UBC Faculty Research and Publications

The Development of Intelligent Systems to Support Older Adults and Aging-in-Place Mihailidis, Alex 2009-04-21

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The Development of Intelligent Systems to Support Older Adults and Aging-in-Place Alex Mihailidis, Ph.D P.Eng. Department of Occupational Science & Occupational Therapy  The Problem  Globally we are faced with the challenge of caring for an increasing number of older adults.  Many individuals are living with diseases and impairments in addition to the normal aging process, for example dementia. 2  Furthermore...  There is a growing shortage of clinicians, nurses, and caregivers.  In combination with the growing number of older adults, we are seeing a drastic increase in workload and burden.  This not only true in institutions but in the home as well! 3  The Result  There is an increased need for new treatment options and solutions.  Solutions need to be robust and easily scalable to meet the needs of this growing population.  These solutions need to help support aging-in-place. 4  Overall Vision   Our goal is to develop an intelligent home that can enable aging-in-place, no matter the context or activity.  5  It’s time for your medication.  Are you feeling okay?  Alex, don’t forget to use the soap.  You have fallen. Need Help?  6  Our Design Philosophy  Develop for real-world contexts, using reallife problems and motivations.  Involve the user from the start to the finish of the design process.  Test new technologies as often as possible throughout the design process.  Universal Design principles to accommodate all potential users (including caregivers). 7  Zero-Effort Technologies  Development and testing of intelligent systems that are able to: • Automatically learn about the user and environment • Continuously collect data and information • Use contextual information to autonomously operate and make decisions  This is all accomplished without any input from the user or caregiver. 8  Examples of Our Research  HELPER (ERS)  Balance Assess.  Anti-collision Wheelchair  Nursing PDAs  Data Sharing  The COACH (ADL Cueing)  Robotic Stroke Rehabilitation  9  Examples of Our Research  HELPER (ERS)  Balance Assess.  Anti-collision Wheelchair  Nursing PDAs  Data Sharing  The COACH (ADL Cueing)  Robotic Stroke Rehabilitation  10  The COACH An intelligent cognitive device that tracks a user through an ADL, providing cues when necessary  The  COACH  Cognitive Orthosis for Assisting Activities in the Home  11  Alzheimer’s Disease  The number of people with AD worldwide is expected to grow from 18 million to 24 million by 2050.  There is approximately one new case of AD every 7 seconds!  70 percent of people with Alzheimer’s and other dementias live at home. 12  Alzheimer’s Disease  AD impairs explicit memory, resulting in difficulties in completing activities of daily living (ADL).  The current solution is for a caregiver to constantly accompany the person and provide prompts, support, and monitoring.  This is a very difficult and frustrating experience. 13  The COACH Digital Video Camera  Flat Screen Monitor & Speakers  14  System Overview  15  Tracking  16  Planning  The system’s belief monitoring and policy systems use AI to model the handwashing process and actions that may be taken.  Represented using: • Level of impairment • Awareness • Responsiveness 17  Handwashing - Actions  Do nothing: system waits  Call caregiver: system calls for single step assistance  Prompts: • Audio/video • Male voice • Preceded with reminder: “you’re washing your hands” • 3 levels of specificity  18  Prompt Specificity  Minimal “Turn on the water”   Moderate “Ed, pull up on the silver lever in front of you to turn the water on”   Maximum “Ed, pull up on the silver lever in front of you to turn the water on”  + 19  Example of Use  20  Future Work  COACH@Home System • Multiple tasks • Easy installation • Aesthetics   Intelligent dialogue management • Speech recognition • Multi-language, accents, vocal invariants 21  Examples of Our Research  HELPER (ERS)  Balance Assess.  Anti-collision Wheelchair  Nursing PDAs  Data Sharing  The COACH (ADL Cueing)  Robotic Stroke Rehabilitation  22  Examples of Our Research  HELPER (ERS)  Balance Assess.  Anti-collision Wheelchair  Nursing PDAs  Data Sharing  The COACH (ADL Cueing)  Robotic Stroke Rehabilitation  23  The HELPER An intelligent handsfree personal emergency response system to improve safety in the home  24  Overview of Falls  Falls is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the elderly.  One in three community-dwelling older adults experience at least one fall over the span of one year.  One third of these falls occur in the home.  25  System Components Mic array & speakers Camera  26  System Schematic  27  Fall Detection  28  Dialogue Manager  Once an adverse event has been detected the system must respond appropriately.  Prompting and speech recognition will be used to have a dialogue with the user.  Based on this dialogue, the system will determine the best course of action. 29  Response Actions  Actions that can currently be taken by the system include: • • • •  Call a neighbor Call a family member Call an operator (e.g. Lifeline) Call an emergency service (e.g. ambulance)   Future actions may include prompting and reminders. 30  Example of Use  31  Current / Future Research  Focusing on the speech recognition / response system.  Developing a speech database of older adult voices (healthy and not).  Development of an adaptive dialogue that learns the preferences and needs of specific users. 32  Design Approach Revisited  We have learned that applying our design philosophies and approach are extremely important in our successes.  However, involving users has proven to be very costly and time consuming.  In response, we are looking at new tools that we can use to make this approach more efficient. 33  Actors in Design  We are starting to explore the use of actors in the design process.  These actors would simulate different users so that we can test our systems more often during the design process.  Building upon work by University of Dundee and classical use of patient simulation programs by medical students. 34  Actor simulations - Objectives  The objectives of this pilot research were to investigate the following questions: • Can actors believably simulate older adults with dementia? • Can actors simulating older adults with dementia be used to optimize technologies before they go to clinical trials?  35  Actor simulations – Method  Actors were trained using video footage from previous handwashing trials.  Videos were recorded of older adults washing their hands: • 6 were actors portraying dementia (“simulated”) • 6 were people with dementia (“real”)  20 videos per person, for a total of 240 videos.  36  Actor simulations – Method  Task 1: Participant randomly shown 20 segments (10 simulated and 10 real) and asked to rate on a scale from 1 (not at all) to 10 (very much): “Was the client behaving in a way a person with dementia would?”  Task 2: Participant shown 10 video pairs containing a simulated and a real trial and asked to choose which video was the actor. 37  Which one is the actor?  38  Average score (between 1 and 10)  Actor simulations – Task 1  Real / simulated dementia pair 39  Actor simulations – Task 2  65 % of the time the actor was correctly identified.  “When making my choices, I felt…” • • • •  Very sure (0) Somewhat sure (3) Somewhat unsure (7) Very unsure (1) 40  Conclusions  Non-traditional tools and techniques, such as AI, have the potential to make environments more usable and safe.  Intended user must be kept in mind and involved often for successful outcomes.  The potential exists to use actors to improve design process.  In addition to technological challenges, development must focus on the social and ethical implications. 43  Acknowledgements  Research has been supported through generous research grants and industrial support from:  42  Contact Contact us: Tel: +1 (416) 946-8565 Email: alex.mihailidis@utoronto.ca Web: www.iatsl.org  43  


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