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Evidence Based Practice. How do I know the research is any good? Step 2: How to appraise the literature.. 2007

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Qualitative research: Purpose and central elements Presented by: Dr. Wendy Hall for BCRNRnet The Presenter     The Purpose ¾ Associate Professor ¾ School of Nursing ¾ Researcher for 20 years - qualitative and quantitative ¾ Course leader in qualitative research ¾ Involved in IP education ¾ To provide you with knowledge about qualitative research to support your evidence-based practice ¾ Assist in framing clinical problem questions from a qualitative perspective Qualitative Research: Naturalistic Interpretative Inquiry ¾ Describing the fundamental patterns of human thought and behaviour ¾ Taking context into consideration ¾ Considering social experience: how it is created and how it gives meaning Contributes to the Empirical Way of Knowing Simplistic Comparison of Quantitative and Qualitative Research Methods ¾ Quantitative z Objective z One reality z Reduction, control, prediction z Measurable z Mechanistic z Parts equal the whole z Statistical analyses z Researcher separate z Subjects z Context free ¾ Qualitative z Subjectivity valued z Multiple perceptions of reality z Discovery, description, understanding z Interpretative z Organismic z Whole is greater than the parts z Inductive analyses z Researcher part of process z Participants z Context dependent Addressing the Gaps ¾Gap between RCTs and clinical decision- making ¾Gaps in understanding about effects of social systems, social relations, or social interactions ¾Gaps in care in terms of equity ¾ Gaps in theories, e.g. resilience Contributions ¾Clinical improvisation ¾Cultures of health care ¾Meanings and actions ¾ Extending theories of phenomena ¾Changing meanings of phenomena The Relationship of Qualitative Research to Theory ¾Can start from a theoretical perspective, e.g., feminism, critical theory, symbolic interactionism ¾Can contribute to theoretical development through providing concepts or mid-range theories ¾Meta-analysis can contribute to grand theories Differences in Qualitative Approaches ¾ Nature of Knowledge z Meanings attached to behaviours and experiences z Processes associated with managing problems ¾ Products of Methods z Meaning or essences of experience (Phenomenology & Content Analysis) z Linked theoretical concepts with an overriding concept (Grounded Theory) Differences in Qualitative Approaches ¾ Nature of Knowledge z Maximizing understanding of context (cultural) z Explaining effects of structures and history z Addressing experiential, propositional, and practical knowing ¾ Products of Methods z Structural and historical insights (Ethnographic & Historical) z Understanding of texts or discourses (Narrative & Critical Research) z Practical and living knowledge (Participatory Action Research [PAR]) Sampling ¾ Purposive ¾ Snowball ¾ Theoretical (Grounded Theory) Sampling ¾ Sample Size ¾Description of Samples Methods of Data Collection ¾ Interviewing ¾ Participant Observation ¾ Obtaining artifacts, documents, and records ¾ Using visual representations Methods of Analysis ¾ Analytic Field Notes (Ethnography) ¾ Constant Comparative Analysis (Grounded Theory and Content Analysis) ¾ Hermeneutic Circles (Phenomenology) ¾ Research Cycling (PAR) ¾ Textual analysis (Narrative or Historical) Criteria for Rigor ¾ Are participants’ perspectives incorporated? (credibility and fit) ¾ Is social context incorporated? ¾ Are aspects of the study logically linked with a decision trail (auditability)? ¾ Is the role of the researcher in data collection and analysis included? (reflexivity) Criteria for Rigor ¾ Can the findings ‘fit’ into or are they applicable in contexts outside of the actual study situation? (fittingness/applicability) ¾ Have deviant cases been included or is there elite bias? ¾ Are the categories, elements, or concepts saturated? Criteria for Rigor ¾Do the findings fit with the method? ¾Have reciprocity, and relationality been incorporated? ¾What are the claims of the authors? Summary ¾What would you say capture the main elements of qualitative research?


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