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Evidence Based Practice. How do I know the research is any good? Step 2: How to appraise the literature.. Hall, Wendy A. 2007

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Qualitative research: Qualitative research: Purpose and central elementsPurpose and central elementsPresented by: Dr. Wendy Hall for Presented by: Dr. Wendy Hall for BCRNRnetBCRNRnetThe Presenter     The PurposeThe Presenter     The Purpose????Associate ProfessorAssociate Professor????School of NursingSchool of Nursing????Researcher for 20 Researcher for 20 years years --qualitative and qualitative and quantitative quantitative ????Course leader in Course leader in qualitative researchqualitative research????Involved in IP Involved in IP educationeducation????To provide you with To provide you with knowledge about knowledge about qualitative research to qualitative research to support your support your evidenceevidence--based based practicepractice????Assist in framing Assist in framing clinical problem clinical problem questions from a questions from a qualitative qualitative perspectiveperspectiveQualitative Research: Naturalistic Qualitative Research: Naturalistic Interpretative InquiryInterpretative Inquiry????Describing the Describing the fundamental patterns fundamental patterns of human thought and of human thought and behaviourbehaviour????Taking context into Taking context into considerationconsideration????Considering social Considering social experience: how it is experience: how it is created and how it created and how it gives meaninggives meaningContributes to the Empirical Way of Contributes to the Empirical Way of KnowingKnowingSimplistic Comparison of Quantitative Simplistic Comparison of Quantitative and Qualitative Research Methodsand Qualitative Research Methods????QuantitativeQuantitativezzzzObjectiveObjectivezzzzOne realityOne realityzzzzReduction, control, Reduction, control, predictionpredictionzzzzMeasurableMeasurablezzzzMechanisticMechanisticzzzzParts equal the wholeParts equal the wholezzzzStatistical analysesStatistical analyseszzzzResearcher separateResearcher separatezzzzSubjectsSubjectszzzzContext freeContext free????QualitativeQualitativezzzzSubjectivity valuedSubjectivity valuedzzzzMultiple perceptions of Multiple perceptions of realityrealityzzzzDiscovery, description, Discovery, description, understandingunderstandingzzzzInterpretativeInterpretativezzzzOrganismicOrganismiczzzzWhole is greater than the Whole is greater than the partspartszzzzInductive analysesInductive analyseszzzzResearcher part of processResearcher part of processzzzzParticipantsParticipantszzzzContext dependentContext dependentAddressing the GapsAddressing the Gaps????Gap between RCTs and clinical decisionGap between RCTs and clinical decision--makingmaking????Gaps in understanding about effects of Gaps in understanding about effects of social systems, social relations, or social social systems, social relations, or social interactionsinteractions????Gaps in care in terms of equityGaps in care in terms of equity????Gaps in theories, e.g. resilienceGaps in theories, e.g. resilienceContributionsContributions????Clinical improvisationClinical improvisation????Cultures of health careCultures of health care????Meanings and actionsMeanings and actions????Extending theories of phenomenaExtending theories of phenomena????Changing meanings of phenomenaChanging meanings of phenomenaThe Relationship of Qualitative The Relationship of Qualitative Research to TheoryResearch to Theory????Can start from a theoretical perspective, Can start from a theoretical perspective, e.g., feminism, critical theory, symbolic e.g., feminism, critical theory, symbolic interactionisminteractionism????Can contribute to theoretical development Can contribute to theoretical development through providing concepts or midthrough providing concepts or mid--range range theoriestheories????MetaMeta--analysis can contribute to grand analysis can contribute to grand theoriestheoriesDifferences in Qualitative ApproachesDifferences in Qualitative Approaches????Nature of KnowledgeNature of KnowledgezzzzMeanings attached to Meanings attached to behavioursbehavioursand and experiencesexperienceszzzzProcesses associated Processes associated with managing with managing problemsproblems????Products of MethodsProducts of MethodszzzzMeaning or essences Meaning or essences of experience of experience (Phenomenology & (Phenomenology & Content Analysis)Content Analysis)zzzzLinked theoretical Linked theoretical concepts with an concepts with an overriding concept overriding concept (Grounded Theory) (Grounded Theory) Differences in Qualitative ApproachesDifferences in Qualitative Approaches????Nature of KnowledgeNature of KnowledgezzzzMaximizing Maximizing understanding of understanding of context (cultural)context (cultural)zzzzExplaining effects of Explaining effects of structures and historystructures and historyzzzzAddressing Addressing experiential, experiential, propositional, and propositional, and practical knowingpractical knowing????Products of MethodsProducts of MethodszzzzStructural and Structural and historical insights historical insights (Ethnographic & (Ethnographic & Historical)Historical)zzzzUnderstanding of texts Understanding of texts or discourses or discourses (Narrative & Critical (Narrative & Critical Research)Research)zzzzPractical and living Practical and living knowledge knowledge (Participatory Action (Participatory Action Research [PAR])Research [PAR])SamplingSampling????PurposivePurposive????SnowballSnowball????Theoretical (Grounded Theory)Theoretical (Grounded Theory)SamplingSampling????Sample SizeSample Size????Description of Description of SamplesSamplesMethods of Data CollectionMethods of Data Collection????InterviewingInterviewing????Participant Participant ObservationObservation????Obtaining artifacts, Obtaining artifacts, documents, and documents, and recordsrecords????Using visual Using visual representationsrepresentationsMethods of AnalysisMethods of Analysis????Analytic Field Notes (Ethnography)Analytic Field Notes (Ethnography)????Constant Comparative Analysis (Grounded Constant Comparative Analysis (Grounded Theory and Content Analysis)Theory and Content Analysis)????Hermeneutic Circles (Phenomenology)Hermeneutic Circles (Phenomenology)????Research Cycling (PAR)Research Cycling (PAR)????Textual analysis (Narrative or Historical)Textual analysis (Narrative or Historical)Criteria for RigorCriteria for Rigor????Are participantsAre participants??perspectives incorporated? perspectives incorporated? (credibility and fit)(credibility and fit)????Is social context incorporated? Is social context incorporated? ????Are aspects of the study logically linked with a Are aspects of the study logically linked with a decision trail (decision trail (auditabilityauditability)?)?????Is the role of the researcher in data Is the role of the researcher in data collection and analysis included? collection and analysis included? (reflexivity)(reflexivity)Criteria for RigorCriteria for Rigor????Can the findings Can the findings ??fitfit??into or are they into or are they applicable in contexts outside of the actual applicable in contexts outside of the actual study situation? (fittingness/applicability)study situation? (fittingness/applicability)????Have deviant cases been included or is Have deviant cases been included or is there elite bias?there elite bias?????Are the categories, elements, or concepts Are the categories, elements, or concepts saturated?saturated?Criteria for RigorCriteria for Rigor????Do the findings fit with the method?Do the findings fit with the method?????Have reciprocity, and relationality been Have reciprocity, and relationality been incorporated?incorporated?????What are the claims of the authors?What are the claims of the authors?SummarySummary????What would you What would you say capture the say capture the main elements of main elements of qualitative qualitative research?research?


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