UBC Faculty Research and Publications

The distribution and synopsis of ecological and silvical characteristics of tree species of British Columbia's.. Klinka, Karel 2008

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The Distribution and Synopsis of Ecological and Silvical Characteristics of Tree Species of British Columbia’s Forests by K. Klinka, J. Worrall, L. Skoda, and P. Varga An updated silvics text for British Columbia The need for an effective learning tool for silvics - one of the basic required courses in forestry - has been recognized by intructors as well as students across the province. The text prepared 18 years ago by Krajina et al. (1982) specifically for western Canada has become outdated. The silvics text by Burns and Honkala (1990) represents an up-to-date compendium but it is not an effective learning tool, particularly lacking in the linkage of silvics to ecological classification. Consequently, we revised and expanded “Distribution and Ecological Characteristics of Trees and Shrubs of British Columbia” (Krajina et al. 1982) using the available information on silvics, with some modification for BC and the results of recent silvics research done in BC. This material has been consolidated into a format that will help students understand the silvical attributes of tree species as well as the relationships between trees and their environments. To enhance learning, we have selected a series of slides illustrating the salient characteristics for each species and present this visual component on a CD-ROM included with the text. Also included is a large biogeoclimatic zone map of BC. The  text, together with the CD-ROM, is intended to facilitate learning of silvics emphasizing its application to silviculture. Special features The text consists of explanatory notes, information on the ecological and silvical characteristics for 36 tree species, species comparisons, and species diversity maps. Scientia  Silvica Extension Series, Number 10, 1999  Table of contents The Distribution and Synopsis of  Ecological and Silvical Characteristics of Tree Species of British Columbia's Forests K.Klinka, J.Worrall, L.Skoda, and P.Varga ABSTRACT DISTRIBUTION AND SYNOPSIS OF ECOLOGICAL Pseudotsuga menziesii AND SILVICAL CHARACTERISTICS Taxus brevifoliaACKNOWLEDGMENTS Softwoods Thuja plicataINTRODUCTION Abies amabilis Tsuga heterophylla Tsuga mertensiana EXPLANATORY NOTES Abies grandis Hardwoods  Nomenclature Abies lasiocarpa Acer macrophyllum  Geographic Range Chamaecyparis nootkatensis Alnus rubra  Climatic Amplitudes Juniperus scopulorum Alnus tenuifolia  Orographic Amplitude Larix laricina Arbutus menziesii  Edaphic Amplitudes Larix lyallii Betula neoalaskana  Soil Moisture Regime Larix occidentalis Betula papyrifera  Soil Nutrient Regime Picea engelmannii Cornus nuttallii  Root System Characteristics Picea glauca Populus balsamifera  Tolerances Picea mariana Populus tremuloides  Damaging Agents Picea sitchensis Populus trichocarpa  Associated Species and Successional Role  Pinus albicaulis Prunus emarginata  Silvical Characteristics Pinus banksiana Quercus garryana  Special Adaptations and Indicator Values  Pinus contorta Rhamnus purshiana  Genetics Pinus flexilis SPECIES DIVERSITY  Notes  Pinus monticola SPECIES COMPARISONS  CD-ROM Pinus ponderosa LITERATURE CITED Explanatory notes Explanatory notes describe the concepts and terms used in the synopses, such as geographic, climatic, and orographic amplitudes, and the soil moisture and soil nutrient regimes. The notes also explain how the values given for tolerances, resistances or risks to damaging agents, associated tree species, and silvical characteristics were inferred from the available information, and how to use the visual CD-ROM module. The synopses For each species we provide: (1) geographic distribution related to its occurrence in biogeoclimatic zones, (2) ecological (climatic, orographic, and edaphic) amplitudes, (3) root characteristics, (4) tolerances, (5) damaging agents, (6) associated tree species and successional role, (7) silvical characteristics, (8) genetics, and (9) notes, containing additional sources of more detailed  information. Range maps We have improved the maps showing the native range of each tree species by integrating the old range maps with the provincial biogeoclimatic zone map (in some cases subzone maps) and information on the occurrence of the species in the zones or subzones. These maps, although updated in this edition, will require revision in the future as additional information becomes available. The maps indicate where the tree species grow naturally; they do not define productivity in those areas. Species comparisons Understanding of forest ecosystems requires knowledge of how tree species establish and grow with other tree species in different environments. To enhance learning, we have included summary tables comparing the ecological amplitudes, tolerances, damaging agents, associated tree species, and life history of the separate species. Information Sources The information included in the revised text was compiled primarily from Ecology of forest trees of British Columbia (Krajina 1969), Comparative Autecological Characteristics of Northwestern Tree Species (Minore 1979), Silvics of North America (Burns and Honkala 1990). Financial support Support for this publication was received from The Teaching and Learning Enhancement Fund,  University of British Columbia. Purchasing information This publication can be purchased for $90.00, plus $9 for shipping and gst: Canadian Cartographics Ltd. 57B Clipper Rd, Coquitlam, BC, V3K 6X2 phone: 604-524-3337 or toll free: 877-524-3337 e-mail: canmap@canmap.ca, internet: www.canmap.com Distribution frequency infrequent frequent very frequent isolated stand Map showing the native range of black spruce in BC VP VD MD SD F M VM W P M R VR Soil nutrient regime A ct ua l s oi l m oi st ur e re gi m e Edatopic grid showing the generalized edaphic amplitude for black spruce according to actual soil moisture and nutrient regimes  Scientia Silvica  is published by the Forest Sciences Department,  The University of British Columbia, ISSN 1209-952X Editor: Karel Klinka (klinka@interchange.ubc.ca) Production and design: Christine Chourmouzis(chourmou@interchg.ubc.ca) Copies of the extension series are available from: www. forestry.ubc.ca/klinka Some highlights from the text        characteristic       interpretive                      comments                                                  class reproduction capacity H seed production may be as early as 10 years; seed years are less frequent in the north; cones persist on trees for 20 to 30 years and their seeds are not shed unless they are opened by fire; may reproduce by layering seed dissemination L dispersion up to 100 m from the parent tree capacity potential for natural H regenerates well on organic substrates regeneration in low light potential for natural H especially after fire regeneration in the open potential initial growth rate L slow in the establishment period (usually (£ 5 years) <5 cm/yr) response of advance H low for regeneration developed by layering, regeneration to release high when originating from seed self-pruning capacity M but dense stands are infrequent in dense stands crown spatial requirements L very narrow but long crowns light conditions beneath L associated with poorly developed understory closed-canopy, mature stands vegetation potential productivity M site index (50 yr @ bh) approaching 20 m on the most productive sites longevity M ages >280 years were reported in the Ontario Clay Belt Silvical characteristics of black spruce


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