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Standardized Tests - a participative workshop Davis, Alexis; Mayson, Tanja; Stewart, Sue 2008

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Standardized Tests- a participative workshopAlexis Davis, BScOTTanjaMaysonMSc, BScPTSue Stewart MRSc, BScPTAgendaAudio available-BSID-II, PDMS-2, Sensory Profile, MABC-2 No audio -AIM.BOT2, DTVP2, GMFMObjectives??To outline the reasons for using standardized tests??To review test terminology ??To introduce eight different standardized tests ??To describe when they might be used??To describe their psychometric properties ??To enable participants to discuss four tests more fully with a clinical expert. Purpose? ??Why do we use standardized tests???Can all tests predict later function???Can all tests measure change? ??Need to determine the reason for using the test and then decide which test is best.Before Selecting a test?.You need to know ??Type of test??Purpose of the test??Population it serves??Time to Complete ??Equipment NeededTypes of Tests??Norm-referenced tests= Compare child with so called ?norm?or average of a group of similar children ??the purpose is to discriminateExamples??Types of Tests??Criterion-referenced tests= Compare performance of a child in terms of a set of criterion??the purpose is to evaluateExamples???Purpose of a test??Why are you going to use the test???Discrimination??Prediction??Evaluation??Planning/DescriptionTerminology??Chronological age??Corrected age??Basal score ??Ceiling scoreTest Scores and Characteristics??Raw score??Standard score??Percentile??Age equivalent??Developmental quotientReliability??The idea that the test will get the same values if repeated.??Actually a very complicated concept and there are many measures to ensure good reliability. Reliability??To be reliable??Provide consistent values with small errors of measurement (Absolute Reliability) ??Be capable of differentiating between clients with whom the measure is being used (Relative Reliability).Validity??The idea that the test is actually testing what it says it is. ??A measure is valid to the extent that it measures what it is intended to measure.  Validity implies that a measurement is relatively free from error i.e. a valid test is also reliable.Characteristics of diagnostic and screening tools??Sensitivity (80%)??Test?s ability to get a real positive??Specificity (90%)??Test?s ability to get a real negative??Positive predictive value??Estimate that positive result means positive??Negative predictive value??Estimate that negative result means neagativeHow to report findings??Extremely important to think about what the best way to ?message?the results of your test.??Case exampleThe Context ??What kinds of things do we need to be cognizant of when using standardized tests?The Context ??We need to appropriately set the context for the testing situation??For the child??Making them feel comfortable??Letting them know what is going on??For the family??Discussing expectations and reasons for the visitThe Context ??Standardized tests only give us part of the pictureThe Context ??Standardized tests only give us part of the picture??The art and the science??Clinicians need to use their experience and clinical reasoning to put all of the pieces together. Difficulties??How many of us modify the administration of the tests?Difficulties??What should you do if you really feel you need to modify a measure? TestsThe BayleyScales of Infant Development, 3rd Edition (BSID-III)BSID-III??Purpose??to identify children with developmental delayBSID-III??Type??Norm-referenced??Purpose??Discrimination, planning??Population??Children at risk for developmental delayBSID-III??Age??0 ?42 months ??Time to Complete ??50 -90 minutes??Equipment Needed ??BSID-III kit, table, chair, floor space for motor items, stairsBSID-III??Purpose of revision??Update the normative data ??Develop 5 distinct scales ??Strengthen the psychometric quality ??Improve the clinical utilityBSID-III??Purpose of revision??Simplify administration ??Update item administration ??Update stimulus materials??Maintain basic qualities of the BayleyScalesBSID-III??Cognitive subscale??Language scale??Receptive language subscale??Expressive language subscale??Motor scale??Fine motor subscale??Gross motor subscaleBSID-III??Who can administer?BSID-III??Standardized SampleBSID-III??Reliability??Validity??Further considerationsCases??What types of children do you think this test would be most appropriate for?  ??Should it be used for children with cerebral palsy? Down?s syndrome???What is the age span that you think clinically is most appropriate? The Peabody Developmental  Motor Scales, 2nd Ed.  (PDMS-2)PDMS-2??Purpose??To estimate a child?s motor performance in comparison to peers??To determine discrepancies between gross and fine motor abilities??To assist in goal development??To evaluate progress??To study motor development and ability in children as well as the effectiveness of motor interventionsPDMS-2??Type??Norm and criterion-Referenced??Purpose??Discrimination, evaluation, planning??Population??Children suspected of having motor difficulties PDMS-2??Age??0 ?71 months ??Time to Complete??45 ?60 minutes for entire test; 20-30 minutes per subscale??Equipment Needed??Kit, desk, two chairs, stopwatch, manual, and floor space for motor itemsPDMS-2??Improvements??Updated normative data??Normative data that is representative of the US population??Stratification by age of normative dataPDMS-2 (improvements)??Revisions to administration and scoring format??Elimination of items criticized in previous edition??Revision and reformatting of activity cards into a motor activities program??Evaluation of items using conventional and newer statistical analyses to better identify biased itemsPDMS-2 (improvements)??Computed reliability coefficients for subgroups of normative sample??Completion of new validity studies??Availability of more specific performance levels for the scoring criteria??Addition of illustrations to assist with administrationPDMS-2??Gross motor scale??Reflexes??Stationary??Locomotion??Object manipulation??Fine motor scale??Grasping??Visual motor integrationPDMS-2??Who can administer?PDMS-2??Standardized SamplePDMS-2??Reliability??Validity??Further ConsiderationsCases??What types of children do you think this test would be most appropriate for?  ??Should it be used for children with cerebral palsy? Down?s syndrome???What is the age span that you think clinically is most appropriate? The Sensory ProfileThe Sensory Profile??Purpose??To evaluate the contributions of sensory processing to a child?s daily functional performance.??To determine the child?s tendencies to respond to stimuli.??To understand which systems are likely contributing or providing challenges to the child?s performance. The Sensory Profile??Type??Norm-referenced??Purpose??Discrimination??Population??Children at risk of sensory processing difficultiesThe Sensory Profile??Age??0 to 3 years (Infant/Toddler Sensory Profile), 3 to 10 years (Sensory Profile), 11 years and up (Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile)??Time to Complete: ??30 minutes for Sensory Profile (10 minutes for Short Sensory Profile); 15 minutes for Infant/Toddler Sensory Profile; 10-15 minutes for Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile??Equipment Needed??Questionnaire, manual, score form, pen/pencilThe Sensory Profile1.The Sensory Profile (SP)2.The Infant/toddler Sensory Profile (ITSP)3.The Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile (AASP)The Sensory Profile1.The Sensory Profile (SP)1.Sensory processing1.Targets child?s responses to basic sensory processing systems2.Modulation1.Reflects child?s regulation of neural messages3.Behavioral and Emotional Responses1.Reflects child?s behavioral outcomes of sensory processingThe Sensory Profile??Who should administer?The Sensory Profile??Standardized Sample??SP??ITSP??AASPThe Sensory Profile??Reliability??Validity??Further ConsiderationsCases??What types of children do you think this test would be most appropriate for?  ??Should it be used for children with substance exposure? Cerebral palsy???What is the age span that you think clinically is most appropriate? Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC-2)MABC-2??Purpose??Identification of movement difficulties??Clinical exploration and intervention planning??Program evaluation??ResearchMABC-2??Type??Norm-referenced??Purpose??Discrimination, planning, evaluation??Population??Children with motor difficultiesMABC-2??Age??3 ?16 years ??Time to Complete??20 ?40 minutes for test??Equipment Needed??MABC-2 kit, stopwatch, table, two chairs, floor space for motor itemsMABC-2??A revision of test content??New plastic materials??Improving certain task items??Clarifying instructions??A revision of test structure??Extending ages to 3 to 16 years??Reduction to three age bandsMABC-2??Who can administer?MABC-2??Standardized SampleMABC-2??Reliability??Validity??Further ConsiderationsCases??What types of children do you think this test would be most appropriate for? ??What is the age span that you think clinically is most appropriate? Agenda??No audio accompaniment ?AIM.BOT2, DTVP2, GMFM  Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS)??Purpose is to measure motor development in high risk infants AIMS??Type??Norm referenced??Purpose ??Discrimination??Evaluation??Population??At risk infantsAIMS??Age??0-18 months??Time to complete??20-30 minutes??Equipment needed ??Book, form, pen and observation surfaceAIMS??Overview??58 item observational assessment??observed or not observed??scores are added up??higher score means more mature??percentiles and age equivalent??cut offs?AIMS??Who can administer?AIMS??Standardized SampleAIMS??Reliability??Validity??Further considerationsCases??What types of children do you think this test would be most appropriate for?  Bruininks-OseretskyTest of Motor Proficiency, Second Edition(BOT-2)??The BOT-21 (2005) is a revision of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency2 (BOTMP) (1978). BOT2??Purpose??Support diagnoses of motor impairments??Screen for motor impairment and determine the need for further assessment or intervention ??Make placement decisions regarding physical education programs??Develop and evaluate motor training programs??Assist clinicians and researchers BOT-2??Type: ??Norm-referenced??Purpose: ??Discrimination, planning, evaluation??Population: ??Children at risk for motor impairmentBOT-2??Age: ??4 ?21 years ??Time to Complete: ??40 ?60 minutes for complete form; 15 ?20 minutes for short form??Equipment Needed: ??BOT-2 kit, stopwatch, table, two chairs, floor space for motor itemsBOT-2 changes ??Improve functional relevance??Expand coverage ??Improve measurement among 4 and 5 year olds ??Extend norms through age 21??Improve item presentation ??Improve quality of kit equipment BOT-2??Administration??4 ways to administerBOT-2??Standardized SampleBOT-2??Reliability??Validity??Further considerationsCases??What types of children do you think this test would be most appropriate for?  ??Should it be used for children with learning difficulties???What is the age span that you think clinically is most appropriate? The Developmental Test of Visual Perception, 2nd Edition (DTVP-2)DVTP-2??Purpose??Document the presence and degree of visual perceptual or visual-motor difficulties in individual children??Identify candidates for referral to intervention programs??Verify the effectiveness of intervention programs??Serve as a research toolDVTP-2??Type??Norm-referenced??Purpose??Discrimination, planning, evaluation??Population??Children at-risk for visual perceptual or visual-motor difficultiesDVTP-2??Age??4 ?10 years??Time to Complete??30 ?60 minutes??Equipment Needed??DTVP-2 kit, table, chairDVTP-2??The DTVP-21 (1993) is a revised version of the original DTVP2 (1966). ??An increase in reliability of subtests to acceptable levels??Evidence for content, criterion-related, and construct validity??Completion of factorial analysis??Demonstration of an absence of racial, gender, and handedness biasDVTP-2??Inclusion of a normative sample whose demographic characteristics are similar to the US population??Development of two new composite scores (motor-reduced visual perception and visual-motor integration) to assist with diagnosis??Expansion of age tested to include 10 year oldsDVTP-2??Subtests??Eye-hand coordination??Position in space??Copying??Figure-ground??Spatial relations??Visual closure??Visual-motor speed??Form constancyDVTP-2??AdministrationDVTP-2??Standardization SampleDVTP-2??Reliability??Validity??Further considerationsCases??What types of children do you think this test would be most appropriate for?  ??What is the age span that you think clinically is most appropriate? The Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM)GMFM-88 and GMFM-66??Purpose??to evaluate motor skills in children with cerebral palsy (CP).GMFM??Type ??Criterion-referenced??Purpose??Evaluation??Population??Children with cerebral palsy (CP)GMFM??Age??5 months to 16 years with motor skills at or below the level of a typical 5 year old.??Time to Complete ??45 ?60 minutes for GMFM-88; less for GMFM-66??Equipment Needed??Mat, bench, toys, and access to five stairsGMFM??AdministrationGMFM??Standardized SampleGMFM??GMFM 66 (advantages) ??Ordering of items according to difficulty??Change to an interval scale which allows for better interpretability Decrease in administration time??Use of a computer scoring systemGMFM??GMFM 66 (disadvantages)??Less items in the lower dimensions which may make the GMFM-66 less descriptive for children functioning at lower levels??Need for computer and software to score??Need to learn to interpret item mapsGMFM??Reliability??Validity??Further ConsiderationsCases??What types of children do you think this test would be most appropriate for?  ??Should it be used for children with cerebral palsy? Down?s syndrome???What is the age span that you think clinically is most appropriate? Case StudiesReferences??http://www.canchild.ca/Portals/0/education_ materials/pdf/ClinicalMeasurement.pdf??Clinical Practice Guideline Report of the Recommendations Motor Disorders Assessment and Intervention for Young Children (www.hes.org) NYS Department of Health, Bureau of Early Intervention, Corning Tower Building, Room 287, Empire State Plaza, Albany, New York 12237-0660

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