Open Collections

UBC Graduate Research

The Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Functional Recovery Post Stroke As Defined by the ICF: Systematic.. Boersma, Heather 2008

You don't seem to have a PDF reader installed, try download the pdf

Item Metadata


02.pdf [ 342.81kB ]
JSON: 1.0081238.json
JSON-LD: 1.0081238+ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 1.0081238.xml
RDF/JSON: 1.0081238+rdf.json
Turtle: 1.0081238+rdf-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 1.0081238+rdf-ntriples.txt

Full Text

The Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Functional Recovery Post Stroke As Defined by the ICF: A Systematic Review Heather Boersma, Hayley Evans, Christal Fraser, Elizabeth Ng, J. Erin Shapcotte Outline „ Background information on stroke, aerobic exercise, aerobic capacity and function „ Methods „ Results „ Discussion „ Review Limitations and research recommendations „ Clinical message „ Acknowledgements Background Stroke „ Stroke is the number one cause of long-term adult disability „ Total number of stroke survivors is increasing „ 60% of stroke survivors have residual motor impairments that may limit physical activity „ Deconditioning compromises physical independence and quality of life „ High risk of recurrent stroke and coronary artery disease Aerobic Capacity „ Aerobic capacity is the body’s ability to deliver and utilize O2 „ Decreased physical activity severely decreases aerobic capacity „ Stroke survivors have a 30-40% lower aerobic capacity than age-matched individuals Aerobic Capacity and Function „ Stroke survivors have to work at a higher relative intensity compared to individuals with a higher VO2max to complete the same functional tasks „ Increased energy demands secondary to stroke related deficits „ Low aerobic capacity + increased energy demands = decreased functional capacity Aerobic Exercise & Stroke „ Aerobic exercise training increases aerobic capacity in the stroke population „ Using a variety of exercise modalities „ Results→ able to perform the same activities at a lower sub-max VO2 „ Aerobic exercise reduces secondary disease and decreases the risk of recurrent stroke International Classification of Function, Disability and Health „ Provides a framework in which to categorize the collection of problems associated with stroke „ Includes three domains: Body Function and Structure, Activity and Participation „ Impairments „ Activity limitations „ Participation restrictions Research at the Impairment Level of the ICF „ A meta-analysis on the effects of aerobic exercise training on aerobic capacity in individuals with stroke „ Conclusions: ‰ Aerobic exercise is effective at improving aerobic capacity in individuals with mild and moderate stroke „ Provides support that aerobic exercise leads to improved function at the Impairment level of the ICF Research at the Activity and Participation levels of the ICF „ The effect physical therapy interventions on function post stroke, including aerobic exercise ‰ No improvements in ADL’s or IADL’s „ Systematic review of exercise trials post stroke ‰ Did not isolate aerobic exercise from functional exercise ‰ Insufficient evidence to support cardiovascular interventions at increasing function Rationale for the Review „ Aerobic exercise has shown to be effective at treating deficits at the impairment level „ The effectiveness of aerobic exercise in increasing function at the activity and participation levels remains unclear „ Important for clinicians to use literature supported treatment interventions „ Taken together, a review of the relationship between aerobic exercise and function is warranted Systematic Review Objective „ The objective of this systematic review is to determine if aerobic exercise improves function at the activity and participation levels of the ICF „ Provide clinicians with the evidence to achieve best practice. Methods Review question „ Does aerobic exercise improve functional ability in individuals recovering from stroke? „ Aerobic exercise defined by ACSM ‰ 20 -60 minutes ‰ 3-5 days a week at 60% - 80% HRmax or 40%-60% HRR ‰ Minimum of 6 weeks „ Function defined by the ICF Inclusion Criteria „ Clinical Trials on the effects of aerobic exercise training in individuals 19 years and older with stroke „ Met the ACSM guidelines for aerobic exercise, or explicitly stated the use of an aerobic exercise intervention „ English full-text version could be obtained „ At least one functional outcome measure Exclusion Criteria „Non peer-reviewed sources „ Studies with multiple exercise interventions in which aerobic exercise cannot be isolated Literature Search „ MEDLINE, EMBASE,CINAHL, SPORTdiscus, Cochrane Library Database of Systematic Reviews, PEDro „ Completed in August 2007 „ Articles screened at title, abstract and full text „ Completed by 2 independent reviewers (3rd reviewer for discrepancies) „ Reference lists of chosen articles were manually searched „ Web of Science to locate studies that referenced the chosen articles Qualitative Assessment „ PEDro scale was used to evaluate each article by 2 independent reviewers (3rd reviewer for discrepancies) „ To assess the methodological quality of physical therapy RCT’s „ All included RCTs were ‘good’ „ Grading ‰ 9-10: excellent ‰ 6-8: good ‰ 4-5: fair ‰ <4: poor Quantitative analysis „ For each outcome measure the mean change scores were calculated „ Baseline SD’s in the experimental and control groups were used to calculated the pooled population SD „ Using RevMan,  SES was calculated ‰ Cohen’s classification „ Small: d=0.2 „ Medium: d=0.5 „ Large: d=0.8 „ 95% CI calculated „ Forest plots used for graphical representation Results Article Selection 3133 Combined results following online database search - 2830 Rejected based on title alone 303  Assessed at abstract level 23 Retained for analysis at full text level - 18 Excluded from further review 5   Retained + 1 Following Web of Science and manual search 6  Studies based on 5 RCT’s Subjects „ Number of subjects within each study ranged from 13- 92 „ Calculated mean age: ~ 63 years old „ Both sub-acute and chronic stroke survivors „ Stroke impairment levels ranged from mild to moderate „ Only 3 RCT’s identified stroke type ‰ Ischemic, hemorrhagic Exercise Training Protocol As per ACSM Guidelines „ Cycle ergometer in conjunction with ‘regular’ physical therapy „ Treadmill training „ Treadmill training combined with Bobath therapy „ Water-based exercise (chest-deep water) Total intervention lengths: 6 weeks, 8 weeks, 10 weeks, and 6 months Outcome Measures: Activity Level „ WALKING VELOCITY: ‰ 10m walk, 8m walk, 30 foot self-paced walk „ WALKING CAPACITY: ‰ 6 Minute Walk Test „ BALANCE: ‰ Berg Balance Scale, component of Fugl-Meyer Assessment „ FUNCTIONAL MOBILITY: ‰ Rivermead Mobility Index ‰ Gross Motor subscale of Rivermead Motor Assessment Scale Outcome Measures: Activity and Participation Levels „ Frenchay Activity Index „ Functional Independence Measure Effect of Treadmill Training „ 2 studies used 6MWT and walking velocity (Eich et al. , Macko et al.) „ 6MWT: „ Used as a measure of walking capacity „ Significant effect sizes (ES) found in favor of the exercise group „ large effects: ‰ d= 0.89 (Eich et al.) ‰ d=2.4 (Macko et al.) Results ‰ Walking velocity: „ Only Eich et al. found significant effects ‰ Large: d= 0.98 „ Macko et al. did not find significant effects ‰ Trend toward favoring the exercise group ‰ d= 0.43; CI -0.08-0.94 ‰ Rivermead Motor Assessment Scale (RMA) „ No significant effect found (Eich et al.) ‰ Rivermead Mobility Index (RMI) „ Large significant effect size found (Macko et al.) „ d= 2.42 Treadmill Training Effect of Treadmill Training on Functional Outcomes -3.5 -2.5 -1.5 -0.5 0.5 1.5 2.5 3.5 Standard Mean Difference RMA (Eich, 2004) Walking Velocity (Macko, 2005) Walking Velocity (Eich, 2004) 6MWT (Eich, 2004) 6MWT (Macko, 2005) RMI (Macko, 2005) Favor Control Favor Experimental Effects of Cycle Ergometer Training „ 2 studies used this mode of training (Katz- Leurer, Potempa) „ Outcome measures included the Functional independence measure (FIM), Frenchay Activities Index (FAI), and Fugl-Meyer Index „ No significant effect sizes were produced Cycle Ergometer Effect of Cycle Ergometer Training on Functional Outcomes -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Standard Mean Difference Fugl-Meyer (Potempa) FIM (Katz-Leurer) FAI (Katz-Leurer) Favor Control Favor Experimental Water-based aerobic exercise training „ One study used this mode of training (Chu et al.) ‰ Measured the effects on balance and walking velocity „ Balance (Berg Balance Score) ‰ Significant effect size favoring the control group (d= 0.71) „ Walking Velocity ‰ No significant effect size found Water based aerobic exercise Effect of Water Based Aerobic Exercise on Functional Outcomes -2 -1 0 1 2 Standard Mean Difference Walking Velocity, m/s (Chu et al., 2004) BBS (Chu et al., 2004) Favor Control Favor Experimental Ambulation Categories „ Gait velocity can be divided into three functional ambulation categories: ‰ Household ambulation (<0.4 m/s) ‰ Limited community ambulation (0.4 to 0.8 m/s) ‰ Full community ambulation (>0.8 m/s) Ambulation Categories „ Both Eich et al. and Macko et al. investigated walking capacity ‰ Eich et al. „ All participants were at the level of household ambulation „ Both groups progressed to limited community ambulation „ Treatment group had statistically significant changes in walking velocity „ No clinical significance was found between the two groups according to their ambulatory category Ambulation Categories „ Macko et al. ‰ Both treatment and control participants classified as limited community ambulators ‰ Both did not progress to full community ambulation after study completion ‰ Small improvements were seen within the category ‰ These results were consistent regardless of distance „ Chu et al. ‰ Treatment and control groups of study were at the level of full community ambulation at baseline ‰ Remained in this category after treatment Body Structure/ Function Activity Participation -no measures Walking Capacity (6MWT) • significantly improved with treadmill training Walking Velocity • mixed results according to two studies RMI • significantly improved by treadmill training according to one study RMA, FIM, Fugl-Meyer • No significant effect sizes produced with any mode of training Berg Balance Score • water based aerobic exercise does not help with balance FAI, Fugl-Meyer • no significant improvements with aerobic cycle ergometer training Discussion Treadmill Training „ Improved walking capacity, and demonstrated a trend toward improved velocity and functional mobility „ Evidence supports task-specific treadmill training in improving walking speed and walking capacity „ Capacity and velocity improvements could be due to: ‰ practice specificity ‰ changes in aerobic capacity. Treadmill Training cont. „ RMI indicated improved functional mobility with AEX „ Longer length intervention does not result in superior outcomes „ In both studies statistically significant changes were found, did not result in clinically significant in ambulation category Water based Exercise „ AEX showed a trend towards improved walking velocity „ All participants were considered full community ambulators at the onset of the study „ Therefore there may have been a ceiling effect Cycle Ergometry „ Does not improve functional performance as measured by the Fugl- Meyer, FAI, and FIM scales „ FIM and Fugl-Meyer have a ceiling effect when used to assess those with mild to  moderate stroke „ The FAI has poor test-retest reliability which may account for the lack of observed change Review Limitations and Research Recommendations RCT Limitations „ Small sample size „ Participants tended to be healthier and  less physically affected „ Studies lacked long term follow-up. „ Type of stroke varied among studies. SR Limitations „ Only included studies utilizing the ACSM aerobic exercise guidelines „ Lower intensities may improve cardiovascular fitness in individuals with stroke „ ACSM aerobic exercise guidelines were not used or measured in a # or treadmill training studies and therefore were excluded „ Lastly, variability among control interventions may have impacted inter-group comparisons and thus the results of this review. Literature Recommendations „ Future studies should use: ‰ Larger sample sizes ‰ Valid, reliable, and sensitive outcome measures that encompass all components of the ICF ‰ Less task-specific interventions to determine the relationship between aerobic exercise and functional recovery „ Studies should also investigate whether ACSM guidelines are required to induce an aerobic training effect in the stroke population Clinical Message „ Insufficient evidence to support aerobic exercise as a sole treatment intervention to enhance function. „ Aerobic exercise should remain one component of a comprehensive stroke rehabilitation program Conclusion „ Aerobic exercise does not appear to enhance functional parameters such as balance, or increase aspects of participation such as social outings, work, and hobbies as measured by FIM and FAI „ Treadmill aerobic exercise increases walking capacity. The effects of treadmill aerobic exercise on functional mobility and velocity remain inconclusive, although a trend favoring the treatment group exists Acknowledgements „ The authors would like to acknowledge the assistance of: ‰ Linda Li ‰ Charlotte Beck ‰ Angela Busch ‰ Lara Boyd References 1. Heart Disease and stroke statistics-2006 update. A report from the American heart association statistics committee and stroke statistic subcommittee. HOW TO REF THIS? 2. Feign VL, Lawes CM, Bennet DA, Anderson CS. Stroke epidemiology: a review of population-based studies of incidence, prevalence, and case-fatality in the late 20th century. Lancet Neuro, 2003; 2: 43-53. 3. Gresham GE, Dawber TR. Residual disability in survivors of stroke: The Framington study. N Engl J Med 1975; 293:954-56. 4. Raven PB, Wlech-O’Connor RM, Shi X. Cardiovascular function following reduced aerobic activity. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998;30:1041-52. 5. Gordon NF, Gulanick M, Costa F, Franklin BA, Roth EJ, Shephard T. Physical activity and exercise recommendations for stroke survivors. Stroke 2004: 35:1230-1240. 6. Wolf, PA, Claggett GP, Easton JD, et al. Preventing ischemic stroke in patients with prior stroke and transient ischemic attack: a statement for healthcare professionals from Stroke Council of the American Heart Association. Stroke 30:1991-1994, 1999. 7. American College of Sports Medicine. ACSM guidelines for exercise testing and prescription, sixth edition. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2000. 8. MacKay-Lyons MJ, Makrides L. Exercise capacity early after stroke. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002; 83:1697-702. 9. Eng JJ, Dawson AS, CHu KS. Submaximal exercise in persons with stroke: test-retest reliability and concurrent validity with maximal oxygen consumption. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2004; 85: 113-18. 10. Jeng C, Chang W, Wai PM et al, Comparison of oxygen consumption in performing daily activities between patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and a health population. Heart Lung 2003; 32: 121-130. 11. Waters RL, Yakura JS. The energy expenditure of normal and pathologic gait. Crit Rev Phys Rehabil Med. 1989; 1:183-209. 12. Olney SJ, Griffin MP. Monga TN, et al. Work and power in gait of stroke patients. Arch Phys Med Rehabil Med. 1991;72:309-314. 13. Hash D. Energetics of wheelchair propulsion and walking in stroke patients. Orthop Clin North Am 1978;9:372-4. 14. Pang MYC, Eng JJ, Dawson AS, McKay HA, Harris JE. A community-based fitness and mobility exercise program for older adults with chronic stroke: a randomized, controlled trial J Am Geriatr Soc 2005; 53:1667-1674. 15. Potempa K, Lopez M, Braun LT, Szidon JP, Fogg L, Tincknell T. Physiological outcomes of aerobic exercise training in hemiparetic stroke patients. Stroke 1995; 26: 101-105. 16. Bateman A, Culpan J, Pickering AD, Powell JH, Scott OM, Greenwood RJ. The effect of aerobic training on rehabilitation outcomes after recent severe brain injury: a randomized controlled evaluation. Arch Phys Med Rehab 2001; 82:174-82. 17. Katz-Leurer M, Shochina M, Carmeli E, Friedlander Y. The influence of early aerobic training on the functional capacity in patients with cerebrovascular accident at the sub-acute stage. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2003; 84: 1609-14. 18. Katz-Leurer M, Carmeli E, Shochina M. The effect of early aerobic training on independence six months post stroke. Clin Rehabil 2003; 17: 735-41. 19. da Cunha IT, Lim PAC. A comparison of regular rehabilitation and regular rehabilitation with supported treadmill ambulation training for acute stroke patients. J Rehabil Res Dev 2001; 38:245-55. References 20. da Cunha IT, LIM PAC, Qureshy H, Henson H, Monga T, Protas EJ. Gait outcomes after acute stroke rehabilitation with supported treadmill ambulation training: a randomized controlled pilot study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002; 83: 1258-65. 21. Chu KS, Eng JJ, Dawson AS, Harris JE, Ozkaplan A, Gylfadottir S. Water-based exercise for cardiovascular fitness in people with chronic stroke: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2004; 85: 870-74. 22. Duncan P, Studenski S, Richards L, et al. Randomized clinical trial of therapeutic exercise in subacute stroke. Stroke 2003: 34: 2173-80. 23. Rimmer JH, Riley B, Creviston T, Nicola T. Exercise training in a predominatly African-American group of stroke survivors. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 1991; vol 32, no 12, 1990-1996. 24. Roth E. Heart disease in patients with stroke. Part1” Classification and prevalence. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1993;74:752-760. 25. Spirduso WW, Asplund LA. Physical activity and cognitive function in the elderly. Quest 1995;47:395-410. 26. Ustun et al. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: a new tool for understanding disability and health. Disabil Rehabil 2003; 25: 656-71. 27. Eng JJ, Chu KS, Kim M, Dawson AS, Carswell, Hepburn KE. A community-based group exercise program for persons with chronic stroke. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2003; 35:1271-1278. 28. Studenski S, Duncan PW, Perera S, Reker D, Lai Sm, Richards L. Daily functioning and quality of life in a randomized controlled trial of therapeutic exercise for subacute stroke survivors. Stroke 2005: 36:1764-1770. 29. Pang MYC, Eng JJ, Dawson AS, Gylfadottir S. The use of aerobic exercise training in improving aerobic capacity in individuals with stroke: a meta-analysis. Clin Rehabil 2006; 20:97-111. 30. Cooper R, Cutler J, Desvigne-Nickens P, et al. Trends and disparities in coronary disease, stroke, and other cardiovascular diseases in the United States: findings of the National Conference on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention. Circulation. 2000; 102: 3137–3147 31. MacKay-Lyons MJ, Makrides L. Cardiovascular stress during a contemporary stroke rehabilitation program: is the intensity adequate to induce a training effect. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002; 83: 1378-83. 32. Van Peppen RPS, Kwakkel G, Wood-Dauphinee S, Hendriks HJM, Van der Wees PhJ, Dekker J. The impact of physical therapy on functional outcomes after stroke: what’s the evidence? Clin Rehabil 2004;18:833-862. 33. Meek A, Pollock, Potter J, Langhorne P. A systematic review of exercise trials post stroke. Clin Rehabil 2003; 17: 6-13. References 34. Maher CG, Sherrington C, Herbert RD, Moseley AM, Elkins M. Reliability of the PEDro scale for rating quality of randomized controlled trials. Phys Ther 2003; 83: 713-21. 35. Teasell R, Foley N, Salter K et al. Evidence-based review of stroke rehabilitation, sixth edition. Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario, 2004. 36. Portney GP, Watkins MP. Foundations of Clinical Research Applications to Practice, 2nd Edition. Prentice Hall Health, 2000. 37. Eich HJ, Mach H, Werner C, Hesse S.  Aerobic treadmill plus Bobath walking training improves walking in subacute stroke: a randomized controlled trial. Clin Rehabil 2004:18:640-651. 38. Macko RF, Ivey FM, Forrester LW, Hanley D, Sorkin JD, Katzel LI, et al. Treadmill exercise rehabilitation improves ambulatory function and cardiovascular fitness in patients with chronic stroke: a randomized, controlled trial. Stroke 2005 Oct; 36(10):2206-2211. 39. Schmid A. Improvements in speed-based gait classifications are meaningful. Stroke 2007;38(7):2096 40. Ada L. A treadmill and overground walking program improves walking in persons residing in the community after stroke: a placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation 2003;84(10):1486 41. Gladstone DJ. The fugl-meyer assessment of motor recovery after stroke: a critical review of its measurement properties. Neurorehabilitation neural repair 2002;16(3):232. 42. Schuling J. The Frenchay Activities Index. Assessment of functional status in stroke patients. Stroke 1993;24(8):1173. 43. Swain DP, Franklin BA. VO2 reserve and the minimal intensity for improving cardiorespiratory fitness. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2002; 34; 152-57.


Citation Scheme:


Usage Statistics

Country Views Downloads
China 17 0
United States 4 2
Japan 2 0
City Views Downloads
Beijing 17 0
Unknown 3 4
Tokyo 2 0
Redmond 1 0

{[{ mDataHeader[type] }]} {[{ month[type] }]} {[{ tData[type] }]}


Share to:


Related Items