategies help to plan and implement better permit service delivery within a municipal planning organization? Study the learning process and develop strategies to aid in knowledge diffusion through adaptive management across municipalities. What failed, what succeeded, and why? How can knowledge sharing be operationalized in a practical manner across municipalities?Model urban adaptive management policies. Strategic modeling and analysis can look at urban planning policies related to a single topic area that exists across municipalities (or regions or nations), and pull out features that demonstrate learning and change over time in response to different contexts. Even with in-depth study of these and other related issues, there are reasons why policy development may not respond to research recommendations. Rapid responses leading to change and adaptation are likely to be present in less hierarchical organizations, where relatively uniform distribution of resources is present (Quinn 1985). Most municipalities have some concentration of power and wealth within certain organizations, leading to strong political resistance to change (Westley 1990). There is evidence that systems and organizations with a more equalized distribution of resources and decentralized decision-making structures represent a ?learning? model which is better able to respond to problems (Scheffer et al 2003). In order to increase the likelihood of success and increase the pace of learning, it is appropriate to advance strong adaptive management policy experiments within systems that to some degree reflect this structure.Learning can and does take place everywhere, however. 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(online) URL: http://vancouver.ca/ctyclerk/cclerk/20061031/documents/p1.pdf. van Vliet, D. 2000. Sustainable Community Planning and Design: A Demonstration Project as Pathway. PhD Dissertation. Vancouver: University of British Columbia.van Vliet, D. 2001. Area Based Demonstration/Exhibition: Adaptive Management and Learning in Municipal and Development Organizations. Paper presented at the European Urban Research Association (EURA) Conference "Area-based Initiatives in Contemporary Urban Policy Innovations in City Governance", co-sponsored by By og Byg (Housing and Urban Research Institute) in K?benhavn Denmark 17?19 May.Walters, C.J. and C.S. Holling. 1990. Large-scale management experiments and learning by doing. Ecology 71(6): 2060-2068.Webb, C.J. 2006. Conversations and correspondence in November. See (online) URL for more information: http://www.christopherjwebb.com.Westley, F. 1990. Middle Management and Strategy; Microdynamics of Inclusion. Strategic Management Journal 11: 337-51.Westley, F. 1995. Governing Design: The Management of Social Systems and Ecosystems Management. In L.H. Gunderson, C.S. Holling, and S.S. Light (eds), Barriers and Bridges to the Renewal of Ecosystems and Institutions. New York: Columbia University Press.Westley, F. 2002. The Devil in the Dynamics: Adaptive Management on the Front Lines. In L.H. Gunderson and C. S. Holling (eds), Panarchy: Understanding Transformations in Human and Natural Systems. Washington, D.C.: Island Press.Westley, F., B. Zimmerman, and M. Patton. 2006. Getting to Maybe: How the World is Changed. Toronto: Random House.Whitlock, R. 2004. City of Vancouver Policy Report. Secondary Suites. (online) URL: http://vancouver.ca/ctyclerk/cclerk/20040127/p2.pdf. Whitlock, R. 2005. City of Vancouver Administrative Report. Secondary Suites: Various Amendments to the Zoning and Development By-law, Building, Parking and Zoning and Development Fee By-laws. (online) URL: http://vancouver.ca/ctyclerk/cclerk/documents/a4.pdf. Whyte, W.H. 1980. The social life of small urban spaces. New York: Project for Public Spaces. Examples of cooperating networks include formal agreements such as memoranda of understanding, informal shadow networks and consortia, NGOs, ad-hoc groups, and meshing organizations such as technical oversight committees. For example, the Sitka Conservation Society (Alaska) monitors ? among other things ? activities in the Tongass National Forest. A draft environmental impact statement for a new forest management plan contains a rubric of adaptive management that shifts required protections for a number of resources including fish and wildlife and karst (limestone cave areas) to an approach which permits the agency to use a much less stringent approach (Fields 2007). The fear is that the adaptive management approach is being used in order to more easily weaken protective practices that have been hard-fought through years of political lobbying. Yet the true question is how well forest practices have been working to address environmental, social, and economic needs of the broad community, and whether the politics can be sufficiently shifted from positioning to negotiating in order to create better practices. It is not adaptive management, per se, that is the issue, but the ability of the community to productively negotiate, implement, monitor, and adapt management practices through ongoing dialogue and experimentation amidst a history of longstanding political rifts and mistrust.  Humans (and their labour) can be viewed as a renewable resource just like the forests and salmon. Like environmental resources, human labour has been driven to greater efficiency and more constant supply. These traditional systems collect all water runoff from a broad surface area, requiring large storage basins. They often do not adequately treat the stormwater to remove pollutants, and (if not specifically designed to avoid it) can easily be overwhelmed during a large storm. The collection process also deprives nearby natural areas of the water they normally depend on through natural infiltration and groundwater recharge (Hinman 2005).  LID promotes the use of stormwater collection and treatment that increases groundwater recharge and provides enhanced stormwater treatment through phytoremediation (treatment with plants). When this LID approach is used, no-curb designs can be implemented that allow water to sheet flow into proximal bioretention areas or bioswales that cleanse the runoff through natural ecological processes, allowing most to infiltrate into the soil and dispersing the remainder into neighbouring natural areas.  In contrast the following indicators lead to quite the opposite: ??crisis, conflict, and gridlock emerge whenever the problem and the response have the following characteristics:1. A single target and piecemeal policy.2. A single scale of focus, typically on the short term and the local.3. No realization that all policies are experimental.4. Rigid management with no priority to design interventions as ways to test hypotheses underlying policies? (Holling 1995, 9). Secondary suites are also referred to as accessory dwelling units in some municipalities. A secondary suite is a residential unit accessory to the main residential unit on the property, and may be attached or detached depending on the governing regulations. See http://www.tenants.bc.ca/othpubs/impact.html for a discussion by the BC Tenants Rights Action Coalition of the underrepresented voices in the debate on secondary suites.  For an in-depth discussion of effective negotiation techniques, see Fisher and Ury (1991). Examples of structural problems include lack of coordination; legalistic, intransigent, and other similar traits.Page  PAGE ivPage  PAGE 1  Learn i n g Plan s fo r Learn i n g Communi t i e s : Adapt i v e  Management app l i e d  in the Urban Plann i n g  Contex t by SAMYA LUTZ B.A . ,  West e r n  Wash i n g t o n  Univ e r s i t y ,  1998  A PROJECT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Schoo l  We acc e p t  of Communi t y  th i s  pro j e c t  and Reg i o n a l  Pl a n n i n g  as con f o rm i n g t o th e re q u i r e d standa rd  ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Jun e 2007 © Samya Lut z ,  Page ii  2007  Abst r a c t Over t h e pa s t po l i c ymak e r s managemen t  and manage r s  or i g i n a l l y  fo r  ou t d a t e d ,  env i r o nmen t ,  of adap t i v e  i n t h e na t u r a l gu i d i n g ord e r  to y i e l d  ove r t ime ,  fie ld  prog r e s s i v e  Lik e na t u r a l  whic h t h e y were rea l i t i e s  chang e i n a  dec i s i o n s  or i g i n a l l y  – ac t i v e  lea rn i ng  imp ro v emen t  to t r i g g e r  ove r t ime ,  po l i c y  and po l i c i e s  urb a n so c i a l  to urb a n soc i a l  soc i a l  resou r c e  managemen t  is  also  in  in  pro b l em s chang e  wi t h adap t i v e  env i r o nmen t  ob j e c t i v e s  pr a c t i c a l ,  pro b l em s .  th e y may th a t  af f o r d a b l e  Can knowl e d g e ga i n e d  managemen t i n t h e  be app l i e d  t o t h e urb a n  env i r o nmen t ?  Th i s re p o r t  po l i c y  a  and  chang e s  do no t a lway s keep pac e ;  t h e y a r e a t odd s wi t h fa c i l i t a t i n g  na t u r a l  is  on t h e gro un d .  resou r c e s ,  t h r o u g h expe r i e n c e  fou nd  a r e v i ewed as expe r im e n t s  even become so ou t of syn c h wi t h or i g i n a l  so l u t i o n s  to  But i n th e dynami c po l i c y  dec i s i o n s  t o chang e s  con t i n u e  managemen t – in c r e a s i n g l y  mechan i sm s a r e i n p l a c e respon s e  po l i c i e s  can end up be i n g c l umsy ,  resou r c e s  pr i n c i p l e ,  fo r  po l i c y  and imp r a c t i c a l .  env i r o nmen t  tha t  As pr a c t i c a l  one pu rp o s e  resou r c e  hav e embra c e d adap t i v e  and ob j e c t i v e s  des i g n e d .  po l i c y  in t e nded  na t u r a l  as a means t o en su r e  mee t th e goa l s  sta t i c  few dec a d e s  exp l o r e s  pr i n c i p a l s  th e app l i c a t i o n  use d wi t h i n  th e na t u r a l  f r amewo r k to t h e urb a n so c i a l an exp l o r a t i o n  managemen t  in t o  o th e r  po l i c y  resou r c e  f r amewo r k .  method s of l i n k i n g  and po l i c ymak i n g t o ac t i o n Page iii  of adap t i v e  i n a dynami c way .  It  Fin a l l y ,  i n ord e r  managemen t examin e s pr i n c i p a l s  to i l l u s t r a t e  how t h e adap t i v e  app r o a c h work s i n an urb a n con t e x t ,  th e imp l emen t a t i o n in th r e e  of adap t i v e  di f f e r e n t  managemen t  muni c i p a l i t i e s .  Page iv  it  Tabl e of Conten t s 1 . 0 In t r odu c t i o n .............................................................................................................1 2 . 0 A Learn i n g Approach to Management .......................................................... 5 2.1 Adaptive Management Defined.......................................................................................5 2.2 Sustainable Development and Other Approaches to Adaptive Governance...................8 2.3 An Adaptive Management Experiment.........................................................................11 3 . 0 Management Tool s  fo r Urban Planner s ................................................ 16  3.1 Framework Defined for Urban Management Context...................................................16 3.2 Urban Planning Challenges............................................................................................19 3.3 Individuals as Adaptive Managers.................................................................................23 3.4 Summary........................................................................................................................26 4 . 0 Appl i c a t i o n : Prac t i c e  Example s of Urban Adapt i v e  Management in  ........................................................................................................................... 28  4.1 Introduction....................................................................................................................28 4.2 Housing Policies in Vancouver, BC, Canada................................................................30 4.3 Low Impact Development in Portland, OR, United States............................................34 4.4 Sustainable Neighbourhood Development in Ballerup, Denmark.................................37 4.5 Analysis of Adaptive Management Applications..........................................................40 5 . 0 Conc lu s i o n s  and Recommendat i o n s  .......................................................... 45  5.1 Summary of Potential Contribution of Adaptive Management to Urban Policies .......45 5.2 Recommendations for Policy Development..................................................................48 5.3 Recommendations for Further Study ............................................................................50  Page v  Tabl e of Figur e s Figur e 2 . 2 - 1 . Goal s of Ecosy s t em - Based Management ........................10 Figur e 3 . 3 - 2 . Adapt i v e  management fo r the ind i v i d u a l  manager  .................................................................................................................................................24 Figur e 3 . 3 - 3 . Image and des c r i p t i o n ba l l s  of manager jugg l i n g  fou r  .................................................................................................................................. 25  Figur e 4 . 1 - 4 . Ind i c a t o r s adap t i v e  gu id i n g the rev i ew and as s e s smen t of  management s t r a t e g i e s  Figur e 4 . 4 - 5 . In f l u e n c e s on var i o u s  ...................................................................... 29  of Egeb j e r g g a r d demons t r a t i o n  pro j e c t  en t i t i e s ................................................................................................... 39  Figur e 4 . 5 - 6 . Adapt i v e  management app l i c a t i o n  con s i d e r a t i o n s  .................................................................................................................................................43  Page vi  1 .0  I n t r odu c t i o n Land  use  cen t u r i e s to  a  plann i n g  f r om a r e s p o n s e  high l y  reg i o n s .  comp l e x  Pl a n n e r s  t o a t r emend o u s con f l i c t s the  ove r  knowl e d g e ,  planne r s .  In  comp l e x i t y ,  urb a n  Desp i t e  the  exp l o d i n g  env i r o nmen t  of  tha t  plann i n g  and ce r t a i n t y  rema i n  the  cov e t e d  wha t  has  lo n g  fo r c e the  cod e s  and  some measu r e inc r e a s i n g l y  (Gu t t e n b e r g More  and  pr e s c r i p t i v e  chang e s  and  to c r e a t e  a  unp r e c e d e n t e d  o th e r  use  urb a n  con s i d e r e d  good  in  pr e d i c t a b i l i t y  comp l e x  wi t h i n  pr e s c r i p t i v e  regu l a t i o n s  wor l d  are  pr e d i c t a b i l i t y  ob j e c t i v e s been  today  muni c i p a l  an  and  a t t emp t  ce r t a i n t y  of  urb a n  to in t o  plann i ng  1993 and 2002 ) .  demons t r a t i n g  evo l v i n g  of t e n  of  abou t  techn i c a l  issues  st ra i gh t f o rward ,  by l aw s ,  conc e r n s  to  and chang e .  fac t  Pl a n n e r s  and r e s p o n d  have con s p i r e d  and  managemen t .  and  on t h e work of urb a n  s imp l e  of  ci t i e s  po l i t i c s ,  bu t  plann i ng  pro b l em s  exp and i n g  in f l u e n c e  plann i ng  two  f r om new con s t r u c t i o n ,  to  fac t o r s  unce r t a i n t y ,  fo r  expe c t a t i o n s ,  gr e a t  pa s t  hea l t h  sy s t em  add i t i o n ,  pub l i c  exe r t  the  on t o an t i c i p a t e  spa c e ,  Al l of t h e s e  con t empo r a r y  any t h i n g  ca l l e d  pub l i c  ove r  to urb a n pub l i c  r a n g e of i s s u e s  grow i n g  op i n i o n  evo l v e d  managemen t  are  env i r o nmen t .  pub l i c  ha s  more ,  fa i l e d  the  l im i t a t i o n s  managemen t  env i r o nmen t . take  yea r s  urb a n  to  so c i a l of  app r o a c h  When  th i s in  Page 1  as  are  trad i t i o n a l  today ’ s  regu l a t i o n s  imp l emen t ,  po l i c i e s  unde r g o  muni c i p a l  rap i d l y r e v i ew , staf f  is  al r e ady less  strugg l i ng th e  to  keep  r ew r i t i n g  up  of  wi t h  ou t d a t e d  pro c e s s e s  and po l i t i c a l  to l l ;  lea r n i n g  encoun t e r s  happe n  fa r  soc i e t a l  too  s l ow l y  evo l u t i o n ,  t h e y may a l r e a d y  to  be obso l e t e .  and  in t e r e s t s  up  by l aw s ; the i r  Rev i s i o n s  wi t h  th e  t ime chang e s  are  Thus t h e  much  take  res i s t a n c e .  keep  and by t h e  work l o a d ,  code s  bur e a u c r a t i c and  bas e  ra t e  of  fina l i z e d  cumbe r s ome pro c e s s  con t i n u e s . Some  in t r e p i d  planne r s  command - and - con t r o l inc r e a s i n g l y to  find  po l i c i e s  (McMahon 2001 ) .  ways  around  th rough  the  wi t h o u t  an  lit iga t i on ) ,  begun  in  of  to  Howeve r ,  urb a n  app r o a c h  gro up s  th r e a t s  su s t a i n a b i l i t y . suppo r t  stra t eg i e s  dive r s e  grow i n g  hav e  ord e r  dep a r t  to  f r om  inco rpo r a t e  stakeho lde r s  and  env i r o nmen t a l  respond  hea l t h  and  managemen t  dec i s i o n s  con t i n u e  tha t  a  bro a d - bru s h  take  Ind i v i d u a l s  the  to  hu r d l e s  bu r e a u c r a c y  champ i o n  innova t i o n  nea r l y  agen c i e s  sh e p h e r d  pe r s o n a l  ins t i t u t i o n a l is  wi t h i n  and  via  sta t i c  new  may id e a s  chann e l s ,  (o r  the  ce r t a i n  to  bu t  th r e a t run  to  of  in t o  a  dead - end . Stud i e s have  clea r l y  fa l l s  sho r t  1986 to  the  th e  to  fie ld  i l l um i n a t e d of ach i e v i n g  examin a t i o n conc l u s i o n  va r i a b l e s led  in  (e . g . ,  less  ins t i t u t i o n s ,  of  na t u r a l  tha t  resou r c e  how th e  pr e s c r i p t i v e  su c c e s s f u l  and t ime l y  twen t y - th r e e  managed  “any a t t emp t  fish ,  res i l i e n t and  of  trees ,  wate r ,  eco s y s t em s ,  more  depen d e n t Page 2  to  managemen t app r o a c h resu l t s .  eco s y s t em s  A led  manage eco l o g i c a l ca t t l e )  more  rig id  so c i e t i e s ”  in e x o r a b l y managemen t (Ho l l i n g  1995 ,  6) .  resou r c e  Thes e  resu l t s  manage r s ,  managemen t  as  an  and  cau s e d led  a t t emp t  to to  ef f e c t i v e  managemen t  and ,  reeva l u a t i o n  at  of  imp l emen t a t i o n pro v i d e s  a  adap t i v e  po l i c y  or  su c h as t h e  some  ove r a l l  s im i l a r  con t e x t s . •  •  To  of  plann i ng  (Ho l l i n g  t e rm s  adap t i v e  th e  th e  In  fa r  beh i n d  muni c i p a l i t i e s .  conc e p t s  to urb a n munic i p a l ana l y s i s plann i ng  Page 3  adap t i v e ongo i n g  and  wi t h th i s  Its  org a n i z a t i o n ’ s po t e n t i a l  and  plann i ng are : syn t h e s i z e  managemen t  and  lea r n i n g  fo r  plann i n g ; to  the  of Munic i p a l i t i e s ,  repo r t  re l e v a n c e  wel l  a hypo t h e t i c a l  of th i s  bas i c  as  3) .  urb a n  goa l s  and  respon s e , fo r  a  managemen t  wi t h i n  to  po l i c y  and  learn i ng  app r o a c h e s  urb a n  pro b l em s ,  and  re l a t e d  to  ab r u p t  con c e p t s  on  abov e  “an  exp e r im e n t i n g  cl i en t  lite ra tu re  the  of  of  re l e v a n t  To use  prov e n  bro a d  The more spe c i f i c r e v i ew  in  1995 ,  lags  Fede r a t i o n  he l p  the  of  has  unde r s t a n d i n g  managemen t .  to  adap t i v e  res t o r a t i o n ,  arena  in  Canad i a n  of  re s i l i e n c e  of th e  ha s been pr e p a r e d  is  unde r s t a n d  re l e v a n c e  of  org a n i z a t i o n  ob j e c t i v e  member s  sou r c e  upda t e d  arena  pro j e c t  resu l t  t owa r d  po l i c y  and  th e  na t u r a l  resou r c e s  can  pro du c t ”  so c i a l  plann i n g  pro f e s s i o n a l cl i en t  be s t ,  con t i n u a l l y  urb a n  eco l o g i c a l  na t u r a l  pro c e s s  as economi c or soc i a l The  of  po l i c y  of  emerg e n c e  fo r  exp e r im e n t s .  of t h e fund amen t a l  red i r e c t i o n  tha t  its  the  pau s e  inc r e a s e  eco s y s t em s t h r o u g h managemen t Adap t i v e  gr e a t  exp l o r e  and an app r o a c h  managemen t  in  which  lea rn i ng  is  cen t r a l  th rough  dis cu s s i o n  of  some  ca s e examp l e s . Th i s  repo r t  is  Sec t i o n  2  adap t i v e  managemen t ,  adap t i v e  lea rn i ng  org a n i z e d  di s c u s s e s  the  and  adap t i v e  ou t l i n e s  f r amewo rk  th e  managemen t  and issues  re l e v a n c e  of  managemen t  and  agen c y  i nd i c a t o r s  fo r  the  hous i n g  Vancouv e r ,  in  Por t l a n d , Denmark .  Fin a l l y ,  r e c ommend s  of  Sec t i o n adap t i v e  po l i c y and  dev e l o pmen t  sugg e s t e d  fou r  cu r r e n t  dis cu s s e s  urb a n  and  4  .  Page 4  of  urb a n the s e  plann i ng :  in  conc l u s i o n s  to  on ou t  managemen t  deve l o pmen t  sp e c i f i c  aca d em i c r e s e a r c h .  lays  urb a n  to  th e  plann i ng  app l i e s  in  managemen t  3  iden t i f i e s  s t o rmwa t e r  5 dr aws  Sec t i o n  as s e s sme n t  stud i e s  Canad a ;  an  adap t i v e  and  stra t eg i e s , ca s e  examin e s  of  Sec t i o n  and  US; and ne i g h b o u r h o o d  con t r i b u t i o n  lea rn i ng ,  th r e e  to  study .  fo r  sc a l e s .  r e v i ew  managemen t to  it  of  app r o a c h e s  conv e r g e n c e  cha l l e n g e s ,  adap t i v e  i nd i c a t o r s  the  plann i ng :  i nd i v i d u a l  adap t i v e  and  ca s e  manne r .  de f i n i t i o n s  re l a t e d  gove r n a n c e ,  fo r  and  fo l l o w i n g  and  o th e r  managemen t  urb a n  plann i ng  th e  or i g i n s  exp l o r e s  illus t ra t i ve  in  in  Bal l e r u p , abou t  the  urb a n  plann i n g ,  suppo r t  adap t i v e  area s  fo r  fu r t h e r  2 .0  A Lea rn i n g Appro a ch t o Manag emen t  2.1  Adapt i v e  In  na t u r a l  managemen t the  Management Def i n e d  pa s t  resou r c e  app r o a c h  has  f ew dec a d e s .  a learn i ng  re f l e c t  to  In adap t i v e  ex i s t  are  made  t ime ,  chang e s  pub l i c  to  are  the  po l i c y  v i ewpo i n t ,  who make c l e a r  t og e t h e r  discu s s and  th e  Adap t i v e stra t eg i e s 2002 ) .  th a t  C.S .  adap t i v e  and  the  re f i n e d  stud i e s Gunde r s o n dr ew t h e  Hol l i n g  managemen t  co l l e a g u e s ’ t h em t o  fo r  con c e p t ove r  In  1970 s  f r om  bro a d are  and ob j e c t i v e s ,  and  to  be twe e n  when  managemen t  Car l  (Og l e t h o r p e in  t e rm s  hi s  and  been  eco s y s t em s  ac t i v e  re f l e c t i n g  Wal t e r s  led  fu r t h e r e d  th rough (Le e  ca s e 1993 ;  wi t h Hol l i n g  and pas s i v e adap t i v e  of hi s  eco s y s t em s  pr ima r i l y  ac t i v e  Page 5  come up wi t h  dynami c  The work has  In 1990 ,  a  stakeho lde r s  work on mode l i n g  yea r s ,  es s e n c e ,  th a t  th i nk i n g  l a r g e - sc a l e  dis t i n c t i o n  stra t eg i e s  pr a c t i c e s  in  (197 8 ) .  e t a l 1995 ) .  managemen t .  fo r  chang i n g  the  ove r  embr a c e l e a r n i n g .  in  the  in v o l v i n g  ca l l s  th a t  un f o l d s  po l i c i e s  enga g e d  and s t u d e n t s ’  is  nec e s s a r y  spe c i f i c a l l y  a l l ow  unde r s t a n d i n g  Id e a l l y ,  managemen t  managemen t  ou r  knowl e d g e  va l u e s  tradeo f f s  th a t  how can  managemen t  the i r  takes  unc e r t a i n t i e s  rep r e s e n t a t i v e  worka b l e  ag r e e d - upon goa l s  as  to  ask s ,  the  ove r  managemen t  ou r  knowl e d g e .  i nv o l v e d  ba l a n c e d  and  made  new  It  if  adap t i v e  some su c c e s s  adap t i v e  managemen t ,  exp l i c i t ,  th e  wi t h  managemen t .  ce r t a i n t y  unce r t a i n ?  respond  been use d  In sho r t ,  app r o a c h  po l i c i e s  plann i n g ,  adap t i v e managemen t  i nv o l v e s to  the  purp o s e f u l  sc i e n t i f i c a l l y  and  moni t o r  sub s e q u e n t l y  Pas s i v e  adap t  adap t i v e  sy s t em dynami c s con t i n u e d ove r  gene r a l l y  and  in  The  managemen t  sy s t em s  f r om th e  pr a c t i c e s  in v o l v e s  re s p o n s e  to  ana l y s i s  be twe e n  the  re s p o n s e s ,  pr a c t i c e s ,  of and  of pr a c t i c e s  he r e i n  two ,  ord e r  in f e r e n c e  and ad j u s t i n g  con t a i n e d  in  acc o r d i n g l y .  th e  managemen t  lea r n i n g  dis t i n g u i s h  of  lea r n  managemen t  moni t o r i n g ,  t ime .  pe r t u r b a t i o n  doe s  un l e s s  no t  o t h e rw i s e  sta t ed . The  key  managemen t as  key  4)  st r a t e g i e s  to  prob l em ;  fea t u r e s  any  are  po l i c y  2) Assemb l e  Se l e c t  cr i t e r i a  fo r  imp l emen t i n g  ve r y  s im i l a r  mak in g  judg i n g  ou t c ome s ;  of  al t e r n a t i v e  st ra t e g i e s ;  tradeof f s  and unce r t a i n t i e s ;  and 7)  tha t  f r om  Bard a c h  lea rn i n g  itse l f  (McDan i e l s  2000 ) .  The  becomes  managemen t  Unfo r t u n a t e l y , ge t  the  al te r n a t i v e s ; Pro j e c t  Cons i d e r  the the  Recommend a dec i s i o n pr ima r y  an  po l i t i c s ,  in  the  way  is  di f f e r e n c e  exp l i c i t  prob l em  rou t i n e s , of  is  ob j e c t i v e  prob l ema t i c ,  esp e c i a l l y  tradeof f s  and  (Ba s k e r v i l l e When c i t i z e n s  1995 , are the r e  coming 98 ) .  to Th i s  ac cu s t ome d is  it a  of  res i s t a n c e Page 6  pub l i c  the  comes  op i n i o n s  to  goa l s  is  pa r t i c u l a r to  po l i c y is  ana l y z i n g  compromi s e  si tua t i o n to  goa l - or i e n t e d .  goa l - or i e n t e d  “A weak unde r s t a n d i n g when  or  and  good  deve l o pmen t .  pro c e d u r e s ,  Def i n e  5)  6)  ou t l i n e d  & Grego r y 2004 ) .  Adap t i v e  can  1)  3) Cons t r u c t  ou t c ome s  (adap t e d  th o s e  pro c e s s :  ev i d e n c e ; fo r  to  adap t i v e  ve r y the  so l u t i o n ”  a l l - to o - common . pro c e s s e s  chang i n g  t h em  and even  when  th e  chang e  is  need e d  wi t h th e fund amen t a l St a k e h o l d e r making of  is  goa l s  of  ne two r k s  impo r t a n t  con s e n s u a l  (L i g h t , ca s e  stud i e s  in i t i a t o r s It  also  to  pe r c e i v e d  ( e c o n om i c  or  acc u r a t e ,  it  i nv o l v emen t ,  or  o th e r  ea r l y  stages  a  bro a d  f r om i n f o rma l  the  like l i hood  long s t a n d i n g  of  coop e r a t i o n  1995 ) .  Adap t i v e  managemen t  in f o rma l  ne two r k s  can be key  to  no t e  to jus t i f y ga i n  o t h e rw i s e ) . like ly  at  and unde r s t a n d i n g s .  inequ i t a b l e  is  line  dec i s i o n -  f r om  inc r e a s e  impo r t a n t  ha s been sa i d  in  managemen t  – in c l u d i n g  and  hav e fou nd t h a t  is  managemen t  to  & Hol l i n g  of new id e a s  pro c e s s  esp e c i a l l y  stakeho lde r s  dec i s i o n s  Gunde r s o n  in  Pa r t i c i p a t i o n  rep r e s e n t a t i o n is  th e  & ob j e c t i v e s .  howeve r ,  id e a - fo rma t i o n .  good ,  keep  pa r t i c i p a t i o n  cr i t i c a l ,  –  to  2  fo r If  due  imba l a n c e  1  th a t  adap t i v e  expe r im e n t s one  the to  1  tha t  pa r t y ’ s  in t e r e s t s  acc u s a t i o n  de f i c i e n t re l a t e d  to  lead  prov e s  stakeho lde r a  lack  of  Exampl e s of coope r a t i n g ne two r k s i n c l u d e fo rma l ag r e emen t s suc h as memorand a of unde r s t a n d i n g , i n f o rm a l sha dow ne two r k s and cons o r t i a , NGOs, ad - hoc group s , and mesh i n g org a n i z a t i o n s suc h as t e c h n i c a l ove r s i g h t commi t t e e s . 2 For examp l e , t h e Si t k a Conse r v a t i o n Soc i e t y (Al a s k a ) moni t o r s – among o t h e r t h i n g s – ac t i v i t i e s i n t h e Tonga s s Nat i o n a l For e s t . A dr a f t env i r o nmen t a l impac t s t a t em e n t fo r a new fo r e s t managemen t p l a n con t a i n s a rub r i c of adap t i v e managemen t t h a t sh i f t s r e qu i r e d pro t e c t i o n s fo r a numbe r of r e s o u r c e s i n c l u d i n g f i s h and wi l d l i f e and ka r s t ( l i m e s t o n e cave a r e a s ) t o an app r o a c h whic h pe rm i t s t h e agen c y t o us e a much l e s s s t r i n g e n t app r o a c h (F i e l d s 2007 ) . The fe a r i s t h a t t h e adap t i v e managemen t app r o a c h i s be i n g use d i n ord e r t o more ea s i l y weaken pro t e c t i v e pr a c t i c e s t h a t have been ha r d - fough t t h r o u g h yea r s of po l i t i c a l l obb y i n g . Yet t h e t r u e que s t i o n i s how wel l fo r e s t pr a c t i c e s have been work i n g t o add r e s s env i r o nmen t a l , soc i a l , and econom i c need s of t h e bro a d communi t y , and whe t h e r t h e po l i t i c s can be su f f i c i e n t l y sh i f t e d f r om pos i t i o n i n g t o nego t i a t i n g i n ord e r t o c r e a t e be t t e r pr a c t i c e s . I t i s no t adap t i v e managemen t , pe r se , t h a t i s t h e i s s u e , bu t t h e ab i l i t y of t h e communi t y t o produ c t i v e l y nego t i a t e , imp l emen t , moni t o r , and adap t managemen t pr a c t i c e s t h r o u g h ongo i n g di a l o g u e and expe r i m e n t a t i o n amid s t a h i s t o r y of l o ng s t a n d i n g po l i t i c a l r i f t s and mis t r u s t . Page 7  con s i d e r a t i o n  and  ba l a n c i n g  of  rep r e s e n t a t i v e  in t e r e s t s  i n t h e dec i s i o n - mak in g app r o a c h .  2.2 Sus t a i n a b l e Deve l o pmen t and Other Approach e s to Adapt i v e Governanc e The  mos t  deve l o pmen t  common ly - use d  came i n  1987 wi t h  “Sus t a i n a b l e  deve l o pmen t  need s  pr e s e n t  of th e  fu t u r e  gene r a t i o n s  when  it  comes  deve l o pmen t  The r e  al  fixed  Rammel  po i n t  ‘don e , ’ its  in  th e r e  fo rm  arguab l y  to  wide l y  ab i l i t y  means  va r y  the of  Howeve r , to  wide l y  pro c e s s  Van  Den  ‘do ’ and  at  t ime  (Ho l l i n g  f r om  knowl e d g e  adap t i v e  one  cap a b i l i t i e s  the  Lea r n i n g  to  su s t a i n a b l e  a t va r i o u s  sc a l e s  Page 8  C.  as  S.  and  goa l s  is  chang e s .  th e  manage  a  chang e s  managemen t  ano t h e r .  adap t i v e (20 01 ) .  tha t  et  of  deve l o pmen t  pro c e s s  human  Jok i n e n  In s t e a d  su s t a i n a b l e  and  adap t a t i o n ,  2001 ;  2003 ) .  an ongo i n g as  su s t a i n a b l e  in v o l v i n g  Berg  when any  tha t  deve l o pmen t  ar t i c u l a t e d  th e  it  con s e n s u s  t ime  ins t e a d  imp l emen t i n g  mee t s  need s . ”  su s t a i n a b l e  oppo r t u n i t i e s ”  tha t  own  wha t  ove r  inex t r i c a b l e to  the i r  stra t eg i e s  a  dev e l o pmen t  “fos t e r i n g  key  t ime  ove r  Sus t a i n a b l e  re f e r s  to  and  is  Commis s i o n :  2001 ) .  or evo l u t i o n  1998 ;  mee t  grow i n g  re f e r s  Brund t l a n d  compromi s i n g  de f i n i n g  (Da l e  is  deve l o pmen t chang e ,  to  su s t a i n a b l e  dev e l o pmen t  wi t h o u t to  of  the  is  su s t a i n a b l y ,  t ime s con f l i c t  de f i n i t i o n  Hol l i n g goa l  of  crea t i n g  adap t i v e l y th a t  are  are  of gove r n a n c e .  is now  Ano th e r  way  of  re f e r r i n g  adap t a t i o n  in  ‘ref l ex i v e  gove r n a n c e . ’  respon s e  of  prob l em s  wi t h  managemen t  so c i e t y  and ca s c a d i n g and  Gig l e r  2004 ) .  In  gove r n a n c e ,  Knof l a c h e r  demons t r a t e  tha t to  suc c e s s f u l l y  and  th e  today ’ s  ou t  re f l e x i v e  “The s t u d i e s  adap t i v e l y unce r t a i n t y  su s t a i n a b l e  wher e su s t a i n a b i l i t y  enab l e s  is  more  ou t c ome s  no t an exp l i c i t  (20 04 ) . Clo s e l y  bas e d  re l a t e d  managemen t  comp l e x i t y  goa l s  is  by  managemen t .  to  adap t i v e  ye t  ano t h e r  encou r a g i n g  Slo c ombe ’ s  are high l i g h t e d Lik e  is  to  t e rm  (Kno f l a c h e r  in t o  po i n t  in h e r e n t  con t r i b u t e  is  of  and doma in  re g e n e r a t i o n  wi t h  the  of  in t e r c o nne c t e d n e s s ,  exp l o r a t i o n  and Gig l e r  dea l  even i n a se t t i n g goa l ”  the i r  manag i n g  can  t ime  is  comp l e x i t y  sc a l e s ,  ac r o s s  pro c e s s  gove r n a n c e  huge  va r y i n g  ef f e c t s  stakeho lde r s  the  the  gove r n a n c e  Ref l e x i v e  to  th e i r  and  to  a  adap t i v e  stra t eg i e s .  It  managemen t  plans  urb a n  due  lack  a did  to of  th a t  add r e s s e s  and  dynami c managemen t  2.2 - 1. eco s y s t em - ba s e d  pr e v i o u s  also  eco s y s t em -  eco s y s t em - ba s e d  i n Fig u r e  whic h  env i r o nmen t  co r r e s p o n d i n g  (19 98 )  f r om is  stra t egy democ r a t i c  managemen t ,  dep a r t u r e  managemen t ,  command  reac t i o n no t  to  and  pro t e c t  a pro j e c t - by - pro j e c t  (UNU/ IAS 2003 ) .  Page 9  con t r o l  env i r o nmen t a l  adequ a t e l y  ju r i s d i c t i o n a l  managemen t  fo c u s  the and  coo r d i n a t i o n  Figur e 2 . 2 - 1 . Goa l s of Ecosy s t em - Based Managemen t (S l o c ombe 1998 ) Normat i v e  Imp l y and r e f l e c t va l u e s and l im i t s  Pr in c i p l e d  Ref l e c t eth i c a l  In t e g r a t i v e  Ref l e c t th e wide r a ng e of in t e r e s t s , goa l s and ob j e c t i v e s th a t ex i s t  Complex  Work wi t h , no t a r t i f i c i a l l y re du c e , compl e x i t y  Dynamic  Accep t and re c o g n i z e t h e in e v i t a b i l i t y of chang e  Transd i s c i p l i n ary  Syn t h e s i z e a wide ra n g e of in f o rma t i o n and know l e d g e  Appl i c a b l e  Be app l i c a b l e t o a wide ra n g e of eco s y s t em t y p e s and cond i t i o n s  Par t i c i p a t o r y  In vo l v e  Under s t a n dab l e  Be exp l a i n a b l e and ope r a t i o n a l i z a b l e i n a con s i s t e n t way t o d i f f e r e n t peop l e and group s  Adapt i v e  Be evo l v i n g as cond i t i o n s knowl e d g e chang e  Othe r  mode l s  gove r n a n c e .  Thes e of  ‘h i g h e r ’ va l u e s and pr i n c i p l e s and ru l e s  peop l e  ex i s t ,  mode l s  cen t r a l  issue  gu i d a n c e  on i n c l u s i v e  spe c i f i c  and ac t o r s  su ch  do no t  and  as  pa r t i c i p a t o r y  nec e s s a r i l y  adap t a b i l i t y ,  bu t  they  fo c u s  on t h e  do  prov i d e  and dynami c fo rms of l e a d e r s h i p  and  managemen t . With task above  al l  th e s e  se ems t o in  managemen t .  th e  ing r e d i e n t s  fo r  be s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d : pr a c t i c e  And ye t ,  th i s  of  good gove r n a n c e ,  s imp l y  munic i p a l  in t e r s e c t i o n  Page 10  of  use  the  the  rec i p e s  plann i ng  and  gove r n a n c e  and  plann i ng  can  be a t r e a c h e r o u s  be pr a gma t i c a l l y Pl a n n e r s powe r  to  way:  of t e n  ef f e c t  “L i k e  adap t e d  app l i e d  chang e .  and l e a r n e d po l i c y  in  Pl a n n e r s the t ho s e  de l i b e r a t e and  any t h i n g is  pro c e s s bu t  a strong  the  power ,  inhe r e n t  and  of  and  also ro l e s  nego t i a t o r s ,  in  acknow l e d g i n g  in t e r e s t s ,  and “…  mobi l i z a t i o n  in  br i n g i n g  of  abou t  and  ord e r l y  4) .  tho s e  an adap t i v e  comp l e x i t y  have  have become more  pub l i c  and s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d ,  fo r  th i s  va r i e d  pea c e f u l ,  2007 ,  de f i n i n g  it  so as t o keep so c i e t i e s  stab le ,  and Gurs t e i n  the  4) .  and  key  chang e s  a  s imp l e need  planne r s  to pub l i c  are  hav i n g pu t  fac i l i t a t o r s ,  commun i c a t i o n ,  on  as  and Gurs t e i n  own powe r ” (200 7 ,  and con t r o l l e d  (Ange l e s  The  wi t h  pr i n c i p a l s  pr a c t i c e s ?  ro l e  and in t h e pro c e s s ,  in t e r e s t s  communi t i e s  cou r s e ”  Ange l e s  work i n se r v i c e  pub l i c  the i r  ana l y s t s ,  the i r  ar t i c u l a t i o n ,  plann i n g  pe r f o rm i n c r e a s i n g l y  dea l i n g  and exe r c i s i n g  Can th e s e  and gove r n o r s ,  to  and prob l em - so l v e r s , comfo r t a b l e  to l o c a l  do pe r c e i v e  po l i t i c i a n s  as advo c a t e s ,  one .  in t e r e s t s  and th u s ,  managemen t  chang e  in v o l v e d  is  the r e  app r o a c h in  the  to  work  of t h e p l a n n e r .  2.3  An Adapt i v e  Fo l l ow i n g  is  an examp l e  adap t i v e  managemen t  group  New Sou t h  in  Management Exper imen t of  expe r im e n t Wale s ,  one pa r t i a l l y tha t  Aus t r a l i a .  Page 11  took  su c c e s s f u l  plac e  Becau s e  al l  wi t h of  a th e  res e a r c h  exp l i c i t l y  fo c u s e d  adap t i v e  managemen t  s t ems  managemen t  field ,  illus t ra t i ve be twe e n  na t u r a l  urb a n so c i a l  A  “to  dr aw  na t u r a l is  resou r c e  use d  as  theo r e t i c a l  managemen t  the  eva l u a t e  an  pa r a l l e l s  and managemen t  New Sou t h  wat e r  Wale s  in  an  ar t i c l e  th e to  then  con t r i b u t i o n  wat e r  pro j e c t s loca l  f r amed  in  cyc l e  The i r  al l  were  plan s  and  examin e d of  th e  a  The  of  th e  adap t i v e on  the  e t a l 1999 ) .  invo l v e d  con t e x t  goa l s  were  managemen t  stakeho lde r s .  the  pro j e c t s  managemen t  i n New Sou t h Wale s ” (G i lmou r  wi t h  lea rn i ng .  he l p  pub l i s h e d  th r e e  work s h o p s clea r l y  of  app r o a c h  urb a n f r i n g e The  to  ce r t a i n  stra t eg i e s .  managemen t  the  of  con t e x t .  eva l u a t e  pro j e c t s  imp l emen t a t i o n  exp e r im e n t  resou r c e  The ob j e c t i v e s to  the  f r om  th i s  examp l e  on  se r i e s  of  pro j e c t s  were  exp e r im e n t a t i o n  t h r e e - fo l d  (G i lmou r  and  et  al  1999 ) : 1 . To  mee t  doub t s  managemen t  by  abou t  th e  wisdom  acknow l e d g i n g  th e  of  adap t i v e  di f f i c u l t y  of  manag i n g eco s y s t em s ; 2 . To c r e a t e  a  pla t f o rm  work s h o p - ba s e d nego t i a t i o n s ; 3 . To r e d u c e deve l o p i n g The fir s t  fo l l o w - t h r o u g h  po l i c y  by  f r am i n g  in v e s t i g a t i o n s  as  and  vu l n e r a b i l i t y communi t y  pro j e c t  goa l ,  fo r  ins t i t u t i o n a l  owne r s h i p  org a n i z e r s  large l y  to  th r o u g h  were  by  of s t r a t e g i e s . su c c e s s f u l  exp l i c i t  Page 12  chang e  in  th e i r  discu s s i o n s  abou t  unce r t a i n t i e s , sc i e n c e .  risks ,  Howeve r ,  and th e  dua l  ro l e s  of j u d g emen t  se c o n d  and  th i r d  goa l s  th e  were  and more  cha l l e n g i n g . Each  spon s o r i n g  managemen t a  app r o a c h  so l u t i o n  the  spon s o r s  i nv o l v e d et  wi t h  al  org a n i z a t i o n  as po t e n t i a l l y  bro a d  to  have  imp l emen t i n g  1999 ) .  The  commi tmen t  org a n i z a t i o n s  t o imp l emen t  con s e n s u s  was  work s h o p s  as fo r ums fo r  to  do  wi t h  champ i o n ” Thi s  groundwo r k  fo r  of  adap t i v e  the  and i t  a pe r s o n ,  the  issues  (G i lmou r  re t r o s p e c t ,  work s h o p i f  empha s i s  on  in  of  work s h o p s , tha t  an  pro j e c t  al l  in s t i t u t i o n a l  pha s e s one  managemen t  pro c e s s  pre s s u r e s  to  so l u t i o n s  made  of  our  to  to  They  aga i n s t would  would lay ou t  cr e a t e  broad l y  a  par t i c i p a t o r y Page 13  th e the  imp l emen t a t i o n  he l p  pro j e c t s ,  had  buy - in .  ca r r y  on t h e  buy - i n .  pr e s s u r e  (on e  to  and  the  th r e e  the  “ins t i t u t i o n a l  org a n i z a t i o n  fo c u s e s  and  th i s  cu l t i v a t e foun d  tha t  con t i n u a t i o n be  too  gr e a t ,  would no t su c c e e d . In  of  f r om spon s o r i n g  more  ro l e  pro j e c t  pa r t i c i p a t i o n  su c h  in  of th e  lea rn ed  r e c ommenda t i o n s ) ,  wi t h o u t  resu l t s  placed  “non e  ou t c ome s ”  beg i n n i n g  spon s o r i n g  th r e e  the  th rough  have ,  t o gen e r a t i n g a  al l  Yet ,  nego t i a t i o n .  and ano t h e r  work s h o p  communi t y  and  cr i t i c a l  of  in  the  les sons  i n add i t i o n  pa r t i c i p a t e  of  key  the  manage r  work s h o p s ,  at the  reached ,  the  would  adap t i v e  way t o choo s e  suppo r t .  work s h o p  org a n i z e r s  the  bes t  though t  the  worked t o ge t  One of  the  commun i t y  app e a r e d  in  cho s e  po l i t i c a l acc e p t a b l e pro c e s s  at t r a c t i v e hav i n g  to  the  ach i e v e d  re s u l t i n g  lead  a deg r e e  red u c t i o n  i n v o l v em e n t .  re v e r t  f am i l i a r , work s  would  a  strong  re d u c e whic h  in t o  stakeho lde r  the  sk i l l s  th a t  one ano t h e r Th i s to  th e  resu l t  of  ro l e to  the  of  stakeho lde r  in v o l v emen t , it  in  the  gap i s  l aws  Col l e g e . wi t h i n  of  they  sugg e s t e d  commun i t y  pro c e s s ,  in  fe l t ,  deve l o pmen t  ord e r  stakeho l de r s  an  to  bu i l d  acc o u n t a b l e  to  New Sou t h  Wale s  wide s p r e a d Whi l e  and t h o s e suppo r t  the  and many o t h e r  the  ins t i t u t i o n a l  gr e a t e s t  gap  and  the  grou p  who l e a d  fo r  adap t i v e  sc i e n c e , fa c t o r s r e a lm  be twe e n ex t e n t  po i n t s  are  tha t  th e to  da t a , ve r y th e r e  theo r y  which  it  of is  ou t on t h e grou n d .  Th i s wat e r  be  is  managemen t ,  ca r r i e d  pro c e s s e s ,  also  ins t i t u t i o n s  deve l o p  pr i n c i p l e s .  adap t i v e  to  ove r t ime .  ord e r  to  a tendency  champ i o n ,  They  work s h o p  managemen t  se ems  of  e t a l 1999 ) .  bu i l d i n g  i n ho l d i n g  expe r i e n c e  impo r t a n t ,  leve l  lo n g - t e rm need s  (G i lmo r e  inc l ud ed  cr i t i c a l  t h em i n  th e  a  pre s s u r e ,  inc l u s i v e  tendency .  app r o a c h  is  ins t i t u t i o n a l  th i s  wi t h  back t h e  The r e  aga i n s t  eco s y s t e m managemen t Hav i n g  po l i t i c a l  les s  Ye t ,  con s e n s u s ,  sca l e d  commun i t y  and th i s  of  in  each l e a d i n s t i t u t i o n  to  in s t i t u t i o n s .  by  Here , a  ins t a n c e ,  h ig h l i g h t e d Neuman ,  righ t s  pr e s c r i b e d th r o u g h  a  fo r  in the  con t e x t  pro f e s s o r wate r  pe r i o d  at  of cu r r e n t  Lewi s  a r e fo r f e i t e d of  con s e r v a t i o n ) , Page 14  t ime . is  and if  Cla r k  no t use d  Ef f i c i e n c y t r umped  US  by  (for the  se em i n g l y ord e r  majo r  fo r  adap t i v e  th i s  soc i a l ,  of pr e d i c t a b i l i t y  sy s t em  managemen t ,  ef f e c t i v e ea r l i e r ,  goa l s  it  to  embra c e  would ,  dec i s i o n - mak in g and in c o r p o r a t e  in  and ce r t a i n t y . th e  sho r t ,  gu i d e l i n e s  pr i n c i p l e s  of  need  to  as  men t i o n e d  exp l i c i t  ob j e c t i v e s  and  economi c  va l u e s  Wale s  examp l e  eco l o g i c a l ,  In  tha t  and  fo l l ow  inc l ud e  i n f o rma t i o n  (Neuman 2001 ) . The New Sou t h of  adap t i v e  managemen t th e  impo r t a n c e  and  who  lead  pr a c t i c e s way .  t owa r d  Deve l o p i n g  in t e r s e c t i o n managemen t l oo k i n g  at  managemen t  of wi l l  adap t i v e  urb a n prov i d e  po t e n t i a l pr i n c i p l e s  of  t h em  a st rong  th e  pr i n c i p l e s  illus t ra t e s th o s e  pu t s  in  ord e r  theo r e t i c a l so c i a l  of  in a spe c i f i c  Page 15  con t e x t , on  to in  fo r  sh i f t any  po l i c y  sub s t a n t i a l  and  on t h e adap t i v e  sub s e q u e n t  imp l emen t i n g po l i c y  and  in s t i t u t i o n s  pe r s p e c t i v e  po l i c y  a fou nd a t i o n ou t c ome s  in  fo c u s i n g  managemen t  imp l emen t a t i o n  area .  work  adap t i v e  3 .0  Manag emen t Too l s f o r Urban P l ann e r s  3.1  Framework Def i n e d fo r Urban Management Contex t  Adap t a b i l i t y , lea rn i ng ,  and  repea t e d l y  know l e d g e  come  managemen t  up  pr a c t i c e ,  or  the  hav e  ef f i c i e n c y  in  pas t  dec a d e s  f ew  on  lea rn i ng ’ to  ins t e a d , respond  the s e  are  manage r s to  a spe c i f i c  ha s  been  an  empha s i s  the  managemen t .  pa r t i c u l a r  t e rm s  to  ef f e c t i v e  abou t  co r p o r a t e , issues .  The dr i v e  comp l emen t e d on  dia l o g u e  even when f a c e d  the and  in  the  ‘o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  Univ e r s a l  of  stakeho lde r s  t owa r d  ove r  appa r e n t  va l u e  In  managemen t  app r o a c h e s  be des i r a b l e  th e  tha t  abou t  managemen t ’ ,  recogn i z e  con t e x t ,  task .  esp e c i a l l y  though t  soc i a l  env i r o nmen t a l to  is  no t  is  t e rm s  wi t h  adap t i v e  al l  managemen t  and  ‘kn ow l e d g e  and  prob l em s  di s c u s s i o n  muni c i p a l  Th i s  lite ra tu re  th e  managemen t  flex ib i l i t y .  are  di s c u s s i o n s  co r p o r a t e  taken  res i l i e n c e ,  sh a r i n g  in  – whe t h e r  env i r o nmen t a l ,  fie lds  flex ib i l i t y ,  stra t eg i e s ;  app r o a c h e s  and i s s u e s  th a t  wi t h i n  wi t h a common pro b l em  (Cook e t a l 1997 ) . Urban soc i a l rap i d  chang e  app r o a c h e s  some t ime  (for  Sande r c o c k  1998 ) ,  try ing  con t r o l  to  app r o a c h e s deve l o pmen t  and managemen t  and unce r t a i n t y .  and t e c h n i c a l fo r  plann i ng  to st i l l  th e th e  Though t h e  to plann i ng  examp l e ,  is  urb a n  high l y  and  ra t i o n a l  Webbe r  pro f e s s i o n ’ s con t e x t  th rough  of  un i v e r s a l  pub l i c  hea l t h  pe r v a d e s  pr a c t i c e  to d a y .  Page 16  1973 ;  hi s t o r y  in f r a s t r u c t u r e , plann i ng  wi t h  have been c r i t i c i z e d  by Ri t t e l  plann i ng  fraugh t  and  His t o r i c a l  a t t emp t s  have l e a d  to fa i l u r e  depend e n t  soc i e t i e s  manage r s  to  avo i d  1995 ) .  strugg le s  wi t h  work i n g  wi t h  flex ib i l i t y  adap t i v e  streng then ing independ en t  Acco r d i n g  Lee ,  learn i ng  the  is  cen t r a l  task  nec e s s a r y  economy (1 99 5 ) .  Thi s  mus t  b io l o g i c a l ca l l s  so c i a l  managemen t we l e a r n wi t h  in  ou r  how to  be  and  to  po l i t i c a l  the  and  fab r i c , promo t i n g  the  of  a  th r o u g h  and t h e  pro c e s s e s  ac t i v e  wor l d  su s t a i n a b l e  unde r s t a n d i n g  of  Lee  adap t i v e  he means  tha t  expe r im e n t a t i o n  (h i s  de f i n i t i o n  bound e d con f l i c t  (po l i t i c a l  and  comp l e x i t y .  By t h i s  na t u r e  expe c t  na t u r a l  “comb i n a t i o n  f r om  use s  managemen t ) ,  and  in s t i t u t i o n a l  chang e . ”  economi c  sy s t em s  urb a n  crea t e  done  po l i t i c a l bo t h  to  comp l e x ,  sen s e ,  humans impa c t  th e  soc i a l l y  also  res i l i e n t  lea rn i n g  and  ou r  adap t i v e  which  unce r t a i n t y  a t t emp t  ins t i t u t i o n s .  con t r o l the  way i n  more  dr i v i n g  more r e s i l i e n t is  a  tha t  con s t i t u e n c i e s ,  re l a t e d  to  res i l i e n c y ,  app r o a c h e s  plann i ng  sy s t em s  ins t i t u t i o n s ,  and encou r a g e  Urban  wi t h i n  eco l o g i c a l  i n t h e fo rm of l e s s  fa i l u r e s  (Ho l l i n g  manage  and more r i g i d  more  the s e  to  of  fo rma l i z e d  chang e )  (Le e  1995 ,  228 ) . The adap t i v e frus t r a t i o n resou r c e br e d  wi t h  issues  pub l i c  managemen t pos i t i o n a l  con f l i c t s  (f i she r i e s ,  fo r e s t s ,  mis t r u s t  resou r c e  issues  are  es s e n t i a l  th e  app r o a c h  at  and  stake  did  no t  (Ho l l i n g  resou r c e  of  3  came i n pa r t re l a t e d etc . ) .  he l p 1995 ) .  urb a n  the  ou t  of  t o re g i o n a l Po l a r i z a t i o n economi c  and  Land and peop l e  plann i ng .  3  Mil l i o n s  Humans ( a n d t h e i r l a b o u r ) can be vi ewed as a r e n ewab l e r e s o u r c e j u s t l i k e t h e fo r e s t s and sa lmon . Like env i r o nmen t a l r e s o u r c e s , human l a b o u r has Page 17  of pub l i c t e rm  tax  do l l a r s  imp l i c a t i o n s  lives  of  The r e  urb a n  wi t h  urb a n  l on g s t a n d i n g ,  a  planne r s  stakeho lde r  di r e c t  strong to  of  pro c e s s e s .  plann i ng  in  the in  and  Renewa l  prog r ams – p l a n n e r s even  also  bu i l d  In  he r  planne r s  fa i l u r e s  fo rm of t h e  mul t i p l e  pub l i s h e d  ci t i z e n  –  more  yea r s ,  inc l ud i n g  1969 ,  70s  a  recen t  Arns t e i n  in  the  po l i c y  or  the  wi t h  token  Fede r a l  day - to - day are  to  plann i ng .  Sin c e  1960 s  which  She r r y  a l l ow i n g  plann i ng  pa r t n e r s  on  Pa r t i c i p a t i o n ” on l y  on th e  en t r e n c h e d .  wel l  When  hav e l o ng -  Conf l i c t s  ba s i s  done  Dec i s i o n s  ef f e c t s  urb a n  have  vo i c e s .  gene r a l l y  stake .  res i d e n t s .  app r o a c h  “Ladde r  at  wi t h pos i t i o n s  is  adap t i v e  are  mos t  were  in c l u s i o n of  l a r g e - sc a l e  ty p i f i e d  Mode l  in  Ci t i e s  by  and Urban  have lo o k e d t o communi t i e s  leade r s  ra t h e r  than  cou r s e  al re ady  occu r  US  as  adve r s a r i e s  (F r i e dman n 1987 ) . Lea r n i n g  doe s  of  env i r o nmen t s ;  bo t h  wi t h i n  org a n i z a t i o n s  tha t  have  knowl e d g e  managemen t  t r emend o u s sha r i n g  co s t  i n f o rma t i o n ev i d e n c e  of  dis cu s s i o n  wha t  is  on  th a t  (D i x o n  wha t  of th e s e  e t a l 1997 ;  been dr i v e n  on  been  ac t i v i t i e s  sav i n g s  knowl e d g e ”  and ac r o s s  lead ing  be i n g  done  The r e  ef f i c i e n c y  is  th i s  fa r  r e a lm  se e Acke rman e t a l 2003 ;  and more con s t a n t Page 18  supp l y .  of the  th rough  howeve r ,  and Seng e 1994 ) .  t o gr e a t e r  edg e  ach i e v e d  done , in  “Many  demons t r a t e d  be  31 ) . be  issues ,  th e  can  shou l d  muni c i p a l  org a n i z a t i o n s .  have  2000 ,  in  more th a n (Fo r Cook  3.2  Urban Plann i n g Chal l e n g e s  The  po l i t i c s  in h e r e n t  managemen t  crea t e  c l ima t e  is  fo r  it  ve r y  1997 ) .  – tha t  to  cen t r a l  than  to  the  a  po l i t i c a l  th e  to l e r a n c e  lea rn i n g  so c i a l  regu l a t e s  th e  sy s t em i s  (Gunde r s o n  encou r a g e  muni c i p a l  pos s i b i l i t y  the  and economi c fo r c e s  ra t h e r  main t a i n  th e r e f o r e  of  In  se e k i n g  pr e s s u r e ”  Po l i t i c a l quo ,  th a t  and  so  than  au t h o r i t y  po l i t i c a l  –  leve l  dynami c .  di f f i c u l t  is  “Ra t h e r  eve r y  comp l e x  expe r im e n t a t i o n  mis t a k e s  the  a  in  (Cook  wel f a r e  et  of  et  al  op t imum ,  respond i n g  al  2002 ,  222 ) .  t e n d t o main t a i n  the  adap t a t i o n  t ime  ove r  to  sta tu s (Le e  1993 ) . One bru s h by  wide l y - r e c o g n i z e d  plann i ng  po l i c y  Cong r e s s .  fund i n g  fo r  hous i n g  imp r ov e pub l i c The dr i v e  fo r  cau s e d  va s t  a  con s e q u e n c e s Anoth e r managemen t . standa rd s Amer i c a  hea l t h  bec ame  The  fa i l e d ,  f r om  the  fun d amen t a l  and sa f e t y ,  Act  of  urb a n as  and  pub l i c r e n ewa l  fa i l u r e s goa l  was  of to  to do t h i s .  and o th e r  the  pa s s e d  di r e c t i o n  th e y f a i l e d  in managemen t  unde r e s t i m a t i o n  bro a d -  l a r g e - sc a l e ,  recogn i z e d  th e i r  bl i n d e r s  nega t i v e  so c i a l  of t h e pro j e c t s . examp l e  is  the  Pre s c r i p t i v e  fo r  a  fede r a l  resu l t e d  ef f i c i e n c y  have  conve n i e n t  re n ewa l .  Whi l e  of  1949 US Hous i n g  pro v i d e d  th a t  even t u a l l y  po l i c y .  th e  Act  urb a n  pro j e c t s  stra t eg i e s pub l i c  The  is  examp l e  been  dec a d e s .  cu r b - and - gu t t e r  pa r t  of  Thes e  way t o co l l e c t  pr a c t i c e  th e  po l i c y  s t o rmwa t e r  wate r Page 19  of  s t o rmwa t e r  stree t no rm  sy s t em s  f r om th e s t r e e t  de s i g n in  Nor t h  pro v i d e so i t  a can  be  trea ted 4  2006 ) .  and  re l e a s e d  Desp i t e th e  wel l - known  chang e  to  impa c t  Deve l o pmen t les s  emerg i n g  can  be  is  sign i f i c a n t l y 5  2005 ) .  (L ID )  Even  is  As a con t r a s t of  issu ing  bu i l d i n g  would - be gu i d e l i n e s ,  s/he  env i r o nmen t a l l y be t t e r  wi t h i n  numbe r  of  month s  th e  are  resu l t i n g  fo rm ,  no t  ea s y  des i r a b l e th i s  is  resu l t .  sen t im e n t  t r emend o u s pr e s c r i p t i v e  to  sh i f t  Iron i c a l l y ,  bec a u s e  regu l a t i o n s  sound  (H i nman many  th e  examp l e  a muni c i p a l i t y .  a  pe rm i t  If  cou r s e  in  occu r s  to  deve l o p e r s  a If  t ime l y af t e r  tha t  ach i e v e  a th e  urb a n a more  who r e s p o n d  deve l o pmen t prop o s a l s  a  pr e s c r i p t i v e  l e s s - t h a n - des i r a b l e  be t t e r the i r  and  in  at  wi t h deve l o pmen t .  in  and prop o s e  hu r d l e s  lo o k  re a l i z a t i o n  regu l a t i o n s  plea s i n g ,  fo l l o w s  rece i v e  and may t h e n pro c e e d  Low-  embr a c e d .  dev e l o p e r wi l l  of  so l u t i o n  we can  pe rm i t s  fash i o n  it  ae s t h e t i c a l l y  a  sy s t em s ,  The LID so l u t i o n  sc a l e ,  bu i l d i n g  the s e  (Webb  been s l ow .  no t wide l y in  of  manne r  pr a c t i c e  more  though  con t r o l l e d  managemen t  ha s  more  it  a  fa i l i n g s  bes t  expen s i v e ,  c i r c ums t a n c e s ,  in  of t e n  do no t f i t  to  face th e  (McMahon 2001 and APA 1998 ) .  4  Thes e t r a d i t i o n a l sy s t em s co l l e c t a l l wat e r runo f f f r om a bro a d su r f a c e a r e a , r e qu i r i n g l a r g e s t o r a g e bas i n s . They of t e n do no t adequ a t e l y t r e a t t h e s t o rmwa t e r t o r emove po l l u t a n t s , and ( i f no t spe c i f i c a l l y des i g n e d t o avo i d i t ) can ea s i l y be ove rwhe lmed du r i n g a l a r g e s t o rm . The co l l e c t i o n pro c e s s a l s o dep r i v e s nea r b y na t u r a l a r e a s of t h e wat e r t h e y no rma l l y depend on t h r o u g h na t u r a l i n f i l t r a t i o n and groundwa t e r r e c h a r g e (Hi nman 2005 ) . 5 LID promo t e s t h e use of s t o rmwa t e r co l l e c t i o n and t r e a t m e n t t h a t i n c r e a s e s groundwa t e r r e c h a r g e and prov i d e s enhan c e d s t o rmwa t e r t r e a t m e n t t h r o u g h phy t o r emed i a t i o n ( t r e a t m e n t wi t h p l a n t s ) . When t h i s LID app r o a c h i s us ed , no- cu r b des i g n s can be imp l emen t e d t h a t a l l ow wat e r t o she e t f l ow i n t o prox im a l bi o r e t e n t i o n ar e a s or b i o swa l e s t h a t c l e a n s e t h e runo f f t h r o u g h na t u r a l eco l o g i c a l pro c e s s e s , a l l ow i n g mos t t o i n f i l t r a t e i n t o t h e so i l and di s p e r s i n g t h e r ema i n d e r i n t o ne i g h b o u r i n g na t u r a l a r e a s . Page 20  Anoth e r is  ce i l i n g  is  examp l e he i g h t  deve l o p e d  sa f e t y  and  targe t  is  a  of  th e s e  and  soc i a l  same  pro v i d e Yet  pro c e s s ,  th r o u g h  th i s  re l e v a n t  nec e s s a r i l y  he i g h t  igno r e s  va r i a t i o n s  ce r t a i n t y  compe l l i n g  of hea l t h  hea l t h ,  as human r e s i l i e n c y  ce i l i n g  and  and sa f e t y (see  need s ,  Sec t i o n  th e  can  tha t  in and  ea s e  a r g umen t s  wi t h a r e s u l t  imp l i c a t i o n s  area ,  a  pub l i c  ce r t a i n  a ba l a n c e  of va l u e s ,  regu l a t i o n s  and  t yp i c a l l y  was  be  st i l l  econom i c  4.2  fo r  Regu l a t i o n s , to  se e  va l u e s , linear ,  if bu t  in t o  at a fixed tu r n  ou t  a  on t h e  are  th i s  pro c e s s  Page 21  In  se r v i c e s  or  in t ime ,  to  the  in  is  and  How of t e n  or i g i n a l are  che c k  tha t  down i n t o  grou n d .  and goa l s  they  no t i t e r a t i v e .  othe r s .  po l i c i e s  po i n t  fo r  educ a t i o n a l  were brok e n  co r r e s p o n d po l i c i e s  made  and  pro v i d i n g  di s t i l l e d  ca r r i e d  be  by l aw s ,  sp a c e , of  whic h i n  tru ly  can  and  goa l  rea l i t i e s  regu l a t i o n s  pe r i o d i c a l l y  code s  fun d amen t a l  the  t ime ?  a r g umen t s  rec r e a t i o n a l  re f l e c t e d  conc r e t e  of  p lumb i n g  pub l i c  pro t e c t i n g  need s  to  so r t s  and  fac i l i t i e s ,  ove r  as wel l  targe t  examp l e of t h i s ) .  elec t r i c a l  do th e  targe t  r e q u i r em e n t s  a ba l a n c e  The  eac h  mean t  pub l i c  app r o v a l  bro a d c a s t  The  sc a l e  Some f i x e d  acc o u n t  the  and  to  en f o r c emen t .  main t a i n s  de t a i l e d  flex ib l e  is  made to r e l a x  cos t s ,  in t o  i n human he i g h t  It  bur d e n  down  on a de t a i l e d  of homes .  Af t e r  new ru l e .  of be i n g  cho i c e s .  tak ing  economi c s .  di f f e r e n c e t e rm s  af t e r  as  po l i c y  re g u l a t i o n s  wr i t t e n  chann e l s  of s t a t i c  wi t h  goa l  rev i s i t e d cu r r e n t  cumbe r s ome  and  We canno t whenev e r  a que r y  des i r e s  fo r  qu i t e  an swe r  face s  depen d s  submi t t e d  ce r t a i n t y  va l i d .  l im i t e d  is  “i t  and  di f f i c u l t  main t a i n i n g  in  fo r  t e rm s  ea s e  of  cha l l e n g e s  suppo r t  fo r  c i r c ums t a n c e s ”  on bu i l d i n g  A muni c i p a l i t y ’ s  resou r c e s  on th e  of  en f o r c emen t  are  plann i n g  dep a r tm e n t  ha s  finances ,  and  staf f  when i t th e i r  a new home . The  and  comes to  bu i l d i n g  ac t i v i t i e s  f r om  and  elec t e d  bod i e s . The r e  are  demons t r a t e d  flex ib i l i t y  can  de r a i l i n g  impo r t a n t  incen t i v e mos t  be  a l l ow e d  t h e sh i f t  Urban on  hous i n g  cho i c e ;  use ;  se r v i c e s  as  pub l i c  in c r e a s e d  pa r ame t e r s ,  wi t h o u t  ac t i v i t i e s .  The  imp r o v e d ope r a t i o n s ,  ci t i e s  po l i c y the  sp a c e  in f r a s t r u c t u r e  ava i l a b i l i t y  th a t  shou l d  be  and  enough  to  in e f f o r t .  so c i e t y :  su c h  wi t h i n  lea rn i n g ,  be t t e r  plann i n g  impa c t s  howeve r ,  bu r e a u c r a t i c  of i n c r e a s e d  impo r t a n t l y ,  jus t i f y  ways ,  have  af f o r d a b i l i t y  ava i l a b l e qua l i t y  hea l t h  and  cho i c e s  fo r  and  and  of  hou s i n g  and  pub l i c ,  pr i v a t e  and  quan t i t y  educ a t i o n  dis t r i b u t i o n  of  t r emen dou s  of  es s e n t i a l  fa c i l i t i e s ;  do l l a r s  fo r  th e  need e d  amen i t i e s .  The t owa r d  goa l s a  of  more  stakeho lde r s  democ r a c y  inc l u s i v e  and in t e r e s t s  ne i g h b o u r h o o d , app r o a c h  tha t  plann i ng  has  Howeve r ,  tha t  fo r  and  stra t egy fo r  examp l e ) ,  is become  common much  inc l u s i v i t y  su s t a i n a b i l i t y tha t  pa r t i c u l a r ins t e a d  today . more doe s Page 22  of In  work s  wi t h  si tua t i o n s th e  nec e s s a r i l y  (on e  bro a d - bru s h  pr a c t i c e ,  pa r t i c i p a t o r y no t  po i n t  of  urb a n la t e .  fil t e r  up  to  ef f e c t  pub l i c  inc l u s i v i t y  on i t s  app r o a c h .  The r e  t og e t h e r  urb a n adap t i v e  th e  whic h he r e an  the  manage r  the  adap t i v e  to the  t h em  making con t e x t  se e k s  to  manage  the she  se e s  i nd i v i d u a l  un i t fou r can  dis cu s s e d  stake  the in  les sons manage  is  th e  of  (200 2 ,  Page 23  tha t  and  pro j e c t s  th e  dec i s i o n -  and compe l l i n g l y adap t i v e  manage r  to  sing l e  org a n i z a t i o n .  sy s t em  up  2002 ) .  co r r e s p o n d  adap t i v e l y  3 . 3 - 1) .  stra t eg i e s  abou t  manage r ,  emerg e  t o promo t e  va r i o u s  West l e y  in  look i n g  ul t ima t e l y  th e s e  a pa r t i c u l a r  of ana l y s i s ”  impo r t a n t  pr ima r i l y  the i r  a sing l e  as  env i r o nmen t  it  i n de t a i l  no t  doma in ,  by t h e i r  re l e v an t  doe s  is  ins t i t u t i o n s  sy s t em t h a t  or even to  pro b l em  t og e t h e r  ac r o s s  of an in d i v i d u a l  “…the so c i a l  th e  we a r e  manage  wr i t e s  tha t  is  th a t  ef f e c t i v e  whic h a r e  in s t i t u t i o n a l  t o embr a c e  to  argue s  ins t i t u t i o n  po t e n t i a l l y  env i r o nmen t ,  manage r  West l e y  managemen t  ing r e d i e n t s  manage r  (Mar c h and Hea t h 1994 ;  Fra n c i s  doe s  Manager s  Whi l e  adop t e d  ef f e c t i v e l y  adap t i v e l y  or  managemen t  ind i v i d u a l  of  fo r  ind i v i d u a l  work s .  stra t eg i e s  an adap t i v e  stra t eg i e s ,  as Adapt i v e of  Nor  4.  org a n i z a t i o n a l  at  us e  se t t i n g  in Sec t i o n  to  va r i e t y  managemen t  The ro l e as  a  the  3 . 3 Ind i v i d u a l s  dec i s i o n - mak in g .  own equa t e are  cre a t e  i n de t a i l  po l i c y  a  Rath e r ,  ac t o r s  brough t  prob l em , 355 ) .  th a t  To t h i s  in f o rm  (h i g h l i g h t e d  it  end ,  how in  is  an  Figu r e  Figur e 3 . 3 - 2 . Adap t i v e managemen t (Wes t l e y 2002 )  fo r  th e i nd i v i d u a l  1 . To manage adap t i v e l y re q u i r e s s t r o n g ra t i o n a l ana l y s i s .  va l u e s  manage r  as oppo s e d t o  2 . To manage adap t i v e l y and r e s p o n d t o compl e x i t y , i t i s nec e s s a r y t o j u gg l e mul t i p l e s t r a t e g i e s and goa l s (F i g u r e 3 . 3 2) . 3 . To manage adap t i v e l y re q u i r e s l i t t l e fe a r of con f l i c t ,  s t r o n g con t r o l of emot i o n s , and gr e a t humi l i t y .  4 . In ord e r t o manage adap t i v e l y , t h e manage r need s t o cap i t a l i z e on t h e ene r g y & movemen t of ot h e r s . The hi s t o r i c a l moment i s henc e impo r t a n t .  The  in d i v i d u a l  dec i s i o n pro c e s s the  manage r  env i r o nmen t . of t h e  ra t e  a t t emp t i n g  of  manage r  chang e  In  othe r  mus t  go i n g  mus t  be  sen s i t i v e  word s ,  be as adap t i v e  on i n  the  th e  dec i s i o n  and va r i e d  env i r o nmen t  t o manage (Mar c h and Hea t h 1994 ) .  Page 24  th e  to  s/he  as is  Figur e 3 . 3 - 3 . Image and des c r i p t i o n ba l l s (Wes t l e y 2002 , 338 ) Ba l l s •  •  •  •  j ug g l e d  of manage r  j ug g l i n g  fou r  rep r e s e n t :  Managing through : commi tmen t t o sc i e n t i f i c app r o a c h , t r e a t i n g managemen t i n t e r v e n t i o n s as expe r im e n t s t o l e a r n f r om , as oppo s e d t o so l u t i o n s t o be imp l emen t e d . Managing out : commi tmen t t o i n vo l v e ex t e r n a l group s or s t a k e h o l d e r s i n managemen t pro c e s s e s and dec i s i o n s . Managing in : t h e need t o manage pos i t i o n and i n f l u e n c e wi t h i n t h e depa r tm e n t or org a n i z a t i o n ; main t a i n i n g i n t e r n a l suppo r t fo r expe r im e n t s and ex t e r n a l s t a k e h o l d e r ac t i v i t i e s . Managing up: need t o t a k e i n t o ac c oun t t h e l a r g e r po l i t i c a l con t e x t i n which ca r e e r and s t r a t e g i e s unf o l d . Unle s s ac t i o n s t a k e n a t t h e communi t y , org a n i z a t i o n a l , or sc i e n t i f i c l e v e l were con s i d e r e d f r om t h e po i n t of vi ew of t h e l a r g e r po l i t i c a l a r e n a , much exc e l l e n t e f f o r t cou l d be ende d wi t h t h e s l a s h of a pen .  Jugg l i n g  is  an  be i n g  an  The r e  a r e many cha l l e n g e s  the  ef f e c t i v e  ap t  issues  pro c e d u r e s the  plann i ng  (Wes t l e y  adap t i v e  of s t a k e h o l d e r tha t  1995 ) .  can and  meta p h o r  fo r  manage r  th e  (see  t o con f r o n t ;  Fig u r e  no t l e a s t  d i s empowe rmen t  hampe r  cha l l e n g e  In add i t i o n ,  learn i ng  lea rn i n g  Page 25  3 . 3 - 2) . of t h em ,  and bu r e a u c r a t i c  imp l emen t a t i o n  gove r nmen t - l e d  of  and  ac t i o n  in  env i r o nmen t  may be con s i d e r e d  a  ‘luxury ’  tha t  una f f o r d a b l e  3.4  is  po l i t i c a l l y ,  in ce r t a i n  econom i c a l l y ,  env i r o nmen t s  or  soc i a l l y  (Le e 1993 ) .  Summary  The r e  is  a lack  of s t r u c t u r e d  learn i ng  urb a n  plann i ng  and managemen t ,  wi t h  fo r  be t t e r  respon s e s  grow i n g  unce r t a i n t i e s managemen t planne r s  in  to  the  pr i n c i p l e s  urb a n can  as t h e y s t r i v e  ove r  a co r r e s p o n d i n g  pro v i d e  a  and  Adap t i v e  too l  fo r  good po l i c y  in  need  pr e s s u r e s  env i r o nmen t .  to crea t e  t ime  urb a n  i n th e f a c e  of grow i n g unce r t a i n t y . The r e  are  in t e g r a t i n g re s o u r c e bro a d  adap t i v e  Thes e  stakeho lde r  exp l i c i t  ba s e d  eva l u a t i o n  new  main t a i n  is  knowl e d g e  managemen t  tens i o n  amid s t of  ve r y  bound a r i e s ,  ongo i n g  ef fo r t s  ab i l i t y  to  exp e r im e n t a t i o n  and  st ra i n  tigh t  adap t i v e  be twe e n  power  and  a t t emp t i n g  in  financ i a l  on manage r s  budge t s .  the and  to  and  adap t i v e popu l a t i o n  keep up wi t h  Yet we know t h e r e  managemen t Page 26  to  ef f i c i e n c y ,  inhe r e n t  In c r e a s i n g  pu t t i n g  dec i s i o n - making ,  nego t i a t i o n  th rough  flex ib i l i t y  app r o a c h . are  th e  na t u r a l  inco rpo r a t e  (wa t e r s h e d ) the  fo r  ove r t ime (Neuman 2001 ) .  gr e a t  the  in  in  and  ins t i t u t i o n a l  inco rpo r a t i n g  examp l e s  va l u e s  of pr a c t i c e s  The r e  demand s  of  in t o  r e c ommenda t i o n s  na t u r a l  stakeho lde r s ,  inco rpo r a t e  pr e s s u r e s  on  re c ommenda t i o n s  pr i n c i p l e s  in v o l v emen t  discu s s i o n  th e  of po l i c y  managemen t  managemen t .  gove r n a n c e  of  no sho r t a g e s  pr i n c i p l e s  are  be i n g  imp l emen t e d as  wel l  adap t i v e po t e n t i a l ens u r i n g  even  as  bu i l d i n g  the  inc r e a s i n g  managemen t  con t e x t  in c e n t i v e s  app r o a c h .  Adap t i v e  t o a i d urb a n p l a n n e r s they  inco rpo r a t i n g pr a c t i c e s  wi t h i n  th a t  are the are  flex ib l e  of new knowl e d g e .  Page 27  the s e  pr e s s u r e s ,  to  look  t owa r d  managemen t  i n imp l emen t i n g  moni t o r e d  resu l t s  of  in t o and  has t h e  pro j e c t s ,  ef f e c t i v e l y , ongo i n g con t r i b u t e  an  and  managemen t to  the  4 .0  App l i c a t i o n : Examp l e s o f Urban Adap t i v e Manag emen t i n Pra c t i c e 4.1  In t r o du c t i o n  We do no t managemen t  know wha t  of ou r  a wide - sp r e a d  ci t i e s ,  ba s i s .  adap t i v e  managemen t  re f e r r e d  to  managemen t plann i ng ,  in  to o ,  can  4 . 1 - 1 of  th i s  managemen t  move  at  some examp l e s  of  it  may  no t  managemen t ) .  some of  t owa r d  be t t e r  as wel l  I  th e s e  be  Through adap t i v e  unde r s t a n d i n g  of  as imp r o v e d economi c and  ea ch  one  exp l i c i t l y or  managemen t  of  plann i ng  re f l e c t the  are  urb a n  ou t  an  adap t i v e  ar t i c u l a t e s stra t egy  st i l l  se r v e  use f u l  ord e r  to crea t e  at  lea rn i ng the  ou t s e t .  managemen t  examp l e s  an e f f e c t i v e  tha t  adap t i v e  plann i ng .  Page 28  as  be l ow . bu t  an So ,  be  no t  managemen t ob j e c t i v e whi l e  expe r im e n t s , can  of  muni c i p a l  high l i g h t e d  as s e s sme n t ,  as  and  e l emen t s  and  adap t i v e  t o urb a n po l i c y  in  be l ow i n Figu r e  lea r n i n g  qu i n t e s s e n t i a l as  did indeed  st ra t e g i e s  se t s even  a numbe r  app r o a c h  Thre e  in c o r p o r a t e  ou t l i n e d  fou nd  th a t  managemen t  con t e x t .  expe r im e n t  ind i c a t o r s  repo r t ,  They  th e  po l i c y  st r a t e g i e s  adap t i v e  plann i ng  of  on  ou t c ome s .  Usin g th e  an  to d a y  we can lo o k a t ways i n whic h urb a n  t h e prob l em s and i s s u e s , soc i a l  happ en  ( though  adap t i v e lo o k  no t  howeve r ,  pr a c t i c e  and a c l o s e  come f r om adap t i v e  doe s  are ,  as  app r o a c h e s ,  can  as i t  The r e  exp l i c i t l y  exp l o r a t i o n s  resu l t s  bu i l t  managemen t  no t they  on i n  app r o a c h  The r e  are  undoub t e d l y  managemen t  po l i c i e s  in  4.1 - 1.  Fig u r e  ch r o n i c l e  eve r y  adap t i v e ins t e a d  The  to  look  in  the of  tha t the  examp l e s eigh t  th i s  urb a n  pos s i b i l i t i e s  urb a n adap t i v e  in  is  some  re f l e c t  th e br e a t h whic h  to  urb a n se t  ou t  no t  to  e l emen t  of  env i r o nmen t .  tha t  t o unde r s t a n d  of  cr i t e r i a repo r t  re f l e c t s  some examp l e s  in ord e r  si tua t i on a l  imp l emen t i n g  at  mee t goa l  examp l e  managemen t  of s t r a t e g i e s of  tha t  othe r  It  is  a va r i e t y and dep t h con s i d e r  managemen t .  Figur e 4 . 1 - 4 . Ind i c a t o r s gu i d i n g th e re v i ew and as s e s smen t of adap t i v e managemen t s t r a t e g i e s ( t o de t e rm i n e t h e i r r e l e v a n c e fo r t h e urb a n muni c i p a l p l a n n i n g env i r o nmen t 6 )  1 . The managemen t po l i c i e s a r e r e l e v a n t to urb a n i s s u e s , whic h a r e he r e de f i n e d as t h e pro v i s i o n of es s e n t i a l se r v i c e s , pub l i c work s , & r e g u l a t i o n of pr i v a t e ac t i v i t i e s . 2 . Po l i c i e s acknow l e d g e th e key impo r t a n c e of ongo i n g l e a r n i n g , make unce r t a i n t i e s exp l i c i t , and inco rpo r a t e f l e x i b i l i t y . 3 . Po l i c i e s a r e app r o p r i a t e fo r th e r e l e v a n t sco p e of gove r n a n c e . They a r e ne i t h e r to o bro a d - r e a c h i n g fo r t h e i n t e n d e d goa l , no r t o o na r r ow . 6  In con t r a s t t h e fo l l ow i n g i nd i c a t o r s l e a d t o qu i t e t h e oppo s i t e : “… c r i s i s , con f l i c t , and gr i d l o c k emerg e wheneve r t h e prob l em and t h e r e s p o n s e have t h e fo l l ow i n g cha r a c t e r i s t i c s : 1 . A s i n g l e t a r g e t and p i e c emea l po l i c y . 2 . A s i n g l e sc a l e of fo c u s , t y p i c a l l y on t h e sho r t t e rm and t h e l o c a l . 3 . No r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t a l l po l i c i e s a r e expe r im e n t a l . 4 . Rig i d managemen t wi t h no pr i o r i t y t o de s i g n i n t e r v e n t i o n s as ways t o t e s t hypo t h e s e s unde r l y i n g po l i c i e s ” (Ho l l i n g 1995 , 9) .  Page 29  4 . The pro c e s s fo r po l i c y - makin g i s exp l i c i t l y democ r a t i c and pa r t i c i p a t o r y in na t u r e , i n c o r p o r a t i n g app r o p r i a t e vo i c e s fo r th e l e v e l scop e of gove r n a n c e . Po l i c i e s re f l e c t goa l s , ob j e c t i v e s , va l u e s and r i s k s th a t have been d i s c u s s e d by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e grou p ( s ) of stakeho lde r s .  and  5 . Po l i c i e s a r e r e l e v a n t to pr a c t i c a l app l i c a t i o n and managemen t on a day - t o - day bas i s ( t h e y a r e ea s y t o unde r s t a n d and t o imp l emen t ) . 6 . Po l i c i e s encou r a g e expe r im e n t a t i o n .  fie ld  7 . Po l i c i e s f a c i l i t a t e ite ra t i v e l y linking v i s a ve r s a .  obs e r v a t i o n  and  con t i n u e d r e l e v a n c e ove r t ime , back managemen t t o r e s e a r c h and  8 . Po l i c i e s t a k e a sy s t em s app r o a c h ; th e y i n c l u d e t e c h n i q u e s fo r coo r d i n a t i o n ac r o s s agen c y sc a l e s and scop e s ( a s app r o p r i a t e ) , as urb a n i s s u e s a r e ra r e l y l im i t e d t o i s o l a t e d geog r a p h i c a r e a s or s i n g l e agen c y i s s u e s .  4.2 In pr e s e n c e  Hous in g Pol i c i e s  in Vancouve r ,  Vancouv e r ,  the  and l e g a l i t y  as demons t r a t i o n  BC, of  po l i c i e s .  po l i c i e s  se c o n d a r y  su i t e s  Demons t r a t i o n  7  BC, Canada su r r o u n d i n g 7  can  the  be v i ewed  po l i c i e s  re f l e c t  Second a r y su i t e s a r e a l s o re f e r r e d t o as acc e s s o r y dwe l l i n g un i t s i n some muni c i p a l i t i e s . A se c o nd a r y su i t e i s a r e s i d e n t i a l un i t ac c e s s o r y t o t h e main r e s i d e n t i a l un i t on t h e prop e r t y , and may be a t t a c h e d or de t a c h e d depend i n g on t h e gove r n i n g r e gu l a t i o n s . Page 30  impo r t a n t  communi t y  issues  as s o c i a t e d  wi t h  The r e  ac t i o n  th a t  deg r e e  of  t h em .  wi l l  lead  cou r s e  Vancouv e r se c o nd a r y  hav e  con t e x t  of  ha s  one  clea r  cou r s e  the r e f o r e  he l p f u l  ope r a t i n g  po l i c y  since  re f l e c t e d the  the  t ime s .  war  encou r a g e  se c o n d a r y  ve t e r a n s  to  of some  de t e rm i n e  th e  th e  some  1920 s .  large r  Fo r  in  were  of  chang i n g  and  so c i a l  th e  a chang e  (wh i c h  so r t  The  cu l t u r a l  examp l e ,  in f l u e n c e d  su i t e s  wi t h  1940 s ,  in  po l i c y  to  illegal  pr i o r  to  t ime ) . The po l i c i e s  swing i n g wher e  back  been  pe r c e p t i o n s  issues  of hea l t h  of pub l i c yea r s ,  hou s i n g  tigh t  th e  pas s i v e l y comp l a i n t s Ci t y pro c e s s e s  ci ty  ci ty  sta f f  hou s i n g  and sa f e t y  no t  to  find  en f o r c e  ba l a n c e  issues ,  and  some common ground . se c o n d a r y as  one  marke t .  been d i f f i c u l t ask ,  pendu l um a  su i t e s  ha s  so l u t i o n  to  Howeve r ,  code en f o r c emen t ,  had a ‘d on ’ t  choo s i n g  the  sa f e t y  find by  re n t a l  to  and  of f e r e d  have  wi t h  a t t emp t i n g  cou l d  by  acc e p t a n c e  chang e ,  hea l t h  re c o g n i z e d  Vancouv e r ’ s  to  fo r t h ,  need s ,  add i t i o n a l  l on g  con t i n u e d  and  hou s i n g  ne i g h b o u r h o o d The  no  unce r t a i n t i e s  reso l u t i o n ; is  been  re t u r n i n g  tha t  have  of ac t i o n .  su i t e s  po l i c i e s  is  to  expe r im e n t a t i o n  app r o p r i a t e  tha t  to  don ’ t  and a l a c k add r e s s .  te l l ’  illega l  th e  For  at t i t u d e ,  su i t e s  un l e s s  unde r t a k e n  pub l i c  were made . staf f to  and  ci ty  in v o l v e  su i t e s  discu s s i o n .  vo t e s ,  and  open  coun c i l  loca l  Surv e y s ,  hou s e  hav e  ci t i z e n s mee t i n g s ,  even t s Page 31  hav e  in  the  se c o n d a r y  hea r i n g s ,  occu r r e d  ba l l o t  – pr ima r i l y  since  the  dia l ogue pub l i c  ea r l y and  good s ’  dis cu s s i o n s . Even  illegal o th e r  of  su i t e s  su i t e s  ex i s t e d  of t e n  had  fo r  lo b b y  bo t h  ci ty  Cer t a i n  th e  as  o th e r in  staf f  nega t i v e  to su i t e  Beg i n n i n g  in  su i t e s .  prog r am  fo l l ow e d  d id  no t  hou s i n g  mee t  of  mak in g  when  ci t i z e n s  abou t  in  more  bu i l d i n g ,  of  su i t e s to  be  the  ove r a l l  are  be t t e r  con t e x t s are  any  in re l a t i o n  pro v e n  su i t e s  of th e  en t i r e l y .  the  been  zon i n g ,  soph i s t i c a t e d and hea l t h  acc ommoda t i o n s  to  and  r emove  lega l i z a t i o n . 1989 ,  th e  Ci t y  ne i g h b o u r h o o d - spe c i f i c  se c o nd a r y  Thes e  lea rn i n g  homeowne r s h i p  and  ci ty .  pe r c e p t i o n s  dec i s i o n - make r s  regu l a t i o n s  many  res i d e n t s  and  have  and  t o r e v i ew i n g  illegal ,  of th e hou s i n g  ren t a l  And  And ye t  sign i f i c a n t  res i d e n t s  hou s i n g  were  hea l t h i e r  The impo r t a n c e  to  taken  Some of t h em were sev e r e l y  mis c on c e p t i o n s .  ba r r i e r s  th e  rep r e s e n t e d  and  no t  su i t e  sa f e t y  in  wel l  low ce i l i n g s  cond i t i o n s .  issue .  wi t h re g a r d  as  the  code s .  have unde r g o n e  unde r s t o o d .  have  th r o u g h o u t  in the i r  t ime ,  Vancouv e r  make r s  been as wel l  would cau s e th e lo s s  Over  th i s  se c o n d a r y  and sa f e t y  cou l d  comp l a i n t  ne i g h b o u r s  con s i d e r a t i o n ,  have no t  th em  su i t e s  sub s t a n d a r d  engag e  8  hea l t h  and  tha t  to  Dec i s i o n  in t o  whi l e  t ho u s a n d s  –  deb a t e .  discou r s e  ‘pub l i c  to  1990 s  If  Vancouv e r  in i t i a t i v e s  an a r e a to  of  vo t e d  rezone  8  yes ,  the  to  responded lega l i z e  an imp l emen t a t i o n ne i g h b o u r h o o d  and  See ht t p : / / www . t e n a n t s . b c . c a / o t h p u b s / i m p a c t . h t m l fo r a d i s c u s s i o n by t h e BC Tenan t s Righ t s Act i o n Coa l i t i o n of t h e unde r r e p r e s e n t e d vo i c e s i n t h e deba t e on se c on d a r y su i t e s . Page 32  fac i l i t a t e  lega l i z a t i o n  of  ex i s t i n g  were re z o n e d as a con s e q u e n c e Th i s hoped .  pro g r am was no t The ob j e c t i v e  more su i t e s are a s  of  su i t e s  th e  in  wi t h  in t o  ci ty  othe r  vo t e d  The  of  wou ld  the  numbe r  of  had  have in  to to  whi l e  cyc l e ,  were  awa i t i n g  clos ed .  cau s e d t h e c i t y  fo r  th e  of  su i t e s  re l a x e d  and  and  doub l e d  bu i l d i n g  pe rm i t s  the  ba r r i e r s  2004 ) .  the  th e  or  at  as the  ove r a l l  comp l i a n c e .  came t o th e end pe rman e n t  sta t u s  pha s e - ou t  su i t e s  sho r t c om i n g s  he i g h t  re t r o f i t  re l a t e d yea r .  to l e g a l i z a t i o n , cod e r e g u l a t i o n s ; Page 33  code and a l l ow e d  c i t y - wide  to  of  th i s  su i t e  were  chang e ,  lega l i z a t i o n  i n 2005 t h e t ime ,  al l  r e q u i r em e n t s  To fu r t h e r  th i s  in  r e q u i r em e n t s  As a r e s u l t  fo l l ow i n g  dec l a r e d  Thes e  Cei l i n g  sp r i n k l e r  (Whi t l o c k  the  t h e pro g r am .  lega l i z a t i o n  app l i c a t i o n s  r emov i n g  1999 ) .  re l a x e d  e l im i n a t e d  nea r l y  (F r e n c h  area s .  to  r ema i n i n g  ci ty  reduced  are a s  sta t u s  th a t  the  r e s i d e n t i a l l y - zon ed were  The  t o r e - eva l u a t e  In March 2004 ,  su i t e s  21 had upg r a d e d  ac t i o n  in  clos i ng  of t ime ,  inc r e a s i n g  of t h e i r  had  br i n g  a l l ow e d  main t a i n  of t h e 363 pha s e - ou t su i t e s  246  su i t e  pe rman e n t  Howeve r ,  whi l e  lega l  a pe r i o d  th e  pe r i o d  su i t e s  on l y  and  ove r  had  su i t e s  th em ,  were  tha t  be upg r a d e d  se c o n d a r y  ci ty  th e su i t e .  hoped  pha s e - ou t  area s  was to  su i t e s  su i t e  to lega l i z e  ci ty  pha s e - ou t s  to  non - pe rm i t t e d  make upg r a d e s  the  by l e g a l i z i n g  Homeowne r s  t o pha s e - ou t t h e i r  as  1989 po l i c i e s  comp l i a n c e  th a t  Thre e  in i t i a t i v e .  su c c e s s f u l  the  area s .  ex i s t i n g  op t i o n  end  lega l  of th i s  as  of  su i t e s .  fac i l i t a t e ci t y  aga i n  e l im i n a t i n g  a  r e q u i r em e n t  su i t e s  and  the  ad j u s tm e n t s r e v i ew ,  whic h to  main  2006 ,  su i t e s  have  make  in t e r n a l  (o r  the  to  lega l .  un i t  owne r s  hav i n g  lega l i z e d  wi t h i n  2005 ) .  ex t e n d e d  (Uye s u g i  ways  to to  st i l l  al l th e  zon i n g  ci ty ,  wi t h  ord e r  The  the  ci ty  ba r r i e r s  ex i s t i n g  to  su i t e s ul t ima t e  reg i s t e r e d  are  of  su r r o u n d i n g  way f r om th e  they  the i r  in  2006 ) .  su i t e s  bu t  mino r  dis t r i c t s  homes  make th e i r  ex i s t i n g  othe r  lega l i z a t i o n  reduce  a lo n g  se c o n d a r y  Con t i n u i n g  con s i s t e n t  wish i n g is  and  s i n g l e - f am i l y  area s  examin e  of  tha t  have )  dis t r i c t s  Vancouv e r  goa l  ci ty  be twe e n  CD-1 ( c u s t om i z e d )  cou l d  r e s i d e n t i a l l y - zon ed  i nd i v i d u a l  dwe l l i n g  in t o  the s e  con t i n u e s  acc e s s  to by - l aws (Whi t l o c k  in  se c o nd a r y  fo r  and  work i n g  t owa r d  se c o n d a r y  su i t e s  goa l . Vancouv e r ’ s  re f l e c t  po l i c i e s  a sy s t ema t i c  lea rn i ng  con s i d e r a t i o n s ,  po l i t i c s  obs e r v a t i o n  r e v i ew  stra t eg i e s r ema i n i n g  and to  ach i e v e  fo c u s e d  af fo r d a b l e  wi t h  on  hou s i n g  in  pub l i c  de s i r a b l e  the  ove r a l l th e  which  pr a c t i c a l  deba t e ,  rese a r c h ,  wi t h  managemen t  coo r d i n a t e d  more  and  to  pro c e s s  and are  rega r d  re s u l t s ; goa l  hea l t h  of  al l  whi l e  main t a i n i n g  and  sa f e t y  of  res i d e n t s .  4.3  Low Impac t Deve l o pmen t in Por t l a nd ,  OR, Uni t e d  Sta t e s Beg i n n i n g Oregon  beg an  in  th e  mid - 1990 s ,  an ambi t i o u s  pro j e c t Page 34  the  Ci t y  a imed  at  of  Por t l a n d ,  reduc i n g  the  amoun t  of  sy s t em .  They beg an wi t h a demons t r a t i o n  abou t  s t o rmwa t e r  522 , 0 0 0  dr a i n i n g  cub i c  in t o  th e  run o f f  ya r d s  en t e r i n g  of  Wil l ame t t e  s t o rmwa t e r  pro j e c t  un t r e a t e d  invo l v i n g tha t  was  f r om t h e  pa r k i n g  lo t  and Indu s t r y .  Here i s  the  Riv e r  of t h e Oregon Museum of Sc i e n c e story ,  the  run o f f  i n br i e f : The  museum  se r i e s  of  re c e i v e lo t s .  10  runo f f  veg e t a t e d  par k i n g had  lo t  f r om  of  ove r  con v e n t i o n a l  sa v i n g s the  of  requ i r e d  has  sl igh t l y  the  the  the  exc e e d e d  for  a trench are a  of  swa l e s in  co s t  and upke e p  in t o  the  museum ,  more work t o  a  Th i s  re s u l t e d  work ed  and  veg e t a t e d  Main t e n a n c e  th e  swa l e s  fee t  ca t c hmen t  metho d s  fo r  in  to  kee p  of  regu l a r and  has  cu r b  cu t s  o f deb r i s .  shown  th a t  sign i f i c a n t  co s t  con s t r u c t i o n ove r  of  been  budg e t  From a phy s i c a l has  use  $78 , 0 0 0 .  swa l e s  land s c ap e  free  The  a  wou l d  conv e y e d  squa r e fee t .  a  par k i n g  cu t s  requ i r em e n t s f r om  size .  is  through  cub i c  runo f f  equa l  lo t s  of  tha t  su r r o u n d i n g  13 , 9 8 0  capa c i t y  re c e i v i n g  swa l e s  As con s t r u c t e d ,  14 , 0 0 0  ci ty ' s  con s t r u c t i o n  the  swa l e s  cu r b s .  of  th e  f r om th e  a fo o t p r i n t  capa c i t y  to  veg e t a t e d  The runo f f  the  the  agr e e d  des i g n it  standpo i n t , is  sa v i n g s  one s . Page 35  pro j e c t  to  ob t a i n  pos s i b l e and ben e f i t s  o f su s t a i n a b l e  con v e n t i o n a l  the  It  f r om t h e  managemen t has  fur t h e r  sy s t em s shown  tha t  the s e  su r p a s s  sy s t e m s  the  pra c t i c e s .  per f o rma n c e  mod i f i c a t i o n s  Where i t  o f cu rb cu t s par t i c u l a r app ro p r i a t e ,  they  its  pro j e c t s  su c c e s s  phys i c a l ac r o s s  the  Weath e r f r om  Prog r am ’  stree t s  downspou t stud i e s ,  of  the s e  to  po l i c y .  impa c t  s t o rmwa t e r  on  an  th a t  lo t s  to  fo r  In i t i a l l y , and  in i t i a t i v e on  ‘wa t e r -  Lea r n i n g  f r om  ‘Innova t i v e  Wet  bro a d e n e d in c l u d e  moni t o r i n g  and  the  scop e  eco - roo f s , fea s i b i l i t y  ef f o r t s . pro j e c t s  ef f e c t i v e l y Thus , re l a t e d  managemen t  fo c u s e d  insp i r e  mode l  po l i c y  St r e e t s ’  to  knowl e d g e  more  a  lo t s .  pa r k i n g  ac cumu l a t e d  managemen t di r e c t  and  be t t e r -  plann i n g  th a t  of  wher e  St a t e s .  ‘Gr e e n  Por t l a n d  and edu c a t i o n a l  th e  manne r  in  on  by  and pa r k i n g  dis connec t i o n s ,  The va l u e and  wen t  and  bec ame  the  Por t l a n d  numbe r  2006 ) .  Uni t e d  bo t h  the  cou l d  The per f o rma n c e  o f Por t l a n d  th e  stree t s  in i t i a t i v e  examp l e ,  rep l a c e d  a bro a d e r of  qua l i t y - f r i e n d l y ’ th i s  for  th e swa l e s  were  ac r o s s  of  Ci t y  sy s t em have  pro j e c t  in f l u e n c e d  de s i g n  in the  eva l u a t e d ,  demons t r a t i o n  sub s e q u e n t  trad i t i o n a l  was  per f o rm i n g one s (C i t y  to  were made t o add r e s s  was in c r e a s e d . plan t s  po t e n t i a l  of  was f o u n d t h a t  have pe r f o rm e d be t t e r ,  Thi s  the  Where sho r t f a l l s  been f o u n d , t h em .  have  pro j e c t  is is  moni t o r e d use d  Page 36  an  t ime ,  ongo i n g  de t e rm i n e  s t o rmwa t e r  pe r f o rm a n c e  ha s  re g u l a t o r y  and pa r k i n g  in  ove r  code s ,  re q u i r em e n t s .  had  suc h  a as  The educ a t i o n a l and add r e s s e d the  va s t  conc e p t and  ef fo r t s  mis co n c e p t i o n s .  majo r i t y of  of  comb i n e d  an  ove r f l o w s  re s i d e n t s or  d id  on  open e d  in  2003  aga i n ,  learn i ng  pub l i c t o da t a  no t  show i n g  unde r s t a n d  th e  sewe r  ove r f l o w s ,  coming  f r om  s t o rmwa t e r  of  s t o rmwa t e r  the at  feedback  comb i n e d  po l l u t i o n  exh i b i t  to  In r e s p o n s e  sewe r s  unde r e s t i m a t e d  ou t f l o w s ,  responded  prob l em  the  Museum of  Sc i e n c e  and  Indu s t r y . Here resu l t  of  an  t h e - grou n d  itera t ive , pr a c t i c e  dia l ogue ,  ha s  occu r r e d  coo r d i n a t e d wi t h  rese a r c h ,  ove r  pro c e s s  t ime link ing  exp e r im e n t a t i o n ,  moni t o r i n g ,  as  and  a on-  pub l i c managemen t  stra t eg i e s .  4.4  Sus t a i n a b l e  Bal l e r u p , Dav i d one  van Vle i t  que s t i o n  pro j e c t s des i g n  and po l i c y  lea rn i n g  env i r o nmen t a l l y and  soc i a l  “In  a tho r o ugh  in  ways  lea rn i ng  ne i g h b o u r h o o d he  respon s i b l e  of  tha t  of  Denmark .  His  in  can  as s i s t  in  deve l o p i n g  Bal l e r u p tha t  the  in c r e a s e d  soc i a l l y  and  can be p l a n n e d  Vl i e t  th e ne i g h b o u r h o o d i n t h e fo l l o w i n g Page 37  plann i ng ,  He foun d th a t  ne i g h b o u r h o o d s (v a n  demons t r a t i o n  ef f e c t i v e  (20 00 ) .  showed  imp l emen t e d  examin a t i o n  Bal l e r u p ,  wha t  al t e r n a t i v e s  and  suc c e s s f u l l y  des c r i b e s  pro j e c t  urb a n commun i t i e s ? ”  Egeb j e r g g a r d  soc i a l  unde r t o o k  was :  inc r e a s e  su s t a i n a b l e new  Denmark  demons t r a t i o n  cen t r a l  Neighbourhood Deve l o pmen t in  2001 ) . way :  He  Egeb j e r g g a r d urban  is  a 782 un i t ,  ex t e n s i o n  in t e n s i f i c a t i o n mun i c i p a l i t y 15  and  pro j e c t  of  of  through  pub l i c and  an  p la n n i n g  gu i d e l i n e s  Egeb j e r g g a r d  was t h e  exh i b i t i o n  dwe l l i n g s  star t ed  o f 1997 ,  sch eme s  were nea r l y  in f i l l  is  commerc i a l  In no v a t i o n s  1996 .  iden t i t y  and cha r a c t e r ,  June 1988 and by t h e  end  on  ne i g h b o u r h o o d  sound  mate r i a l s  and  c r ime  i nh a b i t a n t s . in t o  the  of  th e s e  munic i p a l  and ou t s i d e  qua r t e r ’ s  fou r  re s e r v e d  us e (200 1 ) .  in  the  dev e l o pmen t .  pro c e s s e s  They i n c l u d e d :  env i r o nmen t a l l y  mixed  land  streng then ing  the  and pa r t i c i p a t i o n have plan ,  since  been  and in t o  of t h e muni c i p a l i t y  Page 38  and  i n fo rm and hou s e h o l d s ,  hou s i n g ,  ar t ,  the  se l e c t i v e  si t e s  app r o a c h e s ,  pr e v e n t i o n ,  Many of  ove r a l l  bo t h wi t h i n  work s  and a l l  Lim i t e d f ew  va r i a t i o n  af f o r d a b l e  struc tu r e ,  a  bo t h  owne r s h i p ,  of  urban  fini shed .  mixed  in t e g r a t i o n  regu l a t i o n .  was comp l e t e  occu r r e d  of t h e  of  of  or in s t i t u t i o n a l  produ c t s  sy s t em  Cons t r u c t i o n  the  occu r r i n g  compe t i t i o n ,  and  in  in  de s i g n  emerg e d  venu e o f an in t e r n a t i o n a l  in  stages  for  A new pa t t e r n  innova t i v e  th e p la n n i n g  hou s i n g  the  popu l a t i o n )  ne i g h b o u r h o o d s ’  exp e r i m e n t  bu i l d i n g  in  (50 , 0 0 0  deba t e ,  use ,  ne i g h b o u r h o o d  Kobenha v n .  ‘in t eg ra t ed  mixe d  loca t e d  Bal l e r u p  km nor t hw e s t  for  38 ha .  us e , soc i a l  of  fu t u r e  inco rpo r a t e d  o th e r  pro j e c t s  of Bal l e r u p .  St r a t e g i e s fa r - reach i n g and lo c a l in  in f l u e n c e s  4.4 - 1.  inco rpo r a t i n g  en t i r e  and  Egeb j e r g g a r d  tha t  ne i g h b o u r h o o d .  Figu r e  scop e s ,  use d in th e  The  stre t ch  Thes e  pro j e c t  coo r d i n a t i o n its  re s u l t s  beyond th e  are  ou t l i n e d  to o k  a  ac r o s s have  pro j e c t  sy s t em s  tu rn  res i d e n t s  spe c i f i c a l l y  agen c y  in  hav e had  app r o a c h ,  sc a l e s  in f l u e n c e d  and the  sy s t em .  Figur e 4 . 4 - 5 . In f l u e n c e s on va r i o u s en t i t i e s  of Egeb j e r g g a r d  demons t r a t i o n  The Dan i s h  Adop t e d t h e f i n a n c i n g  Min i s t r y  in t h e ne i g h b o u r h o o d as a new pro c e d u r e  of  Hous i n g  fo r  al l  hous i n g  pi lo t  re c e i v i n g  pro j e c t  pro j e c t us ed  pub l i c  financ ing . Larg e  Adop t e d ac t i o n  deve l o p e r s  s t a t em e n t s in f l u e n c e  bus i n e s s  po l i c y  pro c e d u r e s  st r a t e g i e s  tha t  occu r r e d  Egeb j e r g g a r d Munic i p a l i t y  and / o r  on urb a n eco l o g y t h a t  managemen t deba t e  pl a n s  hous i n g  Adop t e d be t t e r  and  bas e d on t h e wi t h i n  the  soc i e t i e s .  coope r a t i o n  ac r o s s  depa r tm e n t s  due t o t h e pro f e s s i o n a l  deve l o pmen t  and i n c r e a s e d  bu i l d i n g  tha t  t oo k pl a c e  capa c i t y as pa r t  of t h e  pro j e c t . Adop t e d mul t i p l e qua l i f i c a t i o n deve l o pmen t  cr i t e r i a  stage  re v i ew .  Page 39  i n t h e pr e -  of pro j e c t  Broad l y  Conf i rm ed t h e impo r t a n c e ci t i z e n  pa r t i c i p a t i o n  and deve l o pmen t  to th i s  in t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y pl a n n i n g close  4.5  Analy s i s  Thes e se r v e  to  cen t r a l . ou t s e t , an  Whi l e  to  unf o l d e d  r e v i ew  we can  stud i e s  rea l i z e d  and co l l a b o r a t i o n  and  tha t  Management Appl i c a t i o n s  of urb a n  no t  po l i c i e s - i n - ac t i o n of  abov e  an  adap t i v e  examp l e s ,  exp l i c i t  in th e pro c e s s , as  by t h e  wi t n e s s e d  ad j u s tm e n t  of  managemen t lea rn i ng  ob j e c t i v e lea r n i n g  th r o u g h  can  th e  d id become  th e  po l i c i e s  at  is  at t en t i o n as  re s u l t s  ove r t ime .  Usin g 1,  asp e c t ,  inc l ud e  in Egeb j e r g g a r d .  of th e  was  a t some po i n t  impo r t a n t  pa i d  it  by t h e  of t h e be t t e r  unde r s t a n d i n g  In ea ch  bec au s e  and i n t e r s e c t o r a l  coope r a t i o n  demons t r a t i o n s  app l i c a t i o n s .  tha t  bec au s e  of Adapt i v e  i n f o rm ou r  prov i d e d  and produ c t  to ok p l a c e  in pa r t  pro j e c t .  Adop t e d pro c e d u r e s coope r a t i o n  in the plann i ng  pro c e s s  of t h e con t r i b u t i o n s ci t i z e n r y  of i n t e g r a t e d  th e ga i n  app l i e d  po l i c y  ind i c a t o r s  ins i g h t adap t i v e  examp l e s  h ig h l i g h t e d  an  urb a n  con t e x t ,  di f f e r e n t  asp e c t s  as  in t o  in  ways  whic h  the  managemen t  by  the  de s i g n ,  urb a n  Page 40  in  Figu r e  stra t eg i e s .  demons t r a t i o n s  though , of  ou t l i n e d  al l th e y  th e  ca s e  The t h r e e  occu r  wi t h i n  add r e s s  env i r o nmen t :  4.1 -  ve r y  hou s i n g  po l i c y ,  s t o rmwa t e r  in f r a s t r u c t u r e ,  and  mixed - use  ne i g h b o u r h o o d deve l o pmen t . Demons t r a t i o n s such  as  the s e  po l i c i e s are  dis conne c t i o n  be twe e n  demons t r a t i o n  can  are a  and  gene r a l  ha l f po l i c y  deve l o pmen t a l As have  much  promi s e in  a  be  upon  It  is  managemen t a  manne r  plac e .  If  then  are  to  con s e q u e n c e s .  ef f e c t i v e of  stag ing and  so c i a l  and  2) . demons t r a t i o n s  unde r t a k e  po l i c y  maximum l e a r n i n g  Demons t r a t i o n s l im i t e d ,  a l l ow  exp e r im e n t a l  can be moni t o r e d  ove r  t ime ,  can be made as l e a r n i n g  takes  suc c e s s f u l ,  be ‘ma i n s t r e am e d ’  “An  fo r  2001 ,  a  br i d g i n g  imp l emen t a t i o n  promo t e s  on  pro j e c t s  to  so r t  app r o a c h ,  tha t  and r e f i n eme n t s  a  zone  way  imp l emen t e d  pro j e c t s  as  a  (v a n Vl i e t  as  ac t i o n .  be twe e n  Outcome s and behav i o u r  and chang e s  pa t hway  lo o k e d hou s e  neg a t i v e  to  strong and  making .  adap t i v e  and min im i z e s  can  way  demons t r a t i o n  po l i c y  lea rn i ng”  expe r im e n t s  bas i s .  be  an  po l i c i e s  a  and  the  and adop t e d  re f i n e d  po l i c i e s  on a wide r  ba s i s  as app r o p r i a t e . In  th e s e  examp l e s ,  demons t r a t i o n s  as  tha t  be t t e r  lead  i nn ov a t i o n  to  app l i c a t i o n s  es s e n t i a l l y  fo r  po l i c y  lea r n i n g and  the  and  use  the  r e f i n eme n t  main s t r e am i n g  of  ove r t ime .  Whi l e  po l i t i c a l l y  gro un d s  muni c i p a l i t i e s  exp l i c i t l y as fea s i b l e  ta lk i ng  abou t  ‘expe r imen t s ’ as  adap t i v e is  dis cu s s e d  wha t demons t r a t i o n s  Page 41  can be .  managemen t  ty p i c a l l y ea r l i e r ,  tha t  Each examp l e  no t is he r e  beg i n s  wi t h  to  how wel l  se e  be twe e n  ‘wha t  add r e s s e d  in t e n t i o n  to  it  “The r e s e a r c h  work s .  a  pu r p o s e f u l 2) .  try  ou t  we know’ and ‘wha t  th rough  th rough 2001 ,  the  Thes e  more  a po l i c y  or pro j e c t  sugg e s t s  we need to  exp e r im e n t a l  are  gap  know’ can be  f r amewo r k  demons t r a t i o n - d i f f u s i o n ”  demons t r a t i o n s  the  (v a n  and Vl i e t  hypo t h e s e s - i n - ac t i o n  i n t h e urb a n con t e x t . The  examp l e s  in  th i s  se c t i o n  flex ib i l i t y ,  inco rpo r a t e d  stakeho lde r  kep t  coming  back  done  ove r  chang e s , ve r s a .  t ime ,  The r e  depa r tm e n t s  or i g i n a l  and  the  i n f o rma t i o n  adap t i v e  was  also  the s e  l im i t a t i o n s  to It  some ca s e s , economi c  the  is  use  ye t  pa s s e s ,  t ime  a  vi s a ac r o s s  po l i c y  iso l a t e  wi t h i n  managemen t ,  con s i d e r a t i o n s  (see  can  a  is  to  like ly is  ha r d e r  or van  in f l u e n c e eva l u a t i n g Vl i e t  Figu r e  Page 42  o th e r  and  in  the  to  in  la rge  t ime f r ame  in c r e a s e  of  di f f u s i o n ove r  t ime ;  link  inc r e a s e d  innova t i o n s  back to a  (v a n Vl i e t th e  sugg e s t s  4 . 5 - 1) .  or  of  sp e c i f i c  po l i c i e s  close  occu r  it  be  us e  cau s e - and - e f f e c t  Time l a g s  or pro j e c t ’ s  plann i n g  r ema r k a b l e  th e r e  knowl e d g e and th e use of su c c e s s f u l  adap t i v e  and  coo r d i n a t i o n  when re c e s s i o n s  occu r  Di f f u s i o n  When  was  i n f o rme d  pr a c t i c e  demons t r a t i o n  to  pa r t i c u l a r l y  chang e s  show  of  di f f i c u l t  of knowl e d g e .  sing l e  Moni t o r i n g  ga t h e r e d  to  exc e p t i o n a l  stra t eg i e s ,  imp l emen t a t i o n .  as  back  examp l e s  managemen t  pro j e c t s .  goa l .  and  or d i s c i p l i n e s .  Though  pro j e c t  the  managemen t  inc l ude d  pa r t i c i p a t i o n ,  to  linking  al l  The  2001 ) .  app l i c a t i o n five  of  impo r t a n t  app l i c a t i o n  of  adap t i v e  managemen t  pr e s c r i p t i v e or agen c y . or  pa t h . It  o th e r  doe s  It  can  no t  cen t r a l  to  the  4 . 1 - 1)  inc l ud i n g  It  adap t i v e  embra c i n g  pr a c t i c e  managemen t  whi l e  keep i n g s i g h t  mus t  managemen t  expe r im e n t a t i o n  fo l l ow  in v o l v e  of t h e or i g i n a l  Figur e 4 . 5 - 6 . Adap t i v e managemen t (v a n Vl i e t 2001 )  one  e l emen t s  (see  Figu r e  pa r t i c i p a t i o n ,  and moni t o r i n g ; to  a pro j e c t ,  th e  app r o a c h  lea rn i ng ,  back  ano t h e r  and l i n k i n g regu l a r l y  goa l s .  app l i c a t i o n  con s i d e r a t i o n s  Rel a t i v e advan t a g e  I s t h e app l i c a t i o n be t t e r t h a n t h e s t a t u s quo , or i s i t pe r c e i v e d as be t t e r t h a n th e s t a t u s quo?  Compa t i b i l i t y  I s t h e app l i c a t i o n a good f i t fo r t h e peop l e and env i r o nmen t of t h i s pl a c e a t th i s t ime ? How s t r o n g migh t t h e re s i s t a n c e be? Thi s cha r a c t e r i s t i c i s somewha t s im i l a r t o Fran c i s West l e y ’ s l e s s o n fou r fo r t h e i nd i v i d u a l manage r ( s e e Sec t i o n 3 . 3 ) , which i n vo l v e s t a k i n g advan t a g e of t h e moment i n t ime when one can mos t op t ima l l y cap i t a l i z e on t h e ene r g y and movemen t of ot h e r s .  Compl ex i t y  I s t h e app l i c a t i o n to o di f f i c u l t t o unde r s t a n d and app l y ? The manage r s mus t ju gg l e mul t i p l e s t r a t e g i e s and goa l s wel l and i n t u r n communi c a t e th em t o ot h e r s . Thi s cha r a c t e r i s t i c i s c l o s e l y re l a t e d to West l e y ’ s l e s s o n two fo r t h e i n d i v i d u a l manage r ( s e e Sec t i o n 3 . 3 ) .  Tr i a l a b i l i t y  Can ot h e r peop l e t r y ou t asp e c t s of th e po l i c y or pro j e c t , or mus t th e y commi t a l l a t once ? In c l u d i n g di a l o g u e , Page 43  a  by an in d i v i d u a l  fo rm of a po l i c y ,  s imp l y  coo r d i n a t i o n , and  to  be i n i t i a t e d  can be i n t h e  stra t egy .  need  f l e x i b i l i t y , and cho i c e i s impo r t a n t fo r ongo i n g l e a r n i n g and chang e t o occu r . Obse r v a b i l i t y  How vi s i b l e and di s c e r n a b l e ar e th e re s u l t s of t h e po l i c y or pro j e c t ? Communi c a t i n g t h e s e wel l i s key t o bro a d e n i n g t h e acc e p t a n c e and adop t i o n th e po l i c y or pro j e c t , and expand i n g l e a r n i n g beyond i t s bounda r i e s .  Page 44  of  5 .0  Conc l u s i o n s and Recommenda t i o n s 5.1  Summary of Poten t i a l  Contr i b u t i o n  of Adapt i v e  Management to Urban Po l i c i e s Adap t i v e  managemen t  promo t i n g  be t t e r  stra t eg i e s  are  dis cu s s e d wide s p r e a d na t u r a l  exp l i c i t l y As  embra c e s  managemen t  res e a r c h ,  also  ef f e c t i v e  di f f e r e n t  in  po l i t i c a l  arena  dec a d e s ,  9  in  in  in  a the  pr a c t i c a l  app r o a c h  r e g ime ,  resou r c e s  th a t  adap t i v e  fo r  adequ a t e  ove r  t ime .  and nego t i a t i o n  t ime no t  of  on l y  urb a n  It  ba s e d  c l ima t e .  managemen t  stra t egy  area s  bec a u s e  whic h  planne r s  th a t  of  po l i t i c a l are  of e f f e c t i v e  Page 45  conv e r s e l y nego t i a t i o n  Work i n g wi l l  and ou t l oo k  th i s .  The  hav e worked fo r  imp l emen t a t i o n s  high l y  adap t i v e  by managemen t  po l i t i c a l  Ef f e c t i v e  For an i n - dep t h di s c u s s i o n Fi s h e r and Ury (1991 ) .  tha t  an  ad j u s tm e n t  swayed  one i n  stra t eg i e s  ca s e  in  th r o u g h exp e r im e n t a t i o n .  ove r  di f f e r e n t  th i s  th e  ev i d e n c e  dia l o g u e  by th e  is  is  no t  as  9  adap t i v e  howeve r .  managemen t  is  env i r o nmen t  th rough  and  to  fo r  managemen t  th o u g h  managemen t  re l e v an c e  po l i c i e s bu t  is  con s i d e r a b l e  and pr i n c i p l e s .  managemen t  resu l t  good  openn e s s  Con t i n u e d  an  lea rn i ng  moni t o r i n g ,  requ i r e s  As  exped i t e d  any  takes  deve l o pmen t ,  on goa l s  be  urb a n  se c t i o n ,  the r e  promi s e  Adap t i v e  the  manne r .  arena ,  can  wi t h  in  pr e v i o u s  exp l i c i t  re s o u r c e s  gr e a t  plann i ng .  play  the  or  imp r ov emen t s  also  urb a n at  in  shows  of  adap t i v e  env i r o nmen t  may  use f u l  the  techn i que s ,  in se e  na t u r a l  resou r c e s  arena ,  as  sc i e n c e  is  also  ra r e l y  un t o u c h e d by po l i t i c s . One  cha l l e n g e  resou r c e large . tha t  managemen t The r e  geog r a p h i c  Here i s  of t e n  and  fi t  muni c i p a l  the  and  in  Si t u a t i o n impo r t a n t  A:  rec r e a t i o n .  examp l e ) .  area s Adap t i v e  and  moni t o r i n g , i n be t t e r ,  adap t i v e sc a l e s  of a muni c i p a l i t y fo r  of  dia l o g u e  is  ne i g h b o u r h o o d  or  demons t r a t e  how  boa r d s . 4  use d  wi t h i n  two hypo t h e t i c a l  si tua t i on s  how  managemen t  adap t i v e  ef f e c t i v e  urb a n  plann i n g  urb a n  area s  in  manne r : Pub l i c  lo c a t i o n s  geog r a p h i c  to  large  (Ba s k e r v i l l e  and po l i c y  alr e ady  demons t r a t e  a more exp l i c i t  fo rm  Sec t i o n  are  can con t r i b u t e  qu i t e  reg i o n a l l y  of us i n g  pro j e c t  is  Fo l l ow i n g  plac e  oppo r t u n i t y  th e  managemen t  na t u r a l  of t e n  ho r i z o n s  bound a r i e s  th e  in  in  advan t a g e  given  stra t eg i e s  po l i c y  t ime  examp l e s  fu r t h e r  and  long  wi t h i n  is  in  and dec i s i o n - mak in g ove r  or adv i s o r y  muni c i p a l i t i e s .  sc a l e  mechan i sm s  coun c i l s  adap t i v e  managemen t  the  one po t e n t i a l  pr e - ex i s t i n g  The  th a t  dis cu s s i o n  ne i g h b o u r h o o d ,  tha t  is  i n an urb a n con t e x t :  ea s i l y  like ly  adap t i v e  ra r e l y  area s  managemen t  or  are  fac i l i t a t e  1995 ) .  of  fo r They (a  spa c e s pub l i c are  pa r k  prog r amming as s e s sme n t , more use f u l  engag emen t , ty p i c a l l y  or  managemen t  in  expe r im e n t s  arena s , and  pub l i c  chang e s sp a c e s .  Page 46  wi t h ove r  re l a x a t i o n ,  sma l l ,  rec r e a t i o n  are  fixed  cen t r e , cov e r  bo t h  fo r the  imp l emen t a t i o n , t ime  re s u l t i n g  Si t u a t i o n managemen t  B:  inc r e a s e d  wi l l i n g  to  pub l i c  amen i t i e s .  acc e p t  ne i g h b o u r h o o d managemen t ,  a  area s  any g i v e n  Fo l l ow i n g  th e  main  cu l t u r e  wi t h i n  in s t i t u t i o n s  co r r e c t i n g  In  at  means  (L i g h t  ca r r i e s  gr e a t  he r e i n ,  plann i ng  10  a  adap t i v e –  in t o  Exampl e s of s t r u c t u r a l i n t r a n s i g e n t , and o t h e r  a  managemen t ,  planne r ,  St r u c t u r a l to  prob l em s  de t e c t i n g  1990 ) .  str i c t  and th e  Encou r a g i n g  f l ow  bo t h  ac r o s s  ways  po l i c i e s .  d i c h o t omy  feedback  and  be twe e n  in s t i t u t i o n s  and  unde rm i n e s  156 ) . managemen t  many  pr a c t i c e in  is  learn i ng .  who imp l emen t  muni c i p a l on  it  mus t be encou r a g e d  i n f o rma t i o n  thwa r t s  promi s e  and  it  March  th o s e  e t a l 1995 ,  lea rn i ng  ef f e c t i v e l y  and  fo r  adap t i v e  and imp l emen t a t i o n  In c o r p o r a t i n g exp l i c i t  of  ba r r i e r s  and  leve l s  adap t i v e  or org a n i z a t i o n ,  org a n i z a t i o n .  “ma i n t a i n i n g  di f f e r e n t  th i s  to i n f o rm i n f i l l  of an urb a n  are  make r s  is  need e d  on  us i n g  a l l ow a n c e  encou r a g e  fo rmu l a t i o n  lea rn i ng”  th i s  (Lev i t t  to  po l i c y  10  some  fo c u s e s  expe r i e n c e  tene t s  th e  er r o r s  con t r a s t ,  po l i c y  of  res i s t a n c e  of t h e muni c i p a l i t y .  work env i r o nmen t  ove r a l l  fo r  si t e  mus t be more th a n a l l ow e d ,  the  grow t h  One ne i g h b o u r h o o d  muni c i p a l i t y  muni c i p a l i t y  pro v i d e  by  Pub l i c  exch a n g e  on t h e  to  be twe e n  manda t e d  demons t r a t i o n  impo r t a n t  lea rn i ng  in  The  and bu i l d s  With i n  wi t h i n  is  den s i t y .  in f i l l  as  i n o th e r  lea rn i ng  in f i l l  l aws i n many muni c i p a l i t i e s .  may work aga i n s t  po l i c i e s  Urban  doe s  t ime l y  prob l em s i n c l u d e s im i l a r t r a i t s . Page 47  –  and  plann i n g leve l s . no t  fash i o n  th e r e f o r e ende a v ou r s  As a lway s  to  dis c u s s e d respond  on - t h e - ground  l a c k of coo r d i n a t i o n ;  lega l i s t i c ,  rea l i t i e s  (b e th e y  o th e rw i s e ) . can  us e  deg r e e  Both p l a n n i n g  adap t i v e to  Lea r n i n g  can  bounda r y ,  an  or  unce r t a i n  use f u l  te r r a i n  5.2  is  of  and pr a c t i c e s . a l l ow i n g  Po l i c i e s  managemen t  is  comp l e x  and  the  Deve l o pment  to  deve l o p to  fou nd a t i o n  and  urb a n  mus t  bro a d e n po l i c i e s  be i n  place  and  adap t i v e  managemen t  to  suppo r t  the  bu i l d i n g  of  po l i t i c a l  se t s  th e  They  mus t  also  by  remov i n g  nego t i a t i o n  stage  fo r  suppo r t  open  (Lev i t t  ind i v i d u a l s rewa r d s  dia l ogue  (Le e  ac r o s s  1995 ) .  dis c i p l i n e s  co l l a b o r a t i o n  wi t h i n  and March 1990 ) .  th a t and  occu r .  con s e n s u s - bu i l d i n g  managemen t  to  manage r s  po l i c i e s  an open  and  adap t i v e  ba r r i e r s  Munic i p a l  gene r a l ,  conc e p t s  plann i ng .  managemen t  the  geog r a p h i c  lea rn i n g  tha t  in t e r n a l  fo r Pol i c y  wi t h i n  a muni c i p a l  Simi l a r  nav i g a t i n g  the  rea l i t i e s .  othe r  i n muni c i p a l  adap t i v e  th r o u g h  org a n i z a t i o n s  or  Adap t i v e  oppo r t u n i t y  And ye t ,  mus t  env i r o nmen t  fo r  in h e r e n t  a huge  app l i c a t i o n  among  to o l  Recommenda t i o n s  The r e  fo r  si tua t i o n s .  to  wi t h i n  muni c i p a l i t i e s .  i n eac h of t h e s e  imp r o v e  managemen t  mange r ,  muni c i p a l i t y  ac r o s s  to  respond s  adap t i v e  in d i v i d u a l  or  and org a n i z a t i o n s  techn i que s  pr a c t i c e  a  env i r o nmen t a l  pr a c t i t i o n e r s  th rough  wi t h i n  a cr i t i c a l l y  the  the i r  occu r  org a n i z a t i o n ,  po l i t i c a l ,  managemen t  which  many con t e x t s :  app l y  pr a c t i c a l ,  mus t  find  streng then the  a and  org a n i z a t i o n  in a bu r e a u c r a c y Page 48  are  way  to  r ewa r d as  gr e a t e r  a  crea t e lea rn i n g  who l e . fo r  “ In  find i ng  be t t e r  ways  find ing 1995 ,  to  do wha t  di f f e r e n t 100 ) .  que s t i o n i n g  dis c i p l i n e s  i n ord e r  obs e r v a t i o n ,  and  imp l emen t a t i o n , Ligh t  to  ongo i n g  lea r n i n g  adap t i v e  can  and  crea t e  new id e a s  West l e y  in  gu i d e  th e i r  demons t r a t i o n s  are  pr a c t i c a l  adap t i v e star t  app l i c a t i o n s .  pro j e c t s  managemen t exp and i n g  f r om  be t t e r  and Schon  th a t to  use  the  way  pr a c t i c e .  to  beg i n  adap t i v e  wide r  inco rpo r a t e is  an  use  of  ex i s t  as wel l ,  to o l s  we can se e th a t  In c l u d i n g  pr i n c i p a l s  suppo r t s  plann i n g  he r e i n ,  which  the  lea rn  (Aryg r i s  org a n i z a t i o n  con t a i n e d  one  ac r o s s  rega r d i n g  a good pos i t i o n to  th a t  2002 ) .  ana l y s i s  demons t r a t i o n  pee r s  gene r a t e  In t h e l im i t e d  urb a n  wi t h  and po l i c y  fo r  (Ba s k e r v i l l e  f r om expe r i e n c e ,  managemen t  managemen t  do”  are  env i r o nmen t s  re v i ew  plann i ng is  to  th e y  to l e a r n  e t a l 1995 ;  muni c i p a l  do th a n  th i n g s  managemen t ,  A  of  (b e t t e r )  Organ i z a t i o n s  encou r a g e  1978 ;  we a l r e a d y  use  of  exp l i c i t  obv i o u s  plac e  urb a n - ba s e d  to  adap t i v e  managemen t . Othe r adap t i v e  oppo r t u n i t i e s  managemen t  r e c ommenda t i o n s  coming  in t e r n a t i o n a l org a n i z a t i o n s ef f e c t i v e  urb a n also  managemen t  of  have  th e  in f o rm  the  to  pr a c t i c e s and o t h e r  of  ca s e the  can p l a y i n an urb a n con t e x t . Page 49  na t i o n a l  oppo r t u n i t y  managemen t pub l i c  ana l y s i s  org a n i z a t i o n s .  managemen t  adap t i v e  po l i c y  reg i on a l ,  manne r i n pub l i c a t i o n s  High l i g h t i n g to  ou t  in t h e  plann i ng  adap t i v e  illus t ra t i ve  se r v e s  stra t eg i e s  suc h as i n c l u d i n g  and Thes e  h ig h l i g h t in  an  medi a . stud i e s  ro l e It  and  is  also  adap t i v e impo r t a n t ,  howeve r ,  to he l p  dis appe a r po l i c y t ime  upon  the  so l u t i o n s . as  5.3  cre a t i o n  resu l t s  an  plann i ng  and  ana l y s i s ,  di r e c t  in  rese a r c h th e r e  re s e a r c h  is  adap t i v e  managemen t ,  po l i c y  on l y  he r e fo r  th e  to  to  ove r new  ex i s t s  on whic h  a  va s t  a ims  urb a n  lea rn i ng  is to  quan t i t y  pa i d  lea r n i n g so  to  po l i c y  cen t r a l . ba s e  of  th i s  re l a t i v e  t o deve l o p  to t h e  and  is  a  gr e a t  and  dea l  of  su c h as :  be twe e n  How can  the  in t e r s e c t i o n  org a n i z a t i o n s ,  the r e  org a n i z a t i o n .  th e  the  ind i v i d u a l  ro l e s  ind i v i d u a l  be  of  the  mutu a l l y  i n manag i n g adap t i v e l y ?  Pa r t n e r s h i p s  be twe e n r e s e a r c h e r s pr a c t i c a l  examp l e ,  stra t eg i e s  repo r t  which  and r e l a t i o n s h i p  suppo r t i v e  For  th i s  more in - dep t h s t u d y ,  ins t i t u t i o n  •  reac t i o n  app r o a c h  now be i n g  ana l y s i s ;  The ro l e s and  in  app e a r  ava i l a b l e .  is  •  of po l i c i e s  in  managemen t  managemen t  though  oppo r t u n i t y  managemen t  fo r Fur the r Study  At t e n t i o n  pub l i c  pro b l em s do no t  new adap t i v e  un f o l d  con t a i n e d  adap t i v e  Very l i t t l e  th a t  stra t eg i e s .  ana l y s i s  exp l o r e  of  ef f e c t s  Recommenda t i o n s  The  ad j a c e n t  unde r s t a n d  Rat h e r ,  the  imp l emen t a t i o n  of  ci t i z e n s  he l p  so l u t i o n s  how to  can plan  Page 50  and pr a c t i t i o n e r s fo r  muni c i p a l i t i e s .  adap t i v e and  managemen t  imp l emen t  be t t e r  •  pe rm i t  se r v i c e  plann i ng  org a n i z a t i o n ?  Stud y to  the  aid  lea r n i n g  in  ac r o s s  wha t suc c e e d e d ,  wi t h i n  pro c e s s  knowl e d g e  managemen t  be  de l i v e r y  a  munic i p a l  and dev e l o p  stra t eg i e s  di f f u s i o n  th rough  muni c i p a l i t i e s .  adap t i v e  What  fa i l e d ,  and why? How can knowl e d g e sh a r i n g  ope r a t i o n a l i z e d  in  a  pr a c t i c a l  manne r  ac r o s s  muni c i p a l i t i e s ? •  Mode l  urb a n  St r a t e g i c  mode l i n g  plann i ng tha t  adap t i v e  re l a t e d  ac r o s s  and  pu l l  lea rn i ng  and  chang e  di f f e r e n t  con t e x t s .  issues ,  th e r e  respond  to  lead ing  1985 ) .  ou t  hie r a r c h i c a l di s t r i b u t i o n Most  wi t h i n  s t r o n g po l i t i c a l  re s i s t a n c e  The r e a  is  ev i d e n c e  more  equ a l i z e d  dec e n t r a l i z e d  hav e  ce r t a i n  re s p o n s e  dev e l o pmen t  may no t  Rap i d  wher e is  some  re l a t i v e l y  pr e s e n t  di s t r i b u t i o n  dec i s i o n - mak in g  Page 51  (Qu i n n  conc e n t r a t i o n  org a n i z a t i o n s ,  sy s t em s  respon s e s  t o be pr e s e n t  t o chang e (Wes t l e y  tha t  to  re l a t e d  org a n i z a t i o n s ,  muni c i p a l i t i e s  or  and o t h e r  are l i k e l y  resou r c e s  area  demons t r a t e  in  r e c ommenda t i o n s .  of  urb a n  reg i o n s  tha t  of th e s e  at  to p i c  (o r  t ime  why po l i c y  powe r and wea l t h  wi t h  ove r  study  rea son s  rese a r c h  a sing l e  fea t u r e s  t o chang e and adap t a t i o n  les s  un i f o rm  are  to  po l i c i e s .  can l o o k  muni c i p a l i t i e s  na t i o n s ) ,  Even wi t h i n - dep t h  in  and ana l y s i s  po l i c i e s  ex i s t s  managemen t  and of  struc t u r e s  lead ing  of to  1990 ) .  org a n i z a t i o n s re s o u r c e s rep r e s e n t  and a  “lea r n i n g ” prob l em s  mode l  (Sc h e f f e r  like l i hood it  is  po l i c y  expe r im e n t s  re f l e c t  th i s  And  managemen t  wi t h i n  can as  and  the  (Ba s k e r v i l l e  ab l e  In ord e r th e  strong  sy s t em s  doe s  lea r n i n g th e r e  to  respond  to  pac e  inc r e a s e  of l e a r n i n g ,  adap t i v e tha t  to th e  to  managemen t some  deg r e e  evo l u t i o n to  and of  eve r ywh e r e ,  cen t r a l  to  are  numero u s  oppo r t u n i t i e s  managemen t  al l  su s t a i n a b l e 1995 ,  plac e  bu r e a u c r a t s ,  mus t  ci t i z e n s ,  take  is  adap t i v e  “Po l i t i c i a n s ,  of  nec e s s a r y  2003 ) .  adva n c e  and pr i v a t e )  democ r a c y  be t t e r  and in c r e a s e  app r o a c h ,  env i r o nmen t .  pe rm i t  al  to  in t r o du c i n g  (pub l i c  is  st ruc t u r e .  Lea r n i n g howeve r .  et  of su c c e s s  app r o p r i a t e  beg i n  whic h  learn , they  in  Page 52  th e  to  urb a n  a rep r e s e n t a t i v e al l  po l i c y ,  ach i e v emen t  99 ) .  to  adap t i v e  and org a n i z a t i o n s  mus t  su s t a i n e d  th e  of  r emembe r  to  which  is  any  goa l ”  Refe r e n c e s Acke rman , M.S , V. Pip e k , and V. Wulf (e d s ) . 2003 . Shar i n g Expe r t i s e : Beyond Knowl e dg e Managemen t . Cambr i d g e , MA: The MIT Pr e s s . Amer i c a n Pl a nn i n g Assoc i a t i o n . Deve l o pmen t . Pl a nn i n g Advi s o r y APA.  1998 . The Pr i n c i p l e s of Smar t Se rv i c e Repo r t 479 . Chi c a g o :  Ange l e s , N. and P . Gurs t e i n ( ed s ) . 2007 . Lear n i n g Civ i l Soc i e t i e s : Sh i f t i n g Con t e x t s fo r Democra t i c Plann i n g and Gove rn an c e ; Green Col l e g e Thema t i c Lec t u r e Ser i e s . Toron t o : Univ e r s i t y of Toron t o Pre s s . Argy r i s , C. , and D.A. 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