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Moving forward : opportunities for Vancouver's digital wayfinding map White, Robert W. Nov 30, 2014

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MOVING FORWARD: OPPORTUNITIES FOR VANCOUVER’S DIGITAL WAYFINDING MAPbyROBERT W. WHITEB.Sc., Simon Fraser University, 2009A PROJECT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OFTHE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OFMASTER OF SCIENCE (PLANNING)inTHE FACULTY OF APPLIED SCIENCESchool of Community and Regional PlanningWe accept this project as conformingto the required standard.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIANovember 2014© Robert W. White, 2014In the summer of 2014, as part of UBC’s Greenest City Scholar program, I completed a research internship with the City of Vancouver.The project, focusing on the potential for a new digital wayfinding system to encourage more active transportation trips in Vancouver, afforded me an opportunity to conduct research at the intersection of two of my greatest passions: human-centred design and planning.This report is based upon the results of that research.MOVING FORWARD Opportunities for Vancouver’s Digital Wayfinding MapRobert W. White, UBC SCARP MSc Planning Candidate Originally prepared for the 2014 Greenest City Scholars ProgramDepartment: City of Vancouver Engineering Services, Streets ActivitiesMentors: Catherine Neill & Jenniffer Sheel1When the City of Vancouver adopted the Greenest City 2020 Action Plan in 2010, it made a commitment to become the greenest city in the world within 10 years. Around the same time, in an effort to encourage more residents and visitors to explore the city on foot, information kiosks, or ‘map stands’, were installed across the city displaying neighbourhood maps and destinations. A pilot project in 2012 informed a system-wide refresh of these map stands to correct out-of-date information and to implement new best practices in pedestrian wayfinding design. One of the assets created as a result of this refresh was a custom, digital map of Vancouver.This report identifies opportunities for the new digital way-finding map with a particular emphasis on its potential to encourage more walking trips throughout the city.A review of Vancouver’s relevant local policies highlights ac-tions supporting improvements to pedestrian wayfinding, walkability, health, and the continued release of freely acces-sible ‘open data’. Existing literature covering active transpor-tation, urban wayfinding, and mobile wayfinding tools forms a foundation for lessons learned from a peer wayfinding review covering London, New York, Toronto, Helsinki, Ed-monton, Melbourne, and the University of British Columbia. In-situ meetings with City employees, project partners, and the Wayfinding Working Group refine potential uses of the map, and helped gauge interest in becoming more involved with the project moving forward.The report concludes with the following recommendations:•	 Create a standardized template for Development Permit Application signage•	 Build guidelines for new walking route maps•	 Produce a line of map-branded merchandise•	 Release of a public wayfinding map Application Programming Interface (API)•	 Pursue the creation of an online Map Maker application•	 Embed standardized interactive maps onto the City’s website•	 Support the planning and execution of a map-focused Hackathon eventThanks to the previous investment into the creation of the digital wayfinding map, Vancouver now has access to a tre-mendous new asset with a wide range of potential benefits. If the City decides not to pursue any additional applications for the new map, it will miss out on a number of opportu-nities to set a new precedent for wayfinding and civic map-ping. The investment has been made, and now is the time to continue moving forward.AcknowledgementsI would like to thank Catherine Neill, Jenniffer Sheel, and Ian MacPhee for their ongoing guidance and assistance in completing this report. This small Wayfinding Group at the City of Vancouver created a comfortable and cheerful working environment in which to conduct my research, and I greatly valued their time and expertise. I would also like to thank my Masters Supervisor, Maged Senbel for his unending encouragement and support throughout this project process and my time at SCARP.  ExECutIVE SuMMARY PAGE 1  |  MOVING FORWARD: OPPORTUNITIES FOR VANCOUVER’S DIGITAL WAYFINDING MAP1. Executive Summary        12. Introduction        32.1 The Greenest City Scholar Program    43. Background        53.1 An Introduction to Wayfinding     63.2 Vancouver Wayfinding Overview    113.3 Supporting Plans & Strategies     154. Research Design       194.1  Research Questions      204.2 Research Objectives      204.3 Research Methods       214.4 Research Limitations      225. Discussion of Findings      235.1 Literature Review       245.2 Wayfinding Peer Review      285.3 Summary of In-Situ Meetings     335.4 Current Mapping at the City     356. Recommendations       396.1 Recommended Opportunities     406.2 Static Products       406.3 Interactive Products      446.4 Easy Wins        496.5 Implications of Inaction      497. Conclusions        507.1 Summary of Research      507.2 Moving Forward       508. Works Cited        519. Appendix        55CONTENTS2INtRODuCtION2.1 The GReenesT CiTy sCholaR PRoGRamIn 2014, the City of Vancouver partnered with the University of British Columbia’s Sustainability Initiative for the 5th year in a row on its Greenest City Scholar program. This program sponsors graduate students currently enrolled in Masters or PhD programs at UBC to work with mentors at the City of Vancouver to advance Vancouver’s Greenest City goals. In total, 16 projects were accepted; each in response to one of the 10 goals outlined in the Greenest City 2020 Action Plan. Within the City of Vancouver’s Engineering Services de-partment, the Wayfinding Group in the Streets Activities branch submitted a project proposal for a student to assist with wayfinding research. The accepted project proposal, titled “Assessment of a new wayfinding system and identifi-cation of opportunities for further development,” tasked me, the selected student, with investigating potential future ap-plications of a digital wayfinding map. My research intend-ed to help justify the extension of the wayfinding project’s continued roll-out in different forms on-street and outline strategies to receive the greatest benefit from the digital in-vestment. I have not included an assessment of the new wayfinding system in this report, as the system roll-out was delayed beyond the research completion date. The report instead focuses on providing recommended future directions and additional uses for the digital wayfinding map while con-tinuing to support the City’s Greenest City goal of Green Transportation.Fig. 1: 2014 UBC Greenest City ScholarsINtRODuCtION  |  PAGE 43BACkGROuND3.1 an inTRoduCTion To WayfindinG“To become completely lost is perhaps a rather rare experience for most people in the modern city. We are supported by the presence of others and by special way-finding devices: maps, street numbers, route signs, bus placards,” notes Kevin Lynch in his pioneering ‘The Image of the City’. “But let the mishap of disorientation occur, and the sense of anxiety and even terror that accompanies it reveals to us how closely it is linked to our sense of balance and well-being.” (Lynch, 1960)Wayfinding is a four-stage process:1. orient oneself in a building or environment in relation to a destination.2. determine a path leading to that destination.3. monitor the progress to ensure the destination is growing nearer.4. Recognize when the destination has been reached.Over 50 years ago, Lynch coined the term ‘way-finding’ to refer to systems that help people navigate the world around them based on sensation and memory. His research found people formed individually-customized mental maps to paint a picture of the physical world, often based around five consistent elements: paths, edges, districts, nodes, and landmarks (Lynch, 1960). The combination of these features resulted in a mental map that clarified the urban fabric, and allowed participants to develop a stronger pattern of their movements around the city.Recognizing the benefit of extracting these mental maps and applying them to the physical world, a number of researchers and designers began to install urban wayfinding systems to assist pedestrian movements through complex environments. Key components of these physical systems included kiosks displaying illustrated street maps, or poles with directional signage pointing towards certain landmarks or destinations. Soon cities, business associations, and tourism agencies began providing printed maps to guide visitors around unfamiliar parts of town.  PAthS         EDGES   DIStRICtS  NODES   LANDMARkSFig. 2: Lynch’s mental map building blocksBACkGROuND  |  PAGE 63.1.1 Walk!PhiladelphiaIn 1995, during a period of significant residential and com-mercial redevelopment, the City of Philadelphia launched Walk!Philadelphia. This pedestrian wayfinding system, the largest of its kind in North America with over 1,000 signs throughout the downtown core, would help pedestrians navigate the changing city. The design incorporated Lynch’s research by dividing a map of the downtown core into four colour-coded districts. Colour-coded directional signs locat-ed at each intersection augmented the ‘disk maps’ and point-ed the way to major landmarks, retail areas, and other nearby destinations. The system supported pedestrians by providing information about their current location and directions to common destinations, creating a sense of comfort and sup-port to dispel fears of getting lost and encourage more curi-osity and exploration. Pedestrians would learn through using the system that another sign is always just around the corner. 3.1.2 Legible LondonAround a decade later, Transport for London was looking for ways to help solve increasing congestion on London’s Un-derground subway network. They recognized that as many as 18,000 passengers a day used the train when their journeys could be made more quickly on foot (Buchannan, 2007) – the challenge was how to communicate that finding to the pub-lic, thereby encouraging more riders to walk to their desti-nations instead. In 2006, the precedent-setting ‘Legible Lon-don – A Wayfinding Study’ report was published by UK-based Applied Information Group (now Applied Wayfinding). The study proposed a citywide pedestrian wayfinding scheme to help make London one of the world’s most walking-friendly cities by 2015.Fig. 3: Walk!Philadelphia pedestrian directional signsPAGE 7  |  MOVING FORWARD: OPPORTUNITIES FOR VANCOUVER’S DIGITAL WAYFINDING MAPFig. 4: Legible London ‘monolith’ map standJust as Harry Beck’s ground-breaking London Underground map helped people navigate the complex subway network below ground, Legible London proposed a thoughtfully-de-signed city map system to help navigate the city fabric above ground. The new system would correct mental map assump-tions resulting from use of Underground map, which graphi-cally distorted the geography between stations often making the distance appear much greater. The new system was rolled out on a family of physical street furniture pieces – ‘monoliths’ and ‘miniliths’ – which displayed the new map featuring the street network, area names, landmark destinations, and walk-ing time radii from the map stand location. Additional ‘finger poles’ provided small flags pointing to nearby destinations. One of the defining features of Legible London, following the precedent set by Walk!Philadelphia, was the shift away from a north-orientation on the maps to an ‘ahead up’ orientation – where the map content would be oriented to the same direc-tion the map stand was facing. This resulted in a much more intuitive wayfinding experience for users. BACkGROuND  |  PAGE 8Fig. 5, top right: Beck’s 1933 London Underground map.Fig. 6, bottom left: Legible London ‘minilith’.Fig. 7, bottom right: Legible London ‘Finder’ map.3.1.3 Digital Developments in WayfindingWithin the last decade, a number of other cities have implemented or are currently pursuing pedestrian wayfinding strategies including Glasgow, Bristol, New York City, Sydney, Melbourne, Edmonton, Helsinki, and Vancouver.While these advancements have been happening, another sort of wayfinding movement has grown. Launched in 2005, Google Maps has revolutionized the way we understand the physical world around us. Building off advancements made by Yahoo Maps and MapQuest in the late 1990s, Google Maps provided unprecedented detail, incorporating satellite imag-ery, and more recently, vector-based street and building data. Shortly after it launched, a programmer hacked into the map in order to display map-based Craigslist apartment listings through the San Francisco Bay Area with his HousingMaps demo (Ratliff, 2007). When Google discovered this, they hired Paul Rademacher and the Google Maps code was opened up to the public for anyone to build upon. However, Google’s commercialized system isn’t always the most accurate. The addition of mapped business listings in the 2000s, for ex-ample, has seen mixed reviews particularly when businesses shut down but their Google Maps presence remains. Today we enjoy the luxury of having maps instantly at our fingertips in a variety of smart phone applications – provid-ing directions, access to high-resolution satellite imagery, street-level photographs, and even full 3D modelled environ-ments – accessed through an array of interactions including voice, touch and gesture-based interfaces, and augmented reality (AR) devices. Exploding in popularity with the 2007 re-lease of the Apple iPhone and similar smart phone devices, AR wayfinding applications overlay visual data onto a live view of whichever direction the device’s camera is pointed. A ‘Tunnel Vision’ app developed by Bill Meier in 2014, for example, dis-plays live train locations and other information when users point their devices at maps in New York’s subway system.PAGE 9  |  MOVING FORWARD: OPPORTUNITIES FOR VANCOUVER’S DIGITAL WAYFINDING MAPFig. 8, top: Google Maps, circa 1995Fig. 9, middle: Google Maps Earth View, circa 2014Fig. 10, bottom: Tunnel Vision augmented reality app3.1.4 Back to the BasicsAs these maps and their applications become more detailed and more complex, one of the most basic benefits of wayfinding systems begins to resurface – its role in mak-ing complex information so clear and legible it virtually fades into the background.When executed poorly, pedestrians become separated from their experience of nav-igating the city and can become confused, frustrated, or lost. Their mental map might not have a chance to develop, resulting in a lack of memory and understanding of the urban environment around them. When executed well, wayfinding systems give pedestrians the confidence to navigate without fear while encouraging curiosity and exploration. They have the feeling of arriving at their destination without any sense of anxiety, and feeling more informed about the journey.This pleasant, intuitive orientation and navigation is the goal of any good pedestri-an wayfinding system. A well-designed system integrating physical, print, digital, and smart phone applications can work seamlessly to enhance the real-world experience of navigating a city.  The starting point for many cities is the physical map stands, and it’s what the City of Vancouver focused on for their first major pedestrian wayfinding project in the late 2000s.BACkGROuND  |  PAGE 10Fig. 12: DVBIA survey of a 2012 poster case pilot map3.2 VanCouVeR WayfindinG oVeRVieWIn anticipation of the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympic Games, the City of Vancouver, here on referred to as the City or CoV, began to install pedestrian wayfinding map stands to provide walking information for residents and visitors looking for Olympic venues and other destinations. An existing 20-year street furniture contract with Outfron//Decaux, which in-cluded a provision for map stands, supported the installation of approximately 200 map stands and poster units across the city. The City hired a consultant to design and produce map content for each stand, and local business improvement as-sociations (BIAs) included their own content on one side of the stands to convey the local character of their neighbour-hoods. This street furniture contract provided the opportuni-ty for content upgrades by the City every 3 years, not including printing costs, to ensure the information remained current.3.2.1 Pilot LaunchRecognizing the instrumental role of pedestrian wayfinding to promote walkability throughout Vancouver, the City hired Applied Wayfinding, the company behind Legible London, to launch a pilot study in 2012 in partnership with TransLink, and the Downtown Vancouver Business Improvement Association (DVBIA) to test the performance of an integrated system. The pilot focused on updating the existing map stand content to provide more consistent, legible, and up-to-date map content to help pedestrians understand their environment better. The prototype maps displayed features like more accurate locations of sidewalks and steps, walking times from the map stand, and corner retail labels, and made use of the ‘ahead up’ best-practice PAGE 11  |  MOVING FORWARD: OPPORTUNITIES FOR VANCOUVER’S DIGITAL WAYFINDING MAPFig. 11: Original 2010 map stand in the South Granville areato orient the maps towards the user’s perspective. Installed near Granville and Georgia in Vancouver’s downtown core, one of the busiest pedestrian areas in the city, the prototype map stands demonstrated the potential of the new system and pro-vided an opportunity to evaluate their performance. Separate sur-veys conducted by the City and the DVBIA revealed a number of findings, a few of which are displayed to the right.BACkGROuND  |  PAGE 12People who were more likely to walkafter consulting the map.82%People who found the ‘ahead up’format easy to use.87%People who wanted a printed map in addition to the physical map stand.40%Fig. 13: A 2012 pilot map stand in the downtown core.3.2.2 Vancouver’s New Wayfinding StrategyFollowing the success of the pilot the City made the decision to roll-out the new system across Vancouver and contracted Applied, recognizing the benefits to the project partners and Applied’s unique offering, to produce the new design strategy and implement the new system. The Streets Activities branch appointed a project administrator and established an internal working group to connect Engineering, Planning, Park Board, IT, and Corporate Communications departments. The primary asset Applied produced during this new wayfinding project was a geo-referenced database system, here on referred to as the digital wayfinding map. Applied artistically styled dozens of City-supplied datasets to create the digital way-finding map, which supported a process to automate the ‘ahead up’ orientations for display on both sides of the approximately 200 map stands throughout the city. In addition to directional signage and a landmark index, a high-level ‘Planner’ map, along with a more detailed ‘Finder’ map, were designed to be displayed on each stand. Ap-plied created a zoomable webviewer to provide online access to the map while in development, allowing the Wayfinding Group to check the accuracy of the data.Fig. 14, above top: The new ‘Planner’ mapFig. 15, above bottom: The new ‘Finder’ mapPAGE 13  |  MOVING FORWARD: OPPORTUNITIES FOR VANCOUVER’S DIGITAL WAYFINDING MAPFor transit information call 604-953-3333 or visit translink.caWalking From Granville Station#61031#60993#61519#61032#60980#50190Bay4Bay3Bay2Bay1SeawallSeawallCruise ShipTerminalSea PlaneTerminalHelijetTerminalPacificCentralStationYaletown–RoundhouseStationCanada LineGranvilleStationMillennium LineExpo LineGranvilleStationWaterfrontStationMillennium LineCanada LineWest Coast ExpressSeaBusExpo LineVancouverCity CentreStationCanada LineMillennium LineExpo LineStadium–ChinatownStationMillennium LineExpo LineBurrardStationStepsStepsStepsStepsStepsRampStepsStepsStepsStepsStepsStepsStepsStepsStepsN E L S O N  S T R E E TEXPO BOULEVARDT R O U N C E  A L L E YW A T E R F R O N T  R O A DH AMI LT ON  S TR EE TE XP O BO UL EV AR DN E L S O N  S T R E E TME L V I L L E  S T R E E TK E E F E R  P L A C EC IT AD EL  P AR AD ET HU RL OW ST RE ETR IC HA RD S ST RE ETB A R C L A Y  S T R E E TR IC HA RD S ST RE ETR IC HA RD S ST RE ETW E S T  C O R D O V A  S T R E E THOME R ST RE ETH A R O  S T R E E TH A R O  S T R E E TC A N A D A  P L A C EB A R C L A Y  S T R E E TH A R O  S T R E E TB UT E ST RE ETE V E L E I G H  S T R E E TH OR NB Y ST RE ETJ ER VI S ST RE ETB RO UG HT ON  S TR EE TN IC OL A ST RE ETC AR DE RO  S TR EE TN IC OL A ST RE ETB RO UG HT ON  S TR EE TJ ER VI S ST RE ETA L B E R N I  S T R E E TN E L S O N  S T R E E TC O MO X  S T R E E TB U R N A B Y  S T R E E TH A R WO O D  S T R E E TB U R N A B Y  S T R E E TD R A K E  S T R E E TP A C I F I C  S T R E E TP A C I F I C  S T R E E TD R A K E  S T R E E TD R A K E  S T R E E TC O MO X  S T R E E TC O MO X  S T R E E TP E N D R E L L  S T R E E TMO L E  H I L L  P E D E S T R I A N  L A N EG RA NV IL LE  S TR EE TB UR RA D S T B RI D GES EY MO UR  S TR EE TS EY MO UR  S TR EE TS EY MO UR  S TR EE TWE S T  G E O R G I A  S T R E E TH OWE  S TR EE TG RA NV IL LE  S T BR ID GESMI T HE  STREETT HU RL OW ST RE ETWE S T  P E N D E R  S T R E E TT HU RL OW ST RE ETH AMI LT ON  S TR EE TMA IN LA ND  S TR EE TR IC HA RD S ST RE ETH OME R ST RE ETH AMI LT ON  S TR EE TMA IN LA ND  S TR EE TW A T E R  S T R E E TMAIN STREETW E S T  H A S T I N G S  S T R E E TH E L MC K E N  S T R E E TH OR NB Y ST RE ETH OWE  S TR EE TH E L MC K E N  S T R E E TH OME R ST RE ETN E L S O N  S T R E E TN E L S O N  S T R E E TP A CI F I C B OU L EV A RDSMI T H E  S T R E E TC AMB IE  S TR EE TC AMB IE  S TR EE TB EA TT Y ST RE ETB EA TT Y ST RE ETB EA TT Y ST RE ETG E O R G I A  V I A D U C TH AMI LT ON  S TR EE TCAMBIE STREETM AR I NE S I DE  C R E S E N TABBOTT STREETB UT E ST RE ETB UT E ST RE ETCARRALL STREETH OME R ST RE ETW E S T  C O R D O V A  S T R E E TABBOTT STREETH OWE  S TR EE TWE S T  H A S T I N G S  S T R E E TH OWE  S TR EE TCAMBI E  BRI DGEH OR NB Y ST RE ETG RA NV IL LE  S TR EE TH OR NB Y ST RE ETB UR RA RD  S TR EE TB UR RA RD  S TR EE TW E S T  P E N D E R  S T R E E TC A N A D A  P L A C EW E S T  P E N D E R  S T R E E TE  P E N D E R  S T R E E TH OR NB Y ST RE ETWE S T  C O R D O V A  S T R E E TD A V I E  S T R E E TD A V I E  S T R E E TD A V I E  S T R E E TD A V I E  S T R E E TD A V I E  S T R E E TR O B S O N  S T R E E TR O B S O N  S T R E E TG RA NV IL LE  S TR EE TG RA NV IL LE  S TR EE TH OWE  S TR EE TR O B S O N   S T R E E TD U N SMU I R  S T R E E TD U N SMU I R  S T R E E TB UR RA RD  S TR EE TR O B S O N   S T R E E TWE S T  G E O R G I A  S T R E E TWE S T  G E O R G I A  S T R E E TS EY MO UR  S TR EE TS EY MO UR  S TR EE TA L B E R N I  S T R E E TWE S T  P E N D E R  S T R E E TVancouverPlayhouseEngine 347PavilionChristChurchCathedralBentall CentreRoyalCentreCoastalChurchFirst BaptistChurchHolyRosaryCathedralSt. Andrew’s-WesleyUnited ChurchScotiaTowerRoundhouseCommunityCentreVancouverCommunityCollegeBC HydroVancouverFilm SchoolSunTowerVancouverPublic LibrarySFUHarbourCentreServiceCanadaUBCRobsonSquareSt. Paul’sHospitalTDCanadaTrustCBCMarineBuildingTD BankCTVCanada PostLaw CourtsAngel ofVictoryCenotaphWoodward’sTerry FoxMemorialCIBCTowerBMO TowerRBCFinancialGroupSFUGoldcorp Centrefor the ArtsBC SportsHall of Fame& MuseumSFU Morris J. Wosk Centre forDialogueSFU SegalBuildingBCITDowntownCampusWaterfrontStationWaterfrontStationSteamClockOlympicCauldronHoltRenfrewPacificCentreMallPacificCentreMallSinclairCentreHudson’s BayCompanyVancouverCentre MallInternationalVillage MallSearsSheratonVancouverWall CentreCineplex OdeonInternationalVillageCanada PlaceVancouverConventionCentre East& Pan Paci…cHotelL’HermitageYMCAThe OrpheumYWCA HotelVancouver ConventionCentre WestCentury PlazaHotel & SpaCoastCoal HarbourHotelHarbourCentre& LookoutTowerFairmont HotelVancouverFairmontPacific RimFairmontWaterfrontRenaissanceHarbourside HotelFour SeasonsHotelGeorgianCourt HotelHoliday InnHotel & Suites–DowntownHoward JohnsonVancouverBoutique HotelHyattRegencyRosedaleon RobsonHotelLe SoleilLodenHotelOpusHotelMarriottPinnacleHotelEmpireGranville 7TheatresMetropolitanHotelQualityHotelPacificCinémathèqueRosewoodHotelGeorgiaSandman HotelCity CentreQueenElizabethTheatreShangri-LaHotelSuttonPlaceHotelWestinGrandWedgewoodHotel & SpaBill ReidGallery ofNorthwestCoast ArtThe Centrein Vancouverfor PerformingArtsTourismVancouverVisitor CentreYWCAHealth +FitnessContemporaryArt GalleryVancouverArt GalleryBC PlaceStadiumEdgewaterCasinoRogers ArenaCommodoreBallroomScotiabankTheatreWall CentreThe VogueTheatreVancityTheatreChateauGranvilleHotelEuropeDavid Lam ParkDiscoverySquare ParkHarbourGreen ParkHelmckenParkNelsonParkCommunityGardensPortalParkJack PoolePlazaVictorySquareYaletownParkCBC PlazaRobsonSquareAndy LivingstonParkEmeryBarnesParkEnglish BayBeach ParkSunsetBeach Parkcoalharbourcentralbusinessdistrictwest end gastownyaletowncoalharbourenglishbayburrardinletfalsecreek5 minute walkYou are hereVE0495-596 R00 09/11LegendSkyTrain StationStation EntranceAccessible EntranceTourist InformationWalking and Cycling PathPoints of InterestParks and Green SpacesElevatorPublic WashroomsRetail Area0m 100m50mBus Routes From Granville StationPlease see inset map below for bus stop bay locationsRegular ServicesService at least once an hour during the daytime, all week, all year. Additional service may be provided early mornings and evenings. Regular Stop After 21:00 Fridays,  weekends & holidays4 Powell 60980 4 –4 UBC 60993 615195 Downtown 60980 4 –7 Dunbar 60980 4 –7 Nanaimo Station 60993 6151910 Granville 60980 4 –14 Hastings 60993 6151914 UBC 60980 4 –16 Arbutus 60980 4 –16 29th Avenue Station 60993 6151917 Oak 60993 6151920 Victoria 60993 6151950 False Creek South 60980 4 –50 Waterfront Station   60993 61519240 15th Street 61031 61031246 Highland 61031 61031250 Horseshoe Bay 61032 61032251 Queens 61032 61032252 Inglewood 61032 61032257 Horseshoe Bay Express 61032 61032Limited ServicesLimited service bus routes operate only part of the day, week, or year, or provide service less than once an hour.241 Upper Lonsdale 61031 –Monday to Friday peak hour service only242 Upper Lonsdale 61031 61031Early morning service Sundays and holidays only247 Upper Capilano 61031 –Monday to Friday peak hour service only253 Caulfeild 61032 61032254 British Properties 61032 61032Monday to Friday peak hour service onlyNightBus ServicesNight-time bus service. Regular StopsN6 West End 4 –N8 Fraser 1 61519N9 Coquitlam Station 3 –N10 Richmond–Brighouse Station 4 –N15 Cambie 3 –N17 UBC 2 –N19 Surrey Central Station 3 61519N20 Victoria 3 61519N24 Upper Lonsdale 3 61031N35 SFU 1 6151911N1CMYCMMYCYCMYKdvbia_ambmap_back_v3.pdf   1   8/16/2013   3:44:00 PMThis digital wayfinding map opened up an additional avenue to make use of the map investment beyond physical or printed wayfinding artifacts – digital map applications. Data licensing agreements (DLAs) were signed with the project partners to extend the use of the map and allow external agencies to make use of the map content beyond artifacts like TransLink’s ‘Walking From Here’ maps in local SkyTrain stations, and the DVBIA’s tear-off ‘Downtown Walking Map’. The DLAs would allow the partners to develop the digital poten-tial even further.In addition to the partner-produced products, the digital wayfinding map also allowed the City to create more consistent graphics internally, such as the up-dated Cycling Map. A publically-released application programming interface (API) was proposed by Applied as one of the project deliverables, which would give software developers the ability to develop software applications incorporating the map content, such as real-time transit maps or user-maintained event maps.Other uses of the digital wayfinding map could include interactive kiosks, broadcast information signage, or smart phone applications, but its potential reaches far further. This beautifully-designed digital map has the potential to be used for broader mapping and commu-nications applications.The purpose of this research is to identify some of these opportunities by learning from peer wayfinding projects and discussions with relevant stakeholders, and to provide justification for additional investment supported by existing literature and policy.Fig. 16, top: Detail of TransLink Walking From Here mapFig. 17, middle: Detail of DVBIA Downtown Walking MapFig. 18, bottom: Detail of Cycling in Vancouver mapBACkGROuND  |  PAGE 142020 ACtion PLAn  3.3 suPPoRTinG Plans & sTRaTeGiesThe City’s updated wayfinding project is supported by a number of existing policies and strategies including the Greenest City 2020 Action Plan, the transportation 2040 Plan, the Digital Strategy, the recent healthy City Strategy, the Metro Vancouver Regional Growth Strategy, the Vancouver tourism Master Plan, and the transLink Wayfinding Standards Manual. The Engaged City Task Force Quick Stats Report also has the potential to support additional opportunities for the digital wayfinding map.3.3.1 Greenest City 2020 Action PlanCouncil approved Vancouver’s Greenest City 2020 Action Plan (GCAP) in 2010. It builds upon previous work by the Greenest City Action Team, who research best practices from leading green cities around the world, and established the goals and targets that would make Vancouver the world’s Greenest City. Together, the 10 goals outlined in the plan address carbon, waste, and ecosystems focus areas.GCAP Goal 4 intends to make walking, cycling, and public transit preferred trans-portation options, and is supported by 2 actions:1.  Make the majority (over 50%) of trips by foot, bicycle, and public transit.2.  Reduce average Distance Driven per resident by 20% from 2007 levels.One of the key strategies identified is to make active transportation choices such as walking and cycling feel safe, convenient, comfortable and fun for all ages and abilities.As of the 2012-2013 Implementation Update, 44% of trips within the city are made on foot, bicycle, and public transit. Some of the identified successes which contributed to this increased mode share include the adoption of the Transportation 2040 Plan described below, and the completion of the first phase of the Comox-Helmecken Greenway.The current 44% walking mode-share is up from 33% in 1994, and 40% in 2008 - with approximately 18% walking and cycling, and 22% transit. Due to challenges securing funding and a dependence on external organizations such as TransLink, the focus for meeting the remaining 6% walking and cycling mode is to encourage more cycling through the city and to create safe, con-venient, and enjoyable walking experiences.3.3.2 transportation 2040Approved by Council in 2012, the Transportation 2040 Plan outlines a number of actions making reference to wayfinding and publishing open data for developers. Open data comes into play when considering the release of the digital map assets to the public through an Application Programming Interface (API). PAGE 15  |  MOVING FORWARD: OPPORTUNITIES FOR VANCOUVER’S DIGITAL WAYFINDING MAPTRANSPORTATION 2040MOVING FORWARD1 City of Vancouver Digital Strategy April 9, 2013 These key actions are identified below:Walking (W) 1.7.1: Expand and maintain a pedestrian wayfinding system that is consistent, legible, and user-friendly. Provide data in an open format to sup-port third-party mobile application development.Cycling (C) 1.4.2: Produce and regularly update a citywide cycling map, in-cluding a digital version. Provide route information in an open format to sup-port third-party mobile application development.Vancouver’s wayfinding map can help to achieve these goals by updating and main-taining the content in existing map stands located throughout the city, and by pro-viding digital access to the data displayed in the maps. Overlaying transit data on the maps or incorporating maps into future public bike share stations or applica-tions to help users plan their journeys will also help to achieve these goals.3.3.3 Digital StrategyRecognizing the role for a comprehensive digital strategy to connect residents, businesses, and government, a city-wide Digital Strategy was adopted by Council in 2013. This strategy outlines a number of necessary initiatives for Vancouver to reach the desired state of a more digitally ‘connected’ city. Initiatives under  Engagement + Access and Economy, are:Initiative 2: Enhance the open data program (Identify key City problems that could be resolved by open data and/or open API solutions). Next steps include:1. Identify key City problems that could be resolved by  open data and/or open API solutions2. Embrace open APIs into open data3. Support the open data community through an online  forum where new data sets, ideas, visualizations and  proof of concepts can be discussedInitiative 7: With partners, support an agile proof of concept program. Next steps for this program include:1. Establish a framework for proof of concepts (PoCs) to  demonstrate innovation within the community2. Identify partners that can assist with implementation and evaluation of the program3. Conduct a pilot PoC to test the framework and monitoring processThese initiative would allow entrepreneurs to utilize municipal asset(s) to demonstrate innovation in the local digital economy. BACkGROuND  |  PAGE 16Adopted by theGreater Vancouver Regional District Boardon July 29, 2011Updated to July 26, 2013www.metrovancouver.orgSUSTAINABLE REGION INITIATIVE...  TURNING IDEAS INTO ACTIONMetro Vancouver 2040     Shaping Our FutureRegional Growth StrategyBylaw No.1136, 20103.3.4 healthy City StrategyVancouver’s new Healthy City Strategy was recently adopted by Council in October of 2014. A number of goals within the strategy are in support of enhancing pedes-trian environments, such as:Goal 8: Active Living and Getting Outside, which has targets around ensuring all Vancouver residents live within a certain walking distance from a park or green space by 2020, and to increase the percentage of Vancouver residents who meet Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines by 25% over 2014 levels.Goal 11: Getting Around, which has the target of making over 50% of trips on foot, bike, or transit by 2020 as also supported by Greenest City 2020 Action Plan Goal 4.As the Healthy City Strategy was just recently adopted, its implementation should be monitored to ensure the goals set forth in the Strategy are achievable and can be integrated into the other existing programs to further encourage active transportation.3.3.5 Metro Vancouver Regional Growth Strategy Within Metro Vancouver’s Regional Growth Strategy, adopted in 2011, lies Goal 4, which aims to develop complete communities. This goal is supported by the fol-lowing actions and strategies:4.2.4 Include policies within municipal plans or strategies, that may be referenced in the Regional Context Statements, which:c) provide public spaces and other place-making amenities for increased so-cial interaction and community engagement;d) support active living through the provision of recreation facilities, parks, trails, and safe and inviting pedestrian and cycling environments.Regional Growth Strategy Goal 5, Support Sustainable Transportation Choices, also supports the wayfinding project:5.1.6 Adopt Regional Context Statements which: c) identify policies and actions to manage and enhance municipal infrastructure to support transit, multiple-occupancy vehicles, cycling and walking.PAGE 17  |  MOVING FORWARD: OPPORTUNITIES FOR VANCOUVER’S DIGITAL WAYFINDING MAPAdopted by theGreater Vancouver Regional District Boardon July 29, 2011Updated to July 26, 2013www.metrovancouver.orgSUSTAINABLE REGION INITIATIVE...  TURNING IDEAS INTO ACTIONMetro Vancouver 2040     Shaping Our FutureRegional Growth StrategyBylaw No.1136, 2010a 3.3.6 Vancouver tourism Master PlanCompleted in 2013, the Vancouver Tourism Master Plan provides recommenda-tions in eight key areas of focus, including: visitor experience design, tourism infra-structure development, and transportation. Within the Visitor Experience De-sign area of focus, two specific recommendations incorporate wayfinding:Digital Visitor Experience: With the proliferation of smart phones, Wi-Fi access is becoming increasingly valued by travellers. Accessible Wi-Fi corridors are also integral to enabling visitors to access and use new wayfinding, augmented reality and activity booking applications currently being developed by Vancouver’s leading digital businesses.Wayfinding: Visitor wayfinding requirements can be identified, compiled, and communicated to organizations and agencies tasked with improving general city-wide and transportation-specific systems. Wayfinding efforts should include signage and mobile applications.3.3.7 transLink Wayfinding Standards ManualPrior to the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics, TransLink began installing wayfin-ding prototype products at select SkyTrain stations in Vancouver and Richmond, such as the prominent new blue and white “T” signs. Since then, their wayfinding strategy, outlined in the Wayfinding Standards Manual, has expanded to include journey planning information walls providing content like Metro Vancouver Transit, Buses From Here, and Walking From Here maps.This manual outlines a series of principles to ensure a consistent transit wayfinding experience is implemented throughout Metro Vancouver.3.3.8 Policy ConclusionsThe identified plans and strategies support future applications of the digital wayfinding map in one form or another. As a result, three actions areas can be identified. Each of these actions are supported by the final recommendations presented in section 6 of this report:•	 Continue working towards providing information on safe, secure, convenient, and comfortable walking routes throughout the city;•	 Continue to invest in public realm infrastructure to provide access to this information in the physical urban environment;•	 Continue to release open datasets and APIs and support data consumption and interpretation in digital environments.BACkGROuND  |  PAGE 184RESEARChDESIGN4.1 ReseaRCh QuesTionsIn order to identify opportunities for future uses of Vancouver’s new digital wayfinding map, I developed a number of research questions to target separate but related areas of research. The intent of the general research questions was to more fully un-derstand the role of wayfinding with regards to encouraging more active transportation trips, and to identify current trends in pedestrian wayfinding design. More specific research questions pertaining to Vancouver’s wayfinding project aimed to identify procedures and frameworks to support the wayfinding project in the future.4.1.1 General Questions1. What impact does wayfinding have on walking?2. What other ideas are there for Wayfinding/Walkability?3. What are the emerging best practices in Wayfinding?4. What are the emerging tools associated with Wayfinding?5. What lessons can be learned from interactive/digital wayfinding maps (hospitals, airports, shopping malls)4.1.2 Vancouver-Specific Questions:1. What are the best options for leveraging the CoV map database?2. Who are the potential groups/organizations for developing this internally and externally?3. What is the best system to receive back data from the contractor, Applied?4. How should we make this information available to the BIA’s/public?5. What is the cost-benefit of delivering this for the City?4.2 ReseaRCh objeCTiVesBased on these research questions, and in collaboration with the Wayfinding Group, I proposed the following objectives:•	 Review wayfinding best practices by learning from peer cities pursuing similar pedestrian wayfinding initiatives to encourage more active transportation trips.•	 Identify and evaluate emerging technologies to support digital mapping and wayfinding.•	 Identify and evaluate internal opportunities for the digital wayfinding map currently under development.•	 Identify and evaluate opportunities for partner organizations to contribute to the development and public use of the wayfinding map.•	 Recommend specific directions the City can pursue to make use of the current wayfinding map investment.RESEARCh DESIGN  |  PAGE 204.3 ReseaRCh meThodsIn order to identify best practices and inform the final research recommendations, I held meetings at the City, performed an introductory literature review, and conduct-ed a wayfinding peer review. The majority of this research was conducted alongside the Wayfinding Group on-site at the City’s Engineering Services department to un-derstand the history of wayfinding at Vancouver, and understand the nature of the relationships involved in moving it forward. 4.3.1 In-situ MeetingsThe starting point for the project focused on holdings meetings with a variety of inter-nal and external stakeholders at the City’s Engineering Services Department, includ-ing City employees, the project partners and contractor, and the Wayfinding Working Group.These meetings allowed me to clarify the background and current state of Vancou-ver’s wayfinding system, as well as identify the future vision of wayfinding and maps at the City. I thematically analyzed brief meeting notes for recurring messages, and summarized the notes based on my identified themes.4.3.2 Literature ReviewMy literature review focused on walking and active transportation research relevant to mapping, urban wayfinding, mobile wayfinding tools, and digital mapping solu-tions. I weighted literature produced more recently was more heavily when consid-ering proposed recommendations, because digital wayfinding is a fairly new focus of research and technological advancements are continually changing its landscape.4.3.3 Wayfinding Peer ReviewI researched a number of cities and organizations currently pursuing wayfinding projects in order to gather an idea of best practices and industry standards, and sim-ply to identify the future ideals each of these areas envisioned for their wayfinding projects. Many projects I selected were based on an initial selection by the Wayfind-ing Group, while others were added which met criteria around geographic location, language, the type of wayfinding system being installed, and the role of digital map-ping with regards to the system.PAGE 21  |  MOVING FORWARD: OPPORTUNITIES FOR VANCOUVER’S DIGITAL WAYFINDING MAP4.4 ReseaRCh limiTaTionsThe condensed timeframe for my study over 3 summer months meant many stake-holders were on vacation or otherwise unavailable. This timeframe also did not sup-port more thorough research methods, such as finding external participants and re-searchers with whom to conduct more exploratory interviews.Additionally, there is little pre-existing research on the role of digital wayfinding maps to increase walking trips. The definition of specific methods to measure and evaluate the performance of pedestrian wayfinding systems with relation to active transporta-tion is largely unexplored despite the literature review, meetings, and reviews of peer city projects. A final research limitation was the complex partnership structure of the wayfinding project, described in the Background section of this report, and the corresponding set of contracts and agreements. A substantial amount of time was required to un-derstand the nature of these relationships, in particular the role of the contractor, Applied, moving forward. My research required maintaining a positive working rela-tionship with Applied, while at the same time producing unbiased recommendations from an external point of view. Confidential information relevant to these relation-ships required sensitivity and discretion.RESEARCh DESIGN  |  PAGE 225DISCuSSION OF FINDINGS5.1 liTeRaTuRe ReVieWCities came about at the crossroads of communities. Markets sprouted up, buildings and services followed, and towns, villag-es, cities, and mega regions developed. Horses, bikes, trains, and cars helped everyone get around, but even today every trip begins and ends with a walk.A comprehensive land use plan and set of urban design standards are required components to create an environment sup-portive of walking trips. The addition of a wayfinding system adds clarity to that physical environment. To fully present the diversity of wayfinding opportunities, literature was reviewed according to four major themes: active transportation, urban wayfinding, mobile wayfinding tools, and digital mapping applications.DISCuSSION OF FINDINGS  |  PAGE 245.1.1 Active transportationAs identified in a 2004 Health Canada report on theo-ry-based leisure-time walking research, “nearly 60 percent of Canadians are not active enough to reap the health ben-efits of regular exercise. The direct cost to our health-care system of these sedentary lifestyles is estimated to be over $2 billion annually.” (Cournea & Plotnikoff, 2004). This esti-mated $2 billion cost shouldn’t be overlooked, particularly when the evidence is clear that interventions that encour-age walking can lead to sustainable increases in physical ac-tivity. In fact, active transportation can also help achieve the daily physical requirements set out by Health Canada. Canada couldn’t be more ready for a shift in levels of physical activity. It’s estimated that one-third of Canadian children and adolescents are either overweight or obese (Shields, 2010). Educating parents and encouraging active commutes to school is an easy way to support healthier lifestyle choic-es specifically for youth with benefits to health, safety, and overall wellbeing (Davison et al, 2008; Larouche et al, 2014). “Brisk walking has the greatest potential for increasing over-all activity levels of a sedentary population,” explain Melvyn Hillsdon and Margaret Thorogood in their 1996 ‘A systematic review of physical activity promotion strategies’ (Hillsdon & Thorogood, 1996).Beyond the numerous benefits to our physical and mental health, walking around our own neighbourhoods allows us to nurture relationships with our neighbours, discover new local treasures, and feel more connected to the communi-ty in which we live. Bringing maps into the equation only makes this prospect more exciting, particularly when they’re beginning to convey information like the most beautiful or happiest routes (Quercia et al, 2014).In 2006, as part of the Vancouver Park Board’s Vancouver Active Communities Initiative, a series of ‘Step Out’ walks were developed. Over 20 different walks around the city were identified and grouped into categories like Destination Walks, Park Trails & Walks, Local Theme Walks, Art and Cul-ture Walks, and 2010 Winter Games Walks. Each walk fea-tured the route mapped onto an aerial photo, the walking distance in kilometres and miles, the number of steps an average person will make, whether or not the route is acces-sible, and links to walking challenges and other resources. These walks were retired after the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics and didn’t transition over to the new Vancouver website when it was redesigned in 2012.Around the same time, a 2012 study by McNeill and Em-mons found that neighbourhood walking maps effectively increased levels of physical activity in low-income neigh-bourhoods. Additionally, the maps provided the added benefit of introducing partic-ipants to previously unknown assets in their communities, highlighting the time-sav-ing benefits of walking versus waiting for infrequent buses, and producing a more positive perception of the neighbourhood for its residents. (McNeill & Emmons, 2012).Maps and walking routes were also brought together in an earlier study from Seattle on the ‘Active Seattle Neighbourhoods on Foot’ walking map series, which highlighted neighbourhood assets to encourage residents to rely less on automobile transporta-tion. The maps became a community organizing tool, and supported other initiatives like the ‘On the Cart’ project, which provided small carts to enable residents to make more trips on foot to their local grocer (Deehr & Shumann, 2009). A final study, spe-cific to older adults, found that neighbourhood walking maps combined with edu-cation on how to overcome barriers, such as heavy traffic and the presence of hills, found 75% of participants planned to continue walking at their current level or higher (Rosenberg et al, 2009). The use of walking maps as a physical activity prescription tool is an exciting new direction.5.1.2 urban WayfindingThe world of urban wayfinding is fascinating and rapidly changing. Urban wayfinding projects, informed by other wayfinding systems such as those found in airports, con-vention centres, or transit networks, require a greater a level of expertise and experi-mentation than their interior counterparts.When users might be as diverse as long-time adult residents, children, visiting tour groups, or business owners, the creation of design guidelines can become an over-whelming prospect and time-consuming process. Before starting a wayfinding proj-ect, it’s necessary to know the outcome will be worth the time and resources allocat-ed. After all, Applied themselves acknowledge “it’s worth noting that when lost, the quickest strategy is to ask for help.” (Fendley, 2009). So how can a wayfinding system offer a better alternative? Richard J. Jackson and Stacy Sinclair outlined it quite well in ‘Designing Healthy Communities’:“Most living things must be able to figure out how to get to and away from plac-es. When we lose our way-finding ability, we are at the least very uncom-fortable... When we walk into the ruins of ancient cities in countries such as Greece, we find that we know exactly where we are going, even if it is our first time there. A lot of thought was put into those buildings and the city plan.” (Jackson & Sinclair, 2012).PAGE 25  |  MOVING FORWARD: OPPORTUNITIES FOR VANCOUVER’S DIGITAL WAYFINDING MAPIt’s not often that our present-day cities were designed in such a way as to support this intuitive wayfinding. Instead, we need wayfinding signage to fill in the gaps to teach people the shape of the city and the relationships between places. These sys-tems “reduce the effort required by the user whenever possible,” and “provide a guide to the streets, rather than a scaled version of reality.” (Fendley, 2009). Focusing on sim-plifying the amount of information provided, it’s been found that generalized way-finding maps are more effective for navigation purposes than satellite or aerial maps (Dillemuth, 2005)The benefits reach further than simply allowing users to reach their destinations. Developing a better cognitive map, or mental image of the local environment, may be one reason to encourage active travel and exploration (Mondschein et al, 2013). Allowing residents to build their own mental picture of the city will enhance their spatial knowledge and support smarter decision-making in the event of emergencies or disaster.5.1.3 Mobile Wayfinding toolsEncouraging the development of mental maps in a wayfinding context means limiting the amount of information provided to the user. In her 2005 ‘Map Design Evaluation for Mobile Display’ study, Julie Dillemuth found that participants using a generalized map to navigate yielded faster travel speed and fewer navigation errors than those us-ing an aerial photograph (Dillemuth, 2005). This is the area where global positioning system (GPS) applications thrive, since they’re often designed to have as little visual clutter as possible.“As people increasingly use mobile phone technology to build community and create connectivity, reliance on it for wayfinding purposes is sure to grow,” states David Gib-son in ‘The Wayfinding Handbook’. But those pursuing mobile wayfinding applica-tions must use discretion, because due to “the evolution of hardware, the increasing use of [GPS], and the growth of wireless networks, the mobile wayfinding device is one of the field’s most rapidly evolving new territories.” (Gibson, 2009).Evolving technological advances may be enticing but can make for risky investment particularly in the public sector, as was seen a few years ago when Toronto began to install interactive wayfinding kiosks (Kupferman, 2011). An additional hazard begins to present itself in recent findings that show users begin to rely more heavily on access to information services when they’re readily available, resulting in deficits to their spatial knowledge and mental maps (Mondschein et al, 2013).DISCuSSION OF FINDINGS  |  PAGE 26If this delicate line can be managed, exciting applications remain possible. Recent re-search into mobile augmented reality (AR) applications has demonstrated promising benefits in mobile AR usage. The findings noted specific navigation tasks performed with mobile AR resulted in better performance when compared to using a paper map, when more complex environments are employed. (Goldiez, 2007)5.1.4 Digital Mapping ApplicationsNo discussion of digital applications should be had without making mention of the digital divide, described by Statistics Canada as “the gap between information and communications technology (ICT) ‘haves’ and ‘have-nots’ [serving] as an umbrella term for many issues, including infrastructure and access to ICTs, use and impedi-ments to use, and the crucial role of ICT literacy and skills to function in an informa-tion society.” (Sciadas, 2001). Although 86% of BC households are now connected to the internet, just 62% of the national lowest income quartile have internet access. (The Canadian Internet, 2014)That said, those who do have internet access are becoming more and more involved in content generation rather than simply consuming content. ‘Prosumers’, as they’re termed, can today make their own geo-referenced data and information while con-tributing to corporate map production and data tracking (Faby et al, 2010). Some of these are result of developer ‘mashup’ projects, combining different types of data to produce new applications, but many are a result of crowd-sourcing and tracking so-cial media applications.Apps like Foursquare and Swarm focus on allowing people to check-in to real-world destinations, using the GPS technology embedded into smart phones to geo-locate the user and match their location with nearby destination listings. Users can view maps, based on MapBox, Google Maps, or similar device-specific, vectorized map-ping solutions like iMaps to view their check-ins or see the destinations friends have recently visited.Other web apps like Walkonomics, CrowdSpot, or PlaceSpeak make use of online map-based citizen participation to solicit interactive feedback on neighbourhood planning projects or to brainstorm locations for future community-building inter-ventions.  As the public grows more accustomed to producing content on the web, opportunities begin to present themselves to encourage individually tailored way-finding solutions, which have shown promise for changing physical activity patterns. These solutions can not only be perfectly customized for individual users, but they are also highly cost-effective. (Williams et al, 2008; Marcus et al, 2007)).PAGE 27  |  MOVING FORWARD: OPPORTUNITIES FOR VANCOUVER’S DIGITAL WAYFINDING MAP5.1.5 Literature ConclusionsThese findings suggest there are multiple different types of opportunities for Van-couver’s digital wayfinding map such as printed walking routes to encourage more walking trips, further roll-out of wayfinding signage around the city, or more digitally interactive options. The wayfinding peer review to follow looks further into these di-rections with a specific focus on real-world applications. DISCuSSION OF FINDINGS  |  PAGE 285.2 WayfindinG PeeR ReVieWThe peer municipalities or organizations pursuing similar urban wayfinding projects I selected were based upon an existing list developed by the Wayfinding Group, with additional selection criteria including population, language, geographic location, the type of wayfinding system being installed, and the role of digital mapping with re-gards to the system. Based on these criteria, I selected projects from the following locations for comparison.1. London, UK2. Helsinki, Finland3. Melbourne, Australia4. University of British Columbia, Canada5. Edmonton, Canada6. Toronto, Canada7. New York City, USA1673245I compared these cases across an array of criteria divided into an easy-to-understand hierarchy of where, when, why, who, how, how much, what, and what next and findings were grouped thematically. After all, in order to best under-stand the possibilities for moving forward with Vancouver’s wayfinding strategy, it’s important to know the direction in which other wayfinding initiatives are moving. 5.2.1 Digital WayfindingVancouver is near the leading edge of pursuing digital op-tions in urban wayfinding. London, with its influential Leg-ible London project, paved the way for subsequent cities pursuing modern map-based wayfinding projects. Applied, the firm behind London’s project and the contractors hired by Vancouver, have gone on to work with a number of oth-er clients including Heathrow Airport, the City of Glasgow, the University of British Columbia (UBC), and the City of Ed-monton.In 2010, the City of Toronto, working with Astral Media, be-gan to install interactive “InfoTogo” wayfinding kiosks in the downtown core. Only five kiosks were installed due to a number of issues including the rapid adoption of smart phones between the time the project began in 2007, to in-stallation in 2010; the effect of harsh winter climates on the touch-screen technology and the accumulation of dust and debris; and the overwhelming presence of advertising which some believe obscured the very presence of the wayfinding aspect of the kiosks. Toronto City Council voted to discon-tinue the project the following year (Kupferman, 2011).Through 2008 and 2009, 250 two-sided digital kiosks were installed throughout the City of Helsinki, including indoor kiosks in Helsinki-Vantaa International Airport and 25 shop-ping centres. This system, produced by Symbicon, featured animated advertising and often suffered similar problems or receptions from the public as Toronto’s interactive kiosks due to harsh weather conditions.In 2011, Nordkapp and Urbanscale worked with the City of Helsinki to conceive and design the Urbanflow interactive wayfinding prototype. The new project aimed to inform lo-cal citizens about daily disruptions or events, and provide easy-to-understand information about places, services, and modes of transportation to tourists. The final proposed product was a large interactive touch-screen map – the content and design of which changed based on the location, time of day, current events, and so forth. The screen would encourage users to learn more about specific destinations or events, find precise directions, and even print out a small directions receipt to carry with them.In late 2013, a simplified version of the Urbanflow proposal was rolled out on one side of the outdoor interactive kiosks, displaying a simplified wayfinding map along with news, events, and weather information in Finnish, Swedish, Rus-sian, and English.PAGE 29  |  MOVING FORWARD: OPPORTUNITIES FOR VANCOUVER’S DIGITAL WAYFINDING MAPFig. 19: Rendering of Urbanflow on the streets of HelsinkiNew York City is currently working on plans to incorporate real-time transit information into their street furniture cur-rently displaying their new wayfinding map, but the two will remain separate components. UBC tested prototype wayfin-ding kiosks a number of years ago but the project was not pursued. There is renewed interest from UBC Parking and Security to install interactive wayfinding kiosks in parking garages on campus but it is only a conceptual direction at this point in time.Moving to more mobile or web-based options, the inter-active Heathrow Airport project allows users to navigate the airport via interactive physical kiosks, or a desktop and mobile-supportive web interface. Users can select different floors and terminals, and view details on the available shops and services pictured.The ‘Walk Brighton’ app is a similar project, which provides access to three categories of information: Attractions, Shop-ping, and Nightlife. Selecting each category alters the visual information on the map and results in an enjoyable expe-rience for users. A particular highlight is the ‘Nightlife’ view of Brighton Pier, with its illuminated rides and attractions. These web-based solutions proved to be significantly lower priced than interactive kiosk infrastructure.DISCuSSION OF FINDINGS  |  PAGE 30Fig. 20: A New York City wayfinding stand with real-time bus dataFig. 21: Detail of Heathrow Airport’s interactive map Fig. 22: The Walk Brighton iPhone app 5.2.2 Ownership and MonitoringIn many of the cities I contacted, the municipal transpor-tation department was in charge of the maintenance of the wayfinding project. This was the case with London’s Trans-port for London, New York’s Department of Transportation, and Toronto’s Pedestrian Projects manager in the Trans-portation Services. Wayfinding design is a practice at the crossroads of transportation, communication, design, and psychology so it’s often difficult for transportation depart-ments to fully manage a wayfinding project on their own particularly when developing a digital strategy. In the case of Melbourne, Tourism Melbourne is spearheading their wayfinding strategy, and the City of Edmonton’s Commu-nity Services in charge of the Walkable Edmonton strategy.UBC Campus and Community Planning, on the University Endowment Lands at the tip of Vancouver’s Burrard Penin-sula, implemented a new wayfinding system for the glob-ally recognized university in 2012 after contracting Applied to produce design guidelines. UBC produced their way-finding map in-house to fulfill a pre-existing institutional agreement with a software provider. An automated system was built and student employees were hired to populate the maps with data. This arrangement resulted in a system owned and maintained by UBC, while also supporting stu-dent work learn positions. At this time no follow-up evalu-ation has been made to determine whether the system has met its goals of increasing clarity of navigating the 4km2 campus, but inquisitive attention from local municipalities has been seen as a positive outcome.Auckland, New Zealand, outside of the selected peer proj-ects identified, recently installed a camera-based pedestri-an counter system to track the number of pedestrian trips through 20 intersections around Auckland. The project was initiated back in 2012 by Heart of Auckland, downtown Auckland’s business association, as a way to understand how foot traffic might be impacted by ‘Heart of the City’ events. The data is displayed on an intuitive web application allowing users to view pedestrian counts by intersection and compare counts across intersections over time – as far back as July, 2012. Steer Davies Gleave completed an evaluation in May of 2014 to review the current state of the Legible London project. The Evaluation 2013/14 Report found that the awareness of the wayfinding scheme in Central London increased from 52% in 2010 to 82% in 2013. In addition, the local signage was found to increase the respondents’ confidence to ex-plore from 60% to 90% in the same period, and the help-fulness of the signage to wayfind around an area increased from 65% to 94%.The study also found 63% of those who were aware of the wayfinding maps expressed confidence in finding their way, compared to 32% of those unaware of the maps expressing confidence (Legible London 2013/14 Report, 2014).Studies like these are beginning to provide real data on the role of wayfinding, and as these systems are in place longer, it is hoped that future research will produce similarly posi-tive findings.PAGE 31  |  MOVING FORWARD: OPPORTUNITIES FOR VANCOUVER’S DIGITAL WAYFINDING MAPFig. 23: Heart of Auckland’s Pedestrians in the City tool5.2.3 Lessons and ChallengesCollecting quantitative data to evaluate wayfinding projects, with respect to its impact on walkability and the local economy, is not an area most peers are currently focusing on. A number of cities identified the value in monitoring the projects once installation is complete, however few have yet defined a rigorous method to collect accurate and relevant data. Rather, they’re focusing resources on designing and implementing their new physical wayfinding systems.Securing funding was a common challenge across the projects reviewed. I found American cities had an easier time receiving funds from the federal government – funding that isn’t available to Canadian cities. Most of the projects reviewed involved partnerships with local business associations or tourism groups to provide data and funding, among other types of support. In Vancouver’s case, data licencing agree-ments (DLAs) provide the option for project partners to develop their own digital ap-plications using Vancouver’s map, supporting continued financial investment.New York City’s wayfinding system was initiated in response to the increasing num-ber of wayfinding signage applications from different business improvement asso-ciations around the city. These business groups financially supported the project’s roll-out on the physical map stands – a similar case across many of the peer cities, including London, Toronto, and Edmonton.A final lesson I learned from analyzing the peer wayfinding projects is the conclusion that few areas are implementing digital wayfinding schemes, or using their wayfind-ing investments to support additional policies beyond active transportation-related policies.The City of London uses its wayfinding map as a communication tool to distribute additional information across the city, such as street closures or new development applications. The City of New York uses its wayfinding map as a continuation of the NYC Subway brand, even incorporating a project-specific modification of the classic Helvetica font, ‘HelveticaDOT’.These additional uses are an excellent way to take advantage of the existing invest-ment, and identify exciting new possibilities for the City of Vancouver’s digital way-finding map to set a new standard for the intersection of pedestrian wayfinding and digital mapping.DISCuSSION OF FINDINGS  |  PAGE 325.3 summaRy of findinGs fRom in-siTu meeTinGsStarting from the recommendations of the research mentors, I arranged meetings based on pre-existing stakeholders’ current or potential involvement with the project, or those identified as knowledge experts in the fields of wayfinding, software devel-opment, or urban informatics. This included City employees in departments ranging from Engineering Services to Web Operations, project partners including DVBIA and TransLink, and the project contractor, Applied Wayfinding. A list of meeting attendees can be found in the Appendix.Three key themes emerged from these meetings: Wayfinding Maps as a Commu-nication tool, Reluctance to pursue high-tech Infrastructure, and Opportuni-ty for Community Engagement.5.3.1 Wayfinding Maps as Communication toolA surprising number of City employees were unaware of the City of Vancouver’s way-finding project. Right away, this informed my directions for final recommended uses of the digital wayfinding map as a communication tool. I provided an example of the map, and we brainstormed ideas for additional uses.Some of the common concepts included using the map to:•	 Convey information on street closures or events;•	Act as the official map base for any City mapping needs for distribution to the public; or •	 Inform people about their neighbourhoods in the form of architectural tour routes, community garden locations, or pedestrian-activated lights and crosswalk maps for safe walking to school routes.A particular area identified for potential implementation was the City’s website. The City’s Digital Strategy group had recently been working to increase the level of inter-activity of the maps provided through the City’s website, though a number of different mapping solutions are being pursued. This results in inconsistent experiences from a user’s point of view, and presents an opportunity for the wayfinding map. A list of mapping solutions are presented later in this report. PAGE 33  |  MOVING FORWARD: OPPORTUNITIES FOR VANCOUVER’S DIGITAL WAYFINDING MAP5.3.2 Reluctance to pursue high-tech InfrastructureWhen beginning to compile a research plan and conduct initial exploration into the capabilities of technology to sup-port urban movement and navigation, I found high-tech projects particularly appealing. ‘Smart City’ movements are increasing as computing is becoming more ubiquitous and the ‘Internet of Things’, the trend towards providing network connectivity in everyday products, is growing. Publications like ‘Melbourne Smart City’ paint a picture of a beautifully seamless urban experience filled with relevant data visual-izations. It seemed reasonable that any recommendations coming out of this research would support products like interactive physical wayfinding kiosks, or large-scale digi-tal signage broadcasting real-time data on routes, closures, commercial hours, and so forth.As a result of the meeting discussions, I concluded costly products like these remain unreasonable investments for the public sector. The benefits to people, businesses, and the civic brand do not justify the resources and mainte-nance required to implement these high-tech wayfinding schemes particularly in light of the fast-paced, ongoing ad-vancements in computing technology (Moore, 1965).These conclusions helped me refine the final recommen-dations presented later on in this report. It’s important to re-evaluate this direction at a later date in the event that cer-tain new technologies present themselves at a price-point more favourable for public sector investment, or the City opts to set a new precedent for the display of digital wayfin-ding data in the urban environment. 5.3.3 Opportunity for Community EngagementPerhaps the most exciting discussions focused on the role of the digital wayfinding map to increase community en-gagement. Using the map as a communication tool, partic-ularly when integrating it into the City’s website, affords the option to add an additional layer of interactivity. This could take the form of ‘crowd-sourced’ projects like community asset-mapping applications or physical infrastructure issue reporting.Designed to be as clear and legible as possible, the map could be much more easily consumed by diverse audienc-es when compared to other mapping solutions provided by the City, such as VanMap, which is the City’s online geo-graphic information system (GIS) mapping tool explained in more detail in the next section. The digital wayfinding map could be printed and brought to neighbourhood planning open houses to solicit feedback on proposed transportation improvements, zoning areas and developments, or the pro-posed location of city services and amenities such as pools and libraries. It could also allow residents to identify previ-ously undocumented assets within their communities.Because the City owns the data and map brand, the digital wayfinding map affords a layer of trust above and beyond what other mapping solutions can provide. Whether being used for communication or engagement, the map offers sig-nificant potential for development beyond the existing way-finding project. The investment has been made, the asset has been created, so now is the time to take advantage of it.DISCuSSION OF FINDINGS  |  PAGE 34Fig. 24: Workshop visualization from Melbourne Smart City5.4 CuRRenT maPPinG aT The CiTyA significant number of maps are currently being produced by City employees for distribution both internally and externally. Some of the internal maps might include neighbourhood land use plans, transportation plans, asset management maps, and so forth. Maps distributed to the public include application development permit notification signs, community engagement workshop artifacts, and bicycle network maps, among others. A future mobile 3-1-1 app, allowing citizens to access City ser-vices on their smartphone, may also incorporate a map allowing users to report issues such as graffiti or potholes.  A number of different mapping solutions are utilized in order to produce or distribute these maps. Listed in no particular or-der, these are VanMap, MapInfo, 3D Mapping Software, Google Maps, and Adobe Illustrator.5.4.1 VanMapMade available to the public in 2001, VanMap is the City of Vancouver’s Web-based GIS map system that pulls together information and data from a variety of sources, and puts it into maps users can view, save or print out. Layers such as property lines, zoning information, water mains, or addresses can be turned on and off with the click of a button. VanMap is essentially a reference tool.Advantages:•	 Provides access to very accurate geospatial data owned and maintained by the City.•	Users can display or hide desired types of information by turning on or off different data layers.•	 Specific data can be found quickly and easily.Disadvantages:•	A significant amount of technical information is available which may confuse novice users.•	 The application runs quite slow and times out after a short period of time, requiring the user to restart the program.•	 The map styling can’t be customized before saving or printing, and the default maps aren’t particularly attractive or engaging.PAGE 35  |  MOVING FORWARD: OPPORTUNITIES FOR VANCOUVER’S DIGITAL WAYFINDING MAPFig. 25: The public VanMap screen showing default layers5.4.2 MapInfoMapInfo is a software package used internally by City de-partments. Created by Pitney Bowes, the software allows City staff members to manipulate GIS data layers and produce vi-sually-refined maps. It’s primarily used to interpret data and run queries.Advantages: •	MapInfo is a popular software application targeting advanced users.•	Users are able to analyze a significant amount of data and save data for use in other applications.Disadvantages:•	 The level of visual customization of the mapped data is limited.•	Without a template the maps are not consistent among users.•	Due to limited licenses and a steep learning curve for City employees not familiar with GIS applications, not many employees are able to take advantage of MapInfo’s potential.5.4.3 3D Mapping SoftwareSince the 1980s a number of 3D maps of the City of Vancou-ver have been created at varying levels of detail. These maps ranged from data created manually in software like 3D Stu-dio Max, to a more recent 3D scan of the city using LIDAR technology – a remote sensing technology that uses a laser to illuminate objects then analyzes the reflected light – and fi-nalized in Autodesk Infrastructure Modeler. The 3D Vancou-ver maps are not currently available for use, though efforts are being made to establish a system to allow access to the map internally. Advantages:•	More and more applications are headed towards the inclusion of 3D city data. If Vancouver aims to lead the way with wayfinding, there’s the potential to incorporate this data into future digital wayfinding map applications.•	 The 3D map is complete citywide at varying levels of detail, so further time and resources aren’t a required pre-requisite for its use. DISCuSSION OF FINDINGS  |  PAGE 36Fig. 26: Buidlings in the West End colour-coded by ageFig. 27: Buidlings in the West End colour-coded by age, in 3DDisadvantages:•	One staff member currently creates and manages the maps, which need to be rendered as image files in order to be distributed.•	 The process of updating the map data to match current conditions of the ever-changing built-environment could be costly or time-intensive, and may require new software applications.5.4.4 Google MapsOn the City’s website, Google Maps is often used to convey interactive data, or information which might have an addi-tional level of data attached. Both Google Maps and the Goo-gle Maps Engine are currently used.Some of these uses include the Road Ahead map identifying current roadwork underway around the City, or a map identi-fying different districts within the West End neighbourhood.Advantages:•	Many web users are already quite familiar interacting with the user-friendly Google Maps.•	 It is the industry leader for providing directions from origin to destination.•	 It provides access to additional map-related features like Street View and a 3D Earth view.•	 Creating new data layers with the Google Maps Engine to embed on the City’s website is quick and intuitive.Disadvantages: •	 The City has very little control over the data appearing on Google Maps. This can result in out-dated information being displayed well before its expiration date, and has implications for when major capital projects are completed.•	 The interface is not customizable, and allowable data types are limited.5.4.5 Adobe IllustratorAdobe Illustrator, part of the Adobe Creative Studio product suite, affords City employees the ability to create and modify vector-based map files. Examples of this include the route to school maps, or a variety of maps included in the Transporta-tion 2040 plan. These maps are often saved as image files or PDFs, and do not support user interaction.PAGE 37  |  MOVING FORWARD: OPPORTUNITIES FOR VANCOUVER’S DIGITAL WAYFINDING MAPFig. 28: The Road Ahead map identifing current road projectsFig. 28: Downtown public spaces in the Transportation 2040 planAdvantages:•	 Custom maps can be created fairly quickly with differing levels of information in a very visually compelling manner.•	Users have complete freedom over the style, size, shape, and graphic elements of the maps and other content types. Disadvantages:•	Maps created by City employees do not follow a standard template, so their look and scale can differ greatly.•	Due to limited licenses, most City employees do not have access to Illustrator.•	A significant amount of skill is required to use the software to create or modify maps.5.4.6 Living Map WebviewerTo support the development of the new digital wayfinding map, a webviewer was created by Applied and hosted by the Living Map Company. This webviewer, similar to Goo-gle Maps, allows users to pan and zoom to different levels of content. The internal Wayfinding group made use of the webviewer to confirm data accuracy prior to production of the printed map stand content.Advantages:•	 The webviewer allows users to view the digital wayfinding map at multiple zoom levels from any internet-enabled device.•	 This visually-appealing, custom application could be developed further.Disadvantages:•	 The webviewer currently has restricted access only for those with a username and password.•	 The new digital wayfinding map at the finder level, the highest level of zoom, is limited to the metro core and major commercial areas throughout the rest of the City, resulting in blank areas lacking visual data.•	 There is no way to overlay additional data onto the map without sending the data directly to Applied.•	 To open up access externally, DLAs would need to be signed, and guidelines for use developed.5.4.7 Current Mapping ConclusionsAs reviewed, a number of different mapping solutions are currently in use at the City. Rather than contributing to the com-plexity of mapping solutions, the addition of a digital wayfinding map built from existing datasets creates the opportunity to combine a number of these different tools into one well-maintained, simplified, and visually-engaging solution. The map could support a more cohesive visual design of official City communications and engagement documents and has the poten-tial to reach more residents and visitors by becoming a trusted, accessible, and interactive source of official City data.DISCuSSION OF FINDINGS  |  PAGE 38Fig. 30: The downtown core at the Planner map zoom level6RECOMMENDAtIONS6.1 ReCommended oPPoRTuniTiesMoving forward with these findings, I present a number of recommended opportuni-ties. These are grouped into static products, and interactive products. A concept illustration, incorporating the digital wayfinding map, accompanies each opportunity along with defined actions and benefits, a rough timeline, estimated costs, proposed ownership and key partners, implementation approach, evaluation measures, and easy-wins. It should be noted that each of these recommendations makes the as-sumption the map will be maintained and updated every three years 6.2 sTaTiC PRoduCTsFocusing on printed or image-based opportunities, the following static products I’m proposing make use of the digital wayfinding map as a powerful tool in the City’s branding and corporate communications toolbox. Learning from Legible London, where the map has been rolled out to as many departments as possible, using the City’s new map wherever other maps are displayed in official pieces of signage or communication will help build trust and confidence in the map content.This approach, when combined with the maps displayed in the physical map stands around the city, will allow the public to begin recognizing the map as an official com-munication base and begin to form instant associations with the map. The recommended static products are new Development Application Signs, Walking tour Maps, and Branded Merchandise. RECOMMENDAtIONS  |  PAGE 406.2.1 Development Application Signs  One of the key recommendations from the 2013 Engaged City Task Force Quick Stats Report was the redesign of development project signage. It was noted the current signs use small fonts and overly technical language. The design was changed to fea-ture easy-to-understand language and details, improved visuals including a site sketch or rendering and an improved map, and information on how residents can give input online or in person. A prototype sign was installed in 2013 at 720 – 730 E Hastings, but this design could easily benefit from the standardized use of the digital wayfinding map.Action: Integrate the wayfinding map as a base layer for the site-specific map displayed on development application signage.Benefit: This will enhance the visual accessibility of the signage, identify pedestrian infrastructure like existing sidewalks, and build on the consistency and trust built into the wayfinding map.timeline: 1-2 MonthsEstimated Cost: Staff hours required to implement new design templateDepartment Ownership: Corporate Communications / Engagement / Community Services GroupImplementation: Provide map base layer to the graphic designer, and review proposed design with Corporate Communica-tions and Engagement.Evaluation: Type of public response (positive or negative); interest from other municipalities.PAGE 41  |  MOVING FORWARD: OPPORTUNITIES FOR VANCOUVER’S DIGITAL WAYFINDING MAPFig. 31: Development Application Sign concept6.2.2 Walking Route MapsExisting literature reviewed previously in this report identified the potential for printed walking maps to encourage more ac-tive lifestyles and result in a number of health benefits. Building off previous investments into the Best Route to School maps, or the Park Board’s Step Out walks, it is recommended that the digital wayfinding map be used as a base upon which this exist-ing content can be added. The routes are already determined, and landmarks, walking distances, and other data have already been produced. This is an easy win with a big impact. Action: Build design guidelines or templates to support creation of consistent walking maps.Benefit: Bringing these walking maps back to life and plotting their routes on top of the new wayfinding map will respect the work that went into producing previous walking route maps; respond to and help support Vancouver’s GCAP green transpor-tation goals and Healthy City goals; and provide a low-cost and beautiful new way for visitors to discover the city for the first time, and let residents rediscover their own neighbourhoods.timeline: 1-3 MonthsEstimated Cost: Necessary staff hours to build design guidelines.Department Ownership: Active Transportation / Corporate Communications + key Partners: Park BoardImplementation: Allocate staff hours or hire a temporary employee to identify key partners, build design guidelines, and create and potential map template files. Work with key partners to ensure resulting maps adhere to the guidelines and convey appropriate amounts of information.Evaluation: Number of template requests, number of maps produced, type of public response.RECOMMENDAtIONS  |  PAGE 42Fig. 32: Strathcona architectural walking tour concept6.2.3 Branded MerchandiseDuring anecdotal experiences trying to locate City-branded merchandise, and as a result of a number of discussions, I identi-fied the potential for branded products to be a low cost option with a favourable return on investment. Thanks to the beautiful design of the digital wayfinding map, it’s not only helpful when finding directions, but it’s also a beautiful work of civic art. The City does not currently produce or sell branded merchandise – perhaps this is the time to start.Action: Produce and market a line of City of Vancouver map-branded merchandise, such as:•	Design a map-branded umbrella to help residents and visitors get around on rainy days.•	 Continue the tongue-in-cheek nod to Vancouver’s reputation as Canada’s “wet coast” city by applying the map to a line of rain boots.•	 Create shower curtains displaying the entire city, or popular neighbourhoods, highlighting the distinct character of the neighbourhood along with local landmarks and destinations.•	Wrap it around an insulated or ceramic coffee mug to let residents enjoy a morning brew at the park and follow a new route home afterwards.Benefit: Additional advertising for the City of Vancouver, increased civic pride, increased reputation as a City that knows how to have fun, and potential financial profit.timeline: 4 – 12 months to release first product line.Estimated Cost: $5,000-$10,000 for design production plus undetermined amount per product item.Department Ownership: Corporate Communications / City Manager’s OfficeImplementation: Source local manufacturer possibilities, complete or contract out finalized artwork to appear on various products, and determine pricing structure and method of distribution. Spacing Toronto is in the process of opening a store-front in Toronto to sell urban-oriented merchandise, such as subway station buttons. Contact Spacing Vancouver to inquire about a similar program here, and provide the digital wayfinding map and support to see the project implemented.Evaluation: Number of items sold; amount of interest in bulk orders; number and type of knock-off products designed.PAGE 43  |  MOVING FORWARD: OPPORTUNITIES FOR VANCOUVER’S DIGITAL WAYFINDING MAPFig. 33: Map-branded shower curtain & ceramic cup concept6.3 inTeRaCTiVe PRoduCTsA number of different actions can be taken to make the most of the existing invest-ment and work towards Vancouver becoming a leader in urban wayfinding, digital mapping, and online civic user experience. Since wayfinding is a complex spatial ac-tivity, my proposed recommendations ensure the user remains engaged in the real world environment whenever possible (Li & Willis, 2006). As such, and due to the high costs and rapid obsolescence of high-tech physical infrastructure, no interactive kiosks or broadcasted signage actions have been recommended at this time.The recommended interactive products are a Wayfinding Map API, an Online Map Maker, a Vancouver Website Map, and a Mapathon/Design Jam.RECOMMENDAtIONS  |  PAGE 446.3.1 Wayfinding Map APIWithin the existing contract with Applied, an API option has been proposed and the costs have been determined. For a mini-mal investment, the City could open the door to a new way to explore the further potential of the wayfinding map. This recom-mendation would likely be required for recommendation 6.3.2 Online Map Maker, and would be a prerequisite for pursuing recommendations 6.3.3 Vancouver Website Map, 6.3.4 Mapping Hackathon.Action: Work with Applied to release a public API of the map.Benefit: Supporting existing Digital Strategy policies, the release of an API will give internal and external developers the ability to add additional information onto the current map. This will encourage creative thinking and innovation, and give residents a feeling of ownership and increased familiarity with the map.timeline: 2 months (for internal use) – 1 year (for full public release)Estimated Cost: $5,000-$10,000/year for API setup and management, including any required product licences, cloud server fees, and additional content layers.Deparment Ownership: IT + Contractor (Applied)Implementation: Work with Applied to define the specific API structure and determine an ongoing agreement, provide ac-cess to the API via the City’s Open Data webpage.Evaluation: Number of API users; number of API calls; number of registered applications.PAGE 45  |  MOVING FORWARD: OPPORTUNITIES FOR VANCOUVER’S DIGITAL WAYFINDING MAPFig. 34: Wayfinding Map API live bus concept6.3.2 Online Map Maker Applied could be contracted to produce a web-based map maker similar to Google Maps Engine or Mapbox – both very in-tuitive applications providing a quick and easy way to add data to interactive maps. The current publishing agreement with Applied includes a system whereby Applied could be contracted to produce additional on-demand map products, such as the Vancouver Cycle Network map, using an in-house PDF maker. The concept above is based on the Mapbox.com interface.Action: Pursue the creation of a web-based map maker through Applied or by contracting another third-party developer.Benefit: City staff and the general public could conceptualize and produce their own online map to communicate civic in-formation, ideas, or simply express themselves in a map-based format. Depending on the ease of use, the map could become the go-to standard for staff looking to create clear, legible, consistent maps for distribution.timeline: 6-12 monthsEstimated Cost: $10.000 - $30,000 plus ongoing maintenance costs.Department Ownership: IT + Contractor (Applied)Implementation: Contact Applied to inquire about possibility to develop online map maker application. If API supports it, pursue an open request for proposals to encourage local software developers to build the application. Complete simple ref-erence handbook for employees, and distribute the software across the CoV network.Evaluation: Number of maps produced using the map maker; number of positive responses from internal and external users.RECOMMENDAtIONS  |  PAGE 46Fig. 35: Online Map Maker concept showing water fountains6.3.3 Vancouver Website MapCurrently a number of different map types are available through the City’s website. These include but are not limited to down-loadable PDFs, static image files, interactive maps, and embedded Google maps. Making use of the map API in an interactive web-based environment would provide the opportunity to increase consistency across all maps displayed on the website. It could also present localized services and information to users based on their current location. These could include garbage and recycling pickup schedules, nearby community centres or libraries, street closures, neighbourhood planning sessions, and so on.Action: Embed the interactive wayfinding map with appropriate information layers in every area of Vancouver.ca where a different type of map is currently displayed.Benefit: Increasing consistency across as many mediums as possible would further the perception of the map as the official City map, while also supporting a more consistent brand experience.timeline: 6-12 monthsEstimated Cost: $5,000-$10,000 to implement API from 6.3.1, and staff time to integrate the map API into the website and add/maintain data layers.Department Ownership: IT / Web OperationsImplementation: Work with Applied to confirm API structure and method of implementation. Determine all areas on the City’s website where maps are displayed and prioritize order of map replacement. Produce new maps, and embed the new maps on the website.Evaluation: Difference in number of pageviews for pages containing the new map; number of map downloads; number of positive responses from website visitors.PAGE 47  |  MOVING FORWARD: OPPORTUNITIES FOR VANCOUVER’S DIGITAL WAYFINDING MAPFig. 36: ‘My Mapcouver’ embedded homepage map concept6.3.4 Mapathon/Design JamMy final recommended use of the map is to incorporate it into a hackathon (hacking marathon) event. Hackathons grew in pop-ularity from their beginnings as programming mashups in 1999 and have since become well supported by the open data and open government movements.  A Yahoo Open Hack event in 2012 had over 700 attendees (Johnson, 2012). On February 23, 2013, the City of Vancouver held an open data hackathon in conjunction with the third annual International Open Data Day to celebrate the release of the City’s expanded open data catalogue.Code for America, a non-profit that helps residents and governments harness technology to solve community problems, has supported a number of civic hackathon events with outcomes as well known as Textizen, a civic dialogue platform that allows residents to connect with a mix of offline outreach and online engagement; Streetmix, an interactive street section builder that helps community members mock-up the streets they’d like to life on; and The Daily Brief, which allows users to explore and filter 311 service requests by neighbourhood, service name, and status.Using the wayfinding map API published by Applied, as per recommendation 6.3.1 Wayfinding Map API, a ‘Mapathon’ event could invite community members and app developers to participate in an idea generation and prototyping event to produce possible map applications or directions. The event would include tutorial sessions to explain how certain aspects of the map could be interacted with. Challenges could be proposed for participants to respond to, such as ‘Create an application to en-courage more people to walk’ or ‘Build a game to teach residents about your neighbourhood’. Since hackathons range from a few hours, to 24 hours, to entire weekends, the proposed ‘Mapathon’ would be a two-day event with the first ‘Design Jam’ day focusing on concepts and tangible prototyping, and the second ‘MapHack’ day focusing on programming and digital proto-typing.Action: Hold a hackathon event to produce prototype applications for the wayfinding map.Benefit: New relationships could be formed between residents and app developers, useful application concepts could be identified, and potential application products could be created. These outcomes would allow the map to reach new audiences and further the goal of using it as a civic-branding tool.timeline: 3-6 MonthsEstimated Cost: $5,000-$10,000 for event facilitation, food, documentation, etc. plus an undetermined amount for a trial version of the API from Applied.Department Ownership: IT / Digital StrategyImplementation: Dedicate staff hours to coordinate with interested outside parties to plan the event and secure sponsors. CityStudio has expressed interest in providing a space to hold the event. The Vancouver Economic Commission has expressed interest in being involved with logistics. The Vancouver Design Nerds have expressed interest in facilitating and documenting the ‘design jam’ portion of the event.Evaluation: Number of participants; level of participant satisfaction; number of projects; quality of outcomes.RECOMMENDAtIONS  |  PAGE 48Fig. 37: 2013 Vancouver Hackathon final presentations6.4 easy WinsFollowing these recommendations, a number of simple low-cost, high-benefit actions should be taken by the City to begin making use of the digital wayfinding map and pave the way for addition-al investment. These ‘easy wins’ are as follows:•	 Build awareness of and momentum for the new digital wayfinding map by highlighting the project across the City’s communication channels (website, social media accounts, internal CityWire, etc.) in conjunction with the new map content being installed into the physical map stands.•	Make use of the map to display locations participating in the upcoming Doors Open event, or polling centres for the November municipal election (achieved).•	 Produce a few sample, updated Step Out or Best Route to School walking maps focusing on some of the City’s most popular areas and distribute them throughout City Hall, Vancouver Public Library branches, Community Centres, and other neighbourhood information centres.•	 Continue working with project partners, including Tourism Vancouver, the Downtown Vancouvet Business Improvement Association, and TransLink to create new map products6.5 imPliCaTions of inaCTionAlthough the digital wayfinding map was created primarily to support current and future updates to Vancouver’s physical wayfinding system, a number of consequences will occur in the event the City choses not to pursue additional opportunities for the map. These include, but are not limited to:•	Missed opportunities to bring the City closer to meeting its related GCAP, Transportation 2040, Digital Strategy, and Healthy City Strategy goals.•	A greater risk of map data becoming out-of-date between now and the next map stand content refresh in three years due to a lack of maintenance and dedicated staff resources.•	Ongoing funds allocated to the storage and infrastructure maintenance of the digital wayfinding map won’t result in any additional benefit.•	 The likelihood that map production at the City will continue to become more decentralized and inconsistent, requiring more staff time dedicated to reproducing similar base-map content across departments.PAGE 49  |  MOVING FORWARD: OPPORTUNITIES FOR VANCOUVER’S DIGITAL WAYFINDING MAP7 CONCLuSIONS7.1 summaRy of ReseaRCh The recommendations and easy wins I’ve presented outline a number of alternative directions to make use of the digital way-finding map the City of Vancouver has invested into over the past year. These recommendations were based on a review of ex-isting literature, a wayfinding peer study, and a series of in-situ meetings. They respond to existing plans and policies adopted by the City, not limited to the Greenest City 2020 Action Plan.Each of the recommendations, if implemented, would make a positive contribution to mapping at the City, and increase awareness of Vancouver’s beautiful new wayfinding map. The map and its possibilities should be communicated broadly to refine its benefits to the City’s brand, residents, visitors, and the broader public. If a department intends to create a map, they should know this solution exists and should have the tools and knowledge on hand to produce a consistently branded map efficiently and effectively.7.2 moVinG foRWaRd This research was conducted with a focus specific to the current digital wayfinding project at the City of Vancouver. Future research should focus on evaluating the performance of Vancouver’s digital wayfinding map once it has been installed in the physical map stands around the city, and further refine the potential for the recommended opportunities to enhance civic engagement and participation. There are as of yet unknown links between wayfinding, public mapping, and walkability, and additional research could begin to tie these areas together.Vancouver’s digital wayfinding map is a tremendous asset for the City and has great potential for advancing Vancouver’s Green-est City goal of increasing the number of walking trips. The map has the potential to amplify Vancouver’s image as Canada’s beautifully green, livable, compact, and forward-thinking west coast city. While pedestrian wayfinding systems worldwide have only just begun to gain popularity within the last 10 years, the timing is right for Vancouver to take this opportunity to set a new global precedent.The tools are at hand, and the path has become clear.It’s time to lead the way forward.CONCLuSIONS  |  PAGE 508 WORkS CItEDAlliance, B. H. L. (2007). Physical activity strategy. Vancouver: BC Healthy Living Alliance, 15.Buchanan, Colin (2007). Legible London Initial Business Case (Unpublished).Badger, Emily. (2012, Jan. 31) “The Surprisingly Complex Art of Urban Wayfinding.” CityLab. The Atlantic. Retrieved July 16, 2014. <http://www.citylab.com/design/2012/01/surprisingly-complex-art-wayfinding/1088/>.Buchanan, P., & Gay, N. (2009). Making a case for investment in the public realm. Proceedings of the ICE-Urban Design and Planning, 162(1), 29-34.Cunningham, G., & Michael, Y. L. (2004). 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(2001). Wayfinding and navigation behavior. in-Chief: Neil J. Smelser, & Paul B. Baltes (Eds.), International encyclopedia of the social & behavioral sciences, 16391-16394.Gibson, D. (2009). The wayfinding handbook: information design for public places. Princeton Architectural Press.PAGE 51  |  MOVING FORWARD: OPPORTUNITIES FOR VANCOUVER’S DIGITAL WAYFINDING MAPGoldiez, B. F., Ahmad, A. M., & Hancock, P. A. (2007). Effects of augmented reality display settings on human wayfinding performance. Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part C: Applications and Reviews, IEEE Transactions on, 37(5), 839-845.Golledge, R. G. (Ed.). (1999). Wayfinding behavior: Cognitive mapping and other spatial processes. JHU Press.Hegarty, M., Richardson, A. E., Montello, D. R., Lovelace, K., & Subbiah, I. (2002). Development of a self-report measure of environmental spatial ability. Intelligence, 30(5), 425-447.Hillsdon, M., & Thorogood, M. (1996). A systematic review of physical activity promotion strategies. British journal of sports medicine, 30(2), 84-89.Ishikawa, T., Fujiwara, H., Imai, O., & Okabe, A. (2008). Wayfinding with a GPS-based mobile navigation system: A comparison with maps and direct experience. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 28(1), 74-82.Jackson, R. J., & Sinclair, S. (2012). Designing healthy communities. Health Affairs, 31, 4.Jacobs, J. (1961). The death and life of great American cities. Random House LLC.Jeanne Sholl, M. (1988). The relation between sense of direction and mental geographic updating. Intelligence, 12(3), 299-314.Jennings, K. (2012). Maphead: Charting the Wide, Weird World of Geography Wonks. Simon and Schuster.Jobst, M. (2009). Neo-cartographic interlacement as barrier for Cartographic Heritage. e-Perimetron, 4(4), 212-220.Johnson, Pushpalee. (2012). Purple in Bangalore – Inside Yahoo! Open Hack India 2012.. YDN Blog. Yahoo Developer Network. Retrieved July 29, 2014. <http://developer.yahoocom/blogs/ydn/purple-bangalore-inside-yahooo-open-hack-india-2012-52837.html>.Kelly, C. E., Tight, M. R., Hodgson, F. C., & Page, M. W. (2011). A comparison of three methods for assessing the walkability of the pedestrian environment. Journal of Transport Geography, 19(6), 1500-1508.WORkS CItED  |  PAGE 52Krug, S. (2000). Don’t make me think!: a common sense approach to Web usability. Pearson Education India.Kupferman, S. (2011). How the iPhone destroyed Astral’s InfoToGo pillars. City_Local News. The Grid. Retrieved August 5, 2014. <http://www.thegridto.com/city/local-news/how-the-iphone-destroyed-astrals-infotogo-pillars/>.Lancaster, T., Tatebe, K., Welk, E., & Williams, C. (2008). YouMap Vancouver Neighbourhood Amenity Mapping Project. Vancouver City Planning Commission. Retrieved July 28, 2014. <http://built4change.vancouverplanning.ca/wp-content/uploads/2008/12/youmap_report2008.pdf>.Larouche, R., Faulkner, G. 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Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2217(1), 95-102.Timpf, S. (2006). Wayfinding with mobile devices: decision support for the mobile citizen. In Frontiers of Geographic Information Technology (pp. 209-228). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.The Canadian Internet. (2014). CIRA. Retrieved July 29, 2014. <http://cira.ca/factbook/2014/the-canadian-internet.html>.Williams, D. M., Matthews, C., Rutt, C., Napolitano, M. A., & Marcus, B. H. (2008). Interventions to increase walking behavior. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 40(7 Suppl), S567.WORkS CItED  |  PAGE 549 APPENDIxDefinition of terms Active transportation is a mode of transport using human muscle power, such as walking or riding a bicycle.Augmented Reality (AR) is a software application which overlays virtual data onto an live video of the real world, often in a handheld device.Application Programming Interface (API) is an interface programmers use to interpret and build upon application data.Crowd-sourced is the process of inviting a wide range of people to contribute time, information, or expertise to solve a problem, often very quickly.Geo-referenced database is a digital map filled with specific data sets, owned by the Living Map Company.Geographic Information System (GIS) is a data management system used to capture, , manage, retrieve, analyze, and display spatial information. Global Positioning System (GPS) is a satellite-based geographic navigation system, used to determine the location of a device on or near the Earth.Greenest City Action Plan (GCAP) is the City of Vancouver’s Greenest City 2020 Action Plan approved by Council in 2010.Hackathon is an event where computer programmers rapidly create prototype applications in response to a challenge or release of new data.Internet of Things is a term describing the trend towards more everyday objects having network connectivity to send and receive data over the internet. Mashup is a type of software application which combines two previously unrelated sets of data to solve a particular problem or create a new opportunity. Open data or open format is data provided in an easily-accessible format, often so programmers can create applications to interact with or display the data in a visual way.Prosumer is a “professional customer” who plays a part in the design, manufacture, or development of an existing product or service.Smart city is a term used to refer to cities that make use of open data to communicate various information to the public, often in real-time.Wayfinding is the process of orienting oneself and navigating through a physical environment.PAGE 55  |  MOVING FORWARD: OPPORTUNITIES FOR VANCOUVER’S DIGITAL WAYFINDING MAPAcknowledgementsThis research was made possible thanks to the participation and support of the following individuals. Thank you again for lending your time, knowledge, and expertise.Meeting attendees are marked in bold.APPENDIx  |  PAGE 561. Adrian Bell, Applied Wayfinding2. Adrian Sinclair, Museum of Vancouver3. Amanda Mitchell, City of Vancouver, Public Engagement4. Andrew Patton, Gastown Gazette5. Angie Nicolas, UBC Greenest City Scholar6. Anthony Aisenberg, CrowdSpot7. Ashley Lowcock, UBC Greenest City Scholar8. Becky Potvin, City of Vancouver, Web Operations9. Ben Acornley, Applied Wayfinding10. Brent Dozzi, City of Vancouver, Neighbourhood Parking and Transportation11. Cameron Barker, City of Vancouver, Planning and Development12. Camille Lefrancois, UBC Greenest City Scholar13. Carol Noble, City of Vancouver, IT14. Catherine Neill, City of Vancouver, Streets Activities15. Charles Montgomery, Author, “Happy City”16. Chris Ronson, City of Toronto, Department of Transportation17. Christa Brown, UBC Greenest City Scholar18. Dan Campbell, City of Vancouver, IT19. Dan Hill, City of Sound20. Danielle Bauer, Cygnus Group21. Glen Chua, UBC Greenest City Scholar22. Gregory Dreicer, Museum of Vancouver23. Helen Hardwick, City of Melbourne, Tourism Melbourne24. Ian Hosler, City of Edmonton, Community Services25. Ian MacPhee, City of Vancouver, Transit Projects and Policy26. Ivy Haissell, Downtown Vancouver Business Improvement Association27. Jared Korb, Vancouver Design Nerds28. Jasmine Lam, City of Vancouver, Streets Activities29. Jayme Cochrane, Slant Design30. Jennifer Wahl, City of Vancouver, Sustainability31. Jenniffer Sheel, City of Vancouver, Streets Activities32. Jessie Adcock, City of Vancouver, Digital Strategy33. Jet Bertheux, Applied Wayfinding34. Jhenifer Pabillano, City of Vancouver, Communications35. John Moreau, City of Vancouver, Web Operations36. Katherine O’Callaghan, City of Vancouver, Sustainability37. Keltie Craig, City of Vancouver, Sustainability38. Keri Tyler, City of New York, Department of Transportation39. Kristin Lantz, Museum of VancouverPAGE 57  |  MOVING FORWARD: OPPORTUNITIES FOR VANCOUVER’S DIGITAL WAYFINDING MAP40. Krisztina Kassay, City of Vancouver, Streets Activities41. Laura Ng, Vancouver Coastal Health42. Lena Soots, CityStudio43. Linda Low, City of Vancouver, Open Data44. Maged Senbel, UBC School of Community and Regional Planning45. Mark Milinkovic, City of Melbourne, Property Services46. Marten Sims, Vancouver Design Nerds47. Nena Vukojevic, University of British Columbia48. Phil Kehres, TransLink Regional Transportation Authority49. Ryan Betts, Bazinga!50. Ryan Davis, UBC Greenest City Scholar51. Sam Coultrip, City-ID52. Sami Niemelä, Nordkapp53. Scot Hein, University of British Columbia54. Scott Edwards, City of Vancouver, Streets Activities55. Scott Erdman, City of Vancouver, Planning and Development56. Steve Chou, City of Vancouver, Streets Activities57. Tadgh Healy, City of Vancouver, Digital Strategy58. Tim Fendley, Applied Wayfinding59. Tracy Vaughan, City of Vancouver, Public Engagement60. Travis Kirton, Slant Design61. Wendy Feuer, City of New York, Department of TransportationList of Figures1. Greenest City Scholars photo, Jennifer Wahl2. Kevin Lynch wayfinding diagram, Kevin Lynch3. Walk!Philadelphia ‘disk map’, L&H Signs4. Legible London ‘monolith’, Applied Wayfinding5. London Underground Map, Harry Beck6. Legible London ‘minilith’, Applied Wayfinding7. Legible London Finder Map, Applied Wayfinding8. Google Maps, circa 1995, Google9. Google Maps Earth View, circa 2014, Google10. Tunnel Vision augmented reality app, Bill Lindmeier 11. Original 2010 map stand in South Granville, Robert White12. DVBIA survey of a 2012 pilot map, DVBIA13. 2012 Pilot map stand downtown, City of Vancouver14. The new ‘Planner’ map, City of Vancouver15. The new ‘Finder’ map, City of Vancouver16. Detail of TransLink Rapid Transit Network (RTN) map, TransLink17. Detail of DVBIA Downtown Walking Map, DVBIA18. Detail of Cycling in Vancouver map, City of Vancouver19. Rendering of Urbanflow on the streets of Helsinki, Nordkapp20. A New York City wayfinding stand with real-time bus data, NYC DOTAPPENDIx  |  PAGE 5821. Detail of Heathrow Airport’s interactive map, Applied22. Walk Brighton iPhone App, Amy Cooper Wright23. Heart of Auckland’s Pedestrians in the City tool, Heart of Auckland City24. Workshop visualization from Melbourne Smart City, Arup25. The default, public VanMap screen, City of Vancouver26. West End buildings by age, Dan Campbell27. 3D West End buildings by age, Dan Campbell28. Road Ahead map, City of Vancouver29. Downtown public spaces in Transportation 2040, City of Vancouver30. Downtown Planner map, Living Map Company31. Proposed Development Application Signage concept, Robert White32. Proposed Strathcona walking tour map concept, Robert White33. Proposed branded shower curtain and coffee cup concept, Robert White34. Proposed digital API concept, Robert White35. Proposed digital Map Maker concept, Robert White36. Proposed ‘My Mapcouver’ concept, Robert White37. Vancouver’s 2013 Hackathon final presentations, Linda LowAdditional Figure: Vancouver ‘Finder’ map draft, current as of 2014-07-18, is displayed on section title pages.

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