UBC Graduate Research

Cambie and Marine Station Area Design Evolution 2009

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2Marine Drive Station Area Incremental Visions of a Neighbourhood’s Future Canada Line Theory and Methods of Urban Design • Fall 2008 • University of British Columbia Project Introduction School of Community and Regional Planning       Urban Design 2008   1 The work summarized in this book was undertaken for a course at the School of Community and Regional Planning at UBC.  The course was entitled Theory and Methods of Urban Design and it covered the fundamentals of urban design by inviting students to apply theory to neighborhood design.  The course surveyed major historical and contemporary trends in urban design theory and practice, and introduced contemporary theories on the future forces affecting the development and functioning of urban regions.  Students discussed cities at multiple scales and applied their evolving understanding to neighbourhood scale development in the Marine Drive Station Area in Marpole, Vancouver.  The course is designed to provide a collaborative, interactive and applied environment for the development of spatial thinking and basic urban design literacy. The Canada Line, connecting Vancouver to Richmond and the Vancouver International Airport, is a rapid transit system that emerges from an underground tunnel to an elevated guideway at Marine Drive and Cambie Street.  The Marine Drive Station is also located at this intersection. With a projected daily ridership of 100,000 passengers, the Canada Line is expected to increase pressure for more intensive development around each station. Marine Drive itself is one of Vancouver’s busiest streets and an important trucking route. The Marine Drive station is at the interface between one of Vancouver’s oldest residential neighbourhoods and one of its last remaining large tracts of industrial land. The Fraser River is only a six-minute walk to the south of the station. Also within walking distance are; a city garbage and recycling transfer station, an elementary school, seniors housing complexes, single family homes, townhouses, apartment buildings and a neighbourhood park.  The residential character of the neighbourhood to the north of Marine Drive is in direct contrast to the industrial and commercial character of the neighbourhood to the south.  This station area therefore represents unique challenges to reconciling varied and possibly competing visions for how a rapid transit station might be a catalyst for new forms of development. Teams of students collaborated to build a physical scale model of the area within a five minute walking radius of the Marine Drive Station.  Each team was responsible for a component of the base as well as a portion of the existing buildings within this neighbourhood.  All existing buildings and roads, sidewalks and trees were represented. Buildings were simplified considerably and did not show any architectural details.  All existing buildings were built using white museum board and existing trees were represented using white material.  The student teams then took turns designing new interventions for the neighbourhood working on the east and west sides separately. Every week one team of students presented a design for half of the neighbourhood that is east of Cambie and another team presented a design for the half that is west of Cambie. A different pair of teams then critiqued a design each.  The teams who did the critique then went on to produce design interventions the following week and a third pair of teams critiqued them.  This cycle continued three times so by the end of the course each team had produced three design interventions on the model.  All new buildings were constructed using antique white museum board and new trees were constructed using green material. Students were asked to articulate a problem or an opportunity for their design and then propose an intervention and then discuss its contribution to the neighbourhood.  The majority of students in the course were new to design and had not prior graphic or design experience.  This book presents the weekly progression of designs with summaries of the design interventions and critiques.  The final outcome represents weeks of deliberation, discussion, and incremental growth towards a neighbourhood that is responsive to the anticipated challenges of climate change, peak oil, increased and aging population, and the need for complete healthy walkable communities. This book represents the hard work and dedication of the following students: Rebecca Bateman, Latosia Campbell Joanna Clark Andréanne Doyon Megan Fitzgerald Michele Fuge Waleed Giratalla Martin Gregorian Adam Hyslop Bronwyn Jarvis Jody Kliffer Ellen Larcombe Sawngjai Manityakul Johanna Mazur Andrew Merrill Asrai Ord Stacy Passmore Mona Poon Naveeda Rizwan Sean Tynan Anjali Varghese Christine Wenman Jody Kliffer, Ellen Larcombe and Johanna Mazur were in charge of designing this book, editing its content, producing the figure ground drawings, and generally documenting all the course work.  The class is grateful for their efforts.  Martin Gregorian was a tremendous help in photographing the weekly design interventions and documenting with great skill the detail of the model and its evolution over time.  It has been my sincere pleasure to teach this course. Our study area as defined by the City of Vancouver: http://vancouver.ca/commsvcs/planning/marpolegateway/ Maged Senbel, December 2008 School of Community and Regional Planning       Urban Design 2008 Class Photograph 2 School of Community and Regional Planning       Urban Design 2008   3 Aerial Photograph Google Map 2007, IMTCAN 2008 Marine D rive Ca mb ie St . He ath er  St . Kent Av e. M an ito ba  St . Yu ko n S t. Co lum bia  St . Lo rd  St . 70th Ave. 66th Ave. 68th Ave. 69th Ave. 62nd Ave. 63rd Ave. 64th Ave. 65th Ave. As h S t. Aisne St. As h S t. 70th Ave. 68th Ave. Heather St. Yu ko n S t. Ca mb ie St . Mar ine D rive School of Community and Regional Planning       Urban Design 2008  4 Figure Ground scale 1 : 5000 0 meters100 250 500 FIGURE GROUND N School of Community and Regional Planning       Urban Design 2008   5 Zoning Map        Light Industrial Districts        CD-1 Comprehensive Development District  Two-Family Dwelling Districts RT-1 Two-Family Dwelling District The intent is primarily to permit side-by-side two-family dwellings RT-2 Two-Family Dwelling District The intent is to permit two-family dwellings and to conditionally permit, in some instances, low density multiple-family housing. A separate CD-1 bylaw exists for each area or site zoned CD-1, tailor-made to the intended form of development.   Commercial Districts C-1 Commercial District The intent is to provide for small-scale convenience commercial establishments, catering typically to the needs of a local neighbourhood and consisting primarily of retail sales and certain limited service functions, and to provide for dwelling uses designed compatibly with commercial uses.   Multiple Dwelling Districts RM-3, RM-3A Multiple Dwelling Districts The intent is to permit medium density residential development, including high- rise apartment buildings, and to secure a higher quality of parking, open space and daylight access through floor area bonus incentives.  One-Family Dwelling Districts RS-1 One-Family Dwelling Districts The intent is to maintain the single-family residential character of the RS-1 District, but also to permit conditionally one-family dwellings with secondary suites. emphasis is placed on encouraging neighbourly development by preserving outdoor space and views. neighbourhood amenity is enhanced through the maintenance of healthy trees and planting which reflects the established streetscape. http://vancouver.ca/commsvcs/currentplanning/coloured_zoning_map.htm School of Community and Regional Planning       Urban Design 2008 6 Incremental Design Proposals School of Community and Regional Planning       Urban Design 2008   7 Week one: Figure Ground scale 1 : 5000 0 meters100 250 500 FIGURE GROUND N School of Community and Regional Planning       Urban Design 2008 8 Week one: Physical Interventions West Side east Side Looking East from Ash towards Marine Drive and Cambie Looking West from Yukon towards Marine Drive and Cambie School of Community and Regional Planning       Urban Design 2008   9 Week one: West Side Design and Critique Defining the Problem Initial site visits to the project area highlighted a lack of public amenity and community focal point.  Upon studying the area’s aerial maps, and the final model, it was apparent that the area lacked a community ‘feel’.  As Bacon(1974) states, “good design should interlock and interrelate buildings across space”.   Further, Sternberg (2000) states “Urban Design’s distinct social role: creating and protecting and restoring cohesive experiences of built form.”  There was only one small park within the project boundaries, and there was very little community amenity such as convenience stores, restaurants, local commercial etc.  There was almost no recognition of the Chinese community who have adopted this area in recent years. In addition, there appeared to be a lack of facilities for non- vehicular traffic ie bikes, pedestrian walkways. Proposed Design In order to make positive changes to the area within the scope of the brief, it was decided to primarily concentrate on a small portion of the overall area.  This involved creating a community focal point with public amenities and improving the connectivity to this point. Specifically, the following five changes were made: 1.To construct an overpass from the rapid transit station to the north western corner of the Cambie St/Marine Drive intersection.  The overpass would continue from the mezzanine level of the station so as to be separated from the “fare paid” zone to ensure its validity to non commuter traffic.   In an effort to retain the necessary height over Marine Drive, the overpass would terminate on the second floor of the proposed building described below. 2.Connecting to the overpass, would be the newly developed “Petro Canada” site.  This site has been earmarked for mixed use development with a strong focus on ground floor retail (eg restaurants, chinese grocers) surrounding a pedestrian path. The building is shaped to create outdoor plaza space.  The second floor would be ideally comprise local commercial uses, such as accountants, laywers, doctors etc.  The current zoning allows for four storeys, and it is envisaged the top two floors would be residential. 3. To increase “walkability”, particularly in relation to the pending rapid transit station; it was decided that a pedestrian and cycle path be built to connect with the end of the overpass, and  incorporated into the design of the development proposed for the corner lot, continue through the parkland to connect with Ash St.  The path is envisaged to be six metres in width, and would have clearly defined bike and pedestrian paths. 4.Park improvements to the Ash Street parkland (adjacent to the Elementary School).  To coincide with the pedestrian and cycle path, the park will be improved to create a community amenity.  There will be a small playground area in the centre of the park.  A community garden area on the Lord Street frontage, and a more heavily planted garden area to the south of the park. 5.Dedicating  Ash Street as primarily a pedestrian/cycle- friendly corridor.  This was achieved by first installing all missing links in the sidewalk system on both sides of the street. Corner bulges at each intersection and two roundabouts at four-way intersections provide traffic calming and discourage vehicle traffic from short- cutting through the neighbourhood. Finally, street trees in the boulevards and plantings in the corner bulges and roundabouts provide a more aesthetic experience for the pedestrian while further separating faster traffic from the pedestrian. This street was chosen for several reasons.  It is immediately parallel to Cambie Street which would likely be the preferred route for non-motorized traffic, it is adjacent to the school and park site, it connects to the multi- use path system running through the park and which leads to the community centre and sky-train station, and it is a street that almost every resident would have to use to if they were to walk to the community centre. Benefits to Neighbourhood The above changes are all interrelated as they aim to improve the community amenity of the area, and increase the walkability from the residences to the places of work in the commercial/industrial area, or to the pending rapid transit station to be completed in 2009.  Whilst the area currently appears to suffer from a lack of focal point, it is envisaged that the rapid transit station will create a physical draw to the intersection of Cambie Street and Marine Drive. The careful approval of developments near this corner will assist in changing the dynamic of the area’s traffic flows and create a natural point for community services.  “Every building must create coherent and well-shaped public space next to it.” (Alexander 1987).  In essence, the cohesion of these changes aim to achieve “something that the haphazard work of developers, owners, and architects individually could not achieve” (Lynch 1960). Framing of the Problem We support Team A’s framing of the problems – lack of facilities for non-vehicular traffic, lack of a community focal point, limited commercial and public amenity, and lack of a community “feel”, with no recognition of the prominent Chinese community of the neighbourhood through urban design features. Team A was largely successful in addressing their stated objectives through their design interventions. To address these objectives, the team introduced one major change (the mixed-use development) and four smaller but equally valuable additions. This gradual and thoughtful approach to the redesign of the neighbourhood aligns with the urban design framework outlined by Alexander, et al (1987) which speaks to the value of piecemeal, or incremental, growth. Design enhancements made to promote non-motorised modes of transportation and “walkability” were achieved through the following additions: traffic-calming measures and trees on Ash Street; pathways through the park connecting to Ash Street; a commercial pedestrian street cutting through the proposed northwest development linking to the park; and the inclusion of a pedestrian bridge linking the community north of Marine Drive to the skytrain station. In addition to improving non-motorized mobility in this community, these design interventions create connections between spaces and new gathering places for the community which are currently missing in the neighbourhood. The lack of a community focal point is addressed by park improvements (including a community garden and play- ground for children) which will serve to attract more residents to the space. Furthermore, the introduction of a mixed-use development on the northwest corner of Marine Drive provides the community with needed public amenities. The notion of wholeness introduced by Alexander et al. (1987) and Lynch’s (1960) discussion on the importance of legibility are useful concepts in assessing Team A’s integration of visual and physical connectivity between the mixed use development and the skytrain station. Contributing to this connectivity between the two developments is the pedestrian-walkway linking the northwest part of the community to the skytrain development on the southeast corner. The visual and physical connection created through this design supports the notion of wholeness, as opposed to fragmentation, and increases legibility for users of the space. Critique of Design One concern we have with the proposed pedestrian-walkway is its access point on the south side of Marine Drive. The walkway is limited to the skytrain station, which limits connectivity between the southwest and northwest communities straddling Marine Drive. To increase pedestrian movement across Marine Drive, we recommend including a ramp to the walkway for the southeast residents. Kevin Lynch’s focus on the cognitive perception of cities and the meaning derived from our experience of urban places (Lynch, 1984) was addressed by Team A through enhancing the level of public amenity and social opportunity available to the community through the park and pedestrian improvements.  The meaning people derive from this place could be further enhanced by integrating more elements that speak to the cultural makeup of the community, as well as some linkage to the history of the area.  In addition to the proposed provision of a Chinese restaurants or grocery store, we felt cultural recognition could also be incorporated into the design through public art opportunities, a place where tai-chi can be practiced, and fixed tables where games often played by elderly Chinese people (e.g. Chinese checkers) can take place. These additions would help include the senior population and would complement the children’s playground and community garden that are already proposed by Group A.  In addition, the inclusion of a gazebo or a sheltered space could also add functionality to the park and consequently attract more activity/vibrancy. We also believe that moving the community garden closer to the school and enlarging it to add space for both community members and the elementary school students would help foster a stronger sense of community by connecting and integrating the school with the broader neighbourhood. DESIGN - Team A: Andrew Merrill, Anjali Varghese, Michele Fuge CRITIQUE - Team B: Johanna Mazur, Ellen Larcombe, Jody Kliffer School of Community and Regional Planning       Urban Design 2008 10 Week one: east Side Design and Critique Defining the Problem With the recent addition of a Skytrain station and the former Insurance Corporation of British Columbia (ICBC) site up for redevelopment, Marpole is in a period of transition. Changes made to the site will act as a catalyst for further redevelopment in the area. We have identified a lack of public space, which is important for the vitality and social cohesion of the area, as a problem in this neighbourhood. The area also lacks meaning which could help to integrate the community (Sternberg 2000). The former ICBC site provides a range of opportunities for economic sustainability (employment generation) and services (retail and other), as well as a space in which to enact the City’s eco-density agenda, providing “greener” liveable spaces in line with ecological principles (Sternberg, 2000). Proposed Design Our proposal involves the addition of two buildings, one path, one road, one parking lot, and a hanging garden. These additions center around one key feature: a public square with an area of approximately 150 square meters. Emphasis has been placed on circular pedestrian flow, both across rooftops and around buildings. We envision interconnections between the Skytrain station and the rooftop gardens via skybridges. A new sidewalk along Yukon Street increases pedestrian access, and trees are incorporated primarily for beautification purposes and secondarily to help define pathways. The three-storey building parallel to Marine Drive will include retail space on the ground floor topped by two floors of office space. A green roof will be open to the public and provide ecological functions, including waste assimilation (compost), microclimatic control, and rainwater retention. A second, two- storey articulated building will feature one commercial floor topped by one office floor. The parking lot to the south of this building provides space for approximately 40 cars, as well as a delivery route for the retail and office spaces. An entranceway between the parking lot and the courtyard will be open to the public to increase access. Building directionality, size, and placement were chosen to leave space for future developments on the site. The Skytrain station wall, which faces the public square, incorporates a vertical garden for aesthetics and design continuity. In between the vertical garden and the public square, space will be made available for kiosks and small merchants, also providing flexible space for special events (festivals, farmers’ markets, etc). Benefits to Neighbourhood The proposed amendments to the existing community will provide multiple benefits at not only the micro (parcel) scale, but also at the neighbourhood and city scale. The site will be developed in a piecemeal manner which allows for a proportional mix of small, medium and large projects in the neighbourhood (Alexander 1987).  In particular, the project builds on existing smaller projects by promoting midsized developments and thereby allowing for larger developments on other sites in the neighbourhood. The development also takes an incremental approach that facilitates and contributes to the growth of larger wholes by addressing lack of community focal points, increasing employment opportunities, and encouraging a greater mix of land uses. Furthermore, the design focused on forming a larger center (i.e. public square) around which smaller centers can develop (Alexander 1987). The design reconstitutes an environmental relationship with the development by incorporating vertical gardens, rooftop gardens and landscaping. In designing the site it was also recognized that the lighting is a basic component of comfort (Sternberg 2000) without which the public space will not be utilized. The buildings were therefore oriented to maximize the amount of light that penetrated the public square. The south facing vertical gardens will also benefit from ample light. Furthermore, the building on the northern portion of the site acts as a sound barrier to the substantial traffic volumes which run along Marine Drive. Another important component of urban design is the principle of continuity (Sternberg 2000). Buildings were therefore sized carefully so as not to disrupt the continuity of scale in the area. Careful attention was also paid to ensure that the intervention was aesthetically pleasing at each angle of view (Sternberg 2000). Creating spaces which encourage people, energy, and life are critical to effective urban design (Sternberg 2000). The intervention encompasses these principles by developing a public square surrounded by commercial buildings and kiosks, encouraging social interaction and enhancing the overall vitality of the space and neighbourhood. Framing of the Problem Team 1’s design of a public square connecting to the skytrain station creatively and thoughtfully addresses the appropriately identified need of a community space in the neighbourhood. It does so by creating an intimately and well-sized urban room, well-defined and encompassed on three sides by the two proposed buildings, and on the fourth side by the skytrain. Critique of Design The square nicely compliments the adjacent Canada Line station in its function as a small commercial centre (small, local services - for example a dentist or doctor’s office) for commuters, local residents as well as nearby employees in Marpole’s industrial district south of Marine. In this sense, the design is more than just a “thematic” construction (e.g. transportation hub), as it aspires to be a “hybrid” in terms of its function: a public square, a centre for services, and an anchor and catalyst for community cohesion and development (White1999). The public square could nicely serve as a focal point for the community, which the area currently lacks. The path that runs through the plaza seems to emphasize movement through and out of the plaza.  Although this provides quick and direct entrance/exit through the site, we question whether there are enough amenities and activities in the proposal to attract people to stop, stay, or linger around to enjoy the space. It seems that mostly those working there during weekdays and office hours would be using this site. If there are few people using it after dark or on the weekend, such an enclosed space might feel unsafe to a person walking alone; there is no surveillance from the streets and the businesses within the complex might be closed. However, the suggestion of eventually having more community events (e.g. a farmer’s market and evening activities) could address this concern. The design is oriented towards the north (the skytrain and residential areas).  Although there is access from several points around the square, there is no portal or gateway that announces the site or invites people directly into it from the southern side facing the industrial lands (White 1999). The green roofs and vertical gardens add a positive ambience to the space, suggesting a cozier outdoor room in the plaza below that is accessible through the connected walkway from the skytrain onto the roof.  Although these green spaces will serve several ecological functions, allowing food production and creating the space for urban agriculture could build greater community cohesion as members of the public are invited to interact and stay in the space. However, security on the rooftop garden is again a concern. What will prevent crime and other security issues in such an isolated area? Team 1’s design also attempts to propose change in the community incrementally by leaving certain portions of land undeveloped and by retaining building heights to two and three stories to reflect the surrounding context (Alexander et al 1987).  On the other hand, a higher density form may be a more economic use of the land due to its prime location next to the skytrain.  As a matter of fact, it was written in Team 1’s statement that their design hoped to “enact the City’s eco- density agenda of denser…liveable spaces.” Lastly, if the property was privately owned as it currently is, there is the potential that certain groups such a homeless individuals, youth, or protesters would be excluded from the space. As an alternative, and a consideration for future designs (or iterations thereof), it may be appropriate to rezone the site to allow for public amenities such as a neighbourhood house, day care, community centre, or public library etc, in order to add cohesion and meaning to the community. DESIGN - Team 1: Andréanne Doyon, Sean Tynan, Martin Gregorian, Waleed Giratalla CRITIQUE - Team 2: Joanna Clark, Megan Fitzgerald, Sawngjai Manityakul, Naveeda Rizwan School of Community and Regional Planning       Urban Design 2008   11 Week TWo: Figure Ground scale 1 : 5000 0 meters100 250 500 FIGURE GROUND N School of Community and Regional Planning       Urban Design 2008 12 Week TWo: Physical Interventions West Side east Side Looking North along Ash St. towards Marine Drive Looking North along Cambie across Marine Drive Looking East along Marine Drive from the intersection with 70th Ave. Looking Northwest across Marine Drive and Cambie St. Looking South along Cambie St. across Marine Drive School of Community and Regional Planning       Urban Design 2008   13 Week TWo: West Side Design and Critique Defining the problem The problems we identified in our assessment of the study area include a lack of civic space, a pedestrian disconnection between the two sides of Marine Drive and the skytrain development, a lack of non-vehicular mobility, and a lack of ecologically sustainable design features. The identification of these problems was informed by literature that emphasizes the importance of designing communities that are “responsive” to the needs to their inhabitants (Lynch 1984) and are ecologically sustainable (Krier 2008). Proposed Design Our primary intervention is the creation of a community centre south of Marine Drive in a space currently occupied by fast food establishments. This intervention deals directly with the lack of civic space, lack of ecologically sustainable design features and disconnection that exists between residents on either side of Marine Drive. The community centre can be a “good place” as E. White discusses, that “has distinguishing qualities that establish a unique identity,” which encourages connectedness, atmosphere, habitability and significance (White 1999).  To foster non-vehicular modal opportunity and strengthen connections between the residents on the north and south side of Marine Drive, we added a pedestrian and bicycle crossing at Marine Drive and Ash Street. This crossing will lead directly into the area proposed for the new community centre. We have also connected the community centre to a new bicycle route leading from the proposed pedestrian and bicycle crosswalk and the skytrain. We also added sidewalks throughout the residential areas south of Marine Drive. In consideration of the safety of community centre users, we also added an exit only passageway as a traffic calming measure at the end of 70th Street at Marine Drive. Benefits to Neighbourhood Dedicating this area to the development a community centre will serve the future densification of the area and provide a range of benefits to individual residents, families and the broader community. Services and resources at the community centre will include indoor childcare, outdoor play spaces for children and youth, rooftop learning garden area, social spaces (gathering, meeting and activity spaces), educational spaces (language, art, music, cooking, dance, yoga, martial arts, etc), a multi-purpose gym, and weight room. This sort of social amenity is essential for a community to strengthen social and cultural bonds, encourage inclusivity, harness a sense of shared identity, create a place for community members to develop necessary skills, and offer the means to engage in physical activity. The more time and space that is shared among community members, the greater likelihood that sentiments of trust, friendship, compassion and identity will grow and thus help bring the members of that community together. In addition to supporting social connections in the community, we feel there is an opportunity for the community centre to be a model of ecological sustainable design and provide education opportunities on ecological sustainability. The proposed centre has a green roof that can be viewed by the public from the social learning/gathering space on the roof top room, with an adjacent rooftop “learning” garden. Additional green features, to further exemplify sustainability at a local level, would include geothermal heating, greywater recycling, skylights or solar panels, a ‘living wall’ in the children’s play area, and visible composting and recycling bins at the main entrance. In light of peak oil, climate change and other ecological threats, introducing green technologies can generate both local and global benefits. Ultimately, as stated by Krier in response to the ecological crisis created by the fossil-fuel age, “human ‘technology’ will be ecological or it won’t have a future to speak of” (Krier 2008). Framing of the Problem The design intervention proposed by Team B addresses the unmet need for a community gathering place and centre for community-based activities and services in the study area. The community centre is designed to include meeting spaces, a daycare, children’s play area and childcare, gym/weight room, and other desired public services as identified by the community. Team C is supportive of the rationale behind this objective and complements Team B on the thoughtfulness of their design and their focus on ecologically sustainable features for the site (green roof, geothermal heating, solar lighting, etc.) Critique of Design Team C has a number of observations and suggestions about how to improve the proposed interventions to better achieve the identified objectives. Community centre: • The scale of the building seems excessive (maximizes or possibly exceeds FSR for the site).  Team C suggests reducing the size of the building to maintain a closer mass relationship to existing neighboring buildings. This would also result in more realistically manageable construction, maintenance, and operating costs for a public building. • The long, unbroken wall running along the north side of the building (along Marine Drive) could be more animated and variable, making it less formidable and severe than it presently appears. • The location of the centre raises some concerns. It may have been preferable to locate it on the north side of SW Marine Drive, given that the majority of the residential area of Marpole is located there, and the crossing of SW Marine Drive could be a significant deterrent to pedestrian access by local residents. Other sites for a community centre might also have provided improved connections to Ash Park and proposed commercial/ plaza areas nearby. • Given the chosen site, we see a missed opportunity: The design of the building could have incorporated a significant focal point feature facing the termination of Ash St to the North of SW Marine Drive. This would act as a visual draw down this significant pedestrian- and cycling-oriented road connecting the community centre to the main residential areas. • The proposed community centre displaces some of the few places to eat in the area. In response, we suggest including some form of food-serving social enterprise or business to serve the needs of residents and employees in the area. • Beyond its support of the residential community, it would be more complete as a community development tool if it included resources for the industrial/commercial zones to bridge the different use neighborhoods (incubator business space, industrial services, etc.) •We suggest incorporating more outdoor spaces, suitable for a variety of groups (seniors, youth, children) into the overall design. Non-vehicular mobility/traffic calming: •While the creation of the one-way street on 70th is a good idea, we suggest thinking more holistically about how to facilitate better traffic flow in the area. •Team C members previously observed problems with traffic using 71st street from Ash to cut through to commercial enterprises located west of proposed site of the community centre.  We suggest making 71st west of Ash a cul de sac to eliminate this non-resident traffic. DESIGN - Team B:  Johanna Mazur, Ellen Larcombe, Jody Kliffer CRITIQUE - Team C: Rebecca Bateman, Latosia Campbell, Adam Hyslop, Stacy Passmore School of Community and Regional Planning       Urban Design 2008 14 Week TWo: east Side Design and Critique Defining the problem Safety is an overwhelming concern for the public when they are faced with a skytrain station in their community. During a Marpole community visioning process, safety was one of the primary concerns identified in community feedback. Jane Jacobs (1961) stressed the importance of an active hub that included daytime and nighttime activities that provide eyes on the street to create safer public spaces.  The proposed development, located on the lot on the NE corner of SW Marine and Cambie, aims to provide a vibrant neighbourhood centre that contributes to the safety of the Marine Drive (Canada Line) Station precinct. Currently, there is a diliapidated, two-storey building onsite that offers an opportunity for redevelopment, including densification. Proposed Design Team 2 has proposed a mixed-use, four-storey transit-oriented development, which will help serve community-identified needs within Marpole. Starting at the Marine Drive Station, transit users will cross a skybridge (path) that will take them over Marine Dr. onto a lively terrace on the second floor of the building (place). Pedestrians will then have the opportunity to enjoy a variety of retail venues that will cater to both the day and night visitors (Jacobs, 1961). These may include: grocery stores, drug stores, late night cafes and/or restaurants. One of the special features of this terrace is the two-storey library, which will not only encourage the busy commuter to slow down and peruse book shelves, but act as a much needed service for the surrounding community. In addition to these services, the visitors will also have the opportunity to relax on the many benches that will line the terrace or perhaps enjoy a sticky bun and coffee on a patio outside the local bakery. The skybridge is also connected to a wide pedestrian street on the ground floor of the building by a circular ramp. As with the terrace-level, second floor, services will cater to both day- and nighttime crowds. The pedestrian street will be wide enough for street vendors, patios and benches. The sidewalk is already mostly in place and is framed nicely by a stormwater feature under the Canada Line. Ideally, the mosaic tile treatment decorating the current building would be preserved on the bottom of this water feature to evoke a memory of the site’s not too distant history. This sidewalk at the foot of the Canada Line will also be lined with bike racks to provide ample bicycle parking for the building’s customers as well as intermodal travel. There will also be an entrance to the first floor of the library facing Cambie St, which will include a play space and reading area to cater to the many families who live in the neighbourhood. A unique and inviting feature of this library is the two storey atrium facing the back alley. This all-glass atrium will invite natural light for reading and a sense of an outdoor room. Just outside the atrium is an outdoor patio that will be enclosed by a bird garden, creating valuable habitat as well as entertainment for those looking on. The top two floors of the building will be residential, preferably affordable housing to prevent the inevitable gentrification that comes with rapid transit development. A roof top garden is proposed to provide a sustainable food system for the residents of building. These residents will have balconies and access to a garden above. Benefits to Neighbourhood The introduction of retail activity at the NE corner of SW Marine and Cambie will add life to street and vibrancy in the area. Pedestrian will feel safe as it provides eyes on street. The proposed design will also provide affordable housing which is appositive addition to the community. The proposed library will be an asset for neighborhood as it will invite people from surrounding neigbourhoods as well as from Marpole. Framing of the Problem Team Two intended to help increase the safety of the area by creating a space that would increase eyes on the street and remove the stress of having to cross SW Marine Drive for pedestrians and bicyclists leaving the Canada Line station on the south-east corner of Marine Drive and Cambie. Team Three felt that the assessment of the area as being potentially unsafe due to a lack of broad-spectrum temporal pedestrian presence was accurate and that there was certainly an issue surrounding the safe crossing of pedestrians across Marine Drive. Team three generally felt that the implementation of a mixed- use space was a positive addition to the community. It was believed that a combination of retail space and food amenities such as a neighborhood pub along with the construction of residential apartments would help bring a community feel to the area and create safer spaces through the increase the eyes on the street. Overall, it is believed that the building will contribute positively to the Northeast corner of South West Marine Drive and Cambie as well as to the neighborhood as a whole. The aforementioned critiques are meant to provide suggestions to make the building a more effective space, but not to remove the design concept from the area. Critique of Design A mixed-use space should help to bring safety to the intersection by increasing the temporal consistency of eyes on the street (Jacobs 1961), although there were concerns over whether or not the mixed-use amenities could have been spread out over more of the neighborhood instead of located on only one corner, and whether or not the design was conducive to maintaining pedestrians in the area. The stepped back area at the front of the proposed building makes the built form less imposing and may contribute to pedestrians lingering on the street and in the area while making use of the building’s amenities. Whether or not the stepped back area can compensate for the level of noise created by the street traffic and the Canada Line is questionable, as is the potential of it not being a factor in human avoidance of the area. A further consideration in pedestrian comfort is the height and steepness of the skybridge, since it is possible that it may give the intersection less of a human scale. A large bridge may also create unappealing dark spaces on the corner, potentially steering people away from shops nearby, further contributing to a lessening of eyes on the street. The use of a walkway to provide the Canada Line connection may facilitate pedestrian avoidance of the busy intersection at Marine and Cambie but does not necessarily take into consideration the congestion of pedestrians and bicyclists that may occur on the skybridge during busy times, although a large width may account for this traffic. The skybridge connects the Canada Line directly to a second story walkway that will provide access to commercial and public amenities within the building. Although it is assumed that there will be convenient linkages between levels within the building, there is a concern that the second level will garner more use and cause the street level to become empty and inhospitable. The skybridge spiral which leads directly to the street level may compensate for the direct connection from the bridge to the second story walkway as it allows convenient access for pedestrians and bicyclists to reach the street corner and the edge of the street level shops. It is important to note that the skybridge facilitation of pedestrian avoidance of the busy Marine and Cambie intersection also does not solve any long term problems in terms of traffic congestion – it simply allows people to ignore or bypass the issue. As Rick Hall notes in his article Planning for Walkable Streets: “If compact, walkable, urban communities are to flourish, the existing set of functionally classified facilities must be augmented to include a set of thoroughfares that have pedestrian mobility as a primary function.” (Hall 2008) It is therefore essential to replace road systems that accommodate pedestrian intimidating traffic, such as vehicles, with road systems that accommodate pedestrians; otherwise the root of the problem is not being addressed. DESIGN - Team 2: Joanna Clark, Megan Fitzgerald, Sawngjai Manityakul, Naveeda Rizwan CRITIQUE - Team 3: Asrai Ord, Mona Poon, Christine Wenman, Bronwyn Jarvis School of Community and Regional Planning       Urban Design 2008   15 Week THRee: Figure Ground scale 1 : 5000 0 meters100 250 500 FIGURE GROUND N School of Community and Regional Planning       Urban Design 2008 16 Week THRee: Physical Interventions West Side east Side Looking East across from Ash St. across Lord St. towards Cambie St. and Marine Drive Looking Northeast along Marine Drive towards Cambie Looking South across Marine Drive at Yukon St. Looking North along Yukon St. towards Marine Drive School of Community and Regional Planning       Urban Design 2008   17 Week THRee: West Side Design and Critique Defining the Problem Well-designed public facilities can provide a foundation for positive community development.  By creating a safe and welcoming environment they have powerful effects on our sense of place and well-being.  One of the key existing community features in the Marpole area is the Elementary School located north of Marine Drive.  However, the present building is inadequate to the needs of a growing population and outdoor recreational facilities are limited, despite the adequate land to accommodate them. Walking along streets with auto and truck speeds in excess of 50 KMH is an uncomfortable and unsafe experience for pedestrians, cyclists and other non-motorized users (Hall 2008).  South West Marine Drive in Marpole is an example of such streets.  Access across the street is very difficult for pedestrians, especially family groups and those with mobility issues.  The wide lanes and heavy traffic discourage connectivity between residential areas north and south of Marine Drive. Our main objectives are to better integrate and develop the school’s presence within the district; make the park a more attractive area so that it will draw families from both north and south of Marine Drive; and to better connect the residential areas south of Marine Drive to the community centre and plaza areas. Proposed Design New elementary school:  To improve the linkages to the residential neighborhoods, we have re-positioned the elementary facilities to enhance pedestrian connectivity between north-west residential areas and the Skytrain station. We have enlarged the capacity and square footage as well to accommodate expected increases in residential densities.  In order to preserve the existing open spaces and small footprint, we are proposing a second story addition.  The design will be energy efficient and integrate green building techniques, which are critical to our sustainability initiatives and youth education. We have added terraced garden beds to develop students’ understanding of food resources. Park improvements: We envision this park to be a recreational area used by both school members and the public, modeled after David Lam Park in False Creek North.  The new play area is designed to be used by multiple generations, accessible to individuals with mobility and/or sight/hearing impairments, and will include state-of-the-art design incorporating natural objects and opportunities for kids to interact with one another and with the environment.  Understanding that people have different needs from park space, we are proposing this to be a relaxing Asian-inspired park with areas for sitting, socializing, games, and other activities. Street improvements: We have added a pathway to better connect the northwest residential neighborhood to the station and commercial area plaza.  Other pedestrian improvements include: curvaceous walkways and some restorative areas, i.e., places where people can sit and play cards or picnic, surrounded by trees and plantings; and added signage at the fork of two paths that would direct users to either the community center or the plaza area.  We also added a crosswalk on Marine Drive at the northeast corner of the community centre site. Benefits to Neighbourhood Our proposal will facilitate and encourage non-motorized mobility within the area by reducing the width of Marine Drive, and by adding bicycle and pedestrian pathways to connect people to places such as the library, school, and community centre. The improvements will provide safer and more comfortable streets for non-motorized users with complementary qualities that engage the eyes, along with good maintenance (Jacobs 2008).  Encouraging more socialization among residents and with local businesses will result in increased civic participation and in partnerships critical for building a vibrant community and active neighbourhood organizations. Framing of the Problem Team C focused on a number of public-realm improvements to help to foster an increased sense of community within the neighbourhood. These changes centred on improving the school building and grounds, park improvements and general streetscape improvements to better facilitate connectivity and non-vehicular mobility. This team’s focus on community building and public- realm improvements is admirable and demonstrates a good understanding of urban design principles. The design improvements are successful at meeting their stated objectives and help to improve the overall community. Critique of Design New Elementary School: A new school building will be needed for this neighbourhood, especially given the desire for increased residential density. The proposed location responds to the corner well and opens up the balance of the park to the Northwest portion of the neighbourhood to allow for greater pedestrian connectivity. The inclusion of the learning garden is an excellent example of utilising the adjacent park space for educational activities and expanding the park beyond simple recreation. There is a question on the feasibility of the City and the school board being able to work together to achieve a new school building in this neighbourhood and securing funding sources for it. This is especially true given the threat of school closures in a number of Vancouver neighbourhoods. Park Improvements: The further improvements to the park will help to provide additional recreational opportunities build the sense of community. The new play space is an excellent idea that incorporates activities for multiple demographics (i.e. exercise equipment for seniors). The relaxing ‘restorative’ areas are also a great addition. We did have a few reservations about the reduction in size (or elimination) of the sports field. We felt that the larger community and not just the school would use the sports field. It should be possible to balance the needs of active and passive park users, and that the park should not be totally given over to passive recreation. Street Improvements: The addition of a number of street improvements (trees, sidewalks etc.) is a positive step for this neighbourhood and will help the community become more pedestrian and bicycle friendly. A number of the street improvements could have been carried out more fully though, in order to create a ‘complete street’. (i.e. sidewalks, trees, bulges, traffic calming, round-a-bouts, public art, etc. all on one street.) Mobility and Connectivity Issues: The narrowing of Marine Drive and the shifting of truck traffic to Kent Ave is a bold move and will significantly improve the pedestrian and cyclist experience on Marine Drive. The specific design of the bike path, bio-swale and their interface with the roadway and sidewalk will need significant consideration. We also had a few concerns with how a true bio-swale would fit into a major street like Marine Drive and whether a combination, bio- swale/linear rain garden/storm sewer system might work better and be more appropriate in that location. With the narrowing of Marine Drive from six to four lanes there will also need to be traffic calming measures introduced to the residential streets north of Marine Drive to prevent shortcutting. Higher frequency transit will also need to be introduced on Marine Drive to make full use of the new HOV lanes; i.e. the #100 should be upgraded to rapid bus frequency, in addition the various transit routes that come down the major streets and terminate at or near Marine Drive (3 Main, 8 Fraser, 10 Granville, 16 Arbutus, 17 Oak, and 22 Knight), should be extended to Marine Drive Station. DESIGN - Team C: Rebecca Bateman, Latosia Campbell, Adam Hyslop, Stacy Passmore CRITIQUE - Team A: Anjali Varghese, Michele Fuge, Andrew Merrill School of Community and Regional Planning       Urban Design 2008 18 Week THRee: east Side Design and Critique Defining the Problem SW Marine Drive currently creates a significant divide between the North and South sides of the neighbourhood. With the skytrain station located on the South side of SW Marine, there is an opportunity to better integrate the neighbourhood, improving transportation flows through and across SW Marine and creating some degree of congruence between the North side residential area and the South side light industrial. In recreating the streetscape, there is also an opportunity to improve water flows, allowing the urban environment to be an integrated part of the natural ecosystem rather than a disconnected imposition (McDonough, 2004). This design intervention is about improving flows of many types: people, vehicles, bicycles and storm water. Proposed Design Transportation improvement: We removed the traffic lane closest to the sidewalk along SW Marine Drive and remodeled the space into a larger sidewalk and swale so that pedestrians and cyclists have a visual and spatial buffer from vehicle traffic. The remaining four lanes allow for an interior lane of regular traffic and an exterior lane reserved for high occupancy vehicles (three people or more) and buses, in effect during commuter hours. The fewer lanes are feasible because truck traffic has been redirected from SW Marine Drive onto an upgraded Kent Street to the South. Separation of truck and car traffic is efficient because of the differences required in road maintenance. Fewer lanes allow for a shorter pedestrian crossing at the Cambie and SW Marine intersection, where a scrambler allows pedestrians to cross the intersection in all directions during commuter hours. An additional bicycle route on West 63rd Avenue connects from Ontario Street through to the alley between Cambie and Yukon.  With a safer and more scenic east-west alternative to travelling along SW Marine, cyclists have easier access to the skytrain via the scrambler intersection. A bus loop integrated into the transit hub next to the sky-train station and behind the commercial plaza on the North side of SW Marine is located to allow transit users quick and safe access to the skytrain with as little interference as possible to the plaza’s landscaping. Development: An employment-creating development in the industrial area promotes community life and safety through eyes on the street (Jacobs, 1961) while still being compatible with I-2 zoning. The development enlivens SW Marine, making it more of a “people place” than a “car place” (Jacobs, 1993). The development itself is intended for production and sale of food and beverage and craft, such as a brewery, a bakery and small-scale furniture construction. Manufacturing areas are located on the upper floors, and commercial space with compatible manufacturing located on the main floor. The zoning also allows for school space such that a technical school might be well located in the complex to compliment the manufacturing. Landscaping of the development’s outside space optimizes the viewscape from the adjacent commercial plaza. Storm water management integrated design: Improved storm water management ‘learning by doing’ experiments include the SW Marine Drive swales and the constructed wetland within the commercial block. These changes contribute to safety and aesthetic of the street, promote storm water infiltration, reduce storm water flow velocity and trap particulate pollutants for retention and treatment with aquatic vegetation (EPA, 1999). The efficiency and effectiveness of the wetland can be increased through the addition of oil and grit separators and appropriate aquatic vegetation, to be determined and periodically revised in collaboration with engineers. With close proximity to Vancouver’s waste collection site and residential and light industrial lands, the Marpole region provides an ideal location for learning and research into waste management practice (Bishop et al., 1999). We propose to collaborate with UBC, Simon Fraser and the Great Northern Way Campus to monitor, refine and extend the storm water drainage and treatment system in phases. The wetland with its pathways and upper raised water park for children provides both ecological and community services. Benefits to Neighbourhood The intervention harnesses principles of integrated design. Ecological functions double as community amenities and space is used to allow the built environment to interact with the natural one so as to lessen pressure on infrastructure. The swales not only contribute to the street’s aesthetic presentation making it more hospitable for pedestrians, street-life and cyclists, they also allow for natural storm water drainage. The changes have created connections across SW Marine, slowing traffic, bringing community and commercial life to the street and allowing smoother access to the skytrain for vehicles, public transit, cyclists and pedestrians. Framing of the Problem In our view, Team 3’s design effectively addressed three issues: industrial intensification, ecological functionality, and transportation equity. Critique of Design The introduction of commercial and industrial space, especially food and beverage production and sales, would greatly benefit the community.  Such an addition is consistent with the City of Vancouver’s mandate to retain and promote local industry, and would create local employment opportunities. The introduction of retail spaces on Marine Drive will also help to create a safer place by increasing the volume of pedestrian traffic and providing ‘eyes on the street’ (Jacobs 1961). We would recommend that the raised patio and water park be eliminated from the site as they are not compatible with the adjacent sites.  This public amenity would also likely draw people away from the already established public plaza adjacent to the Skytrain station, leaving both spaces vulnerable to a lack of vitality. The water treatment facility meets necessary ecological functions, given Vancouver’s water shortages and the need to improve upon ageing infrastructure. However, the treatment facility’s location is questionable: why was it placed on some of the most valuable industrial land in the area? Such facilities are normally located underground or on less expensive real- estate. The addition of interpretive signage for the wetlands, and in particular the swales, is recommended.  This would create awareness by educating citizens of environmental and safety issues, and would likely increase public acceptance. The green roofs appear to be redundant, given that the wetlands would provide sufficient absorption capacity.  Energy producing/capturing technologies may be a more effective use of roof space for an industrial area, such as solar water heating if the industry is water-intensive, solar heating and cooling if temperature-sensitive, and solar photo-voltaics for power- intensive industries. Kent Avenue currently has low traffic volume and wide streets. The rerouting of truck traffic to Kent is feasible and will result in a safer environment for non-motorized transport along Marine Drive, as well as less smog and noise. An important consideration is to ensure that the new truck route is well connected to the adjacent neighbourhoods to ensure smooth movement of goods.  The reduction of Marine Drive to four lanes will create an environment conducive to non-motorized transport, and the addition of HOV/bus lanes for peak commuting hours will help to encourage public transit. One concern would be the potential increase of gridlock (already an issue in the area) during peak traffic hours. Hopefully this would provide incentive for single-occupancy drivers to carpool or utilize public transit. The extra right of way gained by the group’s proposal is intended to be, in part, used for expanded sidewalks and a bikeway.  With proposed developments occurring along SW Marine Drive there will be more demand for accessibility, of which non-motorized transport will be a large component. This design change echoes Rick Hall’s argument of creating safer, more pedestrian friendly streets by providing narrower lane width and his desire that boulevards be assigned an equal functional priority between pedestrian and vehicle mobility. The integration of a bikeway along Marine Drive is proposed to be replicated along 63rd Avenue. This redundancy in an east-west bike route is beneficial in that it will allow for an alternative to the busier Marine Drive route. The route should in the future be extended along 63rd in the western portion of Marpole to ensure connectivity across Marpole. We would also recommend that future designs incorporate a north-south bike route to allow for movement towards the Skytrain station. The design changes successfully address the needs of the community: namely for functional, low-cost, aesthetically pleasing solutions to environmental problems. The modifications to Marine Drive seem realistic within the context of peak oil. However, some details of the industrial site, namely the utilization of roof space, the waterpark-in- the-wetland, and the placement of the water treatment facility could be improved upon. Overall it appeared the design group was trying to accomplish too much on that site.  DESIGN - Team 3: Asrai Ord, Mona Poon, Christine Wenman, Bronwyn Jarvis CRITIQUE - Team 1: Andréanne Doyon, Sean Tynan, Martin Gregorian, Waleed Giratalla School of Community and Regional Planning       Urban Design 2008   19 Week FoUR: Figure Ground scale 1 : 5000 0 meters100 250 500 FIGURE GROUND N School of Community and Regional Planning       Urban Design 2008 20 Week FoUR: Physical Interventions West Side east Side Looking South between Ash St. and Cambie st. across  63rd Ave. Looking South along Cambie on the East side from  64th Ave. Looking West at extention of Columbia St. south of Marine Drive, 70th and 68th Ave. extend to Columbia St. in the foreground Looking South from  Columbia and 63rd Ave. Looking Northwest from Yukon St towards Marine Dr. and Cambie St. Laneway houses off Ash St. between 62nd and 63rd Ave. School of Community and Regional Planning       Urban Design 2008   21 Week FoUR: West Side Design and Critique Defining the Problem The City of Vancouver requires cost-effective solutions for increasing housing availability, improving mobility, reducing housing costs, and managing wastes in a more cost effective manner. The proposed interventions therefore target three key issues: densification, transportation, and ecological functioning. These fit closely with the eco-density framework proposed by the city. Proposed Design Regarding densification, we focused initially on infill through the addition of 35 laneway housing units. The introduction of laneway homes is currently being explored by the City of Vancouver and the Marpole neighbourhood would provide for an excellent pilot project. Laneway homes were not put on every parcel; as such growth would occur incrementally (Alexander et. al 1987). The laneway houses are located near the Skytrain station, the elementary school, the bikeway and a major arterial road, which provides for increased transportation mobility and access to public facilities.  Secondly, existing housing units along Cambie Street were replaced with denser units, including one rental apartment building, one townhouse/ apartment complex, and one townhouse-only complex. These are ordered with the most dense (the apartment) furthest south (closest to Marine Drive and the Skytrain station) and the least dense further north. Renters were assumed to use transit most frequently. Therefore, the rental apartment building was located closest to Skytrain. Only the townhouse complex lacks underground parking, as it would not have been cost-effective given the site’s density. The townhouses and apartments were located on approximately the same lot size. Each block had a different design to illustrate how similar densities can be achieved using a wide array of building typologies and layouts. The buildings were also positioned to enhance permeability between Cambie Street and the RS-1 neighbourhood. Finally, the laneway housing and multi-unit complexes add density without radically changing the character of the neighbourhood. Transportation interventions focused on traffic calming along 64th Avenue, with the addition of a sidewalk and bioswales. Meanwhile, the bicycle path on 63rd Avenue was extended west through the area. A walking path was created behind the new apartment building to ensure walking connectivity to developments to the south, including the Skytrain station. The addition of the path also creates a more integrated and continuous cycling and walking system throughout the neighbourhood. We decided not to add sidewalks to the laneways because the lane-width is already much more narrow than regular streets and, therefore, already acts like a traffic- calmed, pedestrian pathway (Hall 2008). Also by adding housing units to the laneways we are adding more ‘eyes on the street,’ which increases the usability and safety of the laneways (Jacobs 1961). Finally, we added trees in several lanes for liveability and aesthetic reasons. With respect to restoring ecological functioning, the townhouse and apartment complexes showcase several renewable energy projects, including geothermal building heat, solar water heating, and solar power generation. This reduces the daytime power requirements of the building substantially, while decreasing water heating costs and fossil fuel (natural gas) dependence.  One geothermal sink in the central complex (the apartment/townhouse lot) will provide district heating to all three complexes, reducing costs to all units. The Street Edge Alternative (SEA) street provides a variety of ecological functions, primarily by diverting stormwater into swales and filtering pollutants. Increased green space captures carbon dioxide and performs microclimatic control. The SEA street is also an attractive demonstration and education project for the community. Rainwater from the building roofs recharges into the ground through sumps, swales, and small detention ponds. Wastewater is piped to the new wastewater treatment plant, on the far side of Marine Drive, for use in industrial purposes. All of these measures help avoid the need for costly upgrades to the sewer infrastructure. Housing density is proximate to the Skytrain station in hopes that it will attract those who commute via Skytrain and reduce car trips, resulting in a net reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. Benefits to Neighbourhood Our interventions are aimed at providing greater density, improving lower impact transportation options, and restoring natural ecological functioning. Densification will provide for a greater economy of scale necessary to sustain a larger business base, which in turn will add activity and vitality to the area. Increased vitality on the streets, and in the neighbourhood on the whole, will allow for greater social interaction and the growth of social capital. More importantly, the addition of smaller rental units increases the stock of affordable housing. Increasing transportation options provides greater cohesion in the neighbourhood. Finally, restoring ecological functioning will lower the footprint of the neighbourhood while also demonstrating leading edge environmental stewardship. Framing of the Problem Team 1 successfully identified several areas of weakness in the current neighbourhood design.  Namely, they highlighted the need for densification with increased availability of rental housing and reduction in housing costs, improved mobility options, and ecological enhancements to the built environment. The problems identified by Team 1 were successfully addressed through several specific design interventions.  The team increased densification and addressed the need for affordable housing options by adding a rental apartment building and townhouses along three blocks of Cambie Street, as well as laneway housing in the area northwest of the proposed apartment buildings. For the most part, the housing design interventions made by Team 1 exemplify the concept of incremental growth as discussed by Alexander et al (1987), and were consistent with Krier’s argument for human-scale development: “(s)ettlements must be able to function by muscular pedestrian motion horizontally (surface limitation) and vertically (limited number of floors” (Krier 2008, p.52). We feel the interventions made by Team 1 met these needs. In addition to the addition of new housing to the area, Team 1 addressed the ecological functioning of the area through ‘green’ design features in the apartment, townhouse developments and throughout the surrounding streets. These features included solar panels, geothermal heating and an eco-friendly wastewater management system, including: bioswales, sumps, and detention ponds. They also provided limited parking spaces for the new development, effectively discouraging car use while promoting alternative transport options. Mobility was improved through enhancing the bikeability and walkability of the community.  This was achieved through the extension of a bikeway, traffic calming measures, additional trees and new sidewalks on several street fronts. Critique of Design In addition to the acknowledged successes of Team 1’s design, our group identified several concerns.  Firstly, we question the decision to densify the northern portion of the neighbourhood instead of the area adjacent to the commercial development on the northwest corner of Marine Drive and Cambie.  We feel this area could have been prioritized for development given its proximity to the skytrain. Furthermore, with reference to the laneway housing, we felt that this area should have been reserved for more intensive densification given its proximity to Cambie Street.  We believe that the placement of the laneway housing would have been better located in the block west of Ash Street.  In general, the decision to use laneway housing as a densification strategy puts a low ceiling on the level of density added to this area. We agree with the decision to have the courtyards of the new apartment buildings on Cambie Street face west.  This will help to create a greater sense of community and creates a traffic calmed space where people can freely gather. Having this development face the neighbourhood also increases connectivity to the school and park area.  We also support the inclusion of new housing in this community.  That said we feel that the proposed apartment and townhouse developments on Cambie could have created the opportunity for more commercial activity along this strip, which was not acknowledged by Team 1.  The addition of commercial space would add life to the street and support greater opportunity for social cohesion. DESIGN - Team 1: Andréanne Doyon, Sean Tynan, Martin Gregorian, Waleed Giratalla CRITIQUE - Team B: Johanna Mazur, Ellen Larcombe, Jody Kliffer School of Community and Regional Planning       Urban Design 2008 22 Week FoUR: east Side Design and Critique Defining the Problem Team A identified several problems with the Eastern portion of the study area.  Firstly, there was no recreation area in the residential area (although there was open space on the northern boundary).  Secondly, the Industrial area south of SW Marine Drive was underutilised, and could accommodate more industrial uses if the sites were more compact.  Thirdly, with consideration of the planned skytrain station, the residential blocks facing Cambie Street presented opportunities to increase density and create employment opportunities.  Finally, the design of the building adjacent to the skytrain station was critiqued and with consideration to White (1999), “A portal channels our vision into an urban place as we approach”, the group believed it should be redesigned to invite public into the space. Proposed Design With the problems identified, the following five changes were proposed: 1. To create a small greenway by closing 64th Ave where it intersects with 63rd Ave.  The area is purely residential, and each residence affected is serviced by a rear laneway. This helped to increase the pedestrian and bicycle orientation of the area, while creating a small pocket park. A piece of public art was included as well. 2. Increasing the marketability of the industrial area by proposing more roadways within the area to encourage lots to be broken into smaller more dense sites. These new streets were designed as complete streets with sidewalks, trees, corner bulges and natural storm water management in a combination bio-swale/linear rain garden. 3. To increase residential density and commercial opportunities by changing the existing low rise residential into a mixed use building fronting Cambie Street, and live/work row housing facing the rear laneway. This building further adds to the new community core while addressing the lane as a secondary street. 4. Two new buildings near the corner of SW Marine Drive and Cambie Street.  These buildings are a combination of a Trades college, and commercial activity related to the adjacent industry.  The building would be designed to take advantage of a south facing aspect, and open onto a public space with terraced seating to accommodate the slope of the land.  The corner of the site facing SW Marine Drive would display a Public Art piece reflective of the building’s purpose. 5. Alterations to the existing (proposed) building adjacent to the Skytrain Station.  From feedback received, the building was opened up to better service the neighbouring industrial buildings.  More sidewalks created better linkages, and the plaza was extended to flow through to the new building. The rear roadway was also extended to allow buses to loop around the block and stop next to the Skytrain station, completing their route through to Cambie Street. Benefits to Neighbourhood It is believed the new roads in the industrial precinct create better traffic flows (both vehicular and pedestrian), and increase the mobility through this area to create connections to the larger neighbourhood.  The increased public space, including the parkland, and the new buildings, create places which will become destinations.  As White (1999) states, “Places are the urban rooms of the city”.  The public art in the parkland and the new building will help to give the community an identity.  “Public Art has become an integral element of Urban Design”, (Loukaitou-Sideris et al, 1998). “Paths in urban settings are devoted to circulation.  They are about moving from place to place.”  (White, E. 1999)  It is anticipated the new pathways around the existing building will create better linkages to the industrial precinct and the newer developments proposed by other groups. Framing of the Problem Team A effectively addressed several issues in the model and implemented various design solutions that we admired and appreciated. They highlighted the of the lack of recreational space within the residential area, a need for more efficient and compact use of industrial sites, the opportunities to increase residential and employment densities as well as create a more inviting public space near the skytrain station. They were able to successfully address the of the lack of recreational space within the residential area by converting street space into a pocket park, including a path for non- motorized transportation, while connecting to the previously added bikeway along 64th Ave. The public installation serves as a creative focal point for this site. The new mixed-use development along Cambie St. compliments previous interventions, reflecting the massing of neighbouring buildings. The smaller live-work row houses at the back mirror the adjacent lower density residential across the street. This helps to extend the current street wall that is fronted by commercial development, which would cater to the needs of pedestrian traffic. The continuation of Columbia St. southwards to Kent St. helps to address the underutilization of industrial space by increasing access to the southern industrial area, opening it up to potential future development. New sidewalks, corner bulges and the storm water management system all help makes the street a more pleasant environment. Lastly, the trades college – a pair of uniquely curved, six-story buildings – attempts to address previous concerns about the original plaza adjacent to Marine Dr. Station. The buildings create a strong street façade facing SW Marine Dr. while still opening onto and inviting people from the industrial area. This intervention has potential to draw people to/through the plaza and could definitely generate the population needed to activate and animate the space to make the plaza successful as White (1999) suggests.   In this regard, we feel that Team A achieved their vision of drawing people into the plaza. The public art at the corner of the tradeschool on SW. Marine acts nicely as a gateway into the area. The addition of a pedestrian walkway across SW Marine would help to facilitate pedestrian movement between the college/plaza and the residential neighbourhood to the north. These interventions also align with White’s (1999) ideas regarding paths and portals in that both attempt to draw attention and lead up to a place at the other end, and both try to do so in an aesthetic and comfortable manner. Critique of Design With regards to the reconfigurations of the industrial area, we feel that while the increased density would invite future development, there may also be unwanted outcomes. For example, the land value would likely increase putting the area at risk for gentrification – especially if other uses such as the new trades college on S.W Marine Dr. are introduced. Another concern is that the new plaza now created by the trades college might compete with activity in the first plaza. Although the terraced steps looking onto trees and shrubs could create a pleasant space to sit, the size of the plaza feels slightly too large and the massing of the two buildings is too bulky relative to the height of the buildings. The residual space created where the curved buildings meet make for an awkward configuration that may actually deter people from wanting to use this space. Overall, however, all of the interventions are well thought out and offers some creative solutions to the existing design issues. DESIGN - Team A: Anjali Varghese, Michele Fuge, Andrew Merrill CRITIQUE - Team 2: Joanna Clark, Megan Fitzgerald, Sawngjai Dear Manityakul, Naveeda Rizwan School of Community and Regional Planning       Urban Design 2008   23 Week FIVe: Figure Ground scale 1 : 5000 0 meters100 250 500 FIGURE GROUND N School of Community and Regional Planning       Urban Design 2008 24 Week FIVe: Physical Interventions West Side east Side Looking South and East towards Marine Drive and Cambie St. Looking North from Kent Ave. along Cambie St. Looking North between Cambie St. and Yukon St. Towards Marine Dr. Yukon St. running left to right intersecting with new St. Parallel to and north of Kent Ave. School of Community and Regional Planning       Urban Design 2008   25 Week FIVe: West Side Design and Critique Defining the Problem 1.Recognizing that housing is typically in high demand around transit stations, Team 2 identified the need for increased residential density near Marine Drive Station, south of SW Marine Dr. Currently, the majority of residences are found in the northern portion of the neighbourhood in the form of single-family detached housing. 2.The industrial area is presently very low in density, characterized by an overabundance of parking space and expansive, single-storey warehouses. The land could be utilized more efficiently. The interface between industrial and residential uses could also be improved to help create a more cohesive community. 3.The elevated SkyTrain Station creates a dark and uninviting environment for the street directly below. Thus there is an opportunity to beautify this space, rendering it more attractive and interesting for pedestrians and cyclists. 4.The area along Cambie St. south of Marine Dr. lacks an integrated stormwater management system. Proposed Design The buildings on Cambie Street south of Marine Dr., immediately adjacent to Marine Drive Station, are low- density two-storey townhouses. Team 2 has increased housing density by replacing them with a combination of two mid-rise apartment complexes facing Cambie St, and stacked rowhouses fronting the lane in between Ash and Cambie St. The block of townhouses between Ash St. and this lane were preserved to help maintain the character of the neighbourhood. The new stacked townhouses are 3-storeys tall, and were designed to mirror these existing townhouses. Heights of the apartment complexes are terraced so as to incrementally increase density (from 4- to 6-, then to 8-storeys) and reflect adjacent buildings. The tallest buildings are located near the corner of Marine and Cambie. Retail activity is provided on the ground floor of the apartment facing Marine while the apartment complex facing Cambie St. contains flex-space. Additionally, this complex is setback to continue the street wall treatment in accordance with the existing buildings along Cambie St. north of SWMD and allow for landscaping to provide an aesthetic open space buffer from the Canada Line. There is also new, higher-density industrial building with space for offices on the third floor. It has a small rooftop garden for workers as well as skylights. The building contributes to the street wall along Cambie St. A wider path has also been created (an extension of 70th Ave towards Cambie St.), which is landscaped to help provide a transition between the industrial and residential uses. A bikepath and a “green buffer strip” have been added along Cambie St. underneath the elevated tracks of the Canada Line. This corridor is landscaped to provide: a vegetated swale for stormwater management; a buffer from traffic for cyclists and pedestrians; and a more aesthetic, aromatic environment underneath the Canada Line. The green buffer strip connects to a constructed wetland  that has been created at the corner of Kent Ave and Cambie St., where elevation is lowest on the site, in order to optimize the infiltration and cleaning of stormwater. This minimizes the quantity of stormwater runoff and acts as a filter before it reaches the Fraser River. Benefits to Neighbourhood Team 2’s design has brought more people closer to transit, thus making travel easier and reducing the usage of cars. We were particularly mindful of maintaining appropriate edge relationships between new and existing buildings by reflecting styles, heights, and setbacks between them. Our integrative approach combines a diversity of built forms while increasing residential density adjacent to Marine Dr. Station, while working within the existing zoning. This follows with ideas on piecemeal growth that is gradual and contains a mixed flow of small, medium and large size developments (Alexander et al, 1987). The buildings are also multi-level, which allows living space to be stacked vertically while providing room for yards and landscaping (Campoli and MacLean 2007). Campoli and MacLean (2007) suggest that a diversity of green infrastructure should support density and be threaded through the site. The green buffer strip, constructed wetland, and residential courtyards provide variety through an integrative stormwater management system for the site while also contributing to the aesthetics and ecological integrity of the neighborhood (Beatley 1991). Framing of the Problem Team 2’s presentation of their design intervention on the East Side of Marpole is very comprehensive. The design is intended to address the following problems: low density around the Skytrain station south of Marine Drive, the inefficient use of land space for parking in the industrial area, and the lack of integrative storm drain management.  The approach to increasing the density along Cambie Street and South West Marine Drive (SWMD) avoids monotony by creating variety in building type and massing. Opting to increase density incrementally ensures that setbacks are consistent with current development along Cambie Street. Campoli and MacLean (2007) argue that density works best when the neighbourhood is diverse and interconnected. Critique of Design While Team 2’s efforts towards addressing these problems tend to be coherent, we have some concerns. The hard edge created along Marine Drive presents a major barrier to the integration of the space into the neighbourhood as a whole. Second, though it may be ideal to locate highest density around the Skytrain station, we have a concern about the level of noise residents will have to endure.  Some sensitivity to this could have been addressed in Team 2’s proposed intervention. Overall Team 2 does a good job of interconnecting the houses within the space while also taking into consideration key design principles such as the relationship between buildings and appropriate massing. The creation of a new higher density industrial building with features such as a rooftop garden and skylights for workers is also a welcome addition. The extension of 70th Avenue towards Cambie Street and the added landscaping facilitate the transition between the residential and commercial areas. In this regard, interconnectedness between activities and land uses in the community is achieved. Team 2 is able to achieve elements of Beatley’s (1991) “Green Urbanism” and mobility with their new bike path and green buffer strips that connect to a constructed wetland. One of our main concerns, however, is the issue of security and a sense of safety during the night and weekend times when the industrial neighbourhood is not active.   Additionally, while the buffer aims to provide a more aesthetic and aromatic environment, it is not ideally located under the Skytrain station since the growth and survival of the plants might be adversely affected by the lack of sunlight. The integrated storm water management at the corner of Kent and Cambie, in tandem with the green buffer strip, is an appropriate introduction of a natural ecosystem in the city. It not only brings elements of nature into the city but also functions organically in improving the natural environment. DESIGN - Team 2: Joanna Clark, Megan Fitzgerald, Sawngjai Manityakul, Naveeda Rizwan CRITIQUE - Team C: Rebecca Bateman, Latosia Campbell, Adam Hyslop, Stacy Passmore School of Community and Regional Planning       Urban Design 2008 26 Week FIVe: east Side Design and Critique Defining the Problem The problems we identified in the study area include: lack of office space, uninviting street characteristics along Cambie Street and Yukon Street, lack of walkability and connectivity, lack of ecologically functioning infrastructure, lack of employment opportunities in a growing community, and limited green-space for residents and workers. Improving these conditions through specific interventions will improve the viability and sustainability of this community.  The importance of considering ways to improve the sustainability of communities for both human and ecological health is reflected in a broad range of literature (Krier 2008; Alexander 1987). Proposed Design To address the identified problems, our team implemented several design interventions.  Most prominent among these was the addition of new office space to the industrial area immediately south of the skytrain development. The three one- storey buildings housing a car dealership and service garage on Cambie Street were replaced with three new buildings. The new three-storey building on the south side of the site houses the car dealership and garage. This building has one level of underground parking, third-floor office space, and a research lab on the second floor for college students conducting research in green technologies. There is also a large display area on the first and second floors to showcase the innovative green technologies that have been researched and designed by the students of the technical college. The office complex is comprised of two buildings: a three- storey building on Yukon Street and a four-storey building on Cambie with a two-storey terraced section. The three-storey building includes a rooftop childcare facility, office space, and a walk-in clinic on the main floor. The combination two and four-storey building is primarily dedicated to office space with a small percentage of the main floor dedicated to commercial space.  We also identified the need to dedicate some of this office space to a financial institution, such as a credit union, which we located in the commercial area of the three-storey building.  We feel that the social values of a credit union align well with the broader community goals of sustainable development that have informed much of the interventions made to this area so far. This building also includes a rooftop courtyard that serves as a shared social space for businesses in the building.  We decided to retain the car dealership in the area, with the understanding that it would be resistant to moving given that it has closed down other locations and currently has plans to expand on their existing site.  To enhance the aesthetic appeal and walkability of this industrial/office area, we added green space, trees, pathways connecting the buildings, and sidewalks along the north and south side of the new development. We have also added a sidewalk and trees along the east side of Yukon Street. To provide vehicle access to the site, we added a narrow street joining Cambie and Yukon. Furthermore, the street development is vital not only for the sake of the users of the office complex, but also to support the link between the new office building and the adjacent public square and connected amenities. The importance of developing people-friendly streets is supported by Allen Jacobs’s research on ‘Great Streets’, which suggests that street design is integral for enhancing the experience of those using them (Jacobs 1987). In order to improve the ecological functioning of the neighbourhood, we have made several design interventions to the area and the buildings. The office building development and street improvements incorporate bioswales and two retention ponds for eco-friendly drainage.  The buildings incorporate geothermal heating, with rooftop solar panels for additional electric power. The green space in this area will also help offset some of the negative environmental impacts of the industrial park. Green spaces help sequester carbon and relieve the pressure on storm water drains. The value of integrating ‘green’ technology and infrastructure into this area promotes sustainability and fosters an overall spirit of ecological integrity that we hope will engender other developments in the area. Furthermore, we reduced parking space in this area to encourage other modes of transportation, but retained a small parking area dedicated for car co-ops and disabled parking. Benefits to Neighbourhood In general, the importance of providing office space near a residential community supports the livability of the area by allowing people to live in proximity to their place of work.  Furthermore, the strategic location of the office buildings near a transit centre increases the accessibility of this workspace to residents outside of the immediate neighbourhood and promotes sustainable transportation. As well, the inclusion of limited parking in this development encourages the use of other modes of transportation, including walking and cycling, which ultimately contributes to the health and wellbeing of residents. The improvements made to the walkability of the area, including the addition of trees and new sidewalks, also contribute to the over-all livability and attractiveness of this area.  The addition of ecological features promotes a specific standard for future design and development in the area, contributing to the long-term vitality of the neighbourhood. Framing of the Problem Team B’s design accurately identified and addressed the short- age of office space and employment opportunities in the area while maintaining characteristics of the industrial area.  They also created a much-needed revitalization of the area by iden- tifying the need for more inviting street characteristics along Cambie and Yukon Streets, better connectivity and walkability, green-space for residents and workers and the integration of more ecologically functioning infrastructure.  Critique of Design On the whole, Team B’s design addressed the problems they identified in a very holistic and coherent manner.  On top of the additional office space, attention to detail was paid in sug- gestions for a credit union in the Cambie Street building and medical care in the Yukon Street building, both of which were lacking in the Marpole area.  The specification of childcare in the Yukon Street building is somewhat problematic, as it could be argued that this facility may be duplicating a function already served by the existing community centre on SW Marine Drive.  However, the rooftop childcare facility could be an as- set if the two office buildings provided a demand that exceeded the capacity of the community centre.  An on-site childcare facility would also be helpful for visiting medical patients with children.  Wholeness and coherence (Alexander et al. 1987) were also taken into consideration in the decision to maintain (but re-design) the existing car dealership.  In retaining the car dealership, Team B recognized the business plan of the existing dealership to expand at this location.  Secondly, a car dealer- ship on SW Marine Drive had already been removed in Team 3’s first design intervention.  Thirdly, the preservation of the car dealership recognizes that existing cars will need servicing and the on-site car maintenance provided at this location will relieve cars in the area from driving to Richmond for service. The integration of a lab use and display area within the dealer- ship also complements the nearby technical college.  In addi- tion, including a car co-op and bike co-op beside the dealership speak to Gibbs’ ideas regarding common marketing campaigns for businesses in the same area (Gibbs 2008), as they could be sponsored by the car company. A concern for the new car dealership is the large expense of implementing underground parking, especially if only one floor is intended.  An alternative solution could be to build the deal- ership one floor higher and include parking at the ground level. Another suggestion could be to implement vertical stacked parking  above ground.  If these ideas were implemented, the existing space allotted for car parking could be allocated to bike parking or increased green space. The structuring of the offices closer to the skytrain and the recessed industry (car dealership) provide a smooth transition from commercial to industrial space.  In addition, the green space and the bioswales added on Yukon Street complement the existing constructed wetlands on Kent Street and SW Ma- rine Drive, as well as the bioswales installed on SW Marine Drive.  Bioswales are also an excellent way to demarcate between the public street and private space (Jacobs 1961). DESIGN - Team B:  Jody Kliffer, Ellen Larcombe and Johanna Mazur CRITIQUE - Team 3: Asrai Ord, Bronwyn Jarvis, Christine Wenman, Mona Poon School of Community and Regional Planning       Urban Design 2008   27 Week SIX: Figure Ground scale 1 : 5000 0 meters100 250 500 FIGURE GROUND N School of Community and Regional Planning       Urban Design 2008 28 Week SIX: Physical Interventions West Side east Side Looking North between Ash St. and Cambie St. towards Marine Drive from Kent Ave. Looking South towards  Marine Drive West of Yukon St.Looking East along Marine Drive on the left and across 70th Ave. along Heather St. Looking North along Cambie South of Marine Dr. Looking North from Yukon across Marine Dr. School of Community and Regional Planning       Urban Design 2008   29 Week SIX: West Side Design and Critique Defining the Problem Our group identified an overarching need to integrate and enliven community life and provide more and better amenities for the existing and growing population in Marpole, as well as to take advantage of opportunities to decrease the carbon footprint of the residents. We identified problematic sites appropriate for development, including: The dilapidated residential block and gas station facing on to 70th avenue, which don’t add to community life or take maximum advantage of the new streetscape improvements and additional major bus line on Marine drive; the industrial lands, especially close to the skytrain, which suffer from sprawling inefficient land use and are largely empty during the evening and on weekends because of their employment focus; the area under the skytrain which could become ‘dead’ space - uninhabited and dull, or even unsafe - if it is not given some commercial, social or civic function. Proposed Design Our first interventions site is the area around 70th avenue. In the block directly north of 70th, run-down, low-rise (three to four story) apartments were replaced with an seven-story building, a six-story building, and mixed-story building (five stories on one side and three on the other). The single- detached houses in the block north of here were replaces with similar mixed-story buildings. The roofs of the six and 7-story buildings will have community and chinese gardens, enclosed by courtyard perimeters which will ensure safety, block wind, and allow space for some communal rooms. We added north- south running parkways and pathways between the buildings to maximize solar exposure and allow for connectivity. The parking lots behind the apartments can be phased into shade gardens as car use decreases. The gas station lot south of W 70th avenue has become a mixed use development, with 1 floor of commercial space on the ground floor and 7 stories of residential space above. The second major site is the industrial area between the southern residential community and the skytrain. We increased the density of this industrial area significantly, adding: industrial buildings for employment of I2 zoning nature; a rooftop velodrome, with a track and field inside, on one of the industrial buildings; a skate-park; a greenway between the existing residential community and Cambie street south of the sky train station; and shelters to house a weekend market and possibly artist work space under the sky train line on Cambie street. For safety and to prevent vandalism, the shelters can be closed and locked when the market is not operating for safety. Community art will be encouraged on and around the shelters to make the space more ‘human’ and to echo the artistic products of the merchants. During markets, a section of Cambie street south of Marine drive can be closed to vehicles to make the area more safe and pedestrian friendly. Benefits to Neighbourhood The buildings around 70th avenue will create a defined and interesting street wall, and allow for a lively street experience. Since the height tapers to 3 stories to the north and west it will not dwarf the surrounding single-detached dwellings. The somewhat public parkways will provide social and recreation space for community members, and the rooftop gardens for a more private retreat. The new industrial buildings adjacent to the skytrain will provide more employment - possibly for local residents - which will also enliven the south Cambie corridor during workdays, and help to support local businesses. The first in the city, the velodrome will provide an athletic amenity that all of Vancouver can use, and can help to improve the image of cycling. The track and field complement the nearby community center by providing an athletic facility that’s useful for the whole community. The adjacent skate park is appropriately sited in the industrial area because of the noise and crowds they usually create, and as a popular “third place” it can be accessed by youth around Vancouver via the skytrain (Oldenburg1989). The market south of Cambie will provide a social and artistic “third place” in Marpole, for all ages (Oldenburg1989), and will help to integrate life on the two sides of Marine drive, and bring life to the industrial area during evenings and on weekends  The greenway plays an important role in providing connectivity between: the community center; the existing south residential community; the velodrome, track and field; the skate park; and the market. It will bring an “experience of approach, anticipation, invitation and arrival” to the redeveloped area (White 1999). Framing of the Problem The group identified low density and a lack of amenities or activities as problems in the area. Critique of Design Property values near Marine Drive and Cambie Street will increase with the introduction of the Skytrain station (Gosling 2003). Therefore, the group’s attempt at residential densification near the Skytrain station is applauded. However, we question the group’s rationale for increasing residential density in this particular area when there were many opportunities for densification closer to the Skytrain station.  We deemed the massing of apartment buildings appropriate for the area and appreciate the group’s efforts in transitioning between the added higher-density apartment buildings and the existing single-family dwellings. We also feel that the commercial space provided in the area is sufficient for the number of new units, and is not so great as to detract from existing commercial spaces in the area. Intensification of the industrial land west of the Skytrain track is also applauded. It increases employment density in the area and its location could lead to increased use of the Skytrain. The addition of more workers to the area will help make the commercial businesses more viable. It will also bring more vitality and activity into the area. Although industrial intensification is desirable close to the Skytrain station, we are concerned that the new development may be too intense for the adjacent residential area. We would therefore propose that this area be rezoned to encourage lower- intensity industrial development. A complementary addition to the industrial area could include extended bioswales or rain gardens which could link to the retention pond to the south. This would provide visual and ecologically functional continuity. Overall the pathways were placed effectively to provide good connectivity and accessibility. They were mindful of pedestrian needs, as evidenced by the pathways between the 69th Ave townhouses. These provide permeability for north- south pedestrian movement, creating human-scale walkability and making the added density more palatable (Campoli and MacLean 2007). Regarding the Cambie Street closure south of Marine Drive, we find the addition of artist studios and a market is a welcome one. However, given its importance to surrounding industry, closing that particular street may not be the ideal choice. Perhaps a weekend-only closure would be more appropriate for the proposed weekend-only market, in concert with an alternate paving type. To optimize the use of space, the stalls could be reshaped to allow a functioning road to operate on weekdays. We were also not clear on how they reconciled this street-market with the market in the nearby public square, and whether they were seen as redundant or complementary. The added skate-park will be well-used, given its location near a large residential neighbourhood, community centre, and the Skytrain station. Conversely, we have mixed feelings about the velo-drome/sporting field. We welcome the idea of a (potentially) indoor sports field, especially given Vancouver’s weather and the fact there are currently no full sized sports fields in the area. Furthermore, its proximity to the Skytrain and community center increases accessibility. However its proximity to the Skytrain can also be seen as a negative due to the high land value in this area. While we like the addition of an exercise/training facility, we believe that a velo-drome could have a much smaller user population than other amenities given its ‘extreme sport’ connotations. Also, the construction and maintenance of a velo-drome on top of another building would be prohibitively expensive. Overall the design team’s proposal addresses the community’s needs. Their design interventions increased both the residential and industrial density in the area, and added much needed sporting amenities and art. This will likely increase activity and vitality in the area. Our primary suggestions are to modify the locations of the proposed developments and to more carefully analyze the economic feasibility of some aspects of the design.  DESIGN - Team 3: Asrai Ord, Bronwyn Jarvis, Christine Wenman, Mona Poon CRITIQUE - Team 1: Andréanne Doyon, Sean Tynan, Martin Gregorian, Waleed Giratalla School of Community and Regional Planning       Urban Design 2008 30 Week SIX: east Side Design and Critique Defining the Problem Team C identified the following design issues in the area immediately north and east of the Cambie Skytrain station, north of Marine Drive: • The current rental development, Marine Gardens, is in need of major repairs and is low-density, incorporating only seventy units. Higher residential density on that site would be appropriate, given its proximity to the new station and to commercial interventions proposed by previous teams. • Few opportunities currently exist for residents of Marine Gardens and adjacent single-family areas to experience green spaces and to engage in urban farming. • The opportunity exists to create a sustainable higher- density residential development that includes green building technology, natural outdoor spaces, and a multi-faith centre to serve the spiritual needs of the local community. Proposed Design Team C’s design interventions include the following features: • A higher-density housing development on the Marine Gardens site will incorporate approximately 250 residential units, with retail at grade along Marine Drive.  The complex will preserve and increase the total number of rental units, and will include both market and non-market rental and for-purchase units. The daycare will be retained and expanded, and underground parking provided. • The new residential buildings will be varied in height, type, and massing in order to be sensitive to the scale of the adjacent single-family neighbourhoods. The pathway between the structures emphasizes pedestrian access from the plaza and Skytrain station, and provides for a more intimate and relaxing walking experience. • Sustainable design features will include passive solar heating and innovative ventilation systems; a vertical garden on the residential tower; geothermal energy; a permeable pedestrian/ local traffic pathway; and rainwater catchment. • Important spaces created include a community garden and mini park with seating, children’s play area, and water features. The proposed green features, which include green roofs and a vertical garden, will serve as bird habitat, sequester carbon, and reduce the energy consumption of the development. They also add beauty and attraction to the neighborhood, and improve human-to-nature connections (Beatley 1991). With the rooftop and community gardens, and built-in greenhouse features, the residents can cultivate their own food.  The community garden also includes a constructed fish pond. • A multi-faith centre will be constructed on the northeast corner of the site to provide local Marpole residents with space for quiet contemplation and meditation, prayer, and small-group meetings. The design of the building will incorporate elements common to Eastern, Western, and native North American belief systems, such as the celebration of light and a reverence for the natural world. An outdoor garden area will include a water feature, landscaping with native plants, a walking path, and covered seating. Benefits to Neighbourhood Our design has increased the residential density of the site while being sensitive to the existing neighbourhood and to the needs of local residents for opportunities to farm, experience nature, and escape the hectic pace and noise of an urban environment. Campoli and MacLean (2007) argue that density works best when the neighborhood is diverse and interconnected, and we have effectively achieved this through sustainable design. We have preserved and expanded rental housing in the neighbourhood to accommodate a range of incomes and family types.  Our design is informed by the work of Ackerman (2006), who emphasizes the rejuvenating and stress-reducing qualities of natural areas within urban environments; Beatley’s (1991) recommendations on how to embed nature within urban infrastructure; and Campoli and MacLean’s (2007) work demonstrating the importance of interconnectedness, appropriateness of scale, tree canopy and green spaces, and consideration of the diverse needs of residents when increasing density within a neighbourhood. Framing of the Problem Design Team C identified several design problems on the east side of the study area including a lack of density, a lack of diverse housing types, and a need for increased sustainability and urban agriculture. We appreciate their overall design and the detailed depictions they presented in the model. While they were largely successful in addressing the issues identified above, we suggest minor changes to improve their design. Critique of Design Team C successfully added residential density and provided a variety of building forms. We particularly value their conscious decision to ensure that no quantity of rental housing was lost within the area they redesigned, while also creating a variety of market housing. The range of housing types provides an opportunity for increased diversity within the block and the entire neighbourhood. While we welcome the variety of building types, particularly their massing and stepping, we had some concerns with the central tower building. The footprint of the podium may be too large for residential use. The height of the building was also debated. At 16 storeys it is now the tallest building in the entire project area. While we appreciate the focal point this creates, particularly in light of Christopher Alexander’s idea of the formation of centres (Alexander et al. 1987), it may remove focus from the larger neighbourhood centre that is being developed near the Sky-Train station. However, we concluded that this height is justified assuming that the “true” neighbourhood centre will be densified accordingly with further development. We also thought that some stepping down  on the north side of this building might create a better transition to the single family housing on the next block. Developing a concrete physical connection with the land is one of the key aspects of a sustainable society described by Bossel (Newman and Jennings 2008). We therefore appreciate the extensive greenspace that they were able to create despite the significant increase in density. The greenspace is enclosed by buildings and Team C has suggested landscaping and seating areas that will make it a relaxing area within the this high- density block. The community garden is another detail that was especially valuable. However, placing the community garden directly north of the tower building is not ideal due to shading from the building. This problem could easily be avoided by relocating the garden or repositioning the tower further south on its podium. One suggestion is to switch the location of the garden with the rooftop childcare centre. The other sustainability initiatives for building energy and ventilation as well as stormwater management are also beneficial, both in light of the values it promotes and in keeping with other initiatives proposed in previous designs. Again, although the site has high density, Team C has provided a lot of permeability throughout. We like the connectivity created throughout the site and extended across SW Marine Drive. The widening of this street with the median provides a pedestrian upgrade and the street wall created along SW Marine also contributes to a more pleasant pedestrian experience. As White (1999) states, “successful streets are appropriately defined and scales by enclosing buildings that are well-designed, carefully detailed, and faithfully maintained.” We also like the idea of the multi-faith centre as we believe it enhances and celebrates the diversity of the neighbourhood. It might be justified to give this facility more prominence.  Team C presented thoughtful and creative design ideas. They were successful in creating density while maintaining greenspace, enhancing diversity and sustainability. They have created a strong aesthetic through building form, massing and stepping that doesn’t overwhelm the neighbourhood. DESIGN - Team C: Rebecca Bateman, Latosia Campbell, Adam Hyslop, Stacy Passmore CRITIQUE - Team A:  Andrew Merrill, Michele Fuge, Anjali Varghese School of Community and Regional Planning       Urban Design 2008   31 Week SeVen: Figure Ground scale 1 : 5000 0 meters100 250 500 FIGURE GROUND N School of Community and Regional Planning       Urban Design 2008 32 Week SeVen: Physical Interventions West Side east Side Looking North along from Kent Ave. Looking Southeast towards Marine from Lord St and 65th Ave. Looking Northeast from Aisne St towards Marine Dr. Looking North towards Marine Dr. and Cambie St. at Marine Drive Station Looking Northwest towards Marine Dr. and Cambie St. from Yukon St. Looking West along Marine Dr. School of Community and Regional Planning       Urban Design 2008   33 Week SeVen: West Side Design and Critique Defining the Problem Our team identified several design problems/opportunities on the west side of the study area. First, there was an opportunity to increase density, particularly near the sky-train station as the surrounding development has grown substantially, dwarfing this central area. We felt however, that any increase in residential density should incorporate a variety of building types in order to prevent “the deadening effect of mass- production” (Campoli and MacLean 2007)as well as attract a diversity of users including housing dedicated to seniors and low-income families. We also saw a need to develop denser and more diverse industrial uses on the south side of SW Marine Drive. Finally, there was an opportunity to enhance naturalized areas and promote food security through urban agriculture. Proposed Design In order to address these issues we proposed the following design interventions: 1. Increasing residential and commercial density near the intersection of Cambie Street and SW Marine Drive. The buildings that front these major streets are designed to have main floor commercial use to support the increased density. We also increased residential density in the blocks immediately south and west of the school/park site. Here we provided a variety of housing types including stacked row-houses, townhouses, courtyard rowhouses and high-rise apartments. We have also included a seniors/assisted living complex and social housing. 2.Developing light industrial uses fronting the south side of SW Marine Drive in a loft-style building. In addition to providing space for cottage industries to set up manufacturing shops, this should create a transition zone between residential and heavier industrial uses. 3.Creating a stronger street wall along SW Marine Drive and Cambie Street. The new buildings fronting these streets are designed to complement the form and heights of the existing adjacent and opposite buildings. The proposed buildings are tallest at the intersection and then step down as one moves north and west. 4.Creating a vertical agriculture building near the existing naturalized wetland to address need for increased food security through urban agriculture. 5.Expanding the existing wetland to increase its capacity to store and treat stormwater. It also provides an opportunity to enhance the existing landscaping and make it more of a destination, especially with the new nearby vertical garden. Benefits to Neighbourhood Our design interventions have aimed to enhance residential, commercial, industrial and ecological aspects of the study area by increasing both density and diversity. Although we are proposing a significant increase in density, we have tried to create a “careful design [that] can provide amenities, even in small spaces” (Campoli and MacLean 2007), such as the private backyards for the courtyard rowhouses. Throughout our design, we have paid particular attention to the streets which are “the vital organs” of the city according to Jane Jacobs (1961). As such, we aimed to develop a street wall that not only creates a sense of an indoor room, but unifies the neighbourhood, attracts pedestrian activity and draws people into its centre. Framing of the Problem Team A identified several areas for improvement in their third design intervention. Their interventions were primarily centred on developing affordable and seniors’ housing, creating live/ work spaces for small businesses, increasing density, and bringing communities closer to their source of food. Team A achieved their goal of increasing density while enhancing the living space for elderly and low-income populations by introducing senior and low-income housing north-west of Cambie and Marine Drive. The developments that Team A incorporated are a natural response to what a diverse and aging community would need as density in the area continues to grow. Planning the design of neighbourhoods as a response to the needs of the population is a critical role for Planners to assume (Lynch 1984).  The low-income developments comprise of three multi-unit buildings along Marine Drive that are “stepped” – getting incrementally shorter away from the Cambie/Marine Drive intersection. This design feature is consistent with the neighbourhood’s growth strategy, which has focused on concentrating high-density developments in central areas of activity with a gradual decrease in density moving away from the node of activity. Planning for incremental growth in a neighbourhood allows for the organic development of a community in a piecemeal fashion, and often results in a greater sense of “wholeness” (Alexander et al. 1987). The issue of density was further tackled by Team A through the addition of a 14-storey tower to the building located on the north-west corner of Cambie and Marine Drive and through the introduction of multi-unit buildings on the west side of Cambie Street. Furthermore, to address the need for more office space in the neighbourhood, Team A created a six-storey loft-style building for cottage industries on Marine Drive at Aisne Street. Critique of Design Despite the success of Team A’s design interventions in accomplishing their stated goals, our team has identified a few areas of concern. Most notably, the size of the residential tower on the north-west corner of Cambie and Marine Drive is too massive for the given context. This structure is at risk of being a “vertical and horizontal form of overdevelopment” and “logistic overextension” (Krier 2008, p. 55). Our team feels that a structure of the same or similar height, but with reduced total mass, would better integrate with previous design proposals at Marine Drive and Cambie. Adorning the building with a lighter tower structure would have achieved Team A’s goal of densification, while maintaining an integrated design. Similarly, the vertical agricultural garden appears too large for this neighbourhood. Although we applaud the integration of more agriculture into the community, the size of the structure is beyond what is needed and lends the appearance of lacking structural integrity. A final critique relates to the six-storey loft-style building on Marine Drive at Aisne Street. Although Team A successfully addressed the spatial needs of small businesses with the design of the building, the location could create a financial challenge for its occupants. Because of the increasing value of the land on Marine Drive from density, commercial opportunities for artisans and manufacturers at this location may be outweighed by the negative impacts of expensive rental space. If Team A is building with consideration of the financial needs of small businesses, locating the office building deeper into the industrial zone where real estate would ostensibly be cheaper would increase the affordability of the units in this building. DESIGN - Team A:  Andrew Merrill, Michele Fuge, Anjali Varghese CRITIQUE - Team B: Johanna Mazur, Ellen Larcombe, Jody Kliffer School of Community and Regional Planning       Urban Design 2008 34 Week SeVen: east Side Design and Critique Defining the Problem We have identified three opportunities for improvement in the study area: 1. The area, as well as the City of Vancouver, lacks sufficient office space. 2. Vancouver is in need of more industrial space; there is an opportunity to intensify industrial lands south of Marine Drive.  3. The old Insurance Corporation of British Columbia (ICBC) site (adjacent to the Marine Drive Skytrain station) is underdeveloped and has tremendous growth potential. Proposed Design To increase density and intensify office space in the area, we added four office buildings on the old ICBC site. We increased the density of an existing building at the corner of Cambie Street and Marine Drive by adding an eight story tower to the existing three storey building. The lower levels are allocated for commercial and retail space, and the tower will be for office use. We replaced the articulated building on the south side of the public square with two four-storey buildings. The first level of these two buildings will be for commercial or retail space while the remaining three floors will be used for office space. All of these buildings incorporate setbacks to reduce the perceived size of the buildings. The fourth office building is located along Yukon St., south of Marine Drive. This building is eight storeys of strictly office space. On the east side of the old ICBC site, we have proposed a light industrial building. We envision this building could be used for a production line, warehouse, or other low-intensity industry. The close proximity of the new industrial space to the existing trade school could promote programs or partnerships between the industrial businesses and the school. We also constructed two additional buildings which connect to the trade school. We anticipate that the school will need to expand in the future, and we therefore added a three-storey building against the south side of the existing trade school structures. This increases the size of the school, but also decreases the size of the public square. It also creates a path and portal into the public square from the east (White 1999). An eight-storey tower to the east of the existing structures was placed in order to optimize use of this space. This building may be used by businesses in addition to the school. In order to maximize energy efficiency, district heating was placed under the new buildings. All buildings are south- oriented and have enough sun exposure to effectively incorporate passive solar heating and cooling, and several roofs have incorporated solar panels. Building orientation was chosen with careful attention to sun path, allowing natural light into the plaza. We felt daylight was particularly important to stimulate daytime use, as many office workers and students would be in the area during the daytime, especially at lunch hour. Finally, we added a passenger station on the rail line at the south end of Cambie Street. We operated on the assumption that rising fuel costs, an aging population, and increasing awareness of the need for environmental sustainability will make passenger transport along the existing rail line economically viable. Given the Skytrain hub, public market, public square, skate park, velodrome, and other amenities in the area, it is likely that a train stop would be placed in the area. The south section of Cambie Street, which is closed to vehicular traffic and sheltered from rain by the Skytrain track, would be a suitable pedestrian path between the Skytrain station and a new train station. Benefits to Neighbourhood The new additions and changes to the old ICBC site will improve the functionality and vitality of the area. By adding office space and increasing the overall building density on the site, we are making the development more profitable while responding to the city’s need for office and industrial spaces. By increasing the size of the buildings surrounding the public square, we have decreased its size to a more human scale which will increase its perceived vitality. The additional buildings also create a more defined shape to the plaza. The public square will continue to serve as an important focal point in the community. We envision the square being used primarily by the employee and student populations during business hours while being used by the general community outside of business hours. According to Whyte, “...commuter distances are usually short; for most plazas, the effective market radius is about three blocks” (Whyte 1980). Therefore, by increasing building density we are also increasing the number of people who will frequent the public square. The public square will be host to many community events including concerts, festivals and farmers’ markets. Users of the train from Surrey will be able to visit the market on weekends, expanding the potential consumer base in the area. Coupled with increased office space, the proposed changes would increase job opportunity and security in the area. Framing of the Problem Team one successfully addressed a number of problems on the Eastside of the study area including a lack of office space, an excessively large public plaza (for the site) and lower density in the industrial area and a lack of sustainable passenger transportation. Critique of Design In general, Team 2 applauds the densification of the SE corner of SW Marine Dr. and Cambie St. The introduction of the office buildings is a positive addition to both the community and the City of Vancouver. These buildings provide a smooth transition from industrial and commercial and the mix use will help provide the nightly “eyes on the street” improving pedestrian security (Jacobs, 1961). The office buildings will also provide employment opportunities for those living in the area. The solar panels, geothermal heating and power generating windows are thoughtful “green” additions to the office buildings. We also appreciate the way the team kept the technical school and added on to the existing building instead of completely rebuilding. The buildings surround the plaza, decreasing the plaza’s size and render it more intimate and usable. The added employment density surrounding the plaza will also help increase its vibrancy and usage.  Team 1 was very effective at interconnecting the diverse range of buildings and the plaza both within the site and to the neighbourhood with their ‘path-portal-place’ inspired pedestrian traffic flow.  The interconnection also binds the site together as an integrated whole, an effective approach when dealing with diverse building types (Campoli and Maclean 2007). The main concerns relate to the massing of the buildings themselves. While Team 1 tried to mimic existing styles and make use of the pre-existing forms on the site, the result was somewhat cluttered, resulting in too many different styles. Although the tower fronting SW Marine Drive contributes to a need for higher density, the building is rather bulky and the triangular corners may limit efficient use of the space inside. Perhaps adding shoulders or more stepping would have made the building more elegant and functional. Unfortunately, a number of trees were sacrificed in the development of this site. This could negatively effect the health of the neighbourhood, as Campoli and Maclean (2007) state in Visualizing Density: “Establishing a canopy of trees is the single most effective way to improve the physical quality of a neighbourhood street”. Additional beneficial functions of trees include cleaning of the air and soft-scaping of hard edges within the built environment. This corner had one of the largest and most mature tree canopies in the neighbourhood. Perhaps there could have been a more balanced tradeoff between increasing density in the area and preserving this greenspace. While the idea of re-introducing trains was a relatively simple gesture (two lines indicating tracks and a square box for a station), it was a powerful idea, especially in a peak-oil/post- oil context). At the same time, it is questionable whether an east-west route adjacent to the Fraser River would have much use as a pedestrian train. Although it would be an innovative solution for the movement of goods, there is already a major bus route along SW Marine and a passenger train might (needlessly, and at cost) duplicate that service. Also, the station may have been better situated on the other side of the road, where the skytrain station is located. DESIGN - Team 1: Andréanne Doyon, Sean Tynan, Martin Gregorian, Waleed Giratalla CRITIQUE - Team 2:  Joanna Clark, Megan Fitzgerald, Sawngjai Manityakul, Naveeda Rizwan School of Community and Regional Planning       Urban Design 2008   35 Week eIGHT: Figure Ground scale 1 : 5000 0 meters100 250 500 FIGURE GROUND N School of Community and Regional Planning       Urban Design 2008 36 Week eIGHT: Physical Interventions West Side east Side Looking North between Aisne St. and Ash St. towards 71st. from new street connecting Aisne St. and Ash St. Looking West along Cambie from Manitoba St. Looking Northeast at Marine Dr. and Yukon St. Looking North towards Marine Dr. and Columbia St. School of Community and Regional Planning       Urban Design 2008   37 Week eIGHT: West Side Design and Critique Defining the Problem The problems we have identified in the south west portion of the neighbourhood area are as follows: awkward transition from the residential pocket south on Marine Drive to the light industrial area bordering Kent Street; low-density of light industrial space; limited office space in the area; lack of affordable housing; the need for more green space and local food production opportunities; limited transportation options; and, limited pedestrian connectivity throughout the residential and industrial areas. Proposed Design In order to address the problems outlined above, our team introduced several design interventions. To address the lack of affordable housing, our team replaced the original pocket of single-family housing that existed with medium-density residential apartment buildings. The new residential buildings are two four-storey complexes, with a contingent six-storey tower at the west end of the northern building. These designs offer much higher density to the neighbourhood and will comprise of 40% social housing, with the remainder dedicated to mixed income units. The buildings incorporate different environmental features, such as geothermal heating systems, solar panels for energy generation and green roofs. A green space accessible to both residents and the general public is cradled between the two residential complexes. Pedestrian connectivity throughout the grounds is enhanced by a network of paths, including a pathway cutting through archways in the buildings.  Next to the residential buildings, we have proposed a large community garden that provides a space for people to grow their own food, while increasing the overall green space of the neighbourhood. Our approach to the design of this residential area was informed by literature which discusses the critical relationship between urban design and the human experience of density.  Specifically, Campoli and MacLean state, “how we perceive density has everything to do with how it is designed, not the actual ratio of units to acres” (Campoli, A. & Maclean, J. 2007, p.1).  This reality informed our careful articulation of the increased residential density in the neighbourhood. In the block south of the residential units, we have proposed three live-work buildings (three-storey buildings with high ceilings) to transition between the residential area and the light industrial area. The simplistic character and utility of these live-work buildings might attract a population of people inspired by the industrial edge of the city. The live/work building use is essential to the successful transition from the residential neighbourhood to light industrial/office zone. Immediately south of the live/work buildings, our team also replaced one low-density light industrial building with a new light industrial building offering much higher density. This proposed design also integrated office space on the top floor. To accommodate vehicle and truck traffic, we have added a road on the south side of the building. As an added ecological feature and to create opportunities for people’s connections with nature, we have included a duck pond between these buildings that is surrounded by green space and connected to walking paths. To compliment the light industrial loft-style building on Marine Drive (proposed by Team A), we proposed an additional three-storey light industrial building for small- scale manufacturing and cottage industries. We have integrated ecological benefits into the design, with a green roof, geothermal heating and skylights. The existing site housed two small one-storey light industrial buildings. To address the lack of connectivity and awkward transition between the diverging land uses in the neighbourhood, we have integrated extensive pathways throughout the neighbourhood, which connect the different spaces and provide walkable routes to and from the skytrain. As a final contribution to building connectivity in the neighbourhood, we collaborated with Team 2 to build a streetcar line along Marine Drive that addresses the need for a variety of energy-efficient and accessible transportation choices. Benefits to Neighbourhood Our design interventions create more affordable office and living spaces and denser light industrial use in the south- western region of the neighbourhood. The incremental transition from the residential to the light industrial uses in the area provides the opportunity for both liveable and workable spaces to co-exist harmoniously. Our design of pathways, archways and gathering spaces throughout the site enhance the connectivity and walkability, which are aligned with White’s emphasis on the importance of paths, portals and places as “meaningful exterior space in urban environments” (White, E, 1999, p.1). The green spaces in the neighbourhood also provide a relaxing place where workers and residents of the area can gain the physical, social, ecological and psychological benefits of having routine access to green spaces and wildlife. Framing of the Problem Team B’s third design intervention sought to address a range of problems identified in the southwestern section of Marpole. These included: the lack of affordable housing; the need for more green spaces and local food production opportunities; limited office space and limited pedestrian connectivity between residential and industrial areas.  Critique of Design On the whole, team B’s intervention addressed many of the issues identified. The team did an excellent job increasing the density along SW Marine Drive by replacing the single- family units/duplexes with medium density apartments. The proposed structures relate well to one another and the surrounding buildings in terms of massing and character. The mixed income neighbourhood, with 40% social housing or non-market housing is well suited for this transitional area. Additionally, incorporating energy efficiency and sustainable green technologies (Geothermal heating, solar panel and green roof) aids in making these units more affordable to live in, certainly in the long run (Beatley, 1991).  Similarly, Team B’s efforts to preserve the existing trees as well as the inclusion of green spaces and the large community garden within the development were very worthwhile in creating more open spaces as well as increasing opportunities for food production. The live/work spaces created are a good fit with the loft work space previously proposed by Team A at the site of the old A & B Sound building on SW Marine. The 3-storey building added to serve industry/cottage industries is complementary to Team A’s building; they also fit well in the neighbourhood. The transitioning from live/work to light industrial also works very well. The pond and other natural features south of the live/work buildings will provide a great buffer from sounds and smell generation, as was intended. The efforts to create and maintain connectivity between the residential and commercial areas are a great consideration in this area.  While Team B presented a good design strategy for addressing the problems identified, there are several small issues that have been overlooked which may affect the overall effectiveness of the design intervention.  Our team felt that by ignoring the current problem of traffic using 71st Avenue as a major thoroughfare, the new access street created to the south by opening the cul de sac created by another team will not necessarily achieve the objective of this intervention.  We believed that it might be feasible and preferable to create a cul- de-sac on 71st west of Ash to prevent flow-through traffic in the residential area.  Although alternative modes of transportation and locally produced goods and services are highly encouraged, the removal of the alley could be of concern as not only is parking space eliminated but through-access by emergency vehicles is highly restricted as well.   It may be more appropriate if the solution had made car access possible but not visually dominant as it now is (Campoli & MacLean, 2007)  Finally, the transition in building height on the west side of the site across from the one-story industrial buildings was a little abrupt. A more gradual transition in scale may have been more appropriate. A greater variation in building heights would also have added more interest to the neighbourhood, making strategically placed buildings more of a focal point. Overall, the intervention was effective in achieving most of the objectives, particularly in creating more affordable living spaces, facilitating greater density in the industrial area, ensuring harmonious liveable and workable spaces, enhancing connectivity between areas, and deriving the benefits of having green spaces.  These are highly desirable and necessary additions to the neighbourhood. DESIGN - Team B: Johanna Mazur, Ellen Larcombe, Jody Kliffer CRITIQUE - Team C: Rebecca Bateman, Latosia Campbell, Adam Hyslop, Stacy Passmore School of Community and Regional Planning       Urban Design 2008 38 Week eIGHT: east Side Design and Critique Defining the Problem A number of issues were identified in our assessment of the study area – particularly a lack of unity and cohesion between the residential and industrial areas on either side of SW Marine Dr. and east of Cambie St. The residential area on the north was relatively low-density, including single-family homes on Marine, and a small townhouse complex adjacent to the mixed-use village at Marine Dr. and Yukon St. The neighborhood is developing with significantly higher densities that will require additional convenient public transit to create a more livable, highly accessible community. In consideration of the aging population, we identified a lack of housing for older adults even though there are already several seniors’ complexes in the area. In as little as twenty years, the number of senior citizens living in Metro Vancouver is expected to double. It is estimated that by 2031, “one out of every four of the region’s residents could be over 65” (Metro Vancouver 2007: p. 5). The industrial area on the other side of Marine was also underutilized (e.g. empty lots serving as parking), presenting an opportunity for industrial densification, which we approached by reconfiguring the existing building stock. The tree canopy had been slowly decreasing with the removal of trees from nearby densification within the neighbourhood. There was also an opportunity to increase connectivity between the east and west sides of SW Marine Dr. with a more efficient and environmentally sustainable transit system. Proposed Design and Benefits to Neighbourhood Our team felt that in striving for more sustainable design, we should preserve existing buildings when possible; simply put: “retrofit, not rebuild.” None of the existing industrial buildings were removed. Rather, they were reconfigured so as to increase density – for example, by adding four story frontages to existing buildings to create a strong street wall, and by removing excess parking. We envision storefronts (although not necessarily retail) on ground floor to provide safety for pedestrians (Jacob’s idea of eyes on the street) and encourage a more vibrant streetlife. Also, a portion of the building on the SE corner of Marine and Yukon was removed to increase sightlines into the existing constructed wetland, which we enlarged. We also tried to preserve the original character of neighbourhood. We kept some of existing housing on Marine (higher-density townhouses) and replaced the single-family homes along Marine Dr. with three-storey rowhouses. The peaks of the roofs on the townhouses were intended to compliment the form of the existing residential. The new development on the corner of Yukon and Marine Dr. is a mix of affordable, family-oriented townhouses and seniors’ housing, in the adjacent five-storey building. This new complex follows Campoli’s argument that stacking the living space vertically leaves more space for yards and landscaping. In keeping with our goal of maintaining the existing character of the neighbourhood and increasing the tree canopy for the area, all trees on the site were preserved and enhanced with new plantings.  “Human scale” development is another principle we strived to implement throughout our design. Our proposed residential/industrial buildings are consistent with Campoli’s statement that compact form and houses with conversational distance from each other create an intimate scale. Through the design of building attempts to integrate both sides of Marine. For example, the industrial buildings have a canopy mirroring the porches on the residential homes across the street. Marine Drive is now lined with trees, creating more attractive landscape while serving as a buffer between land uses. Several pathways as well as sidewalks in the industrial areas were added to improve neighbourhood connectivity, providing a safer and more comfortable streets for non- motorized users (pedestrians and cyclists) and improving the overall mobility. Permeable paving, flanked by rain gardens, was used in the alley between industrial buildings. Envisioning a high-density neighborhood requiring additional public – and that future reality that there may fewer cars – we proposed a street car along SW Marine Dr. Modern street cars would provide an attractive and more exciting transit experience, linking activity centers in neighbourhoods while integrating with other modes of transportation. It is likely that the addition of permanent infrastructure will act as a catalyst for further neighbourhood development and investment. Framing of the Problem Team 2 accurately indentified that a denser industrial- residential interface was needed along SW Marine.  Also appropriate was the encouragement of multi-modal transportation in the area by the introduction of a more sustainable transit system across SW Marine.  In addition, increased housing for senior citizens was another important identified issue that Team 2 accurately addressed.  Although a continuous tree canopy is a significant issue identified by Team 2 to provide a more enjoyable street experience, this issue could have been better visually articulated by the Team. Critique of Design North of SW Marine, the new townhouse developments near Manitoba Street preserved the existing neighbourhood character; however, these townhouses could have been placed closer to the street to provide a stronger street wall.  The adjacent residential developments comprised of preserved structures raise the concern of whether these buildings should be retained as many of them are in a state of disarray and are not necessarily made of high-quality materials (e.g. dilapidated wood).  In addition, the retention of some of these buildings create awkward residual space in the area, resulting in forest space that is not defined enough to make it a distinctive feature, while detracting from the continuity of the street wall.  What was done well in the residential area was the stepping down in the direction from Cambie to Manitoba Street, transitioning from busier commercial to residential space.  The consideration for seniors’ living quarters was also an important issue that the additional housing addressed.  Also well done was the additional connectivity in the complex in the middle of Cambie and Manitoba Street, promoting an enjoyable pedestrian travel experience towards the constructed wetland across the street. To enhance the path-portal-place movement from the pathway between the buildings towards the final constructed wetlands destination, Team 2 thoughtfully enlarged the wetland and made some adjustments to the surrounding industrial building so that the constructed wetland could be more easily enjoyed as a distinctive neighbourhood feature.  This expansion also emphasizes the connection of the east side with the west side’s constructed wetland on Kent Street.  The importance of demarcating such a sense of arrival from a path-portal-place experience is championed by White (White 1999). In the industrial area, retro-fitting existing buildings towards SW Marine provide a stronger street wall to meet the residential improvements on the north side; however, this particular design also limits the density in the rear of the building.  The awnings on both the industrial and residential sections echo the existing treatments to the buildings near the Skytrain station and enhance the art of relationship in the walking experience that Gordon Cullen mentions in his work (Cullen 1961).  The introduction of these awnings now encourages future teams to consider adding this element to their work, especially to the buildings attached to the Skytrain platform.  To further enhance the atmosphere of this street, Team 2 could have also considered denser tree planting in this corridor to mimic the agricultural archway on the west side, making SW Marine a more comfortable place to stroll, as Hall and Jacobs advocate (Hall 2008; Jacobs 1995). The street railway was also a development that our team unanimously supports.  It provides greater transportation options for citizens, encouraging forms of non-vehicular use and corresponds with the multi-modal transportation theme expressed by other groups. DESIGN - Team 2:  Joanna Clark, Megan Fitzgerald, Sawngjai Manityakul,  and Naveeda Rizwan CRITIQUE - Team 3: Asrai Ord, Bronwyn Jarvis, Christine Wenman, Mona Poon School of Community and Regional Planning       Urban Design 2008   39 Week nIne: Figure Ground scale 1 : 5000 0 meters100 250 500 FIGURE GROUND N School of Community and Regional Planning       Urban Design 2008 40 Week nIne: Physical Interventions West Side east Side Looking East from Heather St between 63rd and 64th Ave. Looking North towards Marine Dr. between Yukon St. and Columbia St. Looking West from Manitoba St. in area south of Marine Dr. Looking Southwest along the Eastern side of Cambie St. School of Community and Regional Planning       Urban Design 2008   41 Week nIne: West Side Design and Critique Defining the Problem Team C selected several reccurring issues that could be addressed on the model this week.  The sustainability approach illustrated by Vancouver’s Eco-density Charter remains an objective for our designs and it is facilitated by the addition of the new Canada Line stop.  We identified three separate areas where we could implement denser improvements for residential, commercial and industrial uses while including public amenities and constructed green spaces. In the suburban residential neighborhood adjacent to the elementary school, we felt that the land was underutilized considering the transit access now available.  Additionally, the expanded commercial opportunities south of Marine Drive would create a need for additional housing close by.  Further, this single-family neighborhood is decidedly lacking in variety and integrated uses.    South of Marine Drive we identified two sites that were under-improved in light of their location.  In each location we saw opportunities to enhance connectivity and a potential demand for additional retail space. Proposed Design and Benefits to Neighbourhood To address our concerns regarding the lack of density in the residential district, we selected a block that didn’t seem to work well due to excessive road surface and oversized lots, and was also located adjacent to the school.  We saw the opportunity to make better use of this block by revising the alleyway, making it instead an informal street with permeable concrete to encourage onsite water-retention.  The roadway through the middle has also been redesigned to promote better connectivity from the school, through the site and beyond into the residential neighbourhood.  We also included different dwelling types (a mix of housing styles and a broad range of densities from single family homes to town houses to apartment buildings)designed to house more families. The single family homes along the pathway are designed for seniors but would be flexible for other purposes as well.  The variety of building style and broken up massing would allow for an interesting and dynamic pedestrian experience.  This new neighbourhood will also integrate New Urbanism’s ideas of mixed-uses by allowing for the inclusion of a convenience center with commercial opportunities such as cafe, coffee shop, laundry centre, bakery and fast food, which is easy and accessible to the residents by walking and biking.  All the buildings are positioned for passive solar and are designed using green technologies such as geothermal heating, green roofs and solar panels, the strictest green building standards, integrated energy, waste and water systems whenever possible. The landscaping is also highly designed to combine food production with a beautiful natural landscape.  The dense forested area is an orchard adjacent to berry patches and a larger permaculture garden. We added a public park at the southeast corner that includes a constructed water feature with interactive public art and shelter facility to complement the beautiful natural environment created, intending to offer opportunities for repose and relaxation from routines and the demands of life for all residents (Carr, Francis, Rivlin and Stone, 1992). It is also very accessible as we have extended pathways and added others to ensure connectivity to the entire neighbourhood.  On the furthest western side of our community, we have provided space for the commercial uses (identified above) as well as a basketball/ concrete sports surface and public patio.  Across the path, we designed a unique multipurpose open space that provides opportunities for community socialisation and a range of outdoor activities such as casual sports and play. We have also added a new building complex on SW Marine Dr that is designed to be an industrial-commercial interface, with store-front artisan studios & workshops, galleries and training opportunities. The building would be constructed through an agreement with the local small business association (housed in the Civic Centre) to offer street-level storefront space only to members of the local community or those with studio/workshop/manufacturing space in the surrounding industrial area. It would be an area for showcasing local cottage industry wares. It would also include cafes and restaurants to serve local workers and residents. The upper floors would serve as studio space, flexible light-industrial space, or large-scale retail.  It is designed to allow for full mobility through the site and improves connectivity to surrounding residential neighborhoods and the industrial area to the South. It continues the commercial street-wall down SW Marine Drive and adds employment opportunities to serve the increasing residential densities. The building we have designed adjacent to the new vertical farm will be a market building, likened to Pike Place in Seattle or Granville Island.    It will hold a public market in the building and would feature fresh produce and products made by all those artists and craftspeople that will be living nearby in the neighborhood. It would also sell gardening and urban farming tools and materials to support the enhanced food production in the greater Marpole neighborhood. Framing of the Problem Team C identified a remaining lack of density in the RS1 and industrial land surrounding the Canada Line station.  With regard to RS1 housing, they perceived an opportunity to experiment with neighbourhood design; whilst addressing the issue of food security. Critique of Design Team C developed three major changes to the area.  Firstly, a redesign of an entire RS1 block in the northwest quadrant. The design was visionary and had several components centered around a theme of social inclusiveness.  The redesign incorporated several blocks of townhouses, with a small number of single unit dwellings in the centre of the site to be used by seniors.  It is felt that the senior’s housing could have achieved greater density, and also be located less centrally on the site so as to provide a more tranquil location for the elderly residents.  Overall the redesign was said to have increased the site’s density by almost 200%.  This effort is congratulated as the space deceptively now appears less dense than previous. The addition of a small, local neighbourhood commercial node on Heather St. is a welcomed addition and will help to add vitality to that side of the neighbourhood. The significant greenspace and urban agriculture site were welcomed and in line with Campoli & Mclean’s (2007) thoughts that, “Green Infrastructure should consist of a variety of spaces and thread through the site so that many units have access to it and its many benefits”.  Unfortunately the greenspace was provided at the expense of any car parking or private greenspace.  With the large improved public park across the street, it is felt that the opportunity to provide private outdoor space would have provided both privacy and density (Campoli & Maclean 2007).  Similarly, Campoli & Mclean (2007) state that “storing cars is one of the greatest challenges of density”.  Whilst the group mentioned car parking would be underground, this was not evident on the model, and would be unlikely to suit the senior’s requirements. Team C’s second development was a Public Market adjacent to the vertical agriculture site on Cambie & Kent Sts.  The design of the site was excellent and in keeping with The Chicago Principles of daylight providing natural illumination through a translucent ceiling, and comfortable public gathering areas merging indoor and outdoor spaces. (W McDonough 2004) There is concern that the use of the site takes away from the current industrial land use, hence further restricting the availability for industry within the model’s boundaries.  The site has excellent connectivity to adjoining properties, and also compliments the land use of the neighbouring vertical garden and manmade wetland.  There was also concern that there is no car parking or loading dock facilities provided on site. The final change to the model was a new specialty retail precinct on the southern side of SW Marine Drive.  Whilst the use has provided a smooth transition between industry and residents, it once again reduced the available industrial space for the locality.  There is also concern that pedestrian traffic numbers would be insufficient to maintain economic viability of the retailers.  In addition, there was no provision for patron car parking or commercial vehicles on the site. As a final note, several windmills were located on buildings throughout the model.  Their introduction is applauded, particularly if they are able to generate significant energy savings in a non obtrusive manner. DESIGN - Team C: Rebecca Bateman, Latosia Campbell, Adam Hyslop, Stacy Passmore CRITIQUE - Team A:  Andrew Merrill, Michele Fuge, Anjali Varghese School of Community and Regional Planning       Urban Design 2008 42 Week nIne: east Side Design and Critique Defining the Problem This design is about integration: interweaving previous design efforts and insisting that the built environment exist intertwined with the natural ecosystem rather than apart from it. The stormwater treatment that begun as a few roadside bioswales and a constructed wetland in week three and later extended throughout the neighborhood as additional swales, rain gardens and ponds, has yet to be integrated into a comprehensive, functioning system. The increases in density that began around the intersection of Cambie and Marine Drive have extended outwards along Marine Drive, North along Cambie and throughout the residential and light industrial neighborhoods. The previous R1 zoning that still remains in the Northeast corner of Cambie appeared out of place. Proposed Design Introduction of wind energy vertical technology: A Quiet Revolution windmill design, which is now being incorporated into residential and commercial sectors in the UK was used. The vertical windmills use a helical blade design to reduce noise and increase efficiency in turbulent winds no matter the wind direction. The windmills connect to the grid system making them a profitable investment for the region. Each windmill can produce between 6,000 and 10,000 kWhrs with wind speeds ranging from 4.5 to 16 m/s.  Densification of the residential NE corner of Cambie: Residential additions include: a mix of six-story co-operative housing with first floor commercial space (some of which may be run by the co-operative as an internal subsidy); four-story rental units and three-story townhouse complexes. Surrounding architecture has been respected by massing that steps down towards the R1 zoning to the east and with the awning along Cambie for a continuous streetscape. A public art park with arches provides recreation space for residents and additional scenery for the public using the bicycle path. Eco-industrial park: By re-designing the transfer station as a four to six story complex and providing vehicle circulation throughout, the conceptual design proposes harnessing the height for stacked silo-like storage and sorting of waste. With consequent free space, five additional four to five story industrial buildings contribute new employment opportunities to the region. The significant remaining green space is a functional wetland system, which integrates Marpole’s storm water management efforts. Other possible uses include: pilot on-site grey water treatment and green space for local residents and workers. The blue depicts high flow in storm events. Demonstration waste management project: The Integrated Resource Management facility (IRM) is a closed-loop waste, water and energy demonstration project that allows the district around Marpole to be serviced largely off-grid. Facilities like this are a significant source of net annual revenue for municipalities and they can also reduce community GHG emissions by 25% (Resources from Waste, 2008). This facility’s location in the light industrial area is ideal. It is close enough to be efficient for large infrastructure loops, and far enough away from residential communities to be acceptable. Initially the facility would serve surrounding industrial uses and once its success was proven it could serve Marpole and adjacent neighborhoods, with a capacity of about 100,000 people. The technologies used to process these inputs could change based on the needs of the community and available technology, but would likely include: treatment beds to prepare organic wastes for processing and to produce fertilizer; anaerobic digesters to process organic wastes to produce biogas and fertilizer; biogas digesters to process organic wastes to produce biogas and ash; a co-generator to process biogas to produce heat and electricity; living machines to treat sewage and greywater for reuse or release into the bioswales; passive temperature transfer between sewage lines and district heating and cooling lines. Also solar panels were added to rooftops throughout the industrial area. A sloped green roof was also incorporated adding to the diversity of designs in Marpole, while still providing an ecosystem service.  Benefits to Neighbourhood The comprehensive set of design changes addresses the need to integrate the built urban environment more closely with the natural ecosystem (McDonough 2008), and provide residents with the green, restorative space needed for psychological well-being (Ackerman 2006). The designs capture many of the criteria needed to work toward what Beatley calls Green Urbanism: with increasing density the neighborhood is increasingly compact and walkable creating opportunities for green mobility; biophilic designs address human need for connection to nature while nurturing an “ethic of care” (Newman and Jennings 2008); and circular metabolism through the stormwater treatment and integrated resource management waste treatment plant make significant strides towards closed-loop urban living. Moreover, the redundancy and diversity of responses to ecosystem sensitive designs ensure a resilience that echoes modes found in the natural environment (Newman and Jennings 2008). For instance, addition of wind energy allows the neighborhood to rely on a variety of energy means (solar, geothermal and wind) so that it will be serviced throughout seasons. The area is becoming self- sufficient or what Newman-Jennings describes as being like an autotrophic region in ecosystem terms. Framing of the Problem The group identified a lack of integration throughout the area, especially in regards to natural systems, residential density along Cambie Street, and energy production. In general, the design group was successful in providing innovative and integrated solutions to complex issues. They made an excellent attempt to “integrate air, water, earth and sunlight into urban life” (McDonough, 2004). Critique of Design The increased residential density along Cambie Street alleviated the jarring difference in massing between the two sides of the street. We support the increase in height and density as it creates a complete street wall along Cambie Street and contributes to larger economies of scale for local businesses and rapid transit. The design group provided a smooth transition from the new six-storey apartment buildings to the existing RS-1 district located to the east. However, we found the spacing between buildings to be inadequate, providing unsafe alleyways. We would recommend an alternative form and massing on the property to allow for better pedestrian connectivity while retaining similar building types and densities. We support the group’s decision to allocate much of this housing for rental and cooperative uses, as more affordable housing is needed in Vancouver. However the inclusion of commercial property along the base of the buildings fronting Cambie Street may not be compatible with other commercial developments in the area. According to Robert Gibbs, a corner store needs at least 1,000 households to sustain it, and a neighbourhood centre needs approximately 5-6,000 households (2008). We believe that the area already has a substantial amount of commercial space; therefore, the addition of commercial space may detract from already established businesses located closer to the Skytrain station. The intensification of industrial land use in the I-2 zoning district is supported by municipal policy, and we applaud the choice of an eco-industrial park. The increased employment density in the area will create a larger market for local business and the Skytrain. The integrated resource management (IRM) facility is a realistic and economically feasible option for the area. Strong business cases have been made for this type of resource management, as it has fairly high earning potential. The possibility of unpleasant odours can be averted by proper design; for example, such projects have been successfully integrated into urban areas in Sweden. Complimentary services are also possible with the transfer station, such as shared composting stock. IRM projects often integrate biodegradable waste, which is timely as the City is already planning to commence biodegradable pickup as part of their regular garbage pickup services.  The waterway in the eco-industrial park is an innovative and logical way of integrating the various stormwater conveyance methods, including the recently added bioswales. In the past, ecological interventions were done on a piecemeal basis and lacked an integrative component. However, it would be challenging to find a topographically feasible and ecologically meaningful line for the waterway to reach the riverfront and we are not certain if the dimensions are realistic or economical. A business case has been made for bioswales in the area, but one has not been made for the waterway. This issue is compounded when one considers the cost of directionally drilling a culvert under the existing railway line. A final challenge is the lack of connectivity within the eco- industrial park. Given that industry based on recycling and reuse is increasingly common, improved transport linkages between the intensified industrial land, the transfer station and waste management facility could lead to a more effective eco- industrial park. The addition of a new form of energy generation, wind power, in the community is welcomed. BC hydro is nearing capacity, and provincial policy is focused on renewable energy. The rooftop windmills seem economically feasible, given that this does not require any additional land-use. However, the small ‘wind farm’ near the transfer station does not appear economically feasible, given the high value of land and proximity to the Skytrain station. Instead, a more decentralized energy generation approach, one which celebrates the attractive windmill design, may be more effective. DESIGN - Team 3: Asrai Ord, Bronwyn Jarvis, Christine Wenman, Mona Poon CRITIQUE - Team 1: Andréanne Doyon, Sean Tynan, Martin Gregorian, Waleed Giratalla School of Community and Regional Planning       Urban Design 2008   43 Complete Model existing neighbourhood neighbourhood after design interventions School of Community and Regional Planning       Urban Design 2008 44 References Ackerman, J.  (2006).  “Space for the Soul.”  National Geographic, October 2006, 110-15. Alexander, C., Neis, H., Anninou, A., & King, Ingrid. (1987). A new theory of urban design. New York: Oxford University Press. Bacon, E. (1974) The design of cities.  New York: Penguin Beatley, T. (1991). Green urbanism: A manifesto for re-earthing cities. In Larice M. and MacDonald E. (Eds.). The urban design reader (pp.147–152). New York: Routledge. Bishop C.A., Struger J., Dunn L., Forder D.R., Kok S. 1999. Stormwater detention ponds of Southern Ontario: Are they a risk to wildlife? Environment Canada. Accessed on-line October 10, 2008 at http://www. on.ec.gc.ca/wildlife/factsheets/fs_stormwater-e.html Carr, S., M. Francis, L. Rivlin and A. Stone.  (1992).  Public Space.  New York: Cambridge University Press. Campoli. J and MacLean, I. (2007). Visualizing density. Cambridge: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy. City of Vancouver. (2008). Marpole industrial and station area planning. Retrieved October 3, 2008, from: http://vancouver.ca/commsvcs/planning/marpolegateway/public/ City of Vancouver (2008). Eco-Density.  Retrieved November 28, 2008 http://www.vancouver-ecodensity.ca/ Cullen, G. (1961). “Townscape: introduction” in Carmona, M. & Tiesdell, S. (Ed.) (2007). Urban Design Reader.  Oxford: Architectural Press. EPA. (1999). “Storm Water Technology Fact Sheet: Vegetated Swales. Accessed on-line October 10, 2008 at http://www.epa.gov/owm/mtb/vegswale.pdf Gibbs, R. (2008). “Urban Retail Planning Principles for Traditional Neighborhoods” in Hass, Tigran (editor), 2008, New Urbanism and Beyond: Designing Cities for the Future. New York: Rizzoli Publications. Gosling, D. (2003). “The Evolution of American Urban Design”.  Chichester: John Wiley. Hall, R. (2008). “Planning for Walkable Streets” in Haas, T. (Ed.) (2008).  New Urbanism and Beyond: Contemporary and Future Trends in Urban Design.  New York: Random House Jacobs, J. (1961). The uses of sidewalks: Safety. In Carmona, M. & Tiesdell, S. (Eds.), Urban Design Reader (pp. 147-152). Oxford, UK: Architectural Press. Jacobs, A. 1993. Great Streets. MIT Press, Cambridge. Jacobs, A.  (2008).  “Great Streets and City Planning.”  In Tigran Haas, ed., New Urbanism and Beyond: Designing Cities for the Future.  New York: Rizzol Kelbaugh, D.  (2008). “Three Urbanisms: New, Everyday and Post” in Hass, Tigran (editor), 2008, New Urbanism and Beyond: Designing Cities for the Future, Rizzoli Publications, New York Krier, L. (2008). “Settlements of the Future”, in Hass, Tigran (editor), 2008, New Urbanism and Beyond: Designing Cities for the Future, Rizzoli Publications, New York, 52-57. Loukaitou-Sideris, A and Banjaree, T (1998). ‘Urban Design Downtown: Poetics and Politics of Form’, University of California Press, Berkeley, 277-296 Lynch, K. (1960) The image of the city. Cambridge, MA: Technology Press and Harvard University Press. Lynch, Kevin. (1984). “Reconsidering the Image of the City”, in Carmona, Mathew and Steve Tiesdell (editors), 2007, Urban Design Reader, Architectural Press, Oxford, 108-113. McDonough. (2004). Something Lived, Something Dreamed: Urban Design and the American West, Red Butte Press, Utah. Metro Vancouver. (2006). 2006 Census Bulletin #3 – Population by Age. Retrieved on November 16, 2008, from: http://www.metrovancouver.org/about/publications/Publications/Census2006_PopbyAge_Bulletin_3. pdf Newman P., Jennings I. (2008). Cities as Sustainable Ecosytems: Principles and Practices. Island Press: Washington DC. Oldenburg, R.(2007). “The character of third places”. In Mathew Carmona and Steve Tiesdell eds., 2007. Urban Design Reader. Architectural Press: Oxford, 163-169. Quiet Revolution (2000). URL site http://quietrevolution.co.uk/qr5.htm, accessed November 22, 2008. Sternberg, E. (2000). “An integrative theory of urban design”, Journal of the American Planning Association 66 (3) 265-278. BC Ministry of Community Services (2008). Resources From Waste: Integrated Resource Management Phase I Study Report. BC Ministry of Community Services. Feb.29, 2008. White, E. (1999). “Path-Portal-Place,” in White, E. (1999). Path-Portal-Place, Appreciating Public Space in Urban Environments. Tallahassee, FL: Architectural Media Ltd. 


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